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Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

IMECE2012
November 9-15, 2012, Houston, Texas, USA

IMECE2012-89048

DESIGN OF A LEAN METHODOLOGY FOR AN ERGONOMIC AND SUSTAINABLE
WORK ENVIRONMENT IN TEXTILE AND GARMENT INDUSTRY

Laura Costa Maia Anabela Carvalho Alves
R&D Centre for Industrial and Technology R&D Centre for Industrial and Technology
Management, Department of Production and Management, Department of Production and
Systems, School of Engineering, University of Systems,
Minho School of Engineering, University of Minho
Guimarães, Portugal Guimarães, Portugal

Celina Pinto Leão
R&D Centre Algoritmi
Department of Production and Systems,
School of Engineering, University of Minho
Guimarães, Portugal

ABSTRACT LCM Life Cycle Management
This paper presents a methodology to implement Lean LP Lean Production
Production (LP) in Portuguese Textile and Garment Industry PDCA Plan–Do–Check–Act
(TGI). Lean Production is a well-known work organizational PEST Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural and
model being, nowadays, widely implemented in all sort of Technological analysis
industries and services companies. LP responds to customers’ CIP –Continuous Improvement Process
demand for on-time delivery of high quality products at QFD Quality Function Deployment
reduced costs, through continuous waste elimination (e.g., SME Small and Medium Enterprise
overproduction, raw materials, energy and water more than SMED Single-Minute Exchange of Die
necessary, among others). In this methodology is included, SPC – Statistical Process Control
besides the Lean tools and techniques, some ergonomics tools SWOT Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats
in order to assess the ergonomic work conditions and TGI Textile and Garment Industry
techniques to evaluate the company sustainability. It is expected TPM Total Productive Maintenance
that, with the involvement of these tools, will allow the TPS Toyota Production System
implementation of a Lean Production that creates a positive UNEP United Nations of Environmental Protection
work environment for workers giving special attention to WBS Work breakdown structure
sustainable development. WCED World Commission on Environment and
Development
NOMENCLATURE WIP Work in process
3R reduce, reuse, and recycle
DFE Design for environment INTRODUCTION
DFMA design for manufacturability and assembly Lean Production (LP) [1] had its roots on Toyota
DMAIC Define-Measure-Analyze-Identify-Control Production System [2] being a well-known work organizational
EWA Ergonomic Work Analysis model that, through continuous waste, i.e., non-added value
FMEAFailure mode and effects analysis activities elimination, respond to customers demand with on-
ILO International Labor Organization time delivery of high quality products at reduced costs and
KPI Key performance indicators increased productivity. Nowadays, LP is widely implemented in
LCA Cycle Assessment all sort of industries and services companies [3-8]. This inspires
LCC Life Cycle Costing the authors of this paper to apply this model to the Portuguese

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the most sectoor . to high waaiting times and defeccts. So. althoough there aree two main reegions c companies do not know anyy of the Lean methodologie m s and two that are. adding some new challenges: cuustomers dem mand changes significantly and a in In most Portuguese TG GI companies. where are located the cotton c o them answ of wered that hadd resorted to a consulting company comppanies and. compprises two laarge sectors: (1) the textiile sector . takking a consideerable o organized. this in ndustry is spreead all c consider that they had impplemented Leean Productioon. autocratic and comm mand-and- A draft of a methodology m tto implement Lean Producttion in c control hierarrchic chain managementt. the Portugueese TGI is prredominantly Small Besides these t numbeers and indu ustry importaance. makingg them unsatisfied with theirr work.asmedigitalcollection. where thee “boss” TGI will be presennted in this paaper. In crises tim mes. the and Medium Enteerprises (SME E) based indu ustry. they knoow some togetther representt around 19% % of all produuction units of o the immportant concepts such as quality at thee source. w P Portugal. value s stream.which includes m manufacture of clothing and immportant issuue was that tthe majority of o the TGI companies accessories.. in order tradee balance and it is one of thhe most exposed to competition. approxim mately. They y also stated encounter e locatted. Inveentory piled waiting to en F nter on the production This industryy sector is aalso strongly influenced by b the s sewing line or accessories w waiting to be picked p up seasoons. too develop a methodologgy that helps TGI comppanies to with significant impact i on thhe volume off employmennt and immplement Leaan Productionn. to reduce their w wastes and too help collabo orators to weig ght on socio-eeconomic struuctures of Porrtugal. This can caause occupatiional diseasess and accidennts. s suffering from m an authoriity.org/ on 01/31/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. In ordder to a accommodated d to a sttressful and disagreeablle work desiggn such methoodology.asme. The repreesent a difficuulty in the texttile industry. Figure 1. It hhas many moonotonous actiivities F Figure 1 illusttrated some w wastes that caan easily be fo ound in a wherre employees remain seatedd. th he survey reveealed that industry [10]. where the wool w companiees are ( (Kaizen Instituute) to implem ment LP. On thhe other han nd. 4000 textile t s state never heard h or do not have knowledge of the Lean comppanies and around 110000 garment companies. to reduuce the conssumption of these resouurces shouldd be a conncern for thee companiess and indivviduals in ordeer to achieve a sustainable development d [9]. like the ones o we livedd now. Thhis industry sector manufacturingg industry andd 1. wastes. dyes. high o understandding the importance of orgaanization. anxious for th he buzzer CON NTEXT STUD DY AND MO OTIVATION a announcing it.org/about-asme/terms-of-use .4% of co m ompanies opeerating in suffeers from low productivity p annd countless wastes.asme. The TGI usess natural resouurces (natural fibers. projectt. Beira B Interior. 8% L concept. trends annd fashion andd climate chaanges. It is common c in Poortuguese as well w as some important toools to assess ergonomic work T TGI to find companies where w collabborators are so much condditions and environmental e l wastes conccerns. discouraaging their participation on the com mpany decissions. The industry i incluudes. the The Portugueese Textile annd Garment Inndustry (TGI)) have a authors were compelled to help theese companiees to be an immportant rolee in national economy. This inddustry s some difficultiies during Lean implementtation processs. 22% of o employmen nt. These overr the national territory. too many y waiting timees. In p production sew wing line or aaccessories waiting w to be picked p up geneeral.3% off responses. Based onn a 13. amoong others. value among otherss and tools asssociated with Lean like 2 Copyrright © 2012 by b ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. wheree the consumpption of wateer and energgy is high. high machhines failures. sppinning.which w d difficulty in unnderstanding Lean tools. difficulty in quuantifying incluudes fiber prroduction. addressinng some Leann tools c controls everyything and eveerybody. It is one o of f find some com mfort and enthuusiasm on theeir work. Textile and Garm ment industryy (TGI). The first steep of this projeect was to reduction of salees margins. e environment that the only tthing they waant. especially e in dyeing d and finishing processes. f companies of the Portuuguese Textilee and Garmentt Industry few From the terriitorial point oof view. weavving. is to reaach to the endd of the day. w energgy and otherrs) and it is traditionally t v very dependeent on T decrease of these natuural resources will thesee resources. in a norm mal day of w work. printing andd finishing) an nd (2) the gaarment r resistance attittude from thee collaboratorrs. iff they implem LP ment and how w they implem ment Lean of tuurnover and 10 0. somee methodologiies were studied. due to the inffluence of shortt time. knittingg and thhe benefits. the Nortth of Portugaal.. These conditions coould be an apppealing to leaanness mass productioon paradigms could be foun m nd a work envvironment and agility a compaanies. which w P Production m model. with a strong s a authors experiience showed that this induustry is also ann industry famiily-oriented sttructure. Traditionally. representting 85% off the compannies. the few f industries which contribbute positivelyy to the Portuuguese This was a motivation to endorse a PhD. water. namely. thhe difficulty of absenteeism. the worrkers are noot involved in i the comppanies’ h haphazardly. missing knoowledge of Lean princiiples and finishing (dyeing.7% of Gross Value Added of manufactturing [11]. sometimes for long perioods of c clothing comppany: inventoory piled waaiting to enteer on the time. It represents 10% of naational d design a surveey in order too understand if i companies know the expo orts (in 90s. projeects. However. Norm mally these coompanies are much w where many wastes and disorder caan be foundd due to disorrganized and have a lot of wastes naamely high raate of d disorganization a setup times and to n. thhis value was 30%).

Unfortunately.asme. Lean thinking LEAN PRODUCTION METHODOLOGY IN TEXTILE 3. but the mindset not [37]. (PDCA) cycle. the motivation and the problem solvers assessment. 8. 6. some 12. Methodology A3 PDCA tools were implemented as an testing. Standardized work. at could help in Lean production principles implementation [32- least. 5S. Lean automotive vision model It is frequent to hear of unsuccessful stories of Lean 5. it is possible to methodology [30] and Axiomatic Design methodology [31]. to know: 34]. for METHODOLOGIES TO IMPLEMENT LEAN example. For quality improvement. TPS methodology 2. Brief methodology [22] or Lean behind each improvement that start from these needs and not Alliance methodology [23] or of an academic sector like from burdens. The LP implementation could help on these more strategic employing tools such as Strengths-Weaknesses- measures improvement.. Additionally.asmedigitalcollection. so. people must be involved and compromised as the “pig Most of these methodologies are focused on the Lean is compromised in the English breakfast”. Wilson [20] points operational and technical tools like JIT production. Hoshin-Kanri implementation is only a partial implementation. Lean Six Sigma Production implementation. 26] as a methodology eliminate wastes. Single production model similar to JIT production or stockless minute exchange of Dies (SMED). data and “how to” perspective of their Lean implementations methods or tools that allows to the designer to reach to good experiences. Value Stream Mapping (VSM). Jidoka or out three fundamental issues to a cultural change: the Autonomation. other reasons are point out System (TPS) methodology [2. as described elsewhere [18]. like Lean Six Sigma [19] or Kaizen methodology [20] management tools can be copied. that are focused on the quality area. happen. not Some of these are well-known such as Toyota Production involving all people. 15]. Lean Thinking [16] or by other authors [20. This failure is. practice of efficient management and instance. Lean implementation is not an easy process because consulting company like SECORA Lean Implementation mindset has to do with people. This is an important topic because. Feld [29] decisions in a time and in a specific moment. thirteen different methodologies.org/ on 01/31/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. People are vital to feel the needs methodology (SLIM) [21]. cellular manufacturing. According to this refer the Lean implementation model for textile industry [28]. 5S. Additionally. Kanban system and admit to have a improvement/ Kaizen. Others also imply strategic accustomed to adopt to face competition are the products tools and problem solving tools in the methodologies.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control Almost 50% consider that Lean Production could be a (DMAIC) technique.asme. the methodology A3 PDCA [27]. Others are more practical and more orientated to problem- solving tools such as Pareto Chart or fishbone diagram. one page report (A3) and based on the companies respondents. a methodology orients and supports in the research is a methodology oriented for the textile industry similar to the process and in the data/information collecting to take the best one that will be proposed in this paper.e. A methodology studies the best way to approach problems. 4) it is a enforced process of management. 1. project solutions. Some are specific of each Thus. avoiding a capital investment or a Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis or Porter analysis to financial effort like in the Portuguese examples described in link the strategic management to the operational manufacturing. Hoshin-Kanri methodology [25. This is the fundamental mindset and Strategic Lean implementation methodology (SLIM) from the organizational learning behind LP continuous improvement as Warwick Business School [24]. in most cases. Heijunka or production smoothing. Pull system. it is important to indicating paths to reach solutions [13]. 29]. Toyota way AND GARMENT INDUSTRY 4. leadership. A methodology and Wilson [20] presented a road map to implement Lean or a must indicate and facilitate. it is not a really Lean 13. Visual management. These methodologies define discussed by Yamamoto and Bellgran [38] and Flinchbaugh and select tools to apply in an integrated sequence or model to [40]. Additionally it is important to refer the application of TRIZ Attending to this methodology definition. and Productive Maintenance (TPM). Total model to implement. a culture [36]. continuous flow. that Lean is a philosophy. It author. Lean Alliance methodology reasons: 1) a poor work environment before Lean Production 10. Brief methodology some of these narratives are true and could result from several 9. continuous as the first step before the Lean project implementation. more or less. that have been applied for understanding Lean Production and formalized in the literature reviewed by [14] that found out. Toyota senior executives said that work. in each project phase. Alves and co-authors work [12]. Strategic Lean Implementation methodology (SLIM) implementation. Plan-Do-Check-Act production. From the methodologies presented above. Lean Production promote thinkers [40] but before this implement Lean. 3) Lean 11. 2) an unprepared environment. Lean implementation model for textile implementation. the measure that they are Policy Development/deployment. 3 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. Kaizen methodology assigned to the fact that Lean do not addresses correctly to the 7. find out some methodologies to implement Lean. more than a set of Others are more oriented and focused in a specific area of tools and techniques. i. SECORA Lean Implementation methodology (SLIM) workplace ergonomics and human factors [35]. It is also common to see in literature Toyota Way [17] and some not so. in an efficiently and effectiveness way.

.. Methods. Machine. PEST T Analysis. This is also the mo oment to environment aand  and susttaining  o organize collabborators in teams and laun nching some challenges c people too promote thee ideas generration and thee ground to th he culture c change for a continuous c im mprovement.. yourr knowledge is of a meagger and unsaatisfactory condditions and un nderstand if th he collaborato ors are satisfy y with k kind”. borrow b an idea from someth hing similar.... In the projecct beginning (first phase) it is necessaary to a express itt in numbers.. starts withh the p product/marke et.asme. so. the op perational dim mension and the human capital c E Environment) checklist.. change c or ergon nomic and suustainable toolls were studieed to considerr their r replace it. autho ors concludee that no companies c c consider all these H How much/m many) checklisst and Osborrne´s checklisst (use it dimeensions. Some too ols to promotee the ideas geeneration are the well- This metho odology inteends to ap pproach diffferent k known: nstorming. checklists will give thee data thhe end of thee project. w when you cannnot measure it. eight wastes w tool. two hundrred years Prep paring work k environme ent and peop ple a ago. In order o to connsider these dimensions. said:“Whhen you can m measure what you´re y speakiing about. work obsservation.  ( (clarified with h a skills m matrix help) must be deffined and • Visual maanagement Preparing wo ork  • . Addditionally. matrix maarket/technolo ogy. TheT TPS meth hodology. adapted fro one om [43]. A projectt like Lean n project The Figure 2 shows a three-phase framework of o the immplementatio on must start with supportt of top man nagement. matrix the methodology y proposed in i this work k. ergon nomic and s sustainability indicators. Some signals off this uncomfoortable immplementatio on project. Imp plement a sug ggestions prog gram and the top managemeent and some strategic toolss that could bee used d diary meetingss (10 minutes maximum) with w team leadeers. Some of thhese techniquees and o in Table 1. rooot cause times or with obssolete (not upd dated) times. The toolss will r reverse it. some a another way. thee asking “Wh hy” five times (5Whys) dimeension. A As Lord Kelviin. 4 Copyrright © 2012 by b ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. exxpand it. the sustainaability M Material. All peoplee must be awaare of the project that it willl just start inn the compan ny. reduuce it. When. thee 5W2H (Whaat. A peerformance measure m matrixx like the needded to evaluatte and study it. eco onomic. Beesides m measurement to better undeerstand this functioning fu an nd present this. Framewwork of the m t implement Lean methodology to c collaborators l looking mprovements and this way promotes for im Prod duction in TGII thheir involvem ment [2]. assurre that they arre working inn healthy and pleased condiitions.asmedigitalcollection. a time stuudy is a analysis and spaghetti s diaggram. starting • Straategic tools m methodology w the prom with motion of an oopen commun nication. the technique. a com mmunication plan will bee of great immportance to o start with. Who. involving peeople. • Susttainable tools • Cellular p production c compromise to o assume. too diagnosis the t company strategic stattus and to bu uild their but also a as thinkers and respoonsible for th heir own work k and ffuture vision of o the future arre SWOT anaalysis.org/ on 01/31/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. 66M1E (Man. p productivity. use alternatives. T o otherwise the success s probaability is minor. Attending to this need to involve peoplle as collaborrators. when youu cannot express it in Prepparing environ nment means to evaluate the physical work n numbers. mainly..) • Heijunka • Suggestions systems g give to all th he feeling of the seriousneess of the pro oject and • SMED • . deffects rate. m due to o diseases. SWOT Analysis. Non-vaalue activitiess such as cruciial on this phaase. l lead-time. Another important daata is the opeeration times..asme. inndicators will reveal thee system are the t absenteeissm records. could help addreessing the otherrs are used inn some ergono omic tools deescribed in thee next p performance in ndicators relev vant. Why. W time and WIP d movement time. Wheere. p know wledge. statee looking to the work co onditions ergo onomic evalu uation... reeplace it. Managemen nt informatiion and dimeension. incluusion in this methodologyy in each phaase. These tools help to raise the right permmit the diagno osis and asseessment of th he physical cu urrent q questions [41]. So.. standardizing  a assigned to the t collaborattors. am mong others. So. will captivate • WBS and Gantt chart • Follow‐up measures p people attention. Exposingg the project plan with th he project • Teams  preparation • Sustainable tools • Ideaas generation  tools  • Problem so olving tools • Ergonomic tools a activities in a work breakdown structuree (WBS) and represent • Operationaal  Lean tools (braainstorming. but and prepare the enviironment andd the peoplee for the ch hange. you know soomething aboout it.. rolles and respon nsibilities • Diaggnostic tools • Collect KPI and KEPI • Heijunka Evaluating.) • Standard work • • Measure KPI and KEP Scoreboards PI thhese in a Gan ntt chart show wing the timeliine and milesttones will • Skillls matrix • Ergoonomic tools (EWA. p presented the Quality Coontrol Circless as small groups g of Figu ure 2. before b any effort in th he path of a Lean thesee or feel uncommfortable. brain dimeensions: the ergonomic dimension. among g others are identified The need for a Lean projecct implementattion must be felt f by u using these techniques. andd combine it). P Porter analyysis and m matrix. It is Some diaagnostic tools could be ussed on this phase p like comm mon to find out companies without know wing their opeeration V Value Stream Mapping (V VSM). prop posed methodo ology to impleement Lean Prroduction in TGI. sectiion. In this iniitial phase it iss also necessaary to collect some key envirronmental conditions evvaluation and human capital c p performance indicators (KPI) like products produced. p president.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . It coulld not be Im mplementing  e expected that a company cu ulture suddennly change butt. w well prepared interview ws or s state but moree important to compare with h the final ind dicators at quesstionnaires to collaboratorss. M Measurement. diagnosiis of the preparation of the company for the introductiion of Lean. W How. Study ying the methhodologies reeferred abovee.

of the improvements that can be achieved. there are companies and individuals. Future”. Reducing overproduction and completed on  status   time   inventory are reducing the effort (producing the production time  Workplace environment  Number of        excess) but also reducing the risk of accidents by having less How safe and satisfying?  accidents  material spread by all space. The overburden (or muri) is Financial aspects  Suppliers cost  Cost of  Wastes costs   Total cost by  another non-valued activity and this is also associated to the How much (in monetary  material lost to  unit   overburden of people. the Textile and Garment Industry had always (noise. In this manner reducing the consumption of these can be used some tools. Reducing wastes (or muda) of processed  inventory  movement. Performance measure matrix example is the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) that is a tool   Resources  Input  Transformation  Output  to define and evaluate the work conditions in the work space (productive and  (incoming  (material. so it is unavoidable to promote this in a How much and what  utilization rate  units/week  Throughput  week  rate? Time it takes to be  Raw material  time  Lean implementation project.asme. welfare facilities and work the needs of the present without compromising the ability of organization. energy and others and a great consumer of factors also influence the health. water. website Sustainable tools design. These fibers. This will promote. Ergonomic tools are important to diagnose and evaluate the current work conditions giving important indications about where the ergonomic problems are and how to improve them. other senses. Quality and productivity  Work  Scrap rate   Defects parts  Complaints from  The synergy between Lean Production and Ergonomics How well and how  hours/available  provoked by  clients  productive?  hours  the process   exists.asmedigitalcollection. Other Table 1.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . involving and sensitizing them to the change. at least. [48]. As appointed by the Millennium Project [49]. it is necessary to state that ergonomics is not a safety issue but is allied with this. Ergonomics ideally meets the needs of better productivity and worker health and safety all at once [43]. Figure 3 shows that terms)?  obsolescence   collaborator D is overburden. [45]. Operations balancing graph showing an example of prepare the environment for the LP implementation. change of posture. The methodology framework presented in Figure 2 shows that ergonomic tools are used to analyze the situation and Figure 3. These processes have a problem concerning the water and soil To improve the workplace and to reduce the human effort pollution. reviewed in Maia et al. hand tools. as showed in the literature review developed by Flow and inventory  Equipment  Received  WIP level  Expedited units/  Bittencourt et al. By the contrary. dyes. hearing. climate and chemical been to a great extent dependent on natural resources: natural substances) and work organization jobs and tasks [44]. mobile interaction. that presents various checklists will improve enormously the life for all in the planet. LP implementation could even worsen this situation. Sustainable 5 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. dialogues. Of course. For example.  (products)  consumable)  materials)  internal focus)  [47].asme. premises. pulling and sake and company benefits on lead-time reduction. sustainable development is: “Development that meets hazardous substances and agents. that must resources and reducing the pollutants should be a concern for be selected according the factor assessed. vibration. carrying. information and operation (visual information. workstation design. beyond the people. Measuring the effort demanded before and after the Lean In work environment various factors must be evaluated like implementation will permit distinguish the situation presented posture (sitting. So. This must the an overburden collaborator (D) be doing with company people help. especially in dyeing and finishing processes.org/ on 01/31/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. pushing). and due to some misinterpretation. to achieve a sustainable some tools that could assess various factors and in a general development. lighting. at low cost. healthy environments that contribute positively for the productivity increase and create an environment propitious to implement LP. handling and transports are directly related with Timeliness  Scheduled  On time  Order  Orders  How timely?   maintenance  supplies  completion  completed on  reducing collaborator effort. safety and comfort and worker water and energy. According to a Brundtland report called “Our Common machine safety. the evaluation they could be used. hand and arm in Figure 3 and assure that this will not happen for collaborator postures) and movement (lifting. controls for operation. standing. efficiency. illumination. virtual reality). Example of these are a manual sustainable development and climate change are the first of the from the International Labor Organization (ILO). environment factors Traditionally. named 15 Global Challenges facing humanity and its accomplishment Ergonomics checkpoints [46]. having an unhealthy environment where people suffer doing their tasks. This manual also illustrates some useful examples future generations to meet their own needs”. for assessing the materials storage and handling. This collaborator will be in stress and this situation not balanced will delay the lead time of the Ergonomic tools product.

launched by UNEP [54-57] could also be used in this phase.asme. 8D implementation of environmental management systems such as method problem solving could be a useful worksheet for ISO 14000 or others like ISO 26000 continuously implemented helping the teamwork. clearly defined. According to Holliday et al. Recycle) and techniques to develop more eco-efficient products as Design For Environment (DFE).asmedigitalcollection. respectively. The product or the products family to analyze in first place. There some between the seven wastes and the impact (effect) on the simple problem solving tools that easily could be taught to the environmental performance. Search will also indicate how to obtain environmental and social – involved in making them. and processes. the root cause analysis is used to reach to proposals. Cause-effect diagram Tree diagram accompanying this trend and promoting initiatives as presented (fishbone or Ishikawa in [52]. teams like the ones presented by Suzaki [41]: Fortunately.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . and an implementation plan is followed.org/ on 01/31/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. and the sustainable These problem-solving tools articulate the problem and procurement of wood and paper-based products guide. DMAIC tool is a quality tool that through PDCA cycles could ensure continuous improvement in assisted to an evolution for six steps including the standardize environmental performance. corporate ecosystem services review. In this one-page report. less energy and less water). starting with Implementing Lean methodology their key ideas of “doing more with less” and “creating more This phase concern the heart of this methodology and with less”.and energy labeling. This also involves a number of other concepts and tools like: (eco)-design methods. it will be provided techniques to 3R (Reduce. environmental product declarations.Steps of DMAIC tool protocol. Others tools involve the GHG Figure 4. the problem is result of climates changes. at this stage. Some of these initiatives are somehow forced by diagrams) European Union legislation like the use of eco-labels and others Check sheet Matrix diagram are research projects developed by companies in partnership Pareto diagram Arrow diagram with universities that study alternative materials like biological Graph Gantt chart cotton or use of more friendly fibers such as polyester or hemp Control chart Radar chart to use in fabric production or enzymes to optimize the dying Scatter diagram Process analysis sheet Pie chart Cycle time analysis sheet process (less time. disposing of them or recycling them. it is intended to seek and explore some and social responsibility. Moreira and co-authors [51] reviewed before starting implementing the Lean operational tools it is this relationship published since 1993 and showed the evidence necessary for the formed teams discover problems. potential causes and could be used on the PDCA phases of an Employing these tools and concepts. Reuse. One more time. For this implementation will be used adapting them to the Portuguese reality and promoting a “life cycle thinking” in all functions of company. and social sustainability assessments and approaches. in all phases of the product lifecycle. Pareto analysis is helpful in identifying the tools to consider for evaluating the company sustainability.asme. from creation to disposal (the perspective of “cradle to grave”) and across the value chain. green procurement. some initiatives are taking place by the entire Histogram Affinity diagram world and Portuguese companies are not exception. global water tool. development is based on three pillars: economic. are Additionally. from development of the product to sales. Other visual 6 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. suppliers and consumers. Man-machine chart AUDIO (Aspects-Upstream-Downstream-Issues-Opportunities) analysis [53] and tools to calculate the ecological footprint. [50] “The key environmental performance indicators (KEPI) and prices of goods must reflect all the costs – financial. Design For Manufacturability and Assembly (DFMA) or disassembly/recycle. including Life Relations diagram Process flow diagram Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC). measuring impact framework. sustainability indexes. A3 report is a visual tool that could be exposed prepared to face disappearance of well-defined seasons. Additionally. Display chart (pictograph) Work combination chart Tools for Life Cycle Management (LCM). ecological and carbon footprint analyses. using certifications to companies and eco-labels for their products them. having in boards to encourage everyone inspired and motivated to an even more strongly seasonal due to global warming as a propose solutions [59].”. environmental performance indicators. Some guides to sustainability step – Six Sigma (Figure 4). eco. environmental Also. the symbiosis between Lean production and sustainable development is unmistakable. TGI are also being A3 report (53).

TPM achieve in work environments like Portuguese TGI but 13. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) programs must be These tools implementation have a proper precedence and also assured through standard procedures plans. Machine implementing. Additionally. Six-Sigma 14. With this concern this paper presented a described a draft order to do this.asme. Monden [2] presented the TPS methodology and improve strong and close partnerships built on the trust and advised start with improvements by small groups (QCC) and confidence with customers and suppliers will guarantee by one introduction of 5S (Seiri – arrangement. created added value to the company. services. in general. standardizing and sustaining LP. This must be done with a lot of 7 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Downloaded From: http://proceedings. 5S 12. spaghetti diagram and persistence. Kaizen implemented suggestions programs. … when they have to fire someone due to costs reduction. Otherwise the consequences will pursuit customer specifications and desires. prove that this type of industry function well. It is necessary to understand if the tools applied and define the road. if implementing could be a difficult and the work conditions. a methodology will help to is assessed. it is necessary to reevaluate the system with the of a methodology to implement LP in order to eliminate waste. there still a lot of work to carried on. this is almost a guarantee that the changes will implement LP the authors recognized that no methodology remain. The basic problem areas: quality. Supplierspartnership more than others. When the companies finally accept that something is wrong and they have to change their strategy and implement Evaluating. company culture of continuous improvement that before was Ergonomics allows the assessment to improve the environment not possible to find. to satisfy and to deliver value to costumer proper production system favoring an integrated and holistic (internal and external). promote cleaner production processes that it will reduce resource use. ruining the opportunity of workers collaboration. In time. many tools presented above as problem-solving tools because scoreboards continuously updated. Mixproduction of the company. One-pieceflow 20. like the like the ones already presented in previous section. it is not an impossible mission. because it will start a presented includes ergonomics and sustainability tools. and will allow reducing the implementation the changes occurred. Reviewing some methodologies to involved. Kanban 10. The benefits obtained from 3. delivery. the right quantity – cleaning. and the by other side. FMEA administrators assume. it will be processes. This program A3 report or be used in each 8D method. This involvement will assure this. Without a proper production system or layout is not new. Axiomatic Design and must be taken very seriously. Poka-Yoke 6. Comparing the results. must adopt the Lean Production principles and tools to face the safety and morale (QCDSM) only can be achieved with a competition.org/ on 01/31/2016 Terms of Use: http://www. materials Implementation of 5S and production technologies will or parts to produce the company product. SMED 4. be disastrous.asmedigitalcollection. The internal reconfiguration it is difficult to put in action a success Lean difficulties of organizations. for example. workers The identification of the difficulties of Portuguese Textile preparation and layout reconfiguration are parallel activities and Garment Industry and the need for new production models that are next. necessary to train the collaborators in problem-solving tools from the 5S program to the Leveling (Heijunka) tool. and sustainability tools to evaluate the work conditions and If the first phase was succeeded and the collaborators were sustainable environment. Alves and ones following: co-authors [40] presented some testimony of companies that 1. Heijunka and the collaborators will feel more motivated and ownership 7. Visual management Portuguese TGI work environment.asme. same tools and collect the new results of the KPI and KEPI increase the productivity of the companies and improve the considered in the first phase. Implementing Lean will demand the application of a set of Of course to obtain good prepared suggestions it will be Lean operational tools that are used to improve the system. Seiso side. but very few were and being done. emissions and waste and contribute to savings in CONCLUDING REMARKS companies. are aware of the country difficulties mainly 19. But. To facilitate and to In the last phase of this methodology. this methodology considers ergonomic possible to know if the desired targets were achieved. JITproduction/pull 8. and in the Textile and implementation because many tools depend on this system to Garment Industry in particular. supplies. and quality and timely all the components. Heijunka before set-up reduction it failures will ruin all the implementation effort. Standard work a suggestions program could be remarkable for the company 5. cost. QFD appealing to the entrepreneurship spirit that some 15. This will be difficult to 11. 17. Point CIP 16. promoting some kind of reward TRIZ tools are also important tools to design and innovative for the best suggestions and discuss with the collaborators the products (goods. not presented in the 9. tools already referred are the VSM. Set-up reduction. Seiton-tidiness. standard operations. They. Maintain and will not result. continue with diary they have an enormous visual potential and could appear in the meetings and encourage the suggestions program. Seiketsu – cleanliness and Shitsuke – training). a certain demand. and others) in a way to suggestions not implemented. Jidoka 2. and the sustainability development process more difficult it will be to keep the procedures and allows the company to achieve its objectives and goals without make them a routine.org/about-asme/terms-of-use . SPC 18. Lean implementation. Lean implementation organize the LP implementation. systems. incorporating a team spirit. hard work and some tools like 5S audits.

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