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Post-disaster recovery and reconstruction safety training
K.R. Grosskopf
College of Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify safety hazards likely to be encountered during post-disaster recovery and reconstruction, identify barriers to effective safety training and hazard mitigation, and provide actionable guidance on methods to safely avoid and abate such hazards. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys were administered to 400 participants at 13 training sites to evaluate safety practices among reconstruction contractors and workers. Findings – A comparison of survey results to hazards likely to cause injuries and fatalities during post-disaster reconstruction indicates that little effort is made to assess workers’ physical condition or immunization records prior to deployment. Furthermore, data suggest that workers lack safety training in reconstruction-specific hazards such as electrocution, falls, chemical and biological hazards (e.g. contaminated flood water), and equipment hazards (aerial lifts, ladders, electric equipment, generators, etc.). Findings also indicate that training effectiveness is further compromised by limited language and literacy skills of workers, high turnover of workers, and insufficient resources for adequate safety training frequency and duration, especially among smaller contractors (, 100 workers). Originality/value – The paper is based on original research funded by the US Government following Hurricane Katrina and is intended to aid in the development of targeted training to reduce worker injuries and fatalities during post-disaster reconstruction. Keywords Natural disasters, Hazards, Safety training, Employees Paper type Research paper


Introduction Section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act requires employers to:
[. . .] furnish to each of his (or her) employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his (or her) employees.

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment Vol. 1 No. 3, 2010 pp. 322-333 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1759-5908 DOI 10.1108/17595901011080904

For post-disaster clean-up and reconstruction activities, however, it is difficult to anticipate the myriad of possible physical, chemical and biological hazards a worker may be exposed to. Hurricanes, for example, are powerful storms that can affect entire geographical regions. An unprecedented Hurricane season in 2004 saw four major hurricanes with sustained winds ranging from 105 to 145 mile per hour at landfall, impact 60 of 67 counties in Florida within a span of six weeks. These storms left 152 people dead and caused more than US$ 42B in damage. Hurricane Katrina less than a year later claimed the lives of 1,836 people in at least three states and caused more than US$ 81.2B in damage (Grosskopf, 2008). While some workers are exposed to extreme hazards during a hurricane in order to perform or restore emergency services, the vast majority of disaster-related injuries and illnesses occur during clean-up and reconstruction activities. These activities are even

Physical hazard training The top four causes of construction fatalities (e. electrocution from downed power lines or equipment failure. The greatest danger exists around overhead power lines that might be downed or damaged by high winds or floodwater.9 m above the landing. Electrical hazards exist in some form in nearly all construction occupations. impacts from falling debris. However. 2008). and holes created by wind or floodwater damage as well as unstable structures and falling debris cause significantly greater fall hazards. Portable ladders must be positioned so the side rails extend at least 0. exhaustion from working extended shifts in protective gear and clothing. workers must be extra vigilant to prevent electrocution by downed power lines.g. In a survey of trade contractors involved in Katrina reconstruction. making the job of training workers more difficult (Grosskopf. Since 2004. and “back feed” from portable generators. . Side rails must be secured at the top to a rigid support and use a grab device when a 0. Under these conditions. The key difference is that in emergency conditions. and (3) equipment hazards. 91 percent of these contractor’s workers had no formal apprenticeship training. fall protection must be provided for each employee on a walking or working surface above 2 m with an unprotected side or edge. In the USA. Of these. . electrocutions. heat stress from overexertion and dehydration. falls from heights. openings. objects in contact with fallen lines.000 workers to post-disaster reconstruction hazards. Floor covers should be labelled and capable of supporting two-times the weight of employees. circuits should be Post-disaster recovery 323 . “focus four” hazards) in the USA are falls.9 m extension is not possible. Some of the specific hazards associated with hurricane clean-up and reconstruction activities include: . . fall hazards are the most common.more hazardous in areas affected by coastal storm surge and inland flooding. equipment. exposing more than 500.50 workers). the danger of electrocution multiplies for workers involved in clean-up and recovery efforts following hurricanes. floods. disaster reconstruction has accounted for 5-10 percent of the total US construction market. illness from chemical and biological contaminants. This paper provides an overview of training developed to identify and mitigate safety hazards while performing clean-up and reconstruction activities following a natural disaster organized in three modules: (1) physical hazards. maintaining. Repairing downed or damaged power lines entails many of the same activities involved in installing. and other natural disasters. and removing overhead circuits. and caught-in/between accidents. . edges. . and . and 54 percent spoke a language other than English. (2) chemical-biological hazards. researchers found that the majority of contractors (74 percent) were small contractors (. struck-by. Ideally. trauma from heavy and hand-held equipment. there are unknown hazards and the potential for changing hazards as work progresses. Following a hurricane. and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one time.

if water is suspected of being contaminated. or. including fences. and tetanus. skin rashes. Workers should immediately disconnect electrical power and ensure that electrical systems remain safely de-energized by using proper “lockout” or “tag-out” procedures. abrasions. scaffolds. spreading outward concentrically from the point of contact. or industrial chemicals or by hazardous agents present at flooded hazardous waste sites. Workers should wear thick. These symptoms include nausea. Since high voltage electricity can travel or “arc” through air. handling contaminated debris. or handling human or animal remains. cut-resistant gloves made of waterproof material (nitrile or similar washable material) when working in contaminated floodwaters. and debris. or puncture wounds. To avoid waterborne disease. the signs and symptoms most frequently associated with chemical poisoning are headaches. Workers should not operate portable electric tools unless they are grounded or double-insulated and supplied power from a ground-fault circuit interrupt (GFCI) protected electrical source.” Good personal hygiene. Most cases of sickness associated with flood conditions are brought about by ingesting contaminated food or water. such as cuts. that a wire is safe to touch because it is insulated. Even manhole castings and concrete reinforcement bars (rebar) can become energized by downed wires. Downed wires can energize other objects. Tetanus. or other platforms. workers should locate and identify all utilities. and fever. Before starting clean-up and reconstruction work. If exiting the vehicle or equipment is necessary because of fire or other safety reasons. typhoid. boots. de-energized circuits can be re-energized by improperly installed or operated portable generators that can send power back to the electrical lines. however. Electricity can also energize the ground. First. abdominal cramps. vomiting. burns. communications cables. the operator should jump completely clear of the vehicle with both feet together and shuffle away in small steps (or hop) to minimize voltage differential between their feet and avoid electrical shock (e. can be acquired from contaminated soil or water entering broken areas of the skin. nausea. and fatigue. Floodwater may also contain infectious organisms. plastic or rubber gloves. dizziness. Workers should be especially alert when working with ladders. Shigella. Workers should never operate electrical equipment while in contact with water. and other protective clothing. The signs and symptoms experienced by the victims of waterborne microorganisms are similar. even though they are caused by different pathogens. Chemical and biological hazard training Floodwaters may be contaminated by sewage. and specifically proper hand hygiene.IJDRBE 1. muscle aches. Salmonella. workers should be instructed to remain in the vehicle. If contact is made with an energized power line while in a vehicle.3 324 de-energized prior to repair work when possible. known as “lockjaw.g. However. hepatitis A. “step voltage”). prevents disease transmission. agricultural. or is not an electrical conductor. clean-up workers may need to wear special chemical resistant outer clothing. coli. buildings. workers operating aerial equipment should remain at least 3 m away from overhead wires. protective goggles. Although different chemicals cause different health effects. vegetation. weakness. diarrhea. water pipes. Dangerous voltage differentials can be created by workers walking toward or away from a source of stray voltage. Tetanus is an infectious disease that affects the nervous system and causes severe muscle spasms. workers should wash hands . Workers should never assume that any wire is. including intestinal bacteria such as E.

flammable. Water storage containers should be rinsed periodically with a 10 percent bleach solution. Inorganic. Molds usually appear as coloured or “woolly” mats within 24-48 hours of exposure to moisture and often produce a foul. The onset of symptoms can be extremely rapid (within a few breaths). carpeting. N-95 respirator) as well as hand and eye protection. including allergenic symptoms and dermatitis (skin rash). Workers should be instructed to immediately clean all open wounds and cuts with soap and clean water or. especially before work and meal breaks and after clean-up or decontamination work and toilet use. or if discharge is observed. manholes. First aid. To disinfect water for human consumption. convulsions. but with continuous low-level exposure or at higher concentrations. fungi or “molds” have the potential to cause adverse health effects. ceiling tiles. workers should prepare solution of 10 percent bleach-water. alcohol-based hand rub. extremely hazardous gas with a “rotten egg” smell. However. The working area should be well ventilated and sealed off from the rest of the building at negative air pressure to reduce the spread of mold spores. H2S gas can be smelled at low levels. Workers should use respiratory protection (e. difficulty breathing. Workers should assume that any water in flooded or surrounding areas is not safe. clothing. It is heavier than air and can collect in low-lying and enclosed. and underground telephone/electrical vaults. or weakened immune systems (e. is very important during flood clean-up. and equipment. it is preferable to use soap and clean water because of the potential for a bleach-water solution to corrode metals and fabrics. workers can lose their ability to smell the gas even though it is still present. alcohol-based hand rub. Mold-damaged materials should be placed in sealed plastic bags and transferred directly from the affected area to the outside if possible. etc. and death. It occurs naturally in crude petroleum and natural gas. insulation. asthma. even for minor cuts and burns.g. wipe tool surfaces ten minutes prior to use and let air dry. Individuals with serious allergies.). HIV and cancer patients) can develop serious secondary or “opportunistic” infections. musty smell. impermeable materials and surfaces can be cleaned with a 10 percent bleach-water solution. 30 minutes prior to use.regularly with soap and clean running water or. Most cuts. a waterless. H2S gas can cause shock. and can be produced by the breakdown of organic matter and human/animal wastes (e.g. For tools. sewer lines. To prevent or abate mold. must be immediately removed. If no safe water supply is available for washing. swollen. workers must identify and repair the source(s) of water or moisture penetration into the building. if only contaminated water is available. Porous. water that has been boiled for at least ten minutes or chemically disinfected drinking water. coma. Containers used to disinfect tools and equipment should be labelled “bleach disinfected water – DO NOT DRINK”. poorly ventilated areas such as basements. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a colourless.g. workers should test the air for the presence and concentration Post-disaster recovery 325 . Workers should not mix bleach with products containing ammonia or other cleaning chemicals. a waterless. organic materials (e. furnishings.g. drywall. sinusitis or other lung diseases. When present in large quantities. Before entering confined or poorly ventilated areas that may have been exposed to floodwater. will require treatment to prevent tetanus. except minor scratches. especially those in contact with floodwater. or detergent and water solution for materials that may discolour or corrode when exposed to bleach. At high concentrations. sewage). use bottled water. Workers should seek immediate medical attention if a wound becomes red. workers should use five drops of liquid bleach to each gallon of water.

vomiting. encapsulation. Workers should use proper PPE (e. asbestos was used in a large number of building materials and other products because of its strength. . and vehicles. Common sources of CO exposure include gas-powered portable generators in buildings. Asbestos was used in asbestos-cement pipe and sheeting. salvage. hair. If gas is present. or drink in asbestos-regulated areas. windows. especially older structures. eat. and tightness across the chest. clothing. gloves. welding equipment. the space should be ventilated. Workers should use warning signs and caution labels to identify and communicate the presence of hazards and hazardous materials. and loss of motor coordination. renovation. To avoid CO exposure. Lead exposure may take place in demolition. Workers should be instructed to wash hands and face after work and before eating. renovation. toxic gas which interferes with the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. spray on ceiling coatings.1 fibre/cm3 of air averaged over an eight hour period. or vents which could allow CO to enter and build up in occupied spaces. workers should never use gasoline-powered equipment indoors or in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces such as garages. floor buffers. flame resistance. space heaters.g. 100 ppm) are considered immediately dangerous and a self-contained breathing apparatus is required. Lead can be taken off-site on workers’ clothes. When buildings containing these materials are renovated or demolished. headaches. drywall. rescue and communication equipment. Such equipment should not be used near doors. crawl spaces. Workers should not smoke. Symptoms of lead exposure include severe abdominal pain. removal. workers should use appropriate respiratory protection and any other necessary personal protective equipment (PPE). skin. Workers should consider using tools powered by electricity or compressed air wherever possible.3 326 of H2S. including asbestosis. and packing materials. minute fibres may be released into the air. illness. and pumps. and approved respirators). coma and death. Severe CO poisoning causes neurological damage. Workers should wear appropriate respirators and conduct a user seal check each time a respirator is donned. Atmospheres containing high concentrations (. The fibres are so small that they often cannot be seen. a mineral fibre that causes chronic lung disease and cancer. compressors. Many workers have died from CO poisoning while using gasoline-powered tools and equipment in buildings or semi-enclosed spaces without adequate ventilation. and clean-up activities. odourless. Repair. tools. Symptoms of CO exposure include headaches. drowsiness. or when the asbestos-containing materials themselves are disturbed. Work areas should be provided adequate ventilation and dust collecting equipment when possible. concrete cutting saws. and ingestion when hands are contaminated.IJDRBE 1. If the gas cannot be removed. power trowels. Workers should never enter eating areas wearing protective equipment or wear clothes and shoes that were worn during lead exposure away from work. A permissible exposure limit is 0. CO is non-irritating and can overcome persons without warning. Access to locations where asbestos concentrations may be dangerously high should be restricted. a progressive and often fatal lung disease. Before it was known that inhalation of asbestos fibres causes several deadly diseases. floor and roofing felts. and basements. nausea. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless. and demolition operations of hurricane or flood-damaged buildings. and other cancers. Lead exposure comes from inhaling fumes and dust. floor tiles. and insulating properties. dizziness. can often generate airborne asbestos. Lead is a common hazardous element found at many construction sites.

Portable generators are internal combustion engines used to generate electricity. verify balance. electrocution to utility workers from improper connection to buildings.5 kW) or connected to a grounding electrode system. workers must be properly trained in the safe use of the equipment. Workers should use a body harness or restraining belt with a lanyard attached to the boom or work platform to avoid being ejected. Workers should never move the equipment with workers in an elevated platform unless this is permitted by the manufacturer. increasing the risk of encephalitis. Before refuelling. West Nile. In order to ensure safe operation of portable generators. and materials. Operators should never deliver loads over workers. hold. tools. Workers should never attach a portable generator directly to the electrical system of a building unless the generator has a properly installed open-transition transfer switch. rigging failures. Post-disaster recovery 327 . Equipment hazard training Falls. workers should shut down the generator and never operate the generator or store fuel indoors. Workers should maintain and operate elevated work platforms in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and never override hydraulic. Workers can reduce the risk of mosquito and other insect bites by being provided immunizations in advance of entering a disaster area. and by using insect repellents containing N. To avoid aerial lift and crane accidents and injuries.g. Workers must always level the equipment with outriggers fully extended and never exceed the load limits of the equipment. workers should inspect equipment for damage or loose fuel lines that may have occurred during transportation or handling. and dengue. Workers should always plug electrical tools and equipment directly into the generator using extension cords that contain a grounding conductor and GFCIs.N-diethyl-meta-toluamide or picaridin. set the brakes and use wheel chocks when on an incline. Workers should not position themselves between overhead hazards. and tip-over involving aerial equipment are the leading causes of reconstruction fatalities in the USA. Operators should be trained to raise the load 0. allowing for the combined weight of the worker. Workers should operate aerial equipment on a stable surface.3 m. wearing proper clothing. fleas and ticks). or electrical safety devices. malaria. The presence of displaced wild or stray domesticated animals in post-disaster areas increases the risk of diseases transmitted by animal bites as well as diseases carried by parasites (e. and CO from engine exhaust. Workers should ensure generators are either bonded (. Survey results Half-day (four hour) multi-lingual (English and Spanish) training was provided to more than 400 contractors in 13 hurricane and flood-prone cities in the US states of Florida. such as joists and beams and the equipment. Aerial equipment and load lines should maintain a minimum clearance of at least 3 m away from the nearest overhead power source to avoid electrocuting workers in contact with the equipment or ground nearby. Workers should avoid contact with wild or stray animals and wear protective gloves and footwear when removing debris. mechanical. Major causes of injuries and fatalities from portable generators include electrocution to users from improper use.Pools of standing or stagnant water become breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other parasites. and test the brake system before delivering load. such as a driven ground rod (. fires from improperly refuelling or storing fuel. Workers should barricade accessible areas within the equipment swing radius and be trained to properly assemble/disassemble the equipment.5 kW). electrocutions.

40-49. Only 4 percent indicated that they were field level workers (Figure 3). were employed in a professional or supervisory position in safety. The majority of participants (86 percent) had some level of post-secondary (e.5 4. 5 “best” Pr e U .6 Knowledge Style Information Understanding Clarity Usefulness Materials Presentation Interest 4.45 (Figure 1). Prior to training. and Georgia from May-September 2008. Results found that more than half (58 percent) of training participants had greater than ten years experience in the construction industry.6 4.4 4. participants rated the training 4. college or professional) education (Figure 2). Although 90 percent of participants indicated that English was their first or native language.3 328 Texas.4 4. participants were given a pre-test of 20 questions to survey their understanding of general health and safety hazards. Course evaluation results Note: Scale 1 “poor”. Nearly. and equipment hazards found to be the leading cause of injury and death during post-disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. On a scale of 1 poor to 5 best.3 4. and 50-59 were near equally distributed (Figure 4). About 42 percent of participants had previous post-disaster reconstruction experience. although only 22 percent had been employed by their current employer more than ten years. more than eight out of ten companies represented had workers who primarily spoke a language other than English.4 4. Greater than half of the workforce for 40 percent of all companies spoke a language other than English. About-88 percent of participants indicated that the training met or exceeded their expectations. Participants in age groups 20-29.5 4.4 4. chemical and biological hazards. 93 percent. Nearly.4 4.0 s ls n at io se nt In t St yl e In fo rm at io U n nd er sta nd in g K no w le dg e ity es ia ln Cl fu se M at er er e ar st Figure 1. Pre-test scores averaged 66 percent or approximately 13 of 20 questions correct. 30-39.3 4. After four hours of training. More than half (58 percent) of all companies represented did not provide safety training prior to 4. Post-test scores averaged 80 percent. half (45 percent) of all participants represented “small” companies having 100 or fewer field workers (Figure 5).1 4. project management or site supervision.IJDRBE 1. 18 of 20 questions achieved a 70 percent or better post-test pass rate. Training participants were also given a course evaluation form.2 4. all participants.g. Alabama. An anonymous survey was administered to training participants to evaluate participant safety attitudes and workplace safety practices relative to worker demographics. or approximately 16 of 20 questions. Training participants represented companies ranging from a few employees to more than 500.5 4. Louisiana. About 93 percent of participants were aged 20-60. participants were given a comparable post-test of 20 questions to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. physical hazards.5 4.

Of the companies represented. fall hazards (92 percent). However. less training emphasis was placed on topics related to post-disaster reconstruction. the duration of training is two hours or less (Figure 7). For two-thirds of all companies represented. although only 35 percent are given physicals and 12 percent given immunizations against diseases likely to be encountered in post-disaster reconstruction areas. all training participants indicated that their companies provide basic safety training on topics such as protective equipment (96 percent). and electrical safety (87 percent). 85 percent of field workers were subject to drug testing. Nearly. Participant job description sending new hires into the field. Participant level of education Other. including downed power .Elem 3% High school 11% Post-disaster recovery Prof 12% Highest level of education… Elem High school Some college College graduate Prof 3% 11% 33% 42% 12% 100% College graduate 42% 329 Some college 33% Figure 2. although 48 percent indicated that they did provide some form of weekly safety training thereafter (Figure 6). 3% Position… Safety Field worker Site supervisor Management Other 45% 4% 21% 27% 3% 100% Mgmt 27% Safety 45% Site supervisor 21% Field workers 4% Figure 3.

IJDRBE 1. Company size 101-200. 4% 401-500. and toxic or hazardous atmospheres (40 percent) and drinking water and equipment disinfection (26 percent). 15% 201-300. lead (48 percent).3 Over 60 7% 20-30 18% 330 Age… 20-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 Over 60 18% 23% 25% 27% 7% 100% 51-60 27% 31-40 23% Figure 4. 4% Number of field workers… None 1-100 101-200 201-300 301-400 401-500 More than 500 4% 45% 15% 12% 7% 4% 15% 100% 301-400. mold (46 percent). Participant age 41-50 25% None. A one-third or less of participants indicated that their companies provided training on equipment used to remove or clear debris. 7% More than 500. 12% 1-100. 15% lines (69 percent) and confined spaces (66 percent). Even less training was provided on hazards likely to be encountered in buildings (particularly older buildings) damaged by windstorm or floodwater such as asbestos (58 percent). Only two-thirds of companies represented provided training on the safe use of portable . 45% Figure 5.

particularly training related to fall hazards (r ¼ 0.05 are considered significant): . 10 years). Weekly Monthly Bi-monthly Semi-annually Annually None 48% 28% 6% 5% 11% 2% 100% Bi-monthly 6% Annually 11% 331 Weekly 48% Monthly 28% Figure 6. 36% 1/2 day. the use of aerial . Duration of safety training generators and the potential for carbon monoxide poisoning from using gas-powered equipment in poorly ventilated spaces.None 2% Post-disaster recovery Semi-annually 5% Continuing safety training. 11% 2-3 hours.0126). the greater the frequency of safety training (weekly safety training.0215). Correlating training participant demographics to safety attitudes and work practices. 31% Figure 7. r ¼ 0.. 6% 1-2 hours.. the following statistically significant relationships were found using both x2 and Fisher’s exact test statistical tools (r-values # 0. 4% Duration of safety training… < 1 hour 1-2 hours 2-3 hours 1/2 day 1 day > 1 day 36% 31% 6% 11% 11% 4% 100% 86 74 15 27 26 9 237 1 day. The greater the years of construction experience (# 10 and . 11% < 1 hour. Frequency of safety training > 1day.

100 employees) were more likely to conduct pre-employment drug screening (r ¼ 0. International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB). Further reading CDC (2009). IICRC (2006). S500 Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Water Damage Restoration.0160). Hurricane Katrina Advisory. the greater the likelihood that workers will receive safety training on the day of hire before being placed into the field (r ¼ 0.0359) and carbon monoxide poisoning (r ¼ 0.IJDRBE 1.0468). the greater the frequency of safety training (weekly safety training.0242) and training related to confined spaces (r ¼ 0. and the use of ladders (r ¼ 0.0326). “Initial restoration for flooded buildings”. Larger companies (. and occurrence of pre-employment medical screenings (r ¼ 0. DC. the less frequently safety training was provided (bi-monthly safety training.0010).3 . The greater the percentage of field workers who primarily speak a language other than English (# 50 and . FEMA (2005). particularly training related to the use of aerial equipment (r ¼ 0. “Worker safety after a flood”. US Environmental Protection Agency. the use of debris removal equipment (r # 0.0126).0397).0163). EPA (2009). 50 percent).0315) and ladders (r ¼ 0. particularly training related to the use of debris removal equipment such as chain saws and wood chippers (r # 0. US Federal Emergency Management Agency. and ladders (r ¼ 0. (2008).0354). Washington. . College graduates and professionals were more likely to invest at least two hours per training session when compared to workers without college preparation (r ¼ 0. r ¼ 0. The greater the size of the company (# 100 field workers and . r ¼ 0. The higher the level of education (no college and college).0055).0313) was greater. r ¼ 0. The greater length of employment (# 5 and .0533). Washington. The greater the age (# 40 years and . 332 . portable generators (r ¼ 0. However. Cleaning and Restoration Certification. DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.0286) and train in more advanced safety topics such as dealing with unknown or toxic substances (r ¼ 0. 5 years) with a company. Reference Grosskopf. “Worker safety training for OSHA ‘focus four’ disaster reconstruction hazards”. particularly falls and electrical hazard training (r # 0. Gainesville. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference: Evolution and Directions in Construction Safety and Health. Institute of Inspection. K. the duration of safety training (eight hours per session. the greater the duration (one-two hours) and specificity of training (r ¼ 0.R. the greater the duration and specificity of training. .0438).0316). Washington.0522). 100 field workers). “Flood cleanup – avoiding indoor air quality problems”. Vancouver. equipment (r ¼ 0. Emergency Preparedness and Response. US Centres for Disease Control. FL.0044). 40 years).0006). DC. . WA. and provide training related to the use of aerial equipment (r ¼ 0.0006). .

In 2007. Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction at the University of Nebraska. municipal Post-disaster recovery 333 To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. Grosskopf has also given more than 50 invited presentations in several countries on every continent except Antarctica. Grosskopf has received over $3.NIOSH (2008). Grosskopf is a Faculty Member of the Charles W. “Interim recommendations for the cleaning and remediation of floodcontaminated HVAC systems”.emeraldinsight.unl. Or visit our web site for further details: www. About the author K. US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Grosskopf can be contacted at: . and the US Government.R.8 million in grants and endowments. Grosskopf has written (or contributed to) four books and more than 50 publications related to safety and sustainability in the built environment. K. was chosen as the Associated General Contractors of America 2008 Outstanding Educator.R. Washington. Guide for Building Owners and Managers. Grosskopf is also a licensed State of Florida Building Contractor with more than 19 years of construction experience and has served in various construction-related capacities in private industry. Grosskopf received the Associated Schools of Construction National Teaching Excellence Award and most recently.

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