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in close proximity - dedicated to manufacture of a part family - share process similarities cellular approach: reduces set-up time - (using part family sequencing and tooling) reduces flow time - (reduces set-up times + wait time (smaller batches)) reduce WIP reduce market response times cells = “sociological units conducive to teamwork” hopefully - motivation to improve ∴ comes naturally __________________________________________________________________ The cell design process - many aspects - structural + procedural 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Selection of part families and grouping of parts into families Selection of machine/process populations and grouping of these into cells Selection of tools, fixtures and pallets Selection of material handling equipment Choice of equipment layout Detailed design of jobs Organization of supervisory and support personnel around the cellular structure Formulation of maintenance and inspection policies Design of procedures for production planning, scheduling control and acquisition of related software and hardware Modification of cost control and reward systems Outline of procedures for interfacing with the remaining manufacturing system (work flow + information, whether computer controlled or not)
Equipment utilization (high) Work-in-process inventory (low) Queue lengths at each workstation (short) Job throughput time (short) Job lateness (low) Typical design . 5. . 2. Equipment and tooling investment (low) Equipment relocation cost (low) Inter. 4. 4.structure oriented ones precede procedural ones Design will iterate with use ________________________________________________________________ Evaluation of cell design decisions based either on system structure or system operation system structure: 1.evolved from group technology ∴ don’t necessarily need to be automated.Usually . 3.and intracell material handling costs (low) Floor space requirements (low) Extent to which parts are completed in a cell (high) Flexibility (high) system operation: 1. 3. 6. 2. 5.Fanuc cell cells .
come up with a suitable cellular layout with minimal cost. These components are rather bulky and therefore. Based on this information .You are a shop foreman in charge of 5 groups of machines: a set of roughers. a set of finishing mills. . component 1 to component 10). Using a notional labelling scheme for the components (i.00.00 and the cost of moving a component between cells (intercellular) is 2. then the notional cost of moving a component within a cell (intracellular) is 1. a set of drills and a set of lathes. Assuming that the machine layout is to be cellular. the following is true: Components 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 need to be roughed Components 2 3 4 9 10 need to be ball milled Components 1 5 6 7 need to be finished Components 2 3 4 8 9 10 need to be drilled and Components 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 need to be turned.e. movement costs need to be minimized. a set of ball millers. You have been asked to set up a layout designed for the large scale production of 10 components which will then be subsequently packaged for shipping.
only possible for v.the following groups (cells) should be considered.e.need a cell formation approach i.To do this .g. simple cases more complex cases . 4 machines making 6 parts look for similarities or patterns clearly . However . a mathematical algorithm For simple examples .manual (visual) approach: e.need analytical approach .
Rank order clustering (ROC) system ROC = simple algorithm for producing machine groups (cells) relies on a machine-part incidence matrix e.g. our example __________________________________________________________________ ____________ ROC process: step 1: assign binary weight and calculate a decimal weight for each row and column using : Decimal weight for row i = ∑b p =1 m ip 2 m− p Decimal weight for colum j = ∑ bpj 2 n− p p =1 n step 2: step 3: step 4: step 5: rank the rows in order of decreasing decimal weight values repeat steps 1 and 2 for each column continue previous steps until there is no change in the position of each element in each row and column identify groups .
e. then assign binary weights to machines reorder according to component sums if necessary. then reorder according to machine sums if necessary if no further change – stop i.e. note the blocking process . assign a number to each component and a number to each machine and tabulate step 2: assign binary weights to the components and sum step 3: reorder by ranking.Machine-part incidence matrix: i.
Sij = ∑X k =1 N ijk ∑ (Y k =1 N ik + Z jk − X ijk ) where Xijk = operation on part k performed both on machine i and j Yik = operation on part k performed on machine i Zjk = operation on part k performed on machine j SCLA algorithm step 1: step 2: step 3: compute the similarity coefficients for all possible pairs of machines select the two most similar machines to form the first machine cell lower the similarity level and form new machine cells by including all the machines with similarity coefficients not less than the threshold value continue step 3 until all the machines are grouped into a single cell form a dendrogram step 4: step 5: . of machines visiting either machine i.Single-linkage cluster analysis (SLCA) Utilizes similarity coefficients Produces a dendrogram . of parts visiting both machines to the no.e.giving graphical evidence of optimum cell structures Similarity coefficient (Sij) between 2 machines (i and j) : = ratio of no.
30 0. M2.556 9+5−5 all other coefficients found the same way: Machine pair M1 M2 M1 M3 M1 M4 M1 M5 M2 M3 M2 M4 M2 M5 M3 M4 M3 M5 M4 M5 Similarity coefficient 0.67 ∴ at a threshold of 0.00 0.67 0.00 0.70 then M1/M4 at 0.67 – M1.50 0.5.70 0. machines 1 and 2: SC12 = 5 = 0.30 0.using the SCLA algorithm step 1: e.56 0.83 0. M4 and M5 form a cell at a level of 0.g. M3 joins the cell as a dendrogram: .40 Step 2: Step 3: select machine groups M2 and M4 – the first cell next group = M1/M5 at 0.
N1 + C2 ∑d k ij ij C1 = cost of an intercell movement C2 = cost per unit distance of an intracell movement Ni = number of intercell movements for the ith configuration Best configuration i is given by the minimum of TCi over all i.dependent on required level of similarity which one is best? Depends on cell movements ∴ determine total movement of each component throughout the system depends if machines are laid out in a line.total movement cost = TCi TCi = C1.Evaluation of cell designs In previous example: no. of cells formed . . square or rectangle 3 assumptions: 1. 3. Expected distance a part moves between two machines in a cell of N machines in a straight line is (N+1)/3 Expected distance for a rectangular layout with M rows of L machines is (M+L)/3 Expected distance for a square layout is (2%N)/3 Total distance moved in jth cell for the ith configuration = ∑ d ij kij j m dij = expected distance moved between configuration in the jth cell kij = two machines for the ith number of moves between two machines by all parts for the ith configuration in the jth cell m j For the ith configuration . 2.
not 30 units .for a 3-cell system for all systems: Assume all machines in each cell = in a single line In 2-cell case .M4.M2.M5) = 2x2 square Then total intracellular movement = 24 units .M4): = 5 intracellular moves cell (M3): = 0 intracellular moves Total distance moved = 7*(2+1)/3 + 5*(2+1)/3 + 0 = 12 units of distance Also .00*10 + $1.Movement considerations: consider our solution: e.M5): = 7 intracellular moves cell (M2.if cell (M1.00*12 = $32 .g.10 intercellular moves ∴ total cost = $2. cell (M1.