History of operating system Operating systems (OS) provide a set of functions needed and used by most application programs on a computer

, and the linkages needed to control and synchronize computer hardware. On the first computers, with no operating system, every program needed the full hardware specification to run correctly and perform standard tasks, and its own drivers for peripheral devices like printers and card-readers. The growing complexity of hardware and application programs eventually made operating systems a necessity. The earliest computers lacked any form of operating system. Each user had sole use of the machine and would arrive armed with program and data, often on punched paper cards and magnetic or paper tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a control panel using toggle switches and panel lights. It is said that Alan Turing was a master of this on the early Manchester Mark 1 machine, and he was already deriving the primitive conception of an operating system from the principles of the Universal Turing machine. Symbolic languages, assemblers, and compilers were developed for programmers to translate symbolic program-code into binary code that previously would have been handencoded. Later machines came with libraries of support code, which would be linked to the user's program to assist in operations such as input and output. This was the genesis of the modern-day operating system. However, machines still ran a single job at a time. At Cambridge University in England the job queue was at one time a washing line from which tapes were hung with different colored clothes-pegs to indicate job-priority.

and over 400 million copies were in use in January 2006. Direct OEM and retail sales of Windows XP ceased on June 30. view DVD movies. according to an estimate in that month by an IDC analyst. 2007. business and enterprise clients. which offers additional features such as support for Windows Server domains and two physical processors. and is targeted at power users. It was first released in August 2001. 2006. Windows XP was released for retail sale on October 25. Windows Vista Ultimate or Windows Vista Business. and is the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel and architecture. which is targeted at home users. based on installed user base. laptops. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition is designed to run stylus applications built using the Tablet PC platform. which was released to volume license customers on November 8. . Windows XP Media Center Edition has additional multimedia features enhancing the ability to record and watch TV shows. and media centers. 2001. and is the most popular version of Windows. Microsoft continued to sell XP through their System Builders (smaller OEMs who sell assembled computers) program until January 31." Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000 and Windows Me. and listen to music. 2009. including home and business desktops. and then downgrading to Windows XP. and Windows XP Professional. XP may continue to be available as these sources run through their inventory or by purchasing Windows 7 Ultimate. and worldwide to the general public on January 30. The most common editions of the operating system are Windows XP Home Edition.History of operating system Windows XP Windows XP is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. Windows 7 Pro. 2008. It was succeeded by Windows Vista.

Windows XP has also been criticized by some users for security vulnerabilities. Later versions with Service Pack 2. British Columbia. As of the end of September 2010. and editions for specific markets such as Windows XP Starter Edition. a change Microsoft promoted as more user-friendly than previous versions of Windows. a manufacturer revealed the first Windows XP powered cellular telephone.1% in January 2007.Windows XP was eventually released for two additional architectures. A new software management facility called Side-by-Side Assembly was introduced to ameliorate the "DLL hell" that plagues 9x versions of Windows. Windows XP 64bit Edition for IA-64 (Itanium) processors and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition for x86-64. and Internet Explorer 8 addressed some of these concerns. after Whistler. Windows XP presents a significantly redesigned graphical user interface. During development. and for aspects of its default user interface. Windows XP is the most widely used operating system in the world with a 51. are known for their improved stability and efficiency over the 9x versions of Microsoft Windows. Service Pack 3. The NT-based versions of Windows. the project was codenamed "Whistler". tight integration of applications such as Internet Explorer 6 and Windows Media Player. There is also Windows XP Embedded. a component version of the Windows XP Professional. as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort. . C++.7% market share. which are programmed in C. By mid 2009. having peaked at 76. It is also the first version of Windows to use product activation to combat illegal copying. and assembly. a restriction that did not sit well with some users and privacy advocates.

or even ³Windows´. y It is the interface between your hardware and your application software: e. business and enterprise clients. checks the various storage devices. ensures the integrity of data which is used by more than one application or user at a time. and Windows XP Professional. feel and operation of the shared functions of all applications e. view DVD movies. y It manages the storage of data (and program) files on disk.Motivation. which is targeted at home users.g.g. functionality of the windows. on-line . and is targeted at power users. It is usually referred to as MS-Windows. enables the transfer and linking of data between applications etc.g. and listen to music. prevents ³misbehaving´ programs from damaging your other applications. y It is responsible for the common look. Without an operating system. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition is designed to run stylus applications built using the Tablet PC platform. it allocates the central memory and central processing time between the active applications. keyboard and mouse input. It keeps track of where and how your data and programs are stored on your floppy or hard disk.objectives and the key features The most common editions of the operating system are Windows XP Home Edition. Microsoft Windows is the operating system of your personal computer. you would not be able to use your personal computer. Windows XP Media Center Edition has additional multimedia features enhancing the ability to record and watch TV shows. it directs output for the printer. interfaces with the monitor or sound card etc. y It manages the various applications which you are running: e. which offers additional features such as support for Windows Server domains and two physical processors. It performs the following functions.

more powerful version of Windows.. a calendar. chances are that some user interface elements have been changed. system utilities and even some games. incoming mail but also a spreadsheet and a word processor. On your monitor. you will see a stylised image of your electronic desk. screen saver. The ³look-and-feel´ of the operating system is also referred to as the user interface. It is a very powerful operating system supporting many advanced features such as networking. this might include a clock. Windows are typically partially on . A Graphical User Interface Windows XP is an operating system with a graphical user interface (³GUI´). Windows Each of the tasks or jobs that you are busy with has its own window and you can freely switch between the various tasks or windows as you wish. Every few years. multimedia and powerful accessories. So if you are using a computer that is being used by other people. This means that it represents commands and options graphically on the screen using icons (small pictures on which you can click) or menus (lists of commands from which you can select). The Desktop Metaphor Windows XP uses the metaphor of a desktop from which all your information processing tools and information is accessible.help. Microsoft ± the company that develops and markets MS-Windows ± creates an updated. multimedia player. a notepad. printing and font handling. an address book. opening and closing documents. graphics editor. y It comes with a number of frequently-used tools built-in such as a calculator. a calculator. security.

Microsoft is not able to provide you with hard performance numbers at this time²though benchmarks from an objective.top of each other. so you can have several windows visible on your desktop at once. (Hence the name of the operating system: Windows) When you want to devote all your attention to one specific task. Because Windows XP is still in development. and highlights some of the issues you should keep in mind when evaluating a system configuration. This paper addresses some of the key performance improvements in Windows XP. along with highly responsive applications²creates the conditions for a very satisfying user experience. Windows XP Key Features Microsoft Windows XP offers you many new features. Windows XP is the best-performing Windows operating system ever created. thus obscuring everything else on the desktop that is now under neath it. third-party reviewer will be provided in the not-too-distant future. Until then. And its excellent overall performance² which includes dramatically faster boot and resume times. For most computers that meet Microsoft's minimum recommended hardware requirements. you may wish to expand the size of its window so to take up the entire screen (called maximizing the window). the information presented here will help you understand more about Windows XP and about its resource requirements. y y y Memory and Performance Performance Evaluation Startup Performance .

y y y Runtime Performance RAM Options Evaluation Issues .

and there is no support for workgroup networking or domains. The maximum screen resolution is 1024×768. the Starter Edition is licensed only for low-end processors like Intel's Celeron or AMD's Duron and Sempron. the Starter Edition has not had much success. however. In addition.Current status : technical and commercial The Starter Edition includes some special features for certain markets where consumers may not be computer literate. desktop. In many markets where it is available cracked or pirated versions of higher end versions of Windows are more popular than their legal counterparts. a country-specific computer wallpaper and screensavers. if this is for total disk space. and each application may open a maximum of three windows. these include localised help features for those who may not speak English. not the actual . 2006. Not found in the Home Edition. contains a desktop background of the Kuala Lumpur skyline. There is also a 512 MB limit on main memory and a 120 GB disk size limit. for example. per partition.000. There are also fewer options for customizing the themes. and other default settings designed for easier use than typical Windows XP installations. cracked or pirated software such as XP Professional can be obtained at a mall. In these markets. These stores typically charge you only for the amount of CDs/DVDs the software takes up. In addition. or per disk. Microsoft announced that they reached a milestone of 1. Only three applications can be run at once on the Starter Edition.000 units of Windows XP Starter Edition sold. Microsoft has not made it clear. In the mass market. however. the Starter Edition also has some unique limitations to prevent it from displacing more expensive versions of Windows XP. On October 9. and taskbar. The Malaysian version.

and new visual cues have been added to help you navigate your computer more easily.70 USD (only uses 1 CD) compared around $30 USD for a properly licensed copy of XP Starter. Common tasks have been consolidated and simplified. XP Professional typically costs $0. . While maintaining the core of Windows 2000. This section introduces the innovations in the user interface that make it easier to use your computer at work or at home. Windows XP features a fresh new visual design.retail value.

chief software architect. and.And under Gates. In his various roles at Microsoft -. Both are poster children for a style of computing that is fading. . into the clouds. Microsoft utterly dominated personal computing with its DOS and Windows systems.as CEO. Both also represent a late '90s to midoughts Camelot period that Microsoft may never recapture. chairman .Gates championed a PC-centric view of computing in which the desktop was king and the operating system was the brains of the whole operation. lastly. literally.Main player in this area That Gates and XP are exiting simultaneously is fitting.

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