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Principles for insulation

Restrict heat transfer through


conduction
convection
radiation
Int

Ext

Image by MIT OCW.


Principles for insulation
Three insulation mechanisms
reflective

Absorptance

Reflectance

Image by MIT OCW.


Principles for insulation
Three insulation mechanisms
reflective
resistive
Aluminum
Steel
Glass
2.5
Concrete
Molasse 2

Mortar
1.5

U (W/m k)
Plaster

2
Cement block 1
Brick
Snow 0.5

Water 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Cellular concrete
Insulation thickness (cm)
Pine
Insulating material Image by MIT OCW.

1 10 100 1 000 10 000


Relative conductivity % air
Principles for insulation
Other characteristics and applicability

Insulation between walls


Homogeneous surface

Conventional flat roofs

Solid noise insulation


Applications

Compact insulation
Ventilted insulation

Injected insulation

Noise absorption
Fire protection
Inverted roof

Light panels
Floors
Material
Light mineral wool ☺ ☺ ☺
Dense mineral wool ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Organic fibers ☺ ☺ ☺
Cellulose fiber ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Foamglass ☺ ☺
Cellular concrete ☺ ☺ ☺
Polyurethane ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Expanded Polystyrene ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
Extruded Polystyrene ☺ ☺ ☺
Wood ☺ ☺ ☺
Straw and wood fibers ☺ ☺ ☺
Cork ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺
☺ : appropriate : non applicable
: OK but not optimal
: inappropriate because lacks the required performances
: to exclude due to high damage risks
Principles for insulation
Three insulation mechanisms
reflective
resistive
capacitive

Interior Wall Exterior


Exterior Temperature Variation Over 24 hours
Temperature
8 A.M. 8 A.M.

Interior adobe
Temperature
metal
8 A.M. 8 A.M.

Interior Wall Exterior


Temperature Variation Over 24 hours

Images by MIT OCW.


Thermal Insulation
Restrict heat transfer
Avoid thermal bridges
Heat flows like water
Heat follows the easiest
path (least resistance)

"Isotherms"

Flow lines
Thermal Insulation
Restrict heat transfer
Avoid thermal bridges
geometry

50
50
material

51
1 16 1 5 1

1
1 16
2

-10oC 14oC -10oC 20oC

50
50
2 18 2 12 1 18 175 1
32

20oC

20
15
Flux lines
15oC -10 5 10

10oC -5

Image by MIT OCW.


Thermal Insulation
Restrict heat transfer
Avoid thermal bridges
geometry
material

Simple glazing Double glazing Insulating glazing Double window


Thermal Insulation
Restrict heat transfer
Avoid thermal bridges
geometry
material
thermography Photograph and thermal image
of house removed due to
copyright restrictions.
Thermal Insulation
Restrict heat transfer
Avoid thermal bridges
50 50

Continuity of insulation o
13 C
16.5 C
o

50

50
-10oC
o
10 C
2 12 2 18 1 1 8 175 1
32

Image by MIT OCW.

insulation outside