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ACTIVE LEARNING AND CHILDREN’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
MUHAMMAD FARIS SYAHMI BIN HASBULLAH MUHAMAD SYAZWAN BIN ALIAS ANAS BIN AB. RAZAK MUHAMMAD HAFIZUL KHAIR BIN MOHD YUSUF MOHAMMAD HASNOL HAZIM BIN HARUN
084612 084595 075520 084405 071259
GHM 2113, BASIC RESEARCH METHODS AND REPORT WRITING MDM. NOORDALELA BINTI BAHARUDIN SEMESTER 1, 2009/2010 CONTENTS
Active Learning 2
Acknowledgement Background Study Statement of the Problem Objective of the Study Research Questions Significance of the Study Operational Definition of Terms Literature Review Methodology Discussions Data Analysis Reference
3 4 4 5 6 6 7 9 15 18 21 22
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY . We would like to thank to our team mates especially Muhammad Faris Syahmi bin Hasbullah. Muhammad Syazwan bin Alias. Anas bin Ab. she continually gives us guidance and a piece of his brilliant minds for making this research proposal possible to be done and an excitement in regard to teaching. Razak. this research proposal would not have been possible. Without her guidance and persistent help. Mdm. In addition. who has the attitude and the substance of a genius. in order to make this research proposal looks professional and in line with the academic standards. Muhammad Hafizul Khair bin Mohd Yusuf and Mohammad Hasnol Hazim bin Harun who are always give a tremendous cooperation along the way to make this research proposal possible and always giving their deepest concern and support with full of enthusiastic. we would like to express our gratitude and greatest compliment to both of our parents who are greatly assists us in making this assignment possible by their brilliant ideas. Noordalela binti Baharudin.Active Learning 3 We would like to express our deepest appreciation to our respective lecturer.
biological. Active learning is one of the methodologies of learning that involves two ways communication between the teachers and students. Thus. early exposure of learning leads to enhancement of children abilities of knowledge competencies. it gives impact to children’s cognitive development. For this context. Most of us just simply learn by using traditional way of learning. students tend to actively involved in the process of learning itself. Students are simply doing rather than just hear the lesson from their teacher or in other words. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The children’s early development plays a very significant role for the development of a human being as a whole. most of us do not really get used or practically applying active learning in the process of learning. However. the practice of passive learning that always dominating in the class. to encounter or to discuss it is considered part of active learning. most of our behaviour is determined by childhood experienced. There are several major developments in human being. either to reflect. Students are prompt to involve actively in the process of learning itself tend to reflect more of his comprehension on what the students are learnt. . Children’s competencies in learning can be described as the abilities of students to cope and have profound comprehension on what they are learning. cognitive. According to Salkind (2004). emotional and behaviour. where teacher is teaching and students just hear without give any feedbacks to make the process of learning runs smoothly and dynamically.Active Learning 4 When students participate actively in the class. There is less attention has been devoted to the study of relationship between the effects of active learning and children’s competencies in learning.
lack of knowledge and less interest to study. 2. To analyze suitable module of active learning to be implemented on children’s education system. To discover the concept of active learning and children’s cognitive development. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1. 3. What is active learning? 2. 1.Active Learning 5 There are still children ages 5 – 6 year old still cannot read and recognize words and numbers accordingly. it might cause another problems when they entering secondary school. 4. To determine how active learning could affects children’s cognitive development. Kindergarten and preschool stage should provide children as to make them to prepare before they entering secondary school. how they perceive. They would fail to understand. It would necessarily effects on children’s cognitive development. How active learning could affects on children’s cognitive development? . If children still cannot have the competencies in learning. To measure the effectiveness of the implementation of active learning method affects their on their cognitive development. how they could understand the world around them and the abilities to reflect and applying what they have learnt. RESEARCH QUESTIONS There is numbers of research questions which need to be answered.
Without a proper education. children will determine how they want to shape their own motherearth based on their creativity in order to have a safe. Children today are the leader who will decide a significant decision for tomorrow world. by performing this research. well cognitive exposure will encourage the children to make a precise and accurate decision. In simplest words. What is the suitable module of active learning to be implemented on children’s education system? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Children play a very big role in order to portray this world with various colors. The implication of the study will offer a great opportunity to human being in order to understand the factors that contribute towards the development of . Study is the very basic thing but very crucial in human life. it would be beneficial to those who are involved directly or indirectly such as parents. teachers and society members as well as educators to be awakened up and reminded the need to change and improve the children cognitive in order to have a peaceful world in the future. Therefore.Active Learning 6 3. it is depend on how the cognitive thinking of the children being educated. children who being expected to enlighten as a leader will be spoil and become a useless and worthless that cannot contribute even a single minor beneficial thing to community. Therefore. In order to cultivate the creativity of the children. condusive and peaceful world.
As the result of these consequences. It could be say that active learning is the method of learning enhancing student ability and participation in the learning process itself rather than being passive. It includes how students doing it practically instead of simply acquire information verbally and visually (McKeachie. most of the traditional style of learning in which lecturer/teacher talks and students listen has been dominated in most educational institution since long days ago. 1998). .Active Learning 7 children cognitive and how active learning is so important in order to grind children’s cognitive development. we need to have empirical studies on nature of learning more effectively that really gives tremendous impacts towards student’s achievement in academic. We need to analyze and discover thoroughly on what the barriers that hinder the effective of learning. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS Active learning – Active learning mostly defines as the involvement and engaging students to participate actively in the process of learning. Active method means to experience it by your own that is request us to make our own conceptualization on what we are learning (Petty. the interactional techniques and how active learning could be implemented to any stage of learning process especially children’s early process of learning (Bonwell & Eison. Recent studies shows that. 2004).
Cognitive development – It is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing. . Children – A group of human being between the stages of birth and puberty. conceptual resources. and other topics in cognitive psychology. perceptual skill. Jean Piaget. However. forming his ‘theory of cognitive development’. a psychologist. For the purpose of this research.Active Learning 8 2003). A large portion of research has gone into understanding how a child conceptualizes the world. Many of his claims have since fallen out of favor. children are defines as a group of human being specifically range 5 to 6 year old. most definition of active learning does include the participation of students that involves effectively in the learning process yet does not mention specifically about the overcome of active learning towards student’s cognitive development scientifically. It does play a very significant role in children’s cognitive development. he is a major force in the founding of this field.
Active learning is simply involving and engaging students to participate actively in the process of learning itself. Mayer (2004) suggests learners should be cognitively active. It is shows that. Definition of Active Learning The students are actively participating in the process of learning. 1998). active learning gives major impact on children’s cognitive development than passive learning. active learning plays significant role to students competency especially in their studies. The early children cognitive development is highly influenced by direct stimulus and influence occur in their field of experience. how active learning could enhance children’s cognitive development and the relationship of practicing active learning and the outcomes of children’s competency in their study. Reder & Simon 1998) (Gagné 1966) (Mayer 2004) (Kirschner. but several well known authors have argued this claim is not well supported by the literature (Anderson.Active Learning 9 LITERATURE REVIEW Active learning contributes more than 70% of knowledge receive by learners (McKeachie. the concept of cognitive development. . The children itself always defined as active learners because they are always keep on observing and tend to imitate what others are doing (Hohmann & Weikart. In the present paper. the effects of active learning on children’s cognitive development are investigated. Rather than being behaviorally active during learning. This research would emphasize on the definition of active learning. 1995). Sweller & Clark 2006). It has been suggested that students who actively engage with the material are more likely to recall information (Bruner 1961). It is hypothesized that.
“dialogue with self” and “dialogue with others” and two kinds of experiences. There are two types of “observing”. how they are learning and what role this knowledge or learning plays in their own life are some activities that students did when they want to applied active learning that just involves with “dialogue with self” perspective. “Dialogue with others” can be simply understood as some conversations that take place within two or more people that discuss and give their own opinion about related topic. he emphasized that active learning can be divided into four categories. An active form of dialogue occurs when they create a small group discussion on a topic and this activity fall under “dialogue with others” group. Write about what they are learning. This is what happens when a student gives some ideas to reflect to the topic. in which can be classified as “observing” and “doing”. all activities in active learning involve with two kinds of dialogues. one is “direct” . Based on this model.Active Learning 10 Models of Active Learning According to Fink (1999) who created a model of active learning. “Dialogue with self” can be easily defined as “thinking about my own thinking”. This interpersonal communication must imbue with the spirit of inquiry and the communication itself must be very dynamic and cannot be deviated from the topic. Watching someone else do some activities that are related to what the student learnt earlier can be a suit definition for “observing”.
in simple term then. While McKeachie (1998) said that active learning is the best concept. the student have to go to low-income society and spend some time to observe what they are doing. Therefore. reading and reflecting individually. the observer who learn about the same topic might be go to watch a movie involving poor people or to read stories written by or about them. vicarious observation is observing a simulating of the real action. students should participate and doing something. In contrast. “Doing” refers to any learning activity where the student actually does something. Students may be involved in talking and listening to one another. Moreover. or group projects in which one or two students do all the work. doing the real thing). or writing. students sitting in a group and studying together. giving a talk) compare to 70% of what we say only (doing a dramatic presentation. which is “a student teaching another student”. For instant. what action can be takes to incorporate more active learning into study process? Based on Fink’s research (1999). Direct observation means the student observe directly to the real action and situation like to have further information about poverty.Active Learning 11 and the other one is “vicarious”. simulating the real experience. So. he said that we can remember 90% of what we say and do (participating in a discussion. active learning is engaging students in doing something besides listening to a lecture and taking notes to help them learn and apply course material. Active learning simply means that it is involving students directly and actively in the learning process itself. For example. This means that instead of simply receiving information verbally and visually. student can implied several ways like “take advantage of the Power .
. a wide range of potential outcomes that depends on other factors occurs because of maturation effects. Just imagine. one student who wrote back their own thoughts on a topic (dialogue with self) before form a group discussion (dialogue with others). the group members will observe the phenomena (observing) then followed by having the students engage in the action itself (doing). it will increase the rate of understanding and verified the hypothesis that stated before. this action will strengthen the outcome and make the students well-known enough and familiar with all the area of the topic. maturation is to account for the neurological changes that occur through physical growth and sequencing of qualitative changes. After that. experience. Refers to Salkind (2004). the outcome from the group discussion must be effectively useful and rich with knowledge. started from beginning to the end. or components. maturation. Unfortunately.Active Learning 12 of Interaction”. as they attempt to define development. This activity will continuously being repeated from time to time. Concept of Cognitive Development Different researchers focus on elements. The result from active learning process in which implied the combination of all elements in active learning shows that an active learning process will gives major impact on cognitive development rather than passive learning. social transmission and equilibration is a four factor of development process which organism plays an active role in a spontaneous way of process. Firstly. With combination of all the elements in these two models of active learning.
The combination of biological growth. The last factor is the equilibration process that plays an important role.Active Learning 13 Experience. This is a major factor that points several events that affect the process of development in the child’s world. The Effects of Active Learning on Children’s Cognitive Development In Piaget’s perspective. information. development is incomplete without the combination of these four factors. one of the factor cognitive processes occurs. Problem solving through mental exercise can be experiences by child. his theory of development does not really emphasize on the role of active learning affecting on children’s cognitive development. learning of social transmitted information. 2004). However. . The child must be successful to change their environment but not only in a physical sense. Learning acquisition of certain information and skills whereas development is a general process through which learning takes place. attitudes. In the other way. learning is a function of development (Salkind. the crucial distinction between development and learning is development is spontaneous and learning is invoked. He states his theory more on general perspective rather than specifically refer to any group or stages of development. and customs transmitted from one group (such as parents) to another group (such as children) which makes the social transmission occur. Next. Surely. directed activities. and finally the individual is inherent to seek balanced state for the development process.
He tempted to use qualitative method for explaining about what activities regard as active learning method. Fink (1999) had presented the model of active learning clearly. Maybe their models could be more suitable to be implemented to other target group like teenagers and adult learner. They only explained more on general method of active learning. Specifically. he does not present enough information or any data that recognize the effectiveness of active learning towards children cognitive development. the study examines how active learning affects on the children’s cognitive development. The present study examines how active learning plays very significant role towards children’s cognitive development. he likely lacking on how this model is really benefitted to the children’s cognitive development. and the effectiveness of the implementation of active learning method could enhance the competency of children especially towards their cognitive development. . Somehow. pertaining on how actually active learning gives impact to the children’s cognitive development. yet it does not refer to any specific target group he does refer to. Both of researchers do not specifically come out with statistic report on the effectiveness of their model of active learning. However.Active Learning 14 McKeachie (1998) had mentioned about the benefit of active learning. the suitable module of active learning to be implemented on children’s education system. It would appear that there is no empirical study. He cited less on how active learning could be implemented towards children’s method of learning.
Sampling Strategies . in order to trigger their attention and make them involved fully in this session. balls. Materials We will use camera video and tape to record every single action of the participants.Active Learning 15 METHODOLOGY Participants Participants will include 60 students (both male and female) of the International Islamic School (IIS) in Gombak. I/we will obtain informed consent from teachers and parents. Their age is around 5 – 6 year old. interactive display material. toys. We also will use items like flash cards.
As an observer. participant observation. We use this type of sampling to generalize the information where it will represent the whole population. and semi-participant observation. Procedure . Gombak. we implement observation research technique whereby a researcher goes into the field and observes the flow of social life as it natural takes place. 60 kindergarten students will be selected randomly whereby each member of population has an equal chance of being selected. In this research. We expect 120 kindergarten kids will be our target population in this study. we will attempt to discover and describe patterns of social life as they naturally occur. and customs. We will use three types of observational research which is non-participant observation. Our target population is kindergarten student’s range 5 – 6 year old have been selected as our sample. try to get complete picture of a group’s way of life. Research Design In qualitative research plan. and also to describe and account for patterns in social interaction from the perspectives of the participants.Active Learning 16 Sampling is the technique we use to gather data about the children who actively participate in the process of learning. we are focusing the population in this kindergarten which is International Islamic School (IIS). understand a group member’s own point of view. beliefs.
we will gather all the information and evaluations forms to be investigated and analyzed. During the time. we will give informed consent to parents and teachers to inform them about our research two weeks before we will conduct research towards the children. They will categorize according to their age and will be separated into 2 different groups. . the children will select randomly about 60 students from 120 students. we will go to IIS after having permission and the time is suitable for us to conduct the research. flash cards. After finished. It will be evaluated by our group members and also teachers. Then. Simultaneously. interactive display board and forms of evaluation. other group members will set up the items such as video camera. After that. After that. we will evaluate them according to their respond.Active Learning 17 Firstly. we will start to have some games to play with the children so that they will not to feel uneasy with our coming. Before we start. we start to observed the reaction of the children either they accept our as apart from them. After that. Hypothesis In this study we will test the following hypotheses: H1 – There is positive relationship between active learning and children’s cognitive development. we will introduce ourselves and briefly explain to teachers on what we are going to do to the children. we will start our research by having some activities by using flash cards and interactive display board. The session will be conducted in 1 hour. their feedbacks and their ability to reflect on what they have learnt. H0 – There is no relationship between active learning and children’s cognitive development. From these activities.
There might be a few weaknesses in the study like time constraint due to our target participant are children who go to kindergarten to study. This is because kindergarten .Active Learning 18 DISCUSSIONS This study will be conducted to determine the effect of active learning on children’s cognitive developments.
Other than that. These kinds of creatures are likely to choose something that can give benefits to themselves. Human being is an ordinary creature who has feeling and emotion. Because of this factor. The parents might be think this research negatively and assume this research just like a sort of bias that conducted in order to humiliated their children. This thing might make the hardly to give cooperation because of this research will distract their teaching process. the research must be done in the classroom during the children study in there. As a human who only knew the world about approximately 6 years.Active Learning 19 usually starts operating and functioning as a centre of study for children at 8 am. it is hard to make them to pay attention to . inability to control any factor that maybe have some personal interest also will make this research is hard to be done. The parents might be worry about what will happens to their children as the consequences of this research. Children are joyful and very active creatures who will act according to their moods. We will having some difficulties to make it convenience for us to free our time in the morning in order to meet our participant to conduct the research because of the time clash that we must face. Due to this research is all about study and the outcome. teachers and maybe the children itself. this research is likely to face problem to control the children. This research also will face some setback to get full cooperation from parents. the same time for us to attend our class. Something that related to personal interest will be our major threats and hard to eliminate it in order to finish this research.
the research will face some drawback to trace the development because of the lack of mechanism that can be use in order to see the result clearly.Active Learning 20 study. it is important to make their cognitive can be function wisely. We are focusing on active learning because until today there is no exact theories do really explain the concept of active learning and the way how we can implemented to the process of learning according to different level of education. This research is emphasis more on cognitive development of the children because cognitive is one thing that really abstracts that sometime the capability of the cognitive would reach . In addition. We also will have some problem to give clear direction in order to standardized the level of understanding while give the order. Due to this. It might be emphasize on the effectiveness of active learning towards adult and teen learners. there are no specific mechanism on how active learning method could enhance the ability of children’s in learning and the effects towards their cognitive development. because of this study will focus on the cognitive development of the children. Some mechanical item like brain scan and MRI that will be the major item in order to proof the cognitive development will take high cost to done it. it is important to develop their cognitive and make them well prepared to heritage this most valuable thing. This world will be passing on to them to take care of. However. Because of the purity of the children who are likely easy to shaping their minds. Children are just like a white plain shawl and adults will play a significance role to chose what color will be appear in the shawl.
Firstly. This will make our research more reliable due to the wider scope that we are going to cover due to the various backgrounds of the children. There are several ways to measure their outcomes. The target population that we are going to study is the students of International Islamic School (IIS) in Gombak. we just simply rank it according to our standards. it is situated near our university. IIS does include also students from other races. It is more reliable since we would use the mechanism from Piaget theories of cognitive development and we are going to get the approval from consultant clinical psychologist. which is International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). So. From that situation. One of it is by testing their knowledge and measures their reflection towards stimulus given. it is important to see how we can improve and develop it in order to make someone as a well rounded person who can be a supreme leader in the world. The reasons why we choose to do this type of research is because children will act naturally without any suspicions. There are several reasons why we choose to have our sampling there. We are using observational research method as our main method for our research. not only Malays. . Because of there are no limitation to cognitive. it makes us convenience to come and do our research.Active Learning 21 beyond our expectation and beyond the limits. Next. it is also have students from other countries due to most parents sending their children there are working for IIUM and there are some of them come from other countries. We just simply applying the method of active learning in their daily process of learning and we will observe the outcomes of the children comprehension.
DATA ANALYSIS We are going to use Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) as our tool to analyze all the outcomes of the research with supervision from our advisor. We are using SPSS to present our data in quantitative manner. We will provide the statistical presentation on the effectiveness of active learning on the process of active learning.Active Learning 22 What we are expected from our research is it will prove the effectiveness of using active learning methods especially towards children’s cognitive development. we will try to seek for the mechanism on how the active learning method could be implemented especially to children. Along this research. SPSS is an accurate tool to analyze data to statistical presentation in order to prove our reliability of our research. Any further investigation in the future pertaining to our research topic is mostly welcome. so that we could propose it for further investigation. Hopefully this research could be beneficial and contribute to the science of education for the betterment of our future generation that will become our future leader who is having brilliant minds and abilities to lead the world. Our research is open to any individual or any institution that have an interest to develop more on the method of active learning since it would gives many positive effects to learners especially children so that we can have the benefits from this research. .
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(n.Active Learning 24 Mayer. & Feldman R. Active learning. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? The case for guided methods of instruction.d..W.d.html Salkind N.D.J. (2004).cat. Active learning. from http://www.E. Human development. McKeachie W.). (1998). . Inc.edu/index.geoffpetty. Retrieved July 25. 2009. Petty G. American Psychologist 59 (1): 14–19.php Papalia D. Retrieved July 25. California: Sage Publications. 2009. from http://www.J. Teaching tips: strategies. research and theory for college and university teachers.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill.com/Activelearning. Olds S.. (2008). USA: Houghton-Mifflin. tenth edition.ilstu. An introduction to theories of human development. R. (n.. McKinney K.
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