# UNIT III 1. Compare MOORE and MEALY machines.

Moore Machine Mealy Machine i)The output is a function of present state only. i)The output is a function of present state as well as present input. ii)Input changes does not affect the output. ii)Input changes may affect the output of the iii)It requires more number of states for circuit. implementing same function. iii)It requires less number of states for implementing same function. 2. Compare synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits. Synchronous Circuits Asynchronous Circuits i)In this type of of circuits all are clocked flip i)In this type of circuits, memory elements are flops. either unclocked flip flops or time delay elements. ii)The change in input signal can affect memory ii)The change in input signal can affect memory element upon activation of clock. element at any instant of time. iii)Easier to design. iii)More difficult to design. iv)The maximum operating speed of clock iv)Because of absence of clock, these can operate depends on time delays involved. faster than synchronous circuits . 3. What is Static Hazard? Explain it. Static hazard is a condition which results in a single momentary incorrect output due to change in a single input variable when the output is expected to remain in same state. There are two types i) Static `0` Hazard: When output is to remain at value 0 and momentary 1 output is possible during the transition between the two input states then its called as static 0 hazard. ii) Static `1` Hazard: When output is to remain at value 1 and momentary 0 output is possible during the transition between the two input states then its called as static 1 hazard. 4.What is Dynamic Hazard?Explain it. A Dynamic hazard is defined as a transient change occurring 3 or more times at an output terminal of a logic network. When the output is supposed to change only once during a transition between two input states differing in the value of one variable. 5.What is Essential Hazard? Essential hazard is a type of hazard that exists only in asynchronous sequential circuits with two or more feedbacks. An essential hazard is caused by unequal delays along two or more paths that originates from the same input. An excessive delay through an inverter circuit in comparison to the delay associated with the feedback path may cause essential hazard. 6. What is Glitch? Give its examples. Glitch is an undesired transition that occurs before the signal settles to its intended value. In other words, glitch is an electrical pulse of short duration that is usually the result of a fault or design error, particularly in a digital circuit. There are two types i) `0` Glitch: When output is to remain at value 0 and momentary 1 output is possible during the transition between the two input states then its called as 0 glitch. ii)`1` Glitch: When output is to remain at value 1 and momentary 0 output is possible during the transition between the two input states then its called as 1 glitch.

7. What are hazards in digital circuits? Explain it with examples. Hazards is an unwanted transient i.e. spike or glitch that occurs due to unequal path or unequal propagation delays through a combinational circuits. Example: When output is to remain at value 0 and momentary 1 output is possible during the transition between the two input states then its called as 0 hazard. 8. What is State Reduction? Why we go for State Reduction? The state reduction technique basically avoids the introduction of redundant states. The reduction in redundant states reduce the number of flip flops and logic gates, reducing the cost of final circuit. The two states are said to be redundant or equivalent, if every possible set of inputs generate exactly same output and same next. When two states are equivalent, one of them can be removed without altering the input output relationship. 9.Compare Ring and Johnson Counters. Ring Counter i) A ring counter connects the output of the last shift register to the first shift register input and circulates a single one (or zero) bit around the ring. ii)Its also known as Overbeck counter . iii) For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of 0000, the repeating pattern is: 1000, 0100, 0010, 0001, 1000... .

Johnson Counter i) A Johnson counter connects the complement of the output of the last shift register to its input and circulates a stream of ones followed by zeros around the ring. ii)Its also known as twisted ring counter or Moebius counter iii) For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of 0000, the repeating pattern is: 0000, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111, 0111, 0011, 0001, 0000 .

10.What is Racing condition? Race condition is defined as a condition when a device's output depends on two [or more] nearly simultaneous events to occur at the input(s) of a device and cause the device's output to switch. Which input occurred first causes the device to change, the arrival of the other input may cause the output to switch back or simply be ignored. 11.Write the excitation equations of basic flip flops. JK flip flop: Qnext=JQ’+K’Q D flip flop : Qnext=Din 12.Write MOORE and MEALY equations.