# 9.

13

Poincar´ Duality e
L

be its chosen orientaK⊂M compact tion, where ζK ∈ Hn )M, M K). If M is compact, let ζ = ζM . (The following also works in M is non-orientable provided Z/(2/ZZ)-coeﬃcients are used.) Consider ﬁrst the case where M is compact. Let D : H i (M ) → Hn−i (M ) by D(z) = z ∩ ζ. Theorem 9.13.1 (Poincar´ Duality) D : H i (M ) → Hn−i (M ) is an isomorphism ∀i. e In the case where M is not compact: For each compact K ⊂ M , deﬁne DK : H i (M, M K) → Hn−i (M ) by DK (z) = z ∩ ζK . L L If K ⊂ L ⊂ M , K, L compact, then by theorem 9.12.5 jK∗ (ζL ) = ζK where jK : (M.M L) → (M, M K). Therefore H i (M, M K)
d d D d K d d 
L jK

Let M be an oriented n-dimensional manifold and let {ζK }

Hn−i (M )
c

DL   L)



H i (M, M

lemma 9.10.15 L∗ L∗ L = jK z ∩ ζL = DL jK (z). Thus the commutes since DK (z) = z ∩ ζK = z ∩ jK∗ (ζL ) various maps DK induce (by universal property) a unique map D:
K

lim H i (M, M − → K⊂M compact

K) → Hn−i (M )

where the partial ordering is induced by inclusion.
i Notation: Write Hc (M ) =
K

lim H i (M, M − → K⊂M compact 178

K).

Rn B) i s. V are open subsets of M (thus submanifolds) s. Rn B) s. R B) ∼ Z. R {∗} ∼ Hq−1 (Rn {∗}) ∼ Hq−1 (S n−1 ).t. Z = 1. Of course. ζB = 1 so that DB (f ) must be a generator of H0 (Rn ). and by definition of D. Let B be a closed ball containing K. Thus if i = n the lemma is trivial since both groups are 0. Rn = = ˜ = ˜ ∼ H q−1 (S n−1 ). ζB = 1. if D(α) = 0 then f = 0 and so α = 0. lim H i (Rn . Hence D is onto. Hence D is 1 − 1. Rn B). i Theorem 9. Similarly H q (Rn . ∃f ∈ H i (Rn . D(α) − DB (f ). Pick a represen−n → K⊂R K compact tative f ∈ H i (Rn . Find generator f ∈ H n (Rn . ˜ B) = For i=n: The groups are isomorphic (both are Z). given x ∈ Hn−i (Rn ).13. (In eﬀect. V .∗ ∗ Hc (M ) is called the cohomology of M with compact support. B) → Hn−i (Rn ) is an Proof: Hq (R. Then DB : H i (R. Conversely. Rn B) must have this property. An element of Hc (M ) is represented by a singular cochain which vanishes outside of some compact set. Thus ˜ Hom Hn−1 (S ). B∗ Replacing f by jK (f ) gives a new representative for α lying in H i (Rn . R isomorphism ∀i. Therefore the direct limit map √ is the same as the map induced by this stabilized subsystem. Since DB is an isomorphism by the lemma. R B) ∼ Hq (R.2 (Poincar´ Duality) D : Hc (M ) → Hn−i (M ) is an isomorphism ∀i. the theorem is known for U . . Using the cellular chain complex 0 → Z → ˜ 0 .13. ζB = f. f ∩ ζB = 1 ∪ f. DB (f ) = 1. ζB is a generator of Hn (R. e Proof: Case 1: M = R Lemma 9. examine the ˜ ˜ Kronecker pairing of Hn−1 (S n−1 ) with H n−1 (S n−1 ).t. . Rn K) of α for some compact K ⊂ Rn .) i Proof of theorem in case 1: Let α ∈ Hc (Rn ) = Case 2: M = U ∩ V where U . Hence DB is an isomorphism. Must show that DB is an isomorphism. Rn K). f. = To see that one of the two generators of H n (Rn . if M is already compact then each element in the direct system maps into H i (M ) so that i Hc (M ) = H i (M ) in this case.3 Let B ⊂ Rn be a closed ball.t. DB (f ) = x and so the element α of Hc (Rn ) represented by f satisﬁes D(α) = DB (f ) = x. → 0 makes it obvious that the Kronecker pariting gives an ismorphism Hn−1 (S n−1 ) ∼ = n−1 ∼ Z and that the ring identity 1 ∈ H 0 (Rn ) is a generator. there is a coﬁnal subsystem which has stabilized. and W := U ∩ V 179 .

L be compact subsets of U . jW ∗ (ζA ) = ζA (where ζA means ζA ).4 N ) → H q (W. U U∗ jW ∼ = A) K jAE ∗ H q (U. W A). jW (f ) = f . U 2 −→ L) → H q+1 (M. By compatibility of U U W orientations. V L) K) ⊕ H q (V. U DK K) ? ∗ Hn−q (W ) c U jW E Hn−q (U ) Let f ∈ H q (W.13. M A)→H q (M. U A) denote the inclusion map of pairs. (It induces ˜ f ∈ H q (U. W 1 DA A) → H q (U. W an excision isomorphism. 180 . U − A) be the restriction of ζk to A. N = K ∪ L. Proof: U For square 2: Let jW : (W. U q K) ⊕ H q (V. i.Proof: Let K. V c Lemma 9. M ∼ (excision) = c L)→H q (M.t. M N )→ H q+1 (M. W DA c q A) K jAE ∗ H q (U. M ∼ = A) ∼ (excision) = c H (W. U K) c f ∈ H (W.e. Then have Mayer-Vietoris sequence H q (M. ∃f ∈ H q (U. U ∗ ˜ ˜ By the excision isomorphism. M DN c q A) H (U. W H q−1 (M. Let A = K ∩ L. M K) ⊕ H q (M. V respectively. ζA := jA ∗ ζK . U A) s.) A) → (U. M 3 c N) DK ⊕ D K Hn−q (U ) ⊕ Hn−q (V ) DN c Hn−q+1 (M ) c ∆∗ E Hn−q (W ) −→ Hn−q (M ) commutes. U U K Let ζA ∈ Hn (U.

For square 1: ∆∗ E q H (M.15) K ∗ ˜ = jA f ∩ ζ K K∗ ˜ = DK j f A A) whose restriction to U is 1) so the diagram commutes.10. U K) → (U. U (lemma 9. doing the same arguments with the pairs (M. M N) A) DN ? H q (W. W ). we get that the third square commutes. W DA A) c Hn−q+1 (M ) ∆∗ E c Hn−q (W ) 181 .10. U ) replacing (U. V ) replacing U. so square 2 commutes. M ∼ = c H q−1 (M. W ) and then (M.U U jW ∗ DA f = jW ∗ (f ∩ ζA ) U U ∗ ˜ = j W ∗ jW (f ) ∩ ζ A (lemma 9.15) ˜ U = f ∩ j W ∗ ζA ˜ ∩ ζU =f A ˜ K = f ∩ j A ∗ ζK (map of pairs is (U. Get the same diagram with V replacing U . Similarly.

B) ∆∗ E H q (X.) q q q Hc (W ) → Hc (U ) ⊕ Hc (V ) q+1 q+1 q+1 q+1 Hc (M ) → Hc (W ) → Hc (U ) ⊕ Hc (V ) D ∼ = (D ⊕ D) ∼ = D D ∼ = ∼ = c c c c c ∆∗ Hn−q (W ) →Hn−q (U ) ⊕ Hn−q (V ) E Hn−q (M ) →Hn−q−1 (W )→Hn−q−1 (U )⊕Hn−q−1 (V ) q so by the 5-lemma. [v] := ζN . X2 := V . − → ∗ ∗ Similarly each generator of Sc (M ) vanishes outside some compact K. Note: X1 ∩ Y1 √ = U ∩ (M K) = M since K ⊂ U . (Since homology commutes with direct limits. X1 := U . Since M = ∪α Uα and Uα is open. Y ) ∼ (excision) = c ∩[v] H (A.10. A ∩ Y ) ∩[v ] q c Hn−q+1 (X) ∆∗ E c Hn−q (A) Proof of Case 2 (cont. Hc (N ) = H S∗ (M ) . M K). D : Hc (M ) → Hn−q (M ) is an isomorphism. S∗ (M ) = ∪α S∗ (Uα ) so H∗ (M ) = limα H∗ (Uα ). where Sc (M ) := ∗ ∗ c S (M. Y := M A.apply lemma 9. √ Case 3: M is the union of a nested family of open sets Uα where the duality theorem is known for each Uα . lim − → K⊂M K compact ) 182 .16 H q−1 (X. (Thus A = U ∩ V = W and B = Y1 ∩ Y2 = M (K ∪ L) = M N . Y1 := M K.): Passing to the limit gives a commutative diagram with exact rows (recall the homology commutes with direct limits so exactness is preserved) ∆∗ E in the case: X := M .

t. Therefore U = M . 183 . (i. Therefore the theorem holds for M by Case 3. Then f ∈ Im Sc (Uα0 ).⇒⇐. x has rational coordinates} (which is countable).the theorem holds for U . and i=1 √ M = ∪∞ Wk . Then by the above. . ﬁnd x ∈ M U and ﬁnd an open coordinate neighbourhood C of x. the theorem holds for Wk ∀k. Let Wl = ∪k Vi . Thus again Sc (M ) = ∪α s∗ (Uα ) c √ ∗ ∗ and so Hc (M ) = limα Hc (Uα ). Hence if V = V1 ∪ .t.t. then the theorem holds for V . ∪ Vk where Vi is convex open. Then by Case 4. . r rational. K ⊂ Uα0 . then the theorem holds for V by Case 1. − → Case 4: M is an open subset of Rn If V is a convex open subset of M . the theorem holds for V and U ∩ V so by Case 2 the theorem holds for U ∪ V . W are converx open then so is V ∩ W so the theorem holds for V ∪ W by Case 2. If U = M .) If V . V is homemorphic Rn . k=1 Case 5: General Case By Zorn’s Lemma ∃ a maximal open subset U of M s.∗ ∗ Find Uα0 s. {Wk } are nested. K ⊂ Uα0 s.e. Write M = ∪∞ Vi by letting {Vi } be i=1 {Nr (x) | Nr (x) ⊂ M.