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Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.2 Incorporating The Effect in Near-Fault Pulses in Seismic Hazard Assessment

Two types of models were suggested to incorporate the effect of pulses in seismic hazard assessment:
broadband models and narrowband models.

Broadband models:
Somerville, P. G., Smith, N. F., Graves, R.W., & Abrahamson, N. A. (1997). Modification of empirical
strong ground motion attenuation relations to include the amplitude and duration effects of rupture
directivity. Seismological Research Letters, 68(1), 199-222.
Abrahamson, N. A. (2000, November). Effects of rupture directivity on probabilistic seismic hazard
analysis. Proceedings of the 6th international conference on seismic zonation (Vol. 1, pp. 151-156).
CA: Palm Springs.

Narrowband models:
Somerville, P. G. (2005, March). Engineering characterization of near fault ground motions. 2005 New
Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference. Taupo, New Zealand.
Tothong, P., Cornell, C. A., & Baker, J. W. (2007). Explicit directivity-pulse inclusion in probabilistic
seismic hazard analysis. Earthquake Spectra, 23(4), 867-891.
Shahi, S. K., & Baker, J. W. (2011). An empirically calibrated framework for including the effects of
near-fault directivity in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of
America, 101(2), 742-755.
Chang, Z., Sun, X., Zhai, C., Zhao, J. X., & Xie, L. (2018). An empirical approach of accounting for the
amplification effects induced by near-fault directivity. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(5),
2.3 Damping Reduction Factor with Consideration of Near-Fault Effect
Priestley, M. J. N., & Society of Earthquake and Civil Engineering Dynamics. (2003). Myths and
fallacies in earthquake engineering, revisited. Pavia, Italy: IUSS Press.
Pavlou, E. A., & Constantinou, M. C. (2004). Response of elastic and inelastic structures with damping
systems to near-field and soft-soil ground motions. Engineering Structures, 26(9), 1217-1230.
Hatzigeorgiou, G. D. (2010). Damping modification factors for SDOF systems subjected to near‐fault,
far‐fault and artificial earthquakes. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 39(11), 1239-
Rupakhety, R., Sigurdsson, S. U., Papageorgiou, A. S., & Sigbjörnsson, R. (2011). Quantification of
ground-motion parameters and response spectra in the near-fault region. Bulletin of Earthquake
Engineering, 9(4), 893-930.
Hubbard, D. T., & Mavroeidis, G. P. (2011). Damping coefficients for near-fault ground motion response
spectra. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31(3), 401-417.
Mollaioli, F., Liberatore, L., & Lucchini, A. (2014). Displacement damping modification factors for
pulse-like and ordinary records. Engineering Structures, 78, 17-27.
Bradley, B. A. (2015). Period dependence of response spectrum damping modification factors due to
source-and site-specific effects. Earthquake Spectra, 31(2), 745-759.
Pu, W., Kasai, K., Kabando, E. K., & Huang, B. (2016). Evaluation of the damping modification factor
for structures subjected to near-fault ground motions. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(6),
2.4 Assessment of Equivalent Linear Method under Near-Fault Effect
Dicleli, M., & Buddaram, S. (2007). Equivalent linear analysis of seismic-isolated bridges subjected to
near-fault ground motions with forward rupture directivity effect. Engineering Structures, 29(1), 21-
Quaranta, G., & Mollaioli, F. (2018). On the use of the equivalent linearization for bilinear oscillators
under pulse-like ground motion. Engineering Structures, 160, 395-407.

(I should just briefly mention about a few literatures that are general evaluation of equivalent linear
method without focusing on pulse-like ground motions.)
2.5 Reviews of Intensity Measures for Isolation Systems Subjected to Pulse-Like Ground Motions
Yang, D., Pan, J., & Li, G. (2009). Non‐structure‐specific intensity measure parameters and characteristic
period of near‐fault ground motions. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 38(11), 1257-
Avşar, Ö., & Özdemir, G. (2011). Response of seismic-isolated bridges in relation to intensity measures
of ordinary and pulselike ground motions. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 18(3), 250-260.
Mollaioli, F., Lucchini, A., Cheng, Y., & Monti, G. (2013). Intensity measures for the seismic response
prediction of base-isolated buildings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 11(5), 1841-1866.
Ebrahimian, H., Jalayer, F., Lucchini, A., Mollaioli, F., & Manfredi, G. (2015). Preliminary ranking of
alternative scalar and vector intensity measures of ground shaking. Bulletin of Earthquake
Engineering, 13(10), 2805-2840.
Mazza, F., & Labernarda, R. (2017). Structural and non-structural intensity measures for the assessment
of base-isolated structures subjected to pulse-like near-fault earthquakes. Soil Dynamics and
Earthquake Engineering, 96, 115-127.

(Intensity measures that consider the higher-mode effect and the effect of non-linearity for high-rise
buildings under pulse-like ground motions should only be mentioned and listed. Similarly, intensity
measures for base-isolated systems without considering the effect of pulse-like ground motions are also
just mentioned briefly.)