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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1164-1171. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_118
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

METHODS OF INCREASING THE ABSORPTION


CAPACITY OF METALS TO IR RADIATION BY
CREATING A SURFACE COMPOSITE LAYER
SATURATED WITH NANOMATERIALS
German Vyacheslavovich Dmitrienko, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Fedorov, Georgy
Leonidovich Rivin, Dmitriy Viktorovich Mukhin and Roman Andreevich Salaev
Department of Aircraft Engineering
Separate structural unit "Institute of Aviation Technologies and Control"
Ulyanovsk State Technical University
Ulyanovsk, Russian Federation

ABSTRACT
Among the technological processes that require significant energy consumption, a
significant role is played by the heating processes carried out by electric infrared
heaters. The efficiency of such heaters is defined as the perfection of the heater, that is,
its ability to most effectively convert electrical energy into infrared energy and the
ability to direct the flow of infrared radiation to the receiver as well as the perfection
of the receiver, that is, its absorptive capacity and ability to transfer heat with minimal
loss of the heated substance.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Infrared heating, Energy efficiency, Resistance.
Cite this Article German Vyacheslavovich Dmitrienko, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Fedorov, Georgy Leonidovich Rivin, Dmitriy Viktorovich Mukhin and Roman
Andreevich Salaev, Methods of Increasing the Absorption Capacity of Metals to Ir
Radiation by Creating a Surface Composite Layer Saturated With Nanomaterials,
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(3), 2019, pp.
1164-1171.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Relevance of the research topic
In order to increase the efficiency of such heaters, as well as the energy efficiency of production
as a whole, the team of authors in [1] proposed to create a surface composite layer saturated
with carbon nanotubes [4-7], which allowed, firstly, to increase the absorption capacity of the
surface to infrared (IR) radiation, secondly, to lower the surface temperature due to a

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Methods of Increasing the Absorption Capacity of Metals to Ir Radiation by Creating a Surface
Composite Layer Saturated With Nanomaterials

significantly more intensive heat removal from the surface into the material. The latter effect
can significantly reduce heat loss due to the appearance of IR radiation from the receiving
surface in the opposite direction.

1.2. Formulation of the problem


One of the significant advantages of the proposed approach compared to various types of
coatings based on the effect of adhesion is resistance to the appearance of various types of
damage and scratches, which are unavoidable in industrial conditions. As was shown, these
damages do not lead to a noticeable decrease in the performance of the surface layer and are
not the core of further surface destruction. However, at the time of writing [1-3] detailed studies
of the effect of saturation of the surface layer with carbon nanotubes on the mechanical
properties and resistance of the surface have not been carried out [26]. Later, these studies were
conducted by the team of authors and their results will be presented in this article.

Figure 1. Friction machine

1.3. Purpose of the study


The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of the created surface composite layer saturated
with carbon nanotubes on the resistance of the material.
The technology of creating the surface layer in this study was not optimized, since it is
assumed that the intended purpose of the coating is to increase the absorptivity of the material
to IR radiation and the surface processing parameters were selected optimal for the intended
purpose [28]. Hardness, coefficient of friction in a pair of material-material with a surface
treated with nanotubes and the resistance of material samples without processing with
nanotubes and after processing were chosen as indicators characterizing the surface resistance
[25].

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German Vyacheslavovich Dmitrienko, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Fedorov, Georgy Leonidovich
Rivin, Dmitriy Viktorovich Mukhin and Roman Andreevich Salaev

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS


Experimental studies include the following steps:
1. Samples are weighed on an analytical VL-224 (V) balance, the hardness of samples
is measured using a LOMO PMT-3M microhardness tester, the samples are
examined in a microscope.
2. Samples are installed in the friction machine (Fig. 1), the sample rotation speed is
set at 200 rpm, and within 10 minutes tests are carried out with measurement of the
friction coefficient.
3. Re-weighing of samples and calculation of sample conducted during testing.
To confirm the convergence of the results, the tests were carried out on 6 samples of each
type, while the deviations of the results from the average value did not exceed 2.5% [27].

3. RESULTS
Typical graphs of friction coefficient changes during sample testing are shown in Fig.2
1
0.9
Friction coefitient

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, sec

а) Without processing with carbon nanotubes

0.8
Friction coefitient

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, sec

b) After processing

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Methods of Increasing the Absorption Capacity of Metals to Ir Radiation by Creating a Surface
Composite Layer Saturated With Nanomaterials

Figure 2. Changing of the coefficient of friction during the test samples


From the graphs it can be seen that in the process of testing samples without surface
processing with carbon nanotubes (Fig. 2a), there is a significant change in the value of the
friction coefficient, which reflects the processes of intensive burn-in of samples, accompanied
by intense surface resistance. In the process of testing samples coated with a composite layer
saturated with carbon nanotubes (Fig. 2b), the value of the friction coefficient varies slightly,
which indicates a significantly lower intensity of the running-in process and surface resistance.

A) b)

c) d)

Figure 3. View of the surface under a microscope of samples without processing with carbon
nanotubes (a and b) and after processing (c and d), respectively, before testing in a friction machine (a
and c) and after testing (b and d)
The study of the surface structure of samples under a microscope (Fig. 3) showed that:
1. Firstly, when testing samples processed with carbon nanotubes, such a significant
failure of the surface structure does not occur as when tested in similar conditions
of untreated samples. Not observed the formation of a significant number of
grooves, scratches, scuffing of the surface layers.
2. Secondly, the inclusion zones of carbon nanotubes in the structure of the material
are clearly visible both on the samples before the tests and on the samples after the
tests, which confirms the previously made assumption that intense surface resistance
to a certain value will not significantly affect the absorbing ability of the material to
IR radiation.

Table 1. Average values of sample hardness and resistance


Type of sample Hardness, HV Resistance, %
Aluminum-Aluminum 157 0.172%
Aluminum + CNT - Aluminum 183 0.0401%
Table 1 and presents the values of surface hardness of the samples before and after
processing with nanotubes, as well as the average values of resistance. As can be seen from the

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German Vyacheslavovich Dmitrienko, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Fedorov, Georgy Leonidovich
Rivin, Dmitriy Viktorovich Mukhin and Roman Andreevich Salaev

table, the saturation of the surface layers with carbon nanotubes leads to a significant increase
in hardness and a decrease in total resistance by 4.3 times.
Figures 4-6 illustrate the friction coefficient of aluminum on aluminum No 1 and 2 and on
the coating of CNT. The results of the experiment are presented in the Table 2.

Figure 4. The graph of friction coefficient of aluminum on aluminum No. 1

1
Friction coefitient

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, sec

Figure 5. The graph of friction coefficient of aluminum on aluminum No. 2

0.8
coefitient

0.6
Friction

0.4

0.2

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, sec

Figure 6. Graph of the coefficient of friction of aluminum on the coating of CNT

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Methods of Increasing the Absorption Capacity of Metals to Ir Radiation by Creating a Surface
Composite Layer Saturated With Nanomaterials

Table 2. Results of the research


Weight before testing,
Type of samples Weight after the test, gr Hardness, HV Resistance, %
gr
Aluminum №1 14.7978 14.7723 157 0.172%
Aluminum № 2 14.6911 14.6553 157 0.243%
CNT 14.7096 14.7037 183 0.0401%

Photos of test samples go as follow:

Before After

Figure 7. Photos of test samples

4. CONCLUSION
To sum up, it can be said that the studies carried out confirmed the earlier assumptions that the
surface processing of the metal with carbon nanotubes, in addition to increasing the absorption
capacity for IR radiation, would significantly increase the surface durability, moreover,
mechanical resistance would not destroy the resulting structure to a certain limit properties of
the surface composite layer.

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