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Dr.

Hans-Joachim Herrmann, EM DG PRO LM PR

Introduction to the Generator Protection

© Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved. siemens.com/energy-automation-products


Table of content

• Introduction into the machine protection


• Typical plant structures
• Quick introduction in synchronous generators
• Discussion of possible faults in a power plant
• Necessary protection functions
• Selection of functions
• Tripping concept
• Basic redundancy structures

© Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.


Page 2 18.10.2016 Dr. Herrmann / EM DG PRO LM PR
What are Machines and what is Machine Protection?

Rotating Machines:
 Generators (synchronous and asynchronous)
 Motors (asynchronous and synchronous)

Stand still Machines:


 Transformers (variable design and vector groups)

The machine protection includes all numerical devices which are able to detect faults and
abnormal operating conditions on machines and react according to the situation. It protects the
objects against inadmissible stress and is indirect also a human protection.

The protection devices must fulfil the following 3S criteria:

 Selectivity (switch off only the faulty system)


 Speed (as fast as necessary)
 Security (high security and reliability)
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Typical power plant circuits
Unit connection

 Unit connection is used on large generators


 The interface to the grid is the unit transformer
• Typical vector groups (Yd5, Yd1 or Yd11)
 The generator is galvanic isolated from the network
a) Basic connection b) Additional infeed into the c) Like b) but with generator CB
auxiliary power supply

mm mm mm

Unit Note:
transformer Different achievement of the
auxiliary power supply design is
possible.
G G mm - 2 transformers
- 3winding transformer
mm G mm

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Typical power plant circuits
Busbar connection

 Used on smaller generators, mostly in the industry


 More generators feed to the busbar
 In the industry also motors are connected to the busbar
 All machines are galvanic connected

mm mm mm mm mm mm

G G M
To other
to the Grid loads

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Power plant
Typical structure of the electrical part

Main supply system External supply system


Auxiliary power supply
Step-up transformer
transformer

Emergency diesel
generator

Generator with
excitation
system

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Principal design of a synchronous generator

Induction Rotor Stator slots,


stator winding
coils

Rotor Rotor
Slip rings,
brushes
Excitation
winding
(DC circuit) Excitation
Stator Stator
winding
Generator AC
Driving shaft voltage
Cylindrical rotor Salient pole
Electrical
machine machine
energy (turbo generator)
2 poles  1 pole pair 4 poles  2 pole pairs
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Page 7 18.10.2016 Dr. Herrmann / EM DG PRO LM PR
Synchronous Generator

The rotor („magnet wheel“) has an excitation winding in which a DC current is injected. The rotor is driven by
a turbine. The rotating excitation winding generates a rotating field.
This rotating field induces a voltage in the stator windings. The rotating field is following the rotor
synchronous.
The necessary speed of the rotor depends on the required frequency f and number of pole pairs p
nsyn [min-1] = 60 * f [Hz]/p

Example: f=50 Hz p=1 (2 poles of a cylindrical generator)  nsyn = 60 * 50 Hz / 1 = 3000 min-1 (rpm)
(3000 revolutions per minute); f = 60 Hz  3600 min-1

This type of generators is mostly used, because the voltage and frequency can be better controlled. Phase
shift operation is also possible (reactive power contribution).

Hydro generators are designed as salient pole types (with multiple poles) due to the lower rotational speed of
the turbines.
Example: f=50 Hz p=10 (20 poles)  nsyn = 60 * 50 Hz / 10 = 300 min-1
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Asynchronous (Induction) Generator

The rotor consists of a so called squirrel-cage rotor. The rotor winding is


short circuited and has no power supply.
Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotors faster
than synchronous speed. The turbine runs faster than the synchronous
speed of the stator winding. The generator draws its excitation power from
the electrical grid (consumption of reactive power).
The rotor speed is unequal to the stator speed (synchronous speed).

The deviation is the slip s = (nsyn – nRotor)/nsyn.


The slip for generator operation: s < 0 (negative).

This type of generators is used at very small plants (hydro power station
(kW)) and also in wind turbine application (in combination with converter
systems, e.g. doubly fed induction generator).

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Some pictures
Cylindrical rotor generator Salient pole generator

Francis
turbine

Generator
(1000 MVA)

Stator of a large hydro generator


Stator winding
+ cooling system

Slip rings,
carbon brushes

Source: Wiki: Drehstrom-Synchronmaschine


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Page 10 18.10.2016 Dr. Herrmann / EM DG PRO LM PR
Faults in Synchronous Generators (1)

GRID
+ - optional

Excitation

Internal Faults:
Stator: Rotor, Excitation Circuit:
 Ground Faults  Ground Faults
 Short Circuits (single, double)
(two and three phase)  Failure in the Excitation
 Interturn Faults (partly or loss of excitation)
(at separate stator windings)
 Voltage Rise
 Overload
 Overexcitation (U/f)
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Faults in Synchronous Generators (2)

GRID
+ - optional

Excitation

External Faults:
Grid/Transformer: Turbine, Regulation:
 Ground Faults  Loss of Prime Mover
 Short Circuits (Reverse power)
 Overload  Over- and Undervoltage
 Unbalanced Load  Over- and Underfrequency
 Asynchronous Conditions  Overexcitation (U/f)
(cap. load, long short circuit duration) (Wrong regulation)
 Torsion Stress
 Underfrequency (PG < PL)
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Main Components of Machine Protection (Part 1)

 Generator - Differential Protection 87G


 Transformer - Differential Protection 87T
 Overcurrent Time Protection 50, 51V
 Impedance Protection 21
 Stator Ground Fault Protection for:
Generators directly connected to the busbar 67N
Generators connected to the busbar via
unit transformer
Protection Range 90 % 64
Protection Range100 % 64 100%
 Rotor Ground Fault Protection 64R (64F)
 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence)
Protection 46
 Reverse Power Protection 32R

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Main Components of Machine Protection (Part 1)

 Overvoltage Protection (Undervoltage) 59, (27)


 Over- and Underfrequency Protection 81
 Underexcitation (Loss of field) Protection 40
 Stator Overload Protection 49
 Overexcitation (U/f) Protection 24
 Out of Step Protection 78
 Breaker Failure Protection 50BF
 Rotor Overload Protection 49R
(Overcurrent at excitation transformer)
 Interturn Fault Protection 87G,IT
(separate Stator windings - hydro generators)
 Tripping matrix (Software matrix) 94

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Page 14 18.10.2016 Dr. Herrmann / EM DG PRO LM PR
Brief overview to the protection functions

Note: for more information please read the chapter of manual (7UM85 and 7UT8)

Protection function Application


Generator differential Detects mainly 2 phase and 3 phase short circuits in the generator stator. It is a fast protection
(87G) (20 to 30 ms) and a sensitive protection (0,2 I/Irated, Gen.). Also transverse differential protection
application is possible at generators with split phases.
Transformer differential Detects short circuits in the transformer windings (phase to phase and phase to ground and
(87T) interturn faults). It is a fast protection (20 to 30 ms) and sensitive protection (0,2-0,3 I/Irated, Trans.).
Overall differential is possible (generator + transformer).
Overcurrent time Detection of short circuits in the power plant as well as in the network. A grading with the network
protection (50, 51V) is necessary. The function is mainly back-up protection functionality. A fast tripping at an open
generator CB is possible.
Impedance protection Detection of short circuits in the generator, transformer as well as in the network. An impedance
(21) and time grading is necessary. It’s a back-up protection for the generator and transformer
differential protection. The grading with network is difficult due the unit transformer (impedance
transformation and vector group has an influence at unsymmetrical high voltage faults)
Stator ground fault Detect ground faults in the generator. The measuring principle depends on the plant design (unit
protection (59N, 67N, or busbar connection). The design of the load equipment and capacitive fault current has an
64, 64-100%) influence on the sensitivity. For more details see the following presentations.
Rotor ground fault Detect ground faults in the generator rotor circuit (rotor, excitation equipment, cabling).
protection (64F, (64R)) Sensitivity depends on the used measuring principle; two stages are recommended (alarm, trip)

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Brief overview to the protection functions (2)

Protection function Application


Unbalanced load This function evaluates the negative sequence current (I2) of the generator. The negative
protection (46) sequence current leads to a thermal stress of the rotor winding. The thermal limits are given via a
characteristic from the generator manufacturer and these setting values are used in the function.
Reverse power Detects a motor operation of the generator due to “steam” loss. The positive sequence of the
protection (32R) active power is evaluated. This value can be very small. The angle error of the current
transformer has a strong influence. Please consider the recommendation from the manual.
The shutdown of the plant is mainly released via reverse power protection (sequential tripping).
Overvoltage protection Evaluates the phase-to-phase voltage of the generator and avoids overvoltage stress for the
(59) generator as well as for the transformer. Two stages are mainly used. The time delay must be
coordinated with the regulation speed of the voltage regulator.
Undervoltage protection Detects undervoltage situation of the plant. Undervoltage is not critical for the generator. The
(27) main application is at pump storage stations at motor operation. The motor can start secure if the
voltage is high enough (V2 – T (torque)). Positive sequence voltage is used.
The function is also used as a back-up function for detection short circuits in the network and for
decoupling tasks (phase-to phase voltage is required).
Frequency protection Evaluates the frequency of the generator and trips the HV-CB if the limits are exceeded. The
(81U, 81O) limits are given from the Grid code. In Europe there are the following limits (f>: 51,5 Hz; f<: 47,5
Hz). After the decoupling the plant the speed regulation must bring the plant in a safe state. If not
a further frequency stage initiates the shut down. The coordination is mainly done via a time
grading. Time delay is from 10s to 40 s (influence of customer philosophy).
© Siemens AG 2015 All rights reserved.
Page 16 18.10.2016 Dr. Herrmann / EM DG PRO LM PR
Brief overview to the protection functions (3)

Protection function Application


Stator overload Evaluates the phase currents of the generator and works with a thermal model. A user defined
protection (49S) curve is possible. Limits are given from the generator manufacturer. The curve is according the
standard (IEC 60034-3).
Rotor overload The function operates at generators with static excitation. A simplified solution is the evaluation of
protection(49F,(49R)) AC current on the excitation transformer side. Another solution is the direct measurement of
excitation current via measuring transducer (7UM85 with V7.5). A thermal model is the bases of
supervision (user defined curve).
Overexcitation The function evaluates the ratio of (V/Vrated)/(f/frated). For the voltage the maximum of the phase to
protection (volt per phase voltage is used. Overexcitation of the generator or transformer means thermal stress for
Hertz) (24) the iron (high magnetizing current, magnetic reversal losses). The protection considered this
behavior and a user defined characteristic is evaluated. The limits are given by the generator and
transformer manufacturer.
Underexcitation The underexcitation limits of the generator (power system) are supervised. These limits are
protection (loss of field determined by the generator capability characteristic (or parameter xd, x’d). Siemens uses the
protection) (27) evaluation in the admittance plan via evaluation of the admittance trajectory. The admittance is
calculated from positive sequence phase current and phase voltage of the generator.
An asynchronous operation of the synchronous generator and network instability is avoided.
Out of step protection The protection detects a power swing between the power plant and the network. An impedance
(87) trajectory is evaluated. If this trajectory moves through a region described by the transformer and
generator reactance a torsion stress as well as a winding stress (end winding) for the generator or
shaft is the consequence. The power plant manufacturer allows only low number (typical 1) of
power swings. To protect the power station the HV-CB will be open. Additional instability of the
grid is avoided.
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Proposal for Selection of Protection Functions

Protection ANSI Generator – Rated Power (MVA)


<5 5 - 50 50 - 200 > 200
Stator ground fault 90 % 64, 59N, 67N X X X X
Stator ground fault 100 % 64(100%) X X
Differential 87G, 87T o X X X
Overcurrent time 50, 51V X X o o
Impedance 21 X X
Interturn fault X X
Rotor ground fault 64R o X X X
Unbalanced load 46 X X X
Underexcitation 40 o X X X
Out of step 78 o X
Stator overload 49 X X X X
Rotor overload 49R X
Overvoltage 59 X X X X
Frequency f > 81 X X X X
Y: Pump storage
Frequency f < 81 X X X
stations (motor /phase
Reverse power 32 X X X X shift operation);
Undervoltage 27 Y Y Y Y
o option
Overexcitation (U/f) 24 o X X
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Tripping Concept

In case of unit protection several trips and breakers must be executed.


It depends on the fault type, the plant design and plant operation, generator operation
and general operation philosophy.
Breakers
 Generator Breaker
 Excitation Breaker
 Turbine Rapid Shut Down
 HV Network Breaker

Protection Functions
 Auxiliary Supply Breaker 1
 Auxiliary Supply Breaker 2
 Aux. Supply Changeover
 SEE/SFC, Unit transformer
 SEE/SFC, Auxiliary transformer
 Reserve
 Special Trips at Hydro stations
(e.g. braking)
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Redundancy Concepts (Large Units)
Each Object is protected via 2 Devices (or one device for both objects)

Protection Group A Protection Group B

7UM 7UM

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Alternatives to the Full Redundancy

Without Redundancy Partly Redundancy


(also limitations at the CT’s and VT’s and trip circuits)

7UM

7UM
7UM
G
G

Invest cost optimisation System/-cost optimisation

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