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15th century- the CAMERA OBSCURA aided artists in drawing objects realistically. 1970s- Portable video cameras provided a cheap and effective way of documenting performances. 1980s/90s- the development of home computers rejuvenated the art of photo manipulation. 20th century- developments in medical technology allow Orlan’s theatrical surgery.

“Her incarnation as Saint Orlan focused on the hypocrisy of the way society has traditionally split the female image into madonna and whore. She played off this long- entrenched dichotomy by exposing only one breast (as the nursing Virgin Mary is depicted), to differentiate Saint Orlan from a topless pinup.” “the man-made (or "ready-made) construct of beauty.”
Orlan works towards female aesthetic liberation, condemning longheld ideals of beauty as pandering towards men. Orlan embraces vanity, and may be considered post-feminist.

“Carnal Art is a self-portrait in the classical sense, yet realized through the technology of its time. Lying between disfiguration and figuration, it is an inscription in flesh, as our age now makes possible. No longer seen as the ideal it once represented, the body has become an 'modified readymade'. Carnal Art loves the baroque and parody; the grotesque, and other such styles that have been left behind, because Carnal Art opposes the social pressures that are exerted upon both the human body and the corpus of art. Carnal Art is anti-formalist and anti-conformist.”
She strives to create a meaningful critique of traditional beauty, by manipulating her body towards the standard of beauty expressed in renaissance art.

“Of the operations performed so far, one altered her mouth to imitate that of François Boucher's #Europa; another "appropriated" the forehead of da Vinci's

Mona Lisa; yet another imitates the chin of Botticelli's Venus.”
The figures are chosen not only for their physical beauty but for their symbolic or mythological connotations.

“Most of his pieces are centred around his concept that the human body is obsolete” “Stelarc's idiosyncratic performances often involve robotics or other relatively modern technology integrated with his body somehow.” Extra Ear, 2006- “Cyprus-born Stelios Arcadiou, known as Stelarc, says his extra ear, made of human cartilage, is an augmentation of the body's form.” “He has allowed for the worldwide audience to log into the exhibition and thus access or control the electrodes his own body was hooked up to (via electronic muscle stimulators”
Stelarc forces artistic evolution- he sees the human body as obsolete, constricting, and so uses advancements in medical and social technology to “improve” it. Stelarc presnts technology as a catalyst that will define the development of humanity. He demonstrates the natural conclusion of man-

machine synthesis, the hybridization of technology with not only our society but our body, our self.