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LA ON MENT $2,000,000
The federal government wasted Americans’ tax dollars as it...

 Attempted to increase trust between Tunisian political parties and citizens (State) .......... $2,000,000

 Converted an abandoned mental hospital into DHS HQ (GSA and DHS) .......... $2,120,040,355.35

 Supported “Green Growth” in Peru (USAID) .................................................................... $10,000,000

 Fixed vehicles New York City falsely claimed Superstorm Sandy damaged (FEMA) ….. $5,303,624

 Increased the capacity of the Pakistani film industry (State) …………………………..... $100,000

 Paid out billions from Medicare in improper payments (CMS) ………………..… $48,000,000,000

 Taught English and IT skills at Madrassas (State) ..................................................................... $150,000

 Studied frog mating calls in Panama (NSF) …………………………………………….. $466,991

 Paid for Google Scholar searches in Hawaii (NSF, NOAA, USFS, DOI, NASA) …… $51,722,107

 Paid for property confiscated in Afghanistan by the ANDSF (USACE) …........................ $325,485


TAXPAYER DOLLARS WASTED: $50,190,108,562.35

According to Gallup data, since
roughly 2005, a majority of Americans have
State is spending up to believed the two major U.S. political
$2,000,000.00 to strengthen parties are doing an inadequate job.5
democracy in Tunisia
Despite established party platforms and
Tunisia gained its independence in 1956 regular elections in which citizens and
from France, after which autocrat Habib organizations can hold politicians and parties
Bourguiba governed the country from 1957 to accountable, Americans are clearly lacking faith
1987, before being removed in a bloodless in our political parties. What makes the State
coup led by another autocrat, Zine El Abidine Department believe Tunisians will have faith in
Ben Ali.1 During the 2011 Jasmine Revolution, theirs if they adopt American characteristics
Ben Ali was exiled to Saudi Arabia.2 But when even Americans lack faith in the two
despite the ouster of Ben Ali, Tunisia has never parties?
had strong republican roots. Nevertheless, the
Nation-Building Does Not Work
State Department believes it should use your
tax dollars to tinker with the civic processes in The U.S. taxpayer has funded many
a culture where self-determination has not attempts at nation-building in recent years – in
been the norm. That is why it is spending up Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya, just to name a
to $2 million “to strengthen democratic few. In each instance, U.S. blood and treasure
institutions and processes in Tunisia by have been spent in an ultimately failed effort to
increasing trust between political parties remake countries in our image. Do not
and citizens.”3 misread us – the U.S. political system is far and
away the best in the world, with more than 200
Support for Political Parties at Home
years of bloodless transfers of power to back it
and Abroad up. But that does not mean we can simply
Toward this end, the grantee will be impose our Jeffersonian ideals on other
responsible for goals including helping the countries.
Tunisian political parties build According to the State Department, the
“responsive” party platforms and U.S. has spent over $1.4 billion in Tunisia
“develop[ing] mechanisms for citizens and following the Jasmine Revolution on efforts
selected civil society organizations to hold “focus[ing] on an array of targeted areas that
political parties accountable for their include ensuring and enhancing internal and
performance, behavior, and use of external security, promoting democratic
resources.”4 While the State Department is practices and good governance, and supporting
paying to try to get Tunisians to have faith in sustainable economic growth.”6 What makes
their political parties, American taxpayers have State believe $2 million more will succeed
largely lost faith in the two major American where $1.4 billion has failed?
political parties.

questions as to why the agencies selected the
site in the first place. First – the slope on
DHS and GSA have spent which they are building the site is
$2,120,040,355.35 trying to turn unstable.13 Federal Spending Oversight
an abandoned mental hospital Subcommittee staff requested information
into a new DHS headquarters regarding what percentage of the site is
unstable. GSA responded that the entirety
St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington, of the site was not unstable, but up to 30
D.C., has a long history. Congress created the percent was subject to “anticipated slope
hospital as the Government Hospital for the instabilities.”14
Insane in 1855.7 During the Civil War, it
served as a general hospital, at which time, Because the entire site is an historical
according to a D.C. government website, landmark, GSA has had to work around D.C.
“[w]ounded soldiers … were reluctant to admit preservation regulations, including maintaining
that they were housed in an insane asylum, and the exterior façade of key buildings. 15 So when
instead referred to their location as ‘St. GSA and DHS gutted the interior of the
Elizabeths,’” which was “the name given to the buildings, they kept the exteriors intact to use
original 600-acre tract of land. …’”8 as shells for newly constructed buildings within
Eventually, tenants totally abandoned the West the walls of the originals.16 In 2010, GSA
Campus, while a mental hospital remains on learned the buildings lacked adequate
the East Campus.9

But in recent years, government waste has

entered the story. The General Services
Administration (GSA) and Department of
Homeland Security (DHS) have been
attempting, since 2005 and at a cost of
more than $2.1 billion to the taxpayer,10 to
establish a headquarters for DHS on parts
of the property.11 This effort includes creating
office space for the Office of Secretary of
Homeland Security and other crucial senior
personnel in the West Campus’ main

If you want to turn an historical mental

institution into a high-tech and secure
government facility, you will face a multitude
of problems along the way.
Photo of a hallway in the main DHS facility at St.
Elizabeths. Each door leads to an office that used to be a
The problems DHS and GSA have faced
bedroom in the mental hospital. Photo Credit: FSO Staff
are particularly fundamental, which raises

foundations, and some were literally sinking considers DHS and GSA considered roughly
into the ground.17 In sum, GSA has spent 12 other sites for their headquarters, instead
$305 million on “adaptive re-use,” or, in choosing a site with historical, environmental,
other words, maintaining the historical and geological issues.23
facets of the buildings to conform to
historical preservation requirements.18 Even worse? After investing so
exorbitant a sum on adaptive re-use, GSA
Meanwhile, there are portions of the site and DHS are reportedly largely chucking
which are “restricted for development” due to the model and “proposing to demolish at
historical and environmental concerns.19 GSA least five of the historic buildings.”24
and DHS have also agreed other portions of
the site – inside the secure perimeter – must Though certain components of DHS,
remain open to the public.20 The such as the Coast Guard’s headquarters25 and
surrounding community will maintain the Office of the Secretary of Homeland
access to the site, albeit on a limited and Security, 26 have finally transferred there, the
supervised basis, to visit a hilltop from American people are expected to spend
which community members traditionally millions more in a project that has become a
watch Fourth of July fireworks, visit the textbook example of poor government
cemetery on site, and use an auditorium.21 planning – and that is now projected to last
until 2026.27 Rest assured there will be
legislative action taken to ensure this
boondoggle does not continue to waste
taxpayer dollars.

USAID is committing “up to”

$10,000,000.00 on “green growth”
in Peru
Photo of the auditorium on site at St. Elizabeths. Despite
being inside the secure perimeter, the public will In March 2019, the U.S. Senate
maintain access to it after DHS moves into the facility. unanimously rejected a suite of policies,
Photo Credit: FSO Staff
dubbed the “Green New Deal,” proposed by
If there were not enough problems with
Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-
the physical site itself, DHS has also spent
NY) and Senator Ed Markey (D-MA), which
significant sums recreating the interior
proponents claim will support “green growth”
architecture down to the crown moldings,
in the United States. By a vote of 0-57, with 43
carvings, and other intricacies of interior
Senate Democrats, including every Democrat
senator running for President of the United
The decision to use St. Elizabeths States, abstaining in “protest,”28 the
Hospital, in light of all of these concerns, representatives of the American people
becomes even more starkly acute when one roundly rejected these policies.29 Whereas
every senator, Republican and Democrat,

refused to support the policies on the record, heavy, as Superstorm Sandy cut its tragic path
(perhaps recognizing the devastating damage of devastation at the end of the month. Fast
implementation would do to the American job forward to 2019 and Sandy is still in the
market and larger economy), Green New Deal headlines, this time as part of yet another story
bureaucrats at the U.S. Agency for of fraud and abuse undermining the best of
International Development (USAID) intentions with the American people’s money.
apparently feel some sympathy for them. How
else can one explain the agency spending In a proposed settlement in a lawsuit,
$10 million to develop “Green Growth in New York City agreed to repay $5,303,624
Peru”?30 in Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) assistance for filing false
That’s right! USAID is committing “up claims regarding certain vehicles the storm
to” 10 million American taxpayer dollars supposedly damaged.33
“to develop new and innovative alliances
with the private sector that advance “Specifically,” according to the Justice
environmentally-friendly economic Department press release earlier this year, “the
development (i.e. green growth) in City will make a cash payment of $4,126,227.34
Peru..”31 They add, “The envisioned activities and relinquish rights to an additional
will facilitate private sector financing and $1,177,396.66 that FEMA had previously
investment in value chains that lead to approved for disbursement.”34
improved management of natural resources The problems began when the New York
and a reduction of GHG [greenhouse gas] City Department of Transportation (NYC
emissions.”32 DOT) submitted a list of claims to FEMA for
It wasn’t enough for the federal a total of $12,758,664 in reimbursement for
government to waste taxpayer funds on vehicles, all of which it claimed were damaged
boondoggles such as Solyndra. Now it wants by the storm.35 However, “many of the
to go abroad and do the same! vehicles” instead were already “non-
operational—and some had even been
marked for salvage—years before Sandy,”
the federal government stated in its
New York City agreed to repay
complaint.36 The government also made it
$5,303,624.00 after receiving clear that proper oversight was ignored every
federal money to fix junked step of the way.37
vehicles it claimed were damaged
It turns out, according to the federal
by Superstorm Sandy
government, that an NYC DOT employee
even brought the problem up, informing a
Think back to October 2012. On the
Deputy Commissioner shortly after the
lighter side, the Baltimore Ravens were on their
City made its initial request that it had
way to winning the Super Bowl, and the San
included vehicles it should not have
Francisco Giants swept the Detroit Tigers to
submitted.38 In its complaint, the federal
win the World Series. But hearts were also
government claimed the City employee

mentioned certain vehicles were the same But lucky for a handful of Pakistani
ones NYC DOT had years before told the filmmakers, the State Department is
NYPD “were sitting under the highway in spending up to $100,000 to “[e]xpand and
the dump for seven years ... being pick[ed] strengthen” Pakistan’s film industry by
apart by vandals stealing brass fittings, teaching “aspiring filmmakers” how to
copper wire harnesses and anything else write screenplays and make films.43
they could sell for scrap.”39
The grantee organization will “[d]evelop a
Despite this revelation, only when the short film competition with a minimum of fifty
NYC DOT found out the U.S. Attorney for (50) aspiring filmmakers and film or media
the Southern District of New York began students from undergraduate and graduate film
investigating did it start to come clean.40 and media programs at universities across
Sindh and Baluchistan … on themes of
Amazingly, it required multiple revisions of ‘strength in diversity’ and ‘women’s
the list the NYC DOT sent to FEMA to empowerment.’”44
remove all false claims.41
The lucky aspiring filmmakers and film
This is not the first discussion regarding students will benefit from the State
the federal government, waste, and Sandy Department flying an American filmmaker
recovery money, and surely it will not be the to Pakistan to put on “two (2)
last.42 Such stories are vivid reminders of the masterclasses on screenwriting and
strict vigilance needed to ensure that when the filmmaking…”45 This American also “may
federal government authorizes huge sums of partner with the Karachi Film Society (KFS),
taxpayer money for disaster relief, the disasters the parent body of the Pakistan International
are limited to the natural ones to which it Film Festival (PIFF), or a similar organization”
means to respond. to help train select Festival participants
through multiple workshops focusing on the
technical aspects of the trade.46
State is spending up to
$100,000.00 to increase the The organization will be required to
facilitate tickets to the Festival awards for those
capacity of the Pakistani film
participating in the grantee’s short film
industry competition, as well as help them boost their
connections while there.47 According to the
People say that show business is one of
Festival’s website, it “aims to be the largest film
the hardest industries into which to break.
festival in Pakistan,” with a goal of “creat[ing]
Filmmakers, producers, directors, writers, and
a unique platform which promotes both
actors often struggle in anonymity for years or
Pakistani cinema and Pakistani filmmakers by
decades before finally writing the hit, getting
showcasing their films to diverse international
the role, or having that one idea that will
audiences.”48 Finally, the grantee will help
slingshot them to fame and fortune.
maximize media coverage of the American’s

participation at the Festival and assistance to Inspector General (HHS OIG) and other
Pakistani filmmakers.49 investigators closed in, with 24 individuals
ultimately charged.52
With the State Department going to such
lengths to spend Americans’ tax dollars on In its announcement about the
supporting Pakistani filmmakers, one might investigation, the Justice Department alleged a
assume the industry is flailing. It is not. The wide-ranging, international scheme they said
State Department itself admits that “Pakistan’s included Medicare paying for orthopedic
film industry is growing dramatically.”50 braces doctors prescribed “either without
any patient interaction or with only a brief
If the industry is growing telephonic conversation with patients they
“dramatically” and offering more had never met or seen.”53 To make matters
opportunities to Pakistani filmmakers than worse, some received braces they did not want,
ever before, why do Pakistanis need NBC News reported, adding that prosecutors
American tax dollars to further build its noted this “could disqualify them from
capacity? Why are Americans responsible for receiving a brace under Medicare if they need
paying to make Pakistani films better? Simply one in the future.”54 The Justice Department
put, Americans are not responsible, but their also alleged money was “laundered
State Department is intent on wasting their through international shell corporations,”
hard-earned money anyway. before being spent on “exotic automobiles,
yachts and luxury real estate in the United
States and abroad.”55
Centers for Medicare and
Medicaid paid $48,000,000,000.00 Unfortunately, this is hardly the only case
where it appears the Centers for Medicare and
in improper payments in Fiscal
Medicaid (CMS) made improper payments. In
Year 2018 – paid over Fiscal Year 2018 alone, CMS is estimated to
$900,000,000.00 in one alleged have paid $48 billion in improper
wide-ranging, multi-year scheme payments.56 This is not any secret, either.
CMS’s propensity to make improper payments
When it comes to federal programs, in part forced the Government Accountability
Medicare ranks only behind Social Security as Office (GAO) to deem it a High Risk
one of the largest, totaling $582 billion spent in Program,57 a moniker it has retained since
FY 2018.51 Since the program is so big, it GAO initially imposed it in 1990. 58 Over 80
opens up all sorts of possibilities for abuse, and GAO recommendations remain unfulfilled,
it looks like we are seeing another example. with 28 recommendations alone made
Earlier this year, the federal government between the 2017 and 2019 High Risk Lists,
alleged scammers’ plans led to $1.2 billion in the last two iterations of the report.59
losses in the Medicare program – including
over $900 million in improper Medicare Improper payments fundamentally
payments alone – before the Department of undermine the effectiveness and stability of
Health and Human Services Office of federal programs, and Medicare itself is already

in a precarious position. In fact, CMS culture of tolerance, coexistence, and
predicts the Medicare Hospital Insurance acceptance,” the madrassas will in part “help
(HI) trust fund will be entirely depleted produce open minded Mullahs (religious
come 2026.60 Moreover, CMS also projects leaders) in the future.”64 However, it is equally
that “Medicare’s costs under current law possible this grant could help lead to more
[will] rise steadily from their current level radicals in the future knowing how to better
of 3.7 percent of GDP in 2018 to 6.0 percent speak English and use the internet, skills which
in 2043.”61 Under even good circumstances, could then be used to radicalize Americans.
never mind the ones in which Medicare finds
itself, both the program and the American Whatever the outcome of the grant, one
people can ill-afford to be paying out nearly thing is certain, at the very least. Before we
$50 billion in improper payments. send $150,000 in American taxes abroad to
teach English and IT skills, we should first
Perhaps the real improper payment is the consider our own country’s situation.
giant amount of mandatory spending Congress
allocates to CMS, allowing Medicare and The most recent American Community
Medicaid to grow unabated. Survey run by the Census Bureau
determined that 8.5 percent of Americans
ages five and up are limited in English
proficiency.65 Meanwhile, according to the
State is spending “up to”
Pew Research Center in 2019, one in ten
$150,000.00 to teach English and Americans do not go on the internet.66
IT skills at Madrassas According to a 2013 Pew survey, of the
percentage then that did not use the internet,
The State Department has a long history roughly one third believed it “was too difficult
of bringing Islamic scholars to American to use. …”67
schools, just in this decade spending millions
on a program for Afghan lawyers, including Needless to say, work remains to be done
those with a background in Sharia law, to study to strengthen both English language talents
at Ohio Northern University.62 Now, the State and internet abilities here at home before
Department is flipping the script. Instead of Americans give up more resources to teach
paying to bring Islamic students to the U.S., those skills in madrassas in Iraq.
the State Department is paying “up to”
$150,000 “for a project to support teaching
the English language, basic IT skills, NSF spent a significant portion of
leadership, and tolerance” to students “at a $466,991.00 grant on studying
23 religious schools (Madrassas) frog mating calls
throughout the Iraqi Kurdistan Region
(IKR).”63 If you were told the federal government
The State Department’s excessively was going to study how a species of animal
optimistic view is that by teaching future mates, it’s not too likely the subject of this next
Mullahs English, basic IT skills, and about “a

story would make the short list of candidates As of this writing, our government has
that came to mind. piled up a debt over $22 trillion, along with a
10-month deficit of $866 billion that is
In this case, the National Science projected to rise to over $1 trillion by the end
Foundation (NSF) spent a significant of the fiscal year.74 As we deal with this crisis
portion of a grant totaling $466,991 68 on and also wrestle with paying for actual
studying the mating call of the male priorities, do we really want government
túngara frog of Panama. funding studies of a non-endangered75
In a look at the effects of urbanization, the frog’s mating habits?
study examined the differences between the Panamanian frog mating calls may sound
mating call in the city and in the forest, different in forests and cities, but all this use of
including its likelihood of attracting midges your resources sounds like to us is waste.
and bats in each of those environments.69

Small Frogs Under the Big Lights

Funds from grants worth
So what did the researchers determine? In $51,722,107.00 were used to do
short, urban life seems to have benefited the
Google Scholar searches, in
male frogs, who “call at higher rates” and have
Hawaii, about the effects of
a more complex, attractive mating call than
their forest-dwelling counterparts.70 While the climate hazards
male urban frogs “experience higher
competition for mating opportunities,” they It doesn’t take a lot to get published in
also face less risk from predators.71 academic journals nowadays. Just ask
researchers who used federal money from
grants worth $51,722,10776 from the National
Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Forest
Service, the Department of the Interior, and
the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration to convene in Hawaii and
search the already existing literature of the
impacts of “climate hazards” on humans,
Túngara frog mid-mating call. Photo Credit: The and Ximena Bernal https://www.the-
as well as analyze and compile the results.77
calls-30193. That’s right! The paper, entitled Broad
When the researchers switched the frogs’ Threat to Humanity from Cumulative Climate
environments, they found that urban frogs Hazards Intensified by Greenhouse Gas Emissions, is
could quickly adjust their calls to help protect largely a compilation and analysis of a search of
from threats.72 But the forest frogs’ calls didn’t already existing literature the researchers found
get more attractive when they went to the on Google Scholar between February and
city.73 March 201778 ... in Hawaii.79 In connection,

they also developed a database to centralize the influences on climactic changes requires
research.80 Among other things, the considerable caution.”87
researchers reported climate hazards being
linked to increased cases of diarrhea, as Despite the myriad uncertainties, the
well as to bedwetting, lower “academic authors forge on, adding, “the human
performance,” and other problems.81 contribution to recent climactic changes is
very likely. ...”88 We’ll leave it to readers to
The paper itself was a collaborative effort decide if they stuck the landing on any possible
between 23 researchers from around the jump to conclusions.
world.82 At least 5 of the 23 received federal
funding.83 Meanwhile, though the researchers
describe their efforts to limit bias, they also
Given our astronomical debt and allow for a possible “bias in the literature itself
skyrocketing deficits, were taxpayer funds towards reporting negative impacts.”89
really needed for this compilation and further
study of previous research? Consider us biased toward better uses of
taxpayer resources.
Another question must also be asked: if
the researchers are so concerned about
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, why did Army Corps of Engineers paid
they travel to Hawaii from around the $325,485.00 for property
world in order to do a study that consisted
confiscated in Afghanistan by the
of sitting at a computer and perusing
Google?84 Afghan National Defense and
Security Forces
Conclusions or Biases?
U.S. armed forces and American
The authors used the paper to sound an contractors have been in Afghanistan since
alarm of “the broad and heightened threat to 2001. One might think the Afghan National
humanity from ongoing GHG emissions Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), which
intensifying multiple climate hazards to which the United States helps fund by “provid[ing]
humanity is currently vulnerable.”85 Yet, the bulk of funding necessary to build, train,
despite the authors’ central conclusion being equip, and sustain the ANDSF,”90 would not
an argument for “substantial and timely harass the personnel of American contractors
reduction of GHG emissions,” they admit or confiscate contractor property, given both
both that “[t]he impacts reported here have parties are ostensibly on the same side. You
varying degrees of uncertainty related to would be wrong. The Special Inspector
their detection and attribution to climate General for Afghanistan Reconstruction
hazards,” as well as that “[a] related (SIGAR) reviewed contracts between the U.S.
uncertainty is the extent to which climate Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and
hazards implicated in observed impacts American contractors and found “ANDSF
were due to anthropogenic forcing.”86 personnel had confiscated more than
They also note that “pinning down human $780,000 in property and equipment. …”

SIGAR also revealed reports of ANDSF place to record actions it has taken to
harassing our contractors’ personnel.91 resolve incidents reported by contractor
staff.”97 While USACE agreed with SIGAR’s
Regarding the property, SIGAR found recommendation and began a process for
that across three contracts, ANDSF tracking incidents reported, one hopes it will
confiscated over $780,000 in U.S. contractor turn more focus to stopping such incidents
material - “despite the provision of from even taking place.98
approximately $1,302,800 in excess spare parts
and equipment” from the first two contracts.92 The easiest solution for USACE and the
American taxpayers footed a $325,484 bill rest of the U.S. armed forces would be to
for the property ANDSF confiscated under recognize the U.S. mission in Afghanistan
the first two contracts that USACE was today has expanded further than anybody
unable to recover.93 As of this writing, the could have imagined in 2001. Although the
current sum of hundreds of thousands of U.S. originally deployed personnel to
dollars regarding equipment confiscated under Afghanistan with the mission of disrupting and
the third contract may expand even further as destroying al-Qaeda and Taliban networks,
USACE conducts its review.94 American forces are now on a nation-building
expedition gone horribly wrong.
(Keep this story in mind as the federal
government continues to spend over $51 Clearly, there are larger costs, human and
billion a year nation-building in monetary, of nation-building we simply cannot
Afghanistan.) ignore.

Worse than the confiscated equipment

was the harassment ANDSF members forced
our contractors’ personnel to endure.
SIGAR’s findings brought to light reported
mistreatment such as detention of staff,
intimidation, and threats, with it appearing
such incidents happened in part due to
ANDSF attempting to get them to do work
that was not covered under the contract or
to prevent them from keeping the
contractors’ own property.95 SIGAR
reported that one U.S. contractor company
alone filed hundreds of “serious incident
reports (SIR)s,” including many regarding the
problems listed above, in a period of just a little
over two years.96

Amazingly, SIGAR also found that the

USACE did not “have an official system in

WorldAtlas, “Presidents of Tunisia Since 1957.” 21
22, 2019. FSO Staff Oversight Briefing at St. Elizabeths, March 8, 2019.
tunisia-since-1957.html. FSO Follow-Up Call with GSA, April 17, 2019.
Ibid. 24
Sernovitz, Daniel J., “Major shift at St. E’s: GSA
State Department Funding Opportunity to emphasize new DHS construction, not historic
#SFOP0005045. reuse.” Washington Business Journal, March 8, 2019.
opportunity.html?oppId=305899. 03/08/gsa-focuses-on-new-construction-for-dhs-at-st-
Ibid. es.html.
Reinhart, RJ, “Majority in U.S. Still Say a Third 25
U.S. General Services Administration, “U.S. Coast
Party Is Needed.” Gallup, October 26, 2018. Guard Opens Its Headquarters At St. Elizabeths.” U.S. General Services Administration, August 13,
third-party-needed.aspx. 2017.
U.S. Department of State Bureau of Near Eastern us/regions/welcome-to-the-national-capital-region-
Affairs, “U.S. Relations With Tunisia: Bilateral Fact 11/region-11-newsroom/featured-stories/us-coast-
Sheet,” U.S. State Department, July 20, 2018. guard-opens-its-headquarters-at-st-elizabeths. 26
Heckman, Jory, “DHS St. Elizabeths campus gains
U.S. General Services Administration, “History of ‘center of gravity’ with new headquarters.” Federal
St. Elizbaeths.” U.S. General Services News Network, June 21, 2019.
Administration, May, 2013. construction/2019/06/dhs-st-elizabeths-campus-
l. gains-center-of-gravity-with-new-
8, “East Campus History.” headquarters/slide/1/.
27, 2019. Ibid.
U.S. General Services Administration, “History of
St. Elizbaeths.” U.S. General Services s-protest-green-new-deal-vote-2943919
Administration, May, 2013. Record Vote Number 52, S.J. Res. 8, U.S. Senate 116th Congress.
l. congress/senate-joint-resolution/8/all-
FSO Staff Oversight Briefing at St. Elizabeths, actions?overview=closed&q=%7B%22roll-call-
March 8, 2019 and follow-up call with GSA, April vote%22%3A%22all%22%7D.
17, 2019. USAID Funding Opportunity #APS-OAA-16-
U.S. General Services Administration, “Master 000001-ADDENDUM-PERU
Plan for the Department of Homeland Security
Headquarters Consolidation at St. Elizabeths West opportunity.html?oppId=313677.
Campus.” U.S. General Services Administration, 31
January 10, 2019. Ibid. 33
U.S. Department of Justice, “Manhattan U.S.
211_Master_Plan_for_the_Department_of_Homelan Attorney Announces $5.3 Million Proposed
d_Security_Headquarters_Consolidation_at_St._Eliz Settlement of Lawsuit Against New York City for
abeths_West_Campus_Information_Sheet_Jan2019.p Fraudulently Obtaining FEMA Funds Following
df. Superstorm Sandy.” U.S. Department of Justice,
FSO Staff Oversight Briefing at St. Elizabeths, February 20, 2019.
March 8, 2019. sdny/pr/manhattan-us-attorney-announces-53-
Ibid. million-proposed-settlement-lawsuit-against-new-
FSO Follow-Up Call with GSA, April 17, 2019. york.
15 34
FSO Staff Oversight Briefing at St. Elizabeths, Ibid.
March 8, 2019. 35
U.S. v. City of New York, “Complaint.” District
Ibid. Court for S.D.N.Y., February 20, 2019.
FSO Follow-Up Call with GSA, April 17, 2019. release/file/1133686/download.
19 36
Ibid. Ibid.
20 37
Ibid. Ibid.

Office of Public Affairs, “Federal Indictments &
U.S. v. City of New York, “Stipulation and Order Law Enforcement Actions in One of the Largest
of Settlement.” District Court for S.D.N.Y., February Health Care Fraud Schemes Involving Telemedicine
20, 2019. and Durable Medical Equipment Marketing
release/file/1133696/download. Executives Results in Charges Against 24 Individuals
U.S. v. City of New York, “Complaint.” District Responsible for Over $1.2 Billion in Losses.” U.S.
Court for S.D.N.Y., February 20, 2019. Department of Justice, April 9, 2019.
release/file/1133686/download. and-law-enforcement-actions-one-largest-health-care-
U.S. v. City of New York, “Stipulation and Order fraud-schemes.
of Settlement.” District Court for S.D.N.Y., February
U.S. Government Accountability Office, “High-
20, 2019. Risk Series: Substantial Efforts Needed to Achieve
release/file/1133696/download. Greater Progress on High Risk Areas.” U.S.
Ibid. Government Accountability Office, March 2019.
bills-extras-draw-attacks-from-the-right- U.S. Government Accountability Office,
085274#ixzz2I537aFU7 “Medicare Program & Improper Payments.” U.S.
State Department Funding Opportunity #SCAISB- Government Accountability Office, 2019.
19-AW-007-03032019. y_did_study#t=1.
opportunity/supporting-economic-empowerment-in- U.S. Government Accountability Office,
the-pakistan-film-industry-scaisb19aw00703032019. “Medicare Program & Improper Payments: What We
Ibid. Found.” U.S. Government Accountability Office,
Ibid. March 2019.
Ibid. y_did_study.
The Pakistan International Film Festival, “About Ibid.
PIFF.” The Pakistan International Film, 2019. Boards of Trustees of the Federal Hospital Insurance and Federal Supplementary Medical
State Department Funding Opportunity #SCAISB- Insurance Trust Funds, “2019 Annual Report of the
19-AW-007-03032019. Boards of Trustees of the Federal Hospital Insurance and Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust
opportunity/supporting-economic-empowerment-in- Funds.” Boards of Trustees of the Federal Hospital
the-pakistan-film-industry-scaisb19aw00703032019. Insurance and Federal Supplementary Medical
Ibid. Insurance Trust Funds, April 22, 2019.
Peter G. Peterson Foundation, “Budget Basics:
Medicare.” Peter G. Peterson Foundation, April 30, Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-
2019. Reports/ReportsTrustFunds/Downloads/TR2019.pdf.
Office of Public Affairs, “Federal Indictments & Ibid.
Law Enforcement Actions in One of the Largest
Chairman Rand Paul, M.D., “Worldwide Waste:
Health Care Fraud Schemes Involving Telemedicine How the Government is Using and Losing your
and Durable Medical Equipment Marketing Money Abroad, Pt. VII: Institutional Development.”
Executives Results in Charges Against 24 Individuals U.S. Senate Federal Spending Oversight
Responsible for Over $1.2 Billion in Losses.” U.S. Subcommittee, February 2017.
Department of Justice, April 9, 2019. wideWastePart7.pdf.
and-law-enforcement-actions-one-largest-health-care- State Department Funding Opportunity #DOS-
fraud-schemes. BAGHDAD-PD-2019-009.
Kaplan, Adiel, Jay Blackman, Tom Costello, and content/uploads/sites/245/DOS-Baghdad-PD-2019-
Sarah Ploss, “Feds Take Down $1 Billion Medicare 009.pdf.
Fraud Scheme in ‘Operation Brace Yourself.” Ibid.
NBCNews, April 9, 2019. U.S. Census Bureau Fact Finder: 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates,
department/feds-take-down-1-billion-fraud-scheme- “Language Spoken at Home by Ability to Speak

FSO Phone Conversation with USFS, March 5,
English for the Population 5 Years and Over.” U.S. 2019.
Census Bureau, July 23, 2019. Mora, Camilo, Daniele Spirandelli, Erik C.
Anderson, Monica, Andrew Perrin, Jingjing Jiang, Franklin, John Lyman, et. al., “Broad Threat to
and Madhumitha Kumar, “10% of Americans don’t Humanity from Cumulative Climate Hazards
use the internet. Who are they?” Pew Research Intensified by Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Nature,
Center, April 22, 2019. November, 2018.
tank/2019/04/22/some-americans-dont-use-the- ublication/329042311_Broad_threat_to_humanity_fr
internet-who-are-they/. om_cumulative_climate_hazards_intensified_by_gre
Ibid. enhouse_gas_emissions/links/5bf.
NSF Award #1433990. Ibid.
Halfwerk, Wouter, Michiel Blaas, Lars Kramer, Ibid.
and Nadia Hijner, “Adaptive Changes in Sexual Ibid.
Signalling in Response to Urbanization.” Nature FSO Phone Conversation with USFS, March 5,
Ecology & Evolution, March 2019. 2019.
85 Mora, Camilo, Daniele Spirandelli, Erik C.
_Adaptive_changes_in_sexual_signalling_in_respons Franklin, John Lyman, et. al., “Broad Threat to
e_to_urbanization. Humanity from Cumulative Climate Hazards
Ibid. Intensified by Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Nature,
Ibid. November, 2018.
Ibid. ublication/329042311_Broad_threat_to_humanity_fr
U.S. Bureau of the Fiscal Service, “Monthly om_cumulative_climate_hazards_intensified_by_gre
Treasury Statement: Receipts and Outlays of the enhouse_gas_emissions/links/5bf.
United States Government for Fiscal Year 2019 Ibid.
through July 31, 2019, and Other Periods.” U.S. Ibid.
Department of the Treasury, August, 2019. Ibid.
89 Ibid.
Office of the Secretary of Defense, “Justification
International Union for Conservation of Nature, for FY 2020 Overseas Contingency Operations
“Túngara Frog: Engystomops pustulosus.” Afghanistan Security Forces Fund.” U.S. Department
International Union for Conservation of Nature, of Defense, March 2019.
2015. s/defbudget/fy2020/fy2020_ASFF_Justification_Boo
NOAA Grant #NA14OAR4170071; NOAA Grant k.pdf.
#NA09OAR4170060; NOAA Grant Special Inspector General for Afghanistan
#NA15NMF4520361; NSF Award #1650441; FSO Reconstruction, “Afghan National Defense and
Emails with U.S. Forest Service, March 8, 2019; DOI Security Forces Facilities: Action Needed to Address
Grant #G16PG00037; and NASA Award Confiscation of Contractor-Owned Property and
#NNH16CT01C. Contractor Mistreatment.” Special Inspector General
Mora, Camilo, Daniele Spirandelli, Erik C. for Afghanistan Reconstruction, March 8, 2019.
Franklin, John Lyman, et. al., “Broad Threat to
Humanity from Cumulative Climate Hazards R-19-22-SP.pdf.
Intensified by Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” Nature, Ibid.
November, 2018. Ibid.
94 Ibid.
ublication/329042311_Broad_threat_to_humanity_fr Ibid.
om_cumulative_climate_hazards_intensified_by_gre Ibid.
enhouse_gas_emissions/links/5bf. Ibid.
Ibid. Ibid.