Mathematics-QS026

Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

TOPIC 1 : CONIC SECTIONS
SUBTOPIC : 1.1 Introduction to Conic Sections
1.2 Circles
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
1.1 (a) To understand the meaning of conic sections.
1.2 (a) To define a circle
(b) To determine its equation with radius r and at center ( , ) h k
and (0, 0)
(c) To determine the center and radius of a circle by completing
the square

1.1 Introduction to Conic Sections

Conic sections are the curves which result from the intersection of a plane with a cone. These
curves were studied and revered by the ancient Greeks, and were written about extensively by
both Euclid and Appolonius. They remain important today, partly for their many and diverse
applications. Although to most people the word “cone” conjures up an image of a solid figure
with a round base and a pointed top, to a mathematician a cone is a surface, one which is
obtained in a very precise way.

Imagine a vertical line, and a second line intersecting it at some angle o (phi). We will
call the vertical line the axis, and the second line the generator. The angle o between them is
called the vertex angle. Now imagine grasping the axis between thumb and forefinger on
either side of its point of intersection with the generator, and twirling it. The generator will
sweep out a surface, as shown in the diagram. It is this surface which we call a cone.



Notice that a cone has an upper half and a lower half (called the nappes), and that
these are joined at a single point, called the vertex. Notice also that the nappes extend
indefinitely far both upwards and downwards. A cone is thus completely determined by its
vertex angle.



Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Now, in intersecting a flat plane with a cone, we have three choices, depending on the
angle the plane makes to the vertical axis of the cone. First, we may choose our plane to have
a greater angle to the vertical than does the generator of the cone, in which case the plane
must cut right through one of the nappes. These results in a closed curve called an ellipse.
Second, our plane may have exactly the same angle to the vertical axis as the generator of the
cone, so that it is parallel to the side of the cone. The resulting open curve is called a
parabola. Finally, the plane may have a smaller angle to the vertical axis (that is, the plane is
steeper than the generator), in which case the plane will cut both nappes of the cone. The
resulting curve is called a hyperbola, and has two disjoint “branches.”
Notice that if the plane is actually perpendicular to the axis (that is, it is horizontal)
then we get a circle – showing that a circle is really a special kind of ellipse. Also, if the
intersecting plane passes through the vertex then we get the so-called degenerate conics; a
single point in the case of an ellipse, a line in the case of a parabola, and two intersecting
lines in the case of a hyperbola.
Although intuitively and visually appealing, these definitions for the conic sections
tell us little about their properties and uses. Consequently, one should master their “plane
geometry” definitions as well. It is from these definitions that their algebraic representations
may be derived, as well as their many important properties, such as the reflection properties.
(That the definitions which follow are equivalent to those given above is not obvious – not at
all! For an elegant proof, see the article on Dandelin's Spheres.)
A conic section is a section of a cone. The popular ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola,
along with a few other mathematical shapes, can each be seen to be a section of a cone. In
this context, the cone is thought to be a hollow cone, quite a bit like the 'sugar cones' in an ice
cream shop. So, these mathematical cones look like this one:
And actually when thinking about conic sections, we envision two such cones lined
up vertically tip to tip. So, conic section cones in mathematics look like this:











We must think of these cones as going on forever without a top or bottom limit.

Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan







(Such a pair of cones is formally called a circular conical surface, and a discussion of conic
sections is truly centred on such a surface.)
A line which we imagine running through the centre of the cones in a direction
perpendicular to their bases is called the axis. This is shown below:







Now, about the section part in the term conic section. This section is a very thin slice
of the cones. In fact, it is an infinitely thin slice.
One thinks of the cones as being sliced by a plane. So, we speak about the intersection
of the cones with a plane. The shape of this intersection is the shape of the conic section.
Below is one example of how we could imagine a cone being intersected by a plane? (Of
course, both the cone and the plane actually extend to infinity.) The shape of the intersection,
or cut, that the plane makes with the cone is the shape of the conic section.
The way in which the plane cuts through the cone determines the particular conic
section. It determines if the conic section is a parabola or ellipse, and so on.










Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

When a plane intersects a double-napped cone and is parallel to the base of a cone, a circle is
formed.















When a plane intersects a double-napped cone and is parallel to the side of the cone, a
parabola is formed.














When a plane intersects a double-napped cone and is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the
base of the cone, an ellipse can be formed. The figure is a closed curve.















Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

When a plane intersects a double-napped cone and is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the
base of the cone, a hyperbola can be formed. The figure consists of two open curves.
















We also can see the image of the circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola from the figure
above.






























Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.2 Circles

1.2 (a) Definition of circles

A circle is a set of all points in a plane equidistant from a given fixed point called the center.
A line segment determined by the center and any point on the circle is called a radius.













Consider a circle having a radius of length r and a center at ) , ( k h on a coordinate system, as
shown in figure above. For any point P on the circle with coordinate ) , ( y x , the length of a
radius, denoted by r , can be expressed as
2 2
) ( ) ( k y h x r ÷ + ÷ = . Thus, squaring both
sides of the equation we obtain the standard form of the equation of a circle.





Now suppose that we substitute 0 for h and 0 for k in the standard form of the equation of a
circle.

] 1 .....[ .......... .......... ..........
) 0 ( ) 0 (
) ( ) (
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
r y x
r y x
r k y h x
= +
= ÷ + ÷
= ÷ + ÷


The form [1] is called the standard form of the equation of a circle that has its center at the
origin.


Example 1

Find the equation of the circle having its center at ) 0 , 0 ( and radius of length 3 units.





( ) y x P ,
) , ( k h C
r
x

y
2 2 2
) ( ) ( r k y h x = ÷ + ÷
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.2 (b) The equation of a circle with radius r and centre at ) 0 , 0 ( and ) , ( k h

For cases where the center is not ) 0 , 0 (
,
we expand the standard form
2 2 2
) ( ) ( r k y h x = ÷ + ÷ ,
we get 0 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
= ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + r k h ky hx y x
now substituting k f h g ÷ = ÷ = , and
2 2 2
r k h c ÷ + = , and we get




Completing the square, we get
( ) ( ) ] 2 .......[ .......... .......... ..........
2 2 2 2
c f g f y g x ÷ + = + + +

Comparing [2] and [1], we can determine that its center is at ) , ( f g ÷ ÷ and the length of the
radius is
c f g r ÷ + =
2 2
.
The common equation of a circle is given by
2 2 2
) ( ) ( r k y h x = ÷ + ÷

Example 1

Find the equation of a circle having its center at ) 5 , 3 (÷ and radius of length 4 units.

Note: For the above example that we simplified the equation to the standard form
0
2
= + + + + F Ey Dx y x , where D, E, and F are constants. This is another form that we
commonly use when working with circle. Notice that the coefficients of
2
x and
2
y are equal
in this second order equation and that there is no xy term.

Example 2

Find the equation of a circle that has its center at ) 9 , 5 ( ÷ ÷ and a radius of length 2 3 units.

1.2 (c) The centre and radius of a circle by completing square

Example 1

Graph 0 9 4 6
2 2
= + + ÷ + y x y x

Example 2

Find the center and the length of the radius of the circle
0 2 12 6
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + y x y x
Example 3

Find the center and the radius of the circle with equation 4 2 4
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + y x y x
0 2 2
2 2
= + + + + c fy gx y x
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan



1.2 (d) Equation of a Circles

1.2 (d) i. Circle passing through three given points

If we are given the coordinates of three points on the circumference of a circle, we can
substitute these values of x and y into the equation of the circle and obtain three equations
which can be solved simultaneously to find the constants g , f andc .

Example 1

Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (0,1). (4,3), and (1,-1).

Note: In the above example, the coordinates of three points on the circumference were given.
The data may sometimes be given in a different form and it is often necessary to use some
other geometrical fact concerning the circle, e.g. the perpendicular bisector of the chord
passes through the center of the circle, in order to find the equation of the circle.


1.2 (d) ii. The equation of a circle passing through two points with the equation of the
diameter given.


Example 1

Find the equation of the circle passing through the points ( ) 1 , 1 and
( ) 2 , 3 and with diameter 0 7 3 = + ÷ x y

Example 2

Find the equation of the circle having AB as diameter where A is the point ) 8 , 1 ( and B is the
point ). 14 , 3 (










LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
(d) To find the equation of a circle
i. passing through three points
ii. passing through two points where the equation of the
diameter is given
(e) To find the points of intersection of two circles
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.2 (e) The points of intersection of two circles

Example 1

Find the intersections between the circle 10
2 2
= + y x and line 5 2 = + x y

Example 2

Find the intersections between the two circles below

Example 3

Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the two circles with
equation
] 2 .[ .......... 0 3
] 1 .[ .......... 0 48 13 3
2 2
2 2
= ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ +
y x y x
y x y x



SUBTOPIC : 1.2 Circles
1.3 Parabola
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
1.2 (f) To solve applications problems:
i. find equation of tangent and normal to a circle
ii. find the length of a tangent from a point to a circle
1.3 (a) To define a parabola
(b) To determine equation of a parabola with vertex ) 0 , 0 ( and
focus ) , 0 ( p
(c) To determine equation of a parabola with vertex ) 0 , 0 ( and
focus ) 0 , ( p

1.2 (f) i. The equations of tangents and normal to a circle

Theorem 1
Suppose we have a standard equation
2 2 2
r y x = + , so the equation of a tangent for the circle
at the point of ) , (
1 1
y x P is given by
2
1 1
r yy xx = + (see figure)











x
2 2 2
r y x = +

y
2
1 1
r yy xx = +
) , ( y x P
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 1

Find the equation of the tangent to a circle 13
2 2
= + y x at the point ( ) 3 , 2 T .

Example 2

Find tangent and normal line of the circle 0 82 10 6
2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + y x y x at the point ( ) 5 , 1 ÷ ÷ S .


1.2 (f) ii. The length of the tangent to a circle

Theorem 3

The length of the tangent from a fixed point ( ) b a N , to a circle with
equation 0 2 2
2 2
= + + + + c fy gx y x (denote by d), is given by

c fb ga b a d + + + + = 2 2
2 2


See figure














Example 1

Find the length of the tangent from the point ( ) 6 , 4 K to the circle 6 2 4
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + y x y x


Example 2

Find the length of the tangents from the point ( ) 4 , 8 to the circle with centre
( ) 0 , 3 and radius 2.





x
y
) , ( b a N
M
) , ( f g C ÷ ÷
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.3 (a) Definition of parabola



By definition
px y
p x y p x
PN PF
PN PF
4
) ( ) 0 ( ) (
2
2 2 2
2 2
=
+ = ÷ + ÷
=
=



1.3 (b) The equation of a parabola with vertex ) 0 , 0 ( and focus ) , 0 ( p





1.3 (b) i. when 0 > p (opens upward)














1.3 (b) ii. when 0 < p (opens downward)











Vertex ) 0 , 0 ( V
Focus ) , 0 ( p F
Directrix
p y ÷ =
Vertex ) 0 , 0 ( V
Focus ) , 0 ( p F
Directrix
p y ÷ =
A set of points in a plane that is equidistant from a fixed point (focus point)
and from a fixed line (directrix).

py x 4
2
=
p y ÷ =
y
x
) , 0 ( p F
) 0 , 0 ( V
p y ÷ =
y
x
) , 0 ( p F
) 0 , 0 ( V
) , ( y x P
x
) 0 , ( p F
) 0 , 0 ( V
N
y
directrix, p x ÷ =
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.3 (c) The equation of a parabola with vertex ) 0 , 0 ( and focus ) 0 , ( p





1.3 (c) i. when 0 > p (open right)















1.3 (c) ii. when 0 < p (open left)
















Example 1
Write the equation of the a parabola with
i) Vertex, ) 0 , 0 ( V and focus, ) 0 , 3 ( F
ii) Vertex, ) 0 , 0 ( V and focus, ) 5 , 0 ( ÷ F
Hence, sketch each graph.





Vertex ) 0 , 0 ( V
Focus ) 0 , ( p F
Directrix
p x ÷ =
Vertex ) 0 , 0 ( V
Focus ) 0 , ( p F
Directrix
p x ÷ =
px y 4
2
=
p x ÷ =
y
x
) 0 , ( p F
) 0 , 0 ( V
p x ÷ =
y
x
) 0 , ( p F
) 0 , 0 ( V
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 2
Find the focus and directrix of the parabola
2
8
1
x y = and sketch the graph.

Example 3

Find the equation of a parabola that has vertex at origin, opens left, and passes through the
point ) 4 , 5 (÷ P .


SUBTOPIC : 1.3 Parabola
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
(d) To find the equation of the parabola with vertex ) , ( k h and
focus ) , ( p k h +
(e) To find the equation of the parabola with vertex ) , ( k h and
focus ) , ( k p h +
(f) To determine the vertex and focus of a parabola by
completing the square.
(g) To introduce the applications of parabola such as suspension
bridge, arch and reflector.


1.3 (d) The equation of the parabola with vertex ) , ( k h and focus ) , ( p k h +





1.3 (d) i. when 0 > p (opens upward)


















Vertex ) , ( k h V
Focus ) , ( p k h F +
Directrix p k y ÷ =
) ( 4 ) (
2
k y p h x ÷ = ÷
y
p k y ÷ =
x
) , ( p k h F +
) , ( k h V
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.3 (d) ii. when p < 0 (opens downward)













1.3 (e) The equation of the parabola with vertex ) , ( k h and focus ) , ( k p h +





1.3 (e) i. when 0 > p (opens right)















1.3 (e) ii. when 0 < p (opens left)












Vertex ) , ( k h V
Focus ) , ( p k h F +
Directrix p k y ÷ =
Vertex ) , ( k h V
Focus ) , ( k p h F +
Directrix p h x ÷ =
Vertex ) , ( k h V
Focus ) , ( k p h F +
Directrix p h x ÷ =
y
p k y ÷ =
x
) , ( p k h F +
) , ( k h V
) ( 4 ) (
2
h x p k y ÷ = ÷
y
p h x ÷ =
x
) , ( k p h F + ) , ( k h V
p h x ÷ =
y
x
) , ( k p h F +
) , ( k h V
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

The equation ( ) ( ) h x 4p k y
2
÷ = ÷ or ( ) ( ) k y 4p h x
2
÷ = ÷ is known as standard form of
parabolic equation and it can be written in the general form as

0 F Ey Dx Ay
2
= + + + or 0 F Ey Dx Ax
2
= + + +
Example 1

State the vertex, focus and directrix for each of the following;
i) ) 3 ( 12 ) 2 (
2
÷ = ÷ x y
ii) ) 2 ( 5 ) 1 (
2
+ = ÷ y x


Example 2

Sketch the graph of ) 1 ( 12 ) 2 (
2
÷ = ÷ x y showing clearly the focus and directrix of the curve.


1.3 (f) Finding vertex and focus of a parabola by completing the square

Example 3

Write down the equation of given parabola below in standard form. For each parabola state
the coordinates of the vertex, focus and the equation of the directrix. Hence, sketch each
graph.

a) 0 12 4 8
2
= + + + y x x
b) 0 22 2 8
2
= + ÷ + x y y


Example 4

Find the equation of a parabola which satisfies the following conditions, vertex ( ) 2 , 1 ÷ ÷ , its
axis parallel to the y-axis and the parabola passes through the point (3,6)

1.3 (g) Applications of parabola.

Example 5

A necklace hanging between two fixed points A and B at the same level. The length of the
necklace between the two point is 100 cm. The mid point of the necklace is 8 cm below A
and B. Assume that the necklace hangs in the form of parabolic curve, find the equation of
the curve.

Example 6

A gigantic gate to the entrance of a theme park in the shape of a parabola is constructed on a
level ground. The horizontal distance between the end points to the gigantic gate is 20 meters.
The maximum height of the gigantic gate from the ground is 5 meters. Calculate the height of
the gigantic gate at a horizontal distance of 4 meters from one of the end points.
x
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

SUBTOPIC : 1.4 Ellipse
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
(a) To define an ellipse
(b) To determine the equation of an ellipse with centre ) 0 , 0 ( and
foci ) 0 , ( c ±
(c) To determine the equation of an ellipse with centre ) 0 , 0 (
and foci ) , 0 ( c ±
(d) To determine all the vertices, latus rectum, foci, major and
minor axes


1.4 (a) Definition of an ellipse

The ellipse is defined as the locus of points ) , ( y x P from a fixed point (focus) and a fixed line
(directrix)









where PB PS <

An ellipse is the graph of all points the sum of whose distance from the fixed points is
constant. The two fixed points are called foci.

1.4 (b) The standard equation for an ellipse with centre ) 0 , 0 ( and foci ) 0 , ( c ±














1
2
2
2
2
= +
b
y
a
x

directix S (focus)
) , ( y x P
B
0 ) 0 , (
1
c F
major axis
minor axis
x
y
) 0 , (
2
c F ÷
G
H
J
K
) 0 , (a A ) 0 , ( a C ÷
) , 0 ( b B
) , 0 ( b D ÷
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan


F
1
and F
2
: Two fixed points on the major axis are called the foci.
A and C : Vertices (of length a from its centre)
AC : The longer axis of length 2a is known as the major axis where major
axis is horizontal
BC : The shorter axis of length 2b is known as the minor axis
O : The intersection between the major axis and minor axis is the centre of
ellipse.
GH and JK : A chord which passes through either focus, which is perpendicular to
the major axis is known as latus rectum. Length of latus rectum is
a
b
2
2
. H F GF
1 1
= or K F JF
2 2
= . Half the length of the latus rectum is
known as semi latus rectum

where
2 2 2
b a c ÷ = if
2 2
b a >

Note: An ellipse is symmetrical with respect to its axis, Hence it has two foci, ) 0 , (
1
c F and
) 0 , (
2
c F ÷ .An ellipse also has 2 vertices ) 0 , (a and ) 0 , ( a ÷


Example 1

Find an equation of the ellipse with vertices ) 0 , 4 (± and foci ) 0 , 2 (±

Example 2

Find the equation of the ellipse with centre ) 0 , 0 ( with the vertices at ) 0 , 3 ( and 2 = b .

Example 3

Sketch the ellipse 1
4 9
2 2
= +
y x


Example 4

Sketch the ellipse 144 16 9
2 2
= + y x












Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.4 (c) The standard equation for an ellipse with centre ) 0 , 0 ( and foci ) , 0 ( c ±

where
2 2 2
a b c ÷ = if
2 2
a b >




























1
F and
2
F : Two fixed points on the major axis are called the foci.
B and D : Vertices (of length b from its centre)
BD : The longer axis of length 2b is known as the major axis where major axis
is vertical
AC : The shorter axis of length 2a is known as the minor axis
O : The intersection between the major axis and minor axis is the centre of
ellipse.
GH and JK : A chord which passes through either focus ,which is perpendicular to the
major axis is known as latus rectum. Length of latus rectum is
b
a
2
2
.
H F GF
1 1
= or K F JF
2 2
= . Half the length of the latus rectum is known
as semi latus rectum

1
2
2
2
2
= +
b
y
a
x

0
) , 0 (
1
c F
major axis
minor axis
x
y
) , 0 (
2
c F ÷
G H
J K
) 0 , (a A ) 0 , ( a C ÷
) , 0 ( b B
) , 0 ( b D ÷
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 1

Find the equation for the ellipse that has its centre at the origin with vertices ( ) 7 , 0 ± and foci
( ) 2 , 0 ± .

Example 2

Find the equation for the ellipse that has its centre at the origin with vertices ) 5 , 0 ( ± V and
minor axis of length 3. Sketch the ellipse.

Example 3

Find the focus and equation of the ellipse with centre ) 0 , 0 ( and vertices at ) 4 , 0 ( and length
of minor axis is 4

Example 4

Sketch the ellipse with equation : 1
16 9
2 2
= +
y x



1.4 (d) Length of Latus Rectum (centre of origin with foci ) 0 , ( c ± )

Definition of latus rectum

A chord which passes through either focus ,which is perpendicular to the major axis is
known as latus rectum. Length of latus rectum is
a
b
2
2
.



















0 ) 0 , (
1
c F
x
y
) 0 , (
2
c F ÷
) , ( y c J ÷
) , ( y c K ÷ ÷
) , ( y c G
) , ( y c H ÷
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Proof: From equation of an ellipse, 1
2
2
2
2
= +
b
y
a
x
, substituting c x =

a
b
y
a
b
y
a
b
b y
c a b b a c
a
c a
b y
a
c
b y
b
y
a
c
2
2
4
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
, from ;
1
1
± =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷ = ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
= +


Since
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
a
b
c H
a
b
c G
2 2
, and , so length of GH,
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
c c
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
) ( rectum latus of Length
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =


Note : Length of latus rectum with centre origin with foci ) , 0 ( c ± is
b
a
2
2
.


Example 5

Find the centre, vertices, foci, major and minor axes and length of the latus rectum for the
ellipse :

1
25 16
2 2
= +
y x






Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

SUBTOPIC : 1.4 Ellipse
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
(e) To determine the equation of the ellipse with centre ) , ( k h
and foci ) , ( k c h ±
(f) To determine the equation of the ellipse with centre ) , ( k h
and foci ) , ( c k h ±
(g) To determine the centre and foci of an ellipse by completing
the square


1.4 (e) The equation of the ellipse with centre ) , ( k h and foci ) , ( k c h ±


where
2 2 2
b a c ÷ = if
2 2
b a >




















Centre : ) , ( k h
Equation of the major axis : k y = , major axis is horizontal
Equation of the minor axis : h x =
Foci : ) , ( k c h ±
Vertices on major axis : ) , ( k a h P + and ) , ( k a h R ÷




1
) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
=
÷
+
÷
b
k y
a
h x


) , (
1
k c h F +
major axis
minor axis
x
y
) , (
2
k c h F ÷
Q
) , ( k h C
R
S
P
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 1

Find the centre and the foci of the ellipse.

1
4
) 1 (
9
) 3 (
2 2
=
÷
+
+ y x


Example 2

Write the equation of the ellipse that has vertices at ( ) 5 , 3 ÷ ÷ and ( ) 5 , 7 ÷ and foci at ( ) 5 , 1 ÷ ÷
and ( ) 5 , 5 ÷

Example 3

Sketch the ellipse with equation 1
16 25
) 1 (
2 2
= +
÷ y x



1.4 (f) The equation of the ellipse with centre ) , ( k h and foci ) , ( c k h ±


where
2 2 2
a b c ÷ = if
2 2
a b >























1
) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
=
÷
+
÷
b
k y
a
h x


) , ( k h C
) , (
1
c k h F +
major axis
minor axis
x
y
) , (
2
c k h F ÷
D
B
A
E
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Centre : ) , ( k h
Equation of the major axis : h x = (major axis is vertical)
Equation of the minor axis : k y =
Foci : ) , ( c k h ±
Vertices on major axis : ) , ( b k h A + and ) , ( b k h E ÷

Example 1

Find the equation of an ellipse with centre ) 1 , 3 ( and the major axis running parallel with the
y-axis. The length of the major axis is 10 units and the minor axis is 6 units Sketch the
ellipse.

Example 2

Find the equation of ellipse with vertices ) 5 , 8 ( and ) 1 , 10 ( with centre ) , 8 ( k


1.4 (g) Finding the centre and foci of and ellipse by completing square


Example 3

Sketch the graph of the equation,

0 71 18 64 9 16
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + + y x y x























Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

SUBTOPIC : 1.5 Hyperbola
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
(a) To define a hyperbola
(b) To determine the equation of hyperbola with centre ) 0 , 0 (
and foci ) 0 , ( c ±
(c) To determine the equation of hyperbola with centre ) 0 , 0 (
and foci ) , 0 ( c ±
(d) To determine the centre, foci, vertices, latus rectum and
asymptotes.

1.5 (a) Definition of the hyperbola

A hyperbola is the set of all points in the plane, the difference of whose distance from two
fixed points F
1
and F
2
is a constant. (see Figure 1). These two fixed points are the foci of the
hyperbola.















Figure 1



1.5 (b) The equation of hyperbola with centre ) 0 , 0 ( and foci ) 0 , ( c ±
(opens right/left hyperbola)

The graph of the equation


with 0 , 0 > > b a


is a hyperbola with its centre at the origin and with the following properties.




) 0 , (
1
c F ÷ ) 0 , (
2
c F
) , ( y x P

y

x

0

1
2
2
2
2
= ÷
b
y
a
x

Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

























1.5 (c) The equation of hyperbola with centre ) 0 , 0 ( and foci ) , 0 ( c ±
(opens up/down hyperbola)

The graph of the equation


with 0 , 0 > > b a


is a hyperbola with its centre at the origin and with the following properties.















Centre
: ) 0 , 0 (
Foci :
2 2 2
), 0 , ( b a c c + = ±
Vertices
: ) 0 , ( a ±
Length of Latus Rectum :
a
b
2
2

Equation of asymptotes : x
a
b
y ± =
1
2
2
2
2
= ÷
b
x
a
y

x
y
b
b ÷
a
a ÷

) 0 , (
1
c F ÷ ) 0 , (
2
c F
x
a
b
y =
x
a
b
y ÷ =
x
y
a a ÷
b
b ÷
) , 0 (
1
c F ÷
) , 0 (
2
c F
x
a
b
y =
x
a
b
y ÷ =
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan












Example 1

Determine the centre, vertices, and foci of the hyperbola given by the equation
1
49 4
2 2
= ÷
y x

Also, determine the equations of the asymptotes of this hyperbola.

Example 2

Graph the hyperbola 1
4 16
2 2
= ÷
y x
Find the vertices, foci and equations of the asymptotic
lines.

Example 3

Graph the hyperbola 1
9 25
2 2
= ÷
x y
. Give the vertices, foci and equations of asymptotic lines.

Example 4

Find an equation of a hyperbola with centre at the origin, one vertex at ) 0 , 7 ( and a focus at
) 0 , 12 (












Centre
: ) 0 , 0 (
Foci :
2 2 2
), , 0 ( b a c c + = ±
Vertices
: ) , 0 ( b ±
Length of Latus Rectum :
b
a
2
2

Equation of asymptotes : x
a
b
y ± =
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

SUBTOPIC : 1.5 Hyperbola
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
(e) To determine the equation of the hyperbola with centre
) , ( k h and foci ) , ( k c h ±
(f) To determine the equation of the hyperbola with centre
) , ( k h and foci ) , ( c k h ±
(g) To determine the centre and foci of a hyperbola by
completing the square.


1.5 (e) The equation of the hyperbola with centre ) , ( k h and foci ) , ( k c h ±
(opens right/left hyperbola)

If the hyperbola opens right/left the translation is:


































Centre
: ) , ( k h
Foci :
2 2 2
), , ( b a c k c h + = ±
Vertices
: ) , ( k a h ±
Length of Latus Rectum :
a
b
2
2

Equation of asymptotes : ) ( h x
a
b
k y ÷ ± = ÷
1
) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
=
÷
÷
÷
b
h y
a
h x

) , ( b k h +
) , ( b k h ÷
) , ( k a h +
) , ( k a h ÷
1
F
2
F
) ( h x
a
b
k y ÷ = ÷ ) ( h x
a
b
k y ÷ ÷ = ÷
) , ( k h

Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.5 (f) The equation of hyperbola with centre ) , ( k h and foci ) , ( c k h ±
(opens up/down hyperbola)

If the hyperbola opens up/down the translation is:














































Centre
: ) , ( k h
Foci :
2 2 2
), , ( b a c c k h + = ±
Vertices
: ) , ( b k h ±
Length of Latus Rectum :
b
a
2
2

Equation of asymptotes : ) ( h x
a
b
k y ÷ ± = ÷
1
) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
=
÷
÷
÷
a
h x
b
k y


) ( h x
a
b
k y ÷ ÷ = ÷

) , ( k a h + ) , ( k a h ÷
) , ( b k h +
) , ( b k h ÷
1
F
2
F
) ( h x
a
b
k y ÷ = ÷
) , ( k h
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 1
Graph the equation: 1
25
) 1 (
36
) 2 (
2 2
=
÷
÷
÷ x y
Find the centre, vertices, foci and the equations
of the asymptotes.


Example 2

Find the equation of a hyperbola with centre ) 1 , 1 ( , vertex ) 1 , 3 ( and focus at ) 1 , 5 (

Example 3

Find the equation of the hyperbola with vertices at ) 6 , 1 ( and ) 2 , 1 ( ÷ and foci at ) 7 , 1 ( and
) 3 , 1 ( ÷ .


1.5 (g) Finding the centre and foci of hyperbola bye completing the square

Example 4

Sketch the curve represented by the equation: 91 32 18 4 9
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ y x y x




























Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

SUBTOPIC : 1.6 The Intersection of Straight Line and Conic Sections
1.7 Parametric Representations of Conics Sections
LEARNING
OUTCOMES
:
1.6 (a) To determine the point of intersection of straight line and
conic sections
1.7 (a) To find the representation of curve in two dimension in
parametric and Cartesian form


1.6 (a) Finding of Intersection of Straight Line and Conic Sections

Example 1

Find the intersections between the circle 24
2 2
= + y x and line 5 2 = + x y

Example 2

Find the coordinates of the points of intersection between the circle
0 9 4 6
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ + y x y x and the line x y ÷ = 7

Example 3

The line passing through the point ( ) p p P 2 ,
2
on the curve x y 4
2
= and the point ) 0 , 2 ( Q
intersects the curve once again at the point R. Find the coordinates of the point R in terms of
p.

Example 4

Find the equations of the tangents with gradient 2 to the ellipse with equation 6 3 2
2 2
= + y x ,
and find their points of contact.


Example 5

Show that part of the line 5 3 + = x y is a chord of the circle 0 15 2 6
2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + y x y x and
find the length if this chord.


Example 6

Prove line 0 = + + n my lx touches the ellipse
2 2 2 2 2 2
b a y a x b = + , then
2 2 2 2 2
n m b l a = +

Example 7

Find the condition that the line c mx y + = shall touch the hyperbola 1
2
2
2
2
= ÷
b
y
a
x

Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.7 (a) Parametric Representation of Conic Sections

1.7 (a) i. Introduction

So far we have described a curve by giving an equation that the coordinates of all points on
the curve must satisfy. We know that the equation ) (x f y = , example
2
x y = represents a
parabola in rectangular coordinates/Cartesian coordinates. Equation ) (t f r = , example
t r sin = represents a circle in polar coordinates. We now study another method for
describing a curve in the plane, which in many situations turns out to be more useful and
natural than either rectangular or polar equations. In this method, the x and y-coordinates of
points on the curve are given separately as functions of an additional variable t, called the
parameter:
) ( ), ( t g y t f x = =

These are called parametric equations for the curve. Substituting a value of t into each
equation determines the coordinates of a point ( ) y x, . As t varies, the point
( ) ( ) ( ) t g t f y x , ) , ( = varies and traces out the curve. If we think of t as representing time, then
as t increases, we can imagine a particle at ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t g t f y x , , = moving along the curve.


1.7 (a) ii. Parametric equation of circle

The Cartesian equation of circle
2 2 2
r y x = + can be replaced by the parametric equation
t a y t a x sin , cos = = where ) sin , cos ( t a t a is a point on the circle. In this case the
parameter t, has graphical significance as can be seen in the diagram below.















2 2 2
r y x = + t a y t a x sin , cos = =







) 0 , (r
y
x
) , 0 ( r
x
) sin , (cos t t
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 1

Show that the curve whose parametric equation are t a y t a x sin and ) cos 1 ( = + = represent a
circle.


Example 2

Describe and graph the curve represented by the parametric equations
t 2 0 sin , cos s s = = t t y t x


1.7 (a) iii. Parametric Equation Of Parabola

The Cartesian equation of parabola ax y 4
2
= can be replaced by the parametric equation
at y t a x 2 ,
2
= = where ) 2 , (
2
at t a is a point on the parabola. In this case the parameter, t,
has graphical significance as can be seen in the diagram below.
































ax y 4
2
=
) , ( y x
x
y
at y 2 =
2
at x =
x
y
at y at x 2 ,
2
= =
Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

Example 1 (Graphing Parametric Equations and Eliminating the Parameter)

Graph the curve given parametrically by
¹
´
¦
=
=
=
t y
t x
y
2
2

Identify the curve by eliminating the parameter.


Example 2

Consider the two equations
) 1 .....(
2
1
2
¹
´
¦
· < < · ÷
÷ =
+ =
t
t t y
t x


Each value of t determines a value of x, and hence, an ordered pair (x, y). To graph the set
ordered pairs (x, y) determined by letting t assume all real values, we construct Table 1 listing
selected values of t and the corresponding values of x and y. Then we plot the ordered pairs
(x, y) and connect them with a continuous curve, as shown in figure 1. The variable t is called
a parameter and does not appear on the graph. Equations (1) are called parametric equations
because both x and y are expressed in terms of the parameter t. The graph of the ordered pairs
(x, y) is called a plane curve.

Table 1
t 0 1 2 3 4 -1 -2
x 1 2 3 4 5 0 -1
y 0 -1 0 3 8 3 8


Figure 1

¹
´
¦
· < < · ÷
÷ =
+ =
t
t t y
t x
2
1
2

Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

In some cases it is possible to eliminate the parameter by solving one of the equation for t and
substituting into the other. In the example just considered, solving 1 + =t x from (1) for t in
terms of x, we have 1 ÷ = x t
Then, substituting the result into t t y 2
2
÷ = from (1), we obtain
3 4
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 (
2
2
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ =
x x
x x y


We recognize this as the equation of a parabola, as we would guess from Figure 1.
In other cases, it may not be easy or possible to eliminate the parameter to obtain an equation
in just x and y. For example, for
t
e t y
t t t x
÷ =
> + = 0 log


you will not find it possible to solve either equation for t in terms of functions we have
considered.


Is there more than one parametric representation for a plane curve? The answer is yes. In fact,
there is an unlimited number of parametric representations for the same plane curve. The
following are two additional representations of the parabola in figure 1.
· < < · ÷ + ÷ =
=
· < < · ÷ + =
+ =
t t t y
t x
t t t y
t x
3 4
2
3
2
2



Example 3

For each of the following curves, obtain its parametric equations.
(a) x y 12
2
=
(b) x y 9 2
2
=













Mathematics-QS026
Topic 1: Conics Sections-Lesson Plan

1.7 (a) iv. Parametric equation of ellipse

The Cartesian equation of ellipse 1
2
2
2
2
= +
b
y
a
x
can be replaced by the parametric equation
t b y t a x sin , cos = = where ) sin , cos ( t b t a is a point on the ellipse.


Example 1 (Graphing parametric equations and eliminating the parameter)

Graph the plane curve given parametrically by
) 1 ...( , sin 4 , cos 8 · < < · ÷ = = t t y t x
Identify the curve by eliminating the parameter t.


Example 2

Find parametric equations for the conic section with the given equations :
0 144 54 100 9 25
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + y x y x


Example 3

Find the Cartesian equation for the curve with the parametric equations
t y
t x
sin 2
cos 2 3
+ =
+ =


Hence sketch the curve.


1.7 (a) v. Parametric equation of hyperbola

The Cartesian equation of hyperbola 1
2
2
2
2
= ÷
b
y
a
x
can be replaced by the parametric equation
t b y t a x tan , sec = = where ) tan , sec ( t b t a is a point on the hyperbola.


Example 1

Find parametric equations for the conic section with the given equations :
0 7 32 10 16
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ y x y x





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