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NEWS R E L E A S E
RELEASE NO.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRAT 'ION 1520 H STREET, NORTHWEST . WASHINGTON 2 5 . D. c . TELEPHONES: DUDLEY 2 - 6 3 2 5 . E X E C U T I V E 3 - 32 6 0

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RELEASE:

Sunday August 13, 1961

S-3 ENERGETIC PARTICLES SATELLITE TO BE LAUNCHED BY NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration soon will launch the first of a series of spptcecraft that will study the behavior of energetic particles - electrons and protons, the minute building blocks of matter - that are present in space and affect geophysical phenomena on earth. The complex 83-pound octagon-shaped spacecraft instrumented with scientific experiments from universities and government laboratories will be placed in orbit by a three-stage Delta vehicle from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite with its highly eccentric orbit extendin from a low altitude (perigee) of abou% 1 0 miles to a height apogee) of about 50,000 miles 7 offers a unique opportunity to study the physics of fields and energetic particles in space.

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The satellite is the first of four designed specifically to make repeated observations of the solar wind, the interplanetary magnetic fields, the distant regisns of the earth's magnetic field, and the particle population of interplanetary space and the trapped radiation regions (the Van Allen belts). These belts, which will be traversed twice in the anticipated 31-hour orbital period of the satellite, surround the earth at latitudes of less than 7 degrees and between 600 and 30,000 miles. 0 The Goddard Space Flfght Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, has the m J o r responsibility for the Energetic Particles Sstellite, its integration with the Delta launch vehicle, and tracking and data reduction. Essentially, the project consists of six experiments: Cosmic ray experiment, an ion electron detector experiment and a solar cell experiment, all by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Proton analyzer experiment by the Ames Research Center of NASA,

Magnetfc field experiment by the UniverPsity of New Hampshire Trapped particle radiation by the State University of Iowa.

In addition, there is a Goddard photocell optical sensing system that will furnish information on the satellite's orientation 9n space.
k e experiments will measure the entire particle Spectra from energies of a few electron volts to 10 billion dr more than l0'degades of energy. A magnetometer on a boom some 32 inches from the satellite body will determine the particles' interactions with magnetic f i e l d s .

At its highest altitude, the satellite essentlally wlll be in interplanetary space beyond the influence of the earth's magnetic field. Here, electron'and proton particles normally are few (less than 100 t o the cubic inch) and very slow-moving. The number of cosmfc rays - also possessing high energies - ' are even smaller, less than one to the'cubicyard, hut the interplanetary magnetic field still slightly influences a particlefsmotion with a force about one ten-thousandth the strength of the earthPs magnetic field.
As the satellite moves away from maximum height, it will pass through thb doughnut-shaped Van Allen radiation belts essentially storage bins for energetic particles which are trapped by the earthOs magnetic field. Geophysical phenomena are created when these particles sift down into the atmospherecommunications blackouts and disturbances, magnetic storms, and auroral - northern and southern lights - displays.

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The Delta vehicle will launch the spacecraft at an inclination angle of 33 degrees from the equator. Due t o the highly eccentric orbit and small power of its transmitter, it will be one t o two weeks before an accurate orbit can be determined. Since-the orbital period is 31 hours, almost a day may pass before an orbit can be confirmed. An attempt will be made t o use the Trainidad radar to cover the point of injection, but since the target will be low on the horizon (four degrees elevation) no precise injection velocity information will be available. However, this radar should give an indication of successfuP orbit. spacecraft visible foro approximately 23 hours a day at stations on the apogee side of' the earth. Three Minitrack stations at Woomera, Australia; Santiago, Chile; and Johannesburg, South Africa - will record the telemetry signals 90 percent of the time. Telemetry will be recorded continuously for one month
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An orbital period of approximately 31 hours will make the

and periodicelly thereafter, On the fflast orbftal pass perigee should be 1 N latitude, 490W longitude (Atlantic Ocean). At 4 apogee, the latitude should be 120s latitude 99% (Pacific Ocean).

PROJECT PARTICIPANTS The over-all responsibility for the Energetic Particles Satellite project rests with the Gcrddard Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Admfnistration with experiments being contributed by Goddard, the Ames Research Center of NASA, the State University of" Iowa, and $he University of New Hampshire. Approximately 50 industrial firms have contributed to the program. Officials concerned with t h e mergetic Particles Satellite project include: NASA Headquarters: Morton J, S t o l l e r , Assfstant Director, Satellite & Sounding Rocket Programs; D r . John E. Naugle, Energetic Particles Program, S-3 Program Chief"; and I. L. Cherrick, Flight Systems, S-3 Project Offieer. Goddard Space Plight Center: Paul Butler, Payload Manager; Dr, Frank B. McDonald, Scientific Advisor; Gerald W o Longaneoker, Payload Cosrdinatctr; Frank Martin, Payload Structures; Willfam Schfndler, Launch Vehfcle; Fred C, Yagerhofer, Power) Systems; James E, Scobey, Telemetry; Jeremiah J, Nadden, Tracking Scientist; Robert W, Rcchslle, Flight Data System; Vietor Sfmas, Tracking; G y m s Creveling, Data Processing and. Analysis.

EXPERIMENTER$ AND INSTITUTIONS FOR 9333 SCImTIFEC EXPERIMENTS Ames Research Center: Dr. Michael -der, Experiment:. Proton Analyzer

University of New Hampshire: Dla. Laurence Cahill, Magnetometer Eseperiment

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State University of Iowa: Dr. James A . Van Allen and Dr. Brian J. O'Brien, Trapped Radiation Experiment.
Goddard Space Flight Center:

Dr. Frank B. McDonald, Cosmic Ray Experiments; Mr. Leo Davis, Ion

Electron Detector.

EXPEVIMENTERS AND INSTITUTIONS FOR THE ENGINEERING EXPERIMENTS Goddard Space Flight Center: Mr. G. W. Longanecker, S o l a r CelliExperiment; Mr. James S. Albus and Mr. David H. Shaefer, Optical Aspect .

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N A S A D S EhERGETIC PARTICLES AND FIELDS P W A R RM
The S-3 s e r i e s o f s a t e l l i t e s t o measure e n e r g e t i c p a r t i c l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f i e l d s i n space i s another s t e p i n t h e o v e r a l l NASA program o f l t h e p e a c e f u l - e x p l o r a t i o n of space f o r the b e n e f i t of a11 mankind, The s c i e n t i f i c experiments are from u n i v e r s i t i d s and government l a b o r a t o r i e s .

The e n e r g e t i c p a r t i c l e s p o r t i o n of t h e program i s concerned w i t h the study of t h e p a r t i c l e s w i t h energy greater than a few e l e c t r o n - v o l t s t h a t a r e found i n the trapped and a u r o r a l r a d i a t i o n ,

and the i n t e r p l a n e t a r y plasmas,

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with t h e o t h e r p l a n e t s and t h e moon will be s t u d i e d ,

Eventually, the trapped and a u r o r a l r a d i a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d The i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e charged p a r t i c l e s and the magnetic f i e l d s i s such t h a t they must be s t u d i e d simultaneously on t h e same v e h i c l e s i n o r d e r t o understand t h e phenomena; hence the S-3 series.

Certain of t h e phenomena a r e related to the 11-year s o l a r cycle, and i t i s necessary t o monitor these phenomena c a r e f u l l y o v e r a n 11-year period, A t t h e present t i m e we are i n a t r a n s i t i o n pericd from high s o l a r a c t i v i t y towards the next m i n i m u m which w i l l occur i n 1965. Associated w i t h these phenomena are c e r t a i n fundamental q u e s t i o n s such as t h e o r i g i n of cosmic r a y s and t h e n a t u r e of t h e i n t e r p l a n e t a r y f i e l d . The long-range obgectivea of the program are t o f i n d the answers t'd these quegtions and t o any new q u e s t i o n s which a r i s e as the NASA e x p l o r a t o r y program proceeds, Most of t h e 23-3 experiments w i l l examine the charged p a r t i c l e s i n space o u t s i d e the e a r t h f s atmosphere. These are protons, t h e n u c l e i of hydrogen atoms which c o n t i n u a l l y f l y o u t from the sun, and t h e very f a s t cosmic r a y s which stream a c r o s s o u r s o l a r system from unknown source's, Ssnce such p a r t i c l e s are e l e c t r i c a l l y charged, t h e i r f l i g h t i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by the magnetic f i e l d s i n space, A t the same t i m e t h e y c r e a t e addit i o n a l magnetic f i e l p s as t h e y move through space, Thus t h e a c c u r a t e measurement d f the s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of the i n t e r p l a n e t a r y magnetic f i e i d is a v i t a l o b j e c t i v e o f the s c i e n t i f i c program of the S-3 s a t e l l i t e s , Most of t h e p a r t i c l e s which S-3 w i l l observe come o r i g i n a l l y from the sun, The magnetic f i e l d which S-3 w i l l measure o r i g i n a t e s p r i m a r i l y in t h e sun from which i t i a to some unknown extent t r a n s p o r t e d and warped by the streams of p a r t i c l e s . But n e i t h e r the streams of p a r t i c l e s nor the i n t e r p l a n e t a r y magnetic f i e l d can be d i r e c t l y observed on the s u r f a c e of t h e earth, o r even f r 8 m a p o i n t seweral hundred miles above the

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earths8 s u r f a c e . Not only does the atmosphere of the earth s h i e l d u s from almost a l l p f the r e l a t i v e l y slow-moving p a r t i c l e s t h a t come from the sun, but a l s o the magnetic f i e l d of the earth d e f l e c t s the motion of t h e p a r t i c l e s and o v e r r i d e s t h e comp a r a t i v e l y w e a k magnetic f i e l d of apace.
I n s p i t e of t h i s s h i e l d i n g , a c t i v i t i e s on the s u r f a c e of the sun have very important consequences on t h e s u r f a c e of the

earth. For example, magnetic storms on the earth which i n t e r f e r e with r g d i o transmission appear to be d i r e c t l y caused by d i s t u r b a n c e s on the sun, and even the a u r o r a borealis-the northern lights--seem t o r e s u l t from s o l a r a c t i v i t y . O f course, the e a r t h ' s weather is c o n t r o l l e d by t h e sung and changes i n weather may r e s u l t from v a r i a t i o n s i n s o l a r a c t i v i t y ,
Many happenings on earth may be connected d i r e c t l y t o happenings on the sun. However, o u r p r e s e n t understanding of solar behavior i s limited i n that w cannot r e a l l y determine e the mechanisms which relate some s o l a r phenomena t o the phenomena w observe here on the earth, The s c i e n t i s t s making e measurements on t h e S-3 s p a c e c r a f t hope these o b s e r v a t i o n s will add to o u r knowledge of the sun and i t s r e l a t i o n to the earth. Cosmic Radiation G a l a c t i c cosmic r a d i a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a very low f l u x of protons, alpha p a r t i c l e s and n u c l e i of h e a v i e r atoms. These i c l e s range i n energy from a f e w m i l l i o n e l e c t r o n v o l t s t o %@Eve The f l u x v a r i e s by a f a c t o r of two over the l l - y e a r s o l a r c y c l e and o c c a s i o n a l l y decreases s h a r p l y f o r a few days a f t e r a s o l a r flare--the s o - c a l l e d Forbush decreases, The o r i g i n of t h e particles, t h e mechanism by which t h e y a r e , a c c e l e r a t e d t o high energies, the n a t u r e of the mechanism ( o r mechaniams) which produce the l l - y e a r solar c y c l e and the Forbush modulation of the f l u x and energy spectrum-these are some of the q u e s t i o n s which have shaped the NASA experimental program. S o l a r cosmic r a d i a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d i n 1942 when measuremehts showed that a f e w hours a f t e r a large s o l a r f l a r e the p o l a r regions of the earth were bombarded by protons, with energies varying from 40 m i l l i o n e l e c t r o n v o l t s t o about 1 b i l l i o n e l e c t r o n v o l t s , These bombardments l a s t from a f e w hours to severa? days, and t h e i r study has a l r e a d y l e d t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the following areas r e q u i r i n g experimental and theoretical investigation: --Composition, f l u x and energy s p e c t r a of the p a r t i c l e s and the v a r i a t i o n s of these q u a n t i t i e s w i t h time and p o s i t i o n during an event.

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--The nature of the accelerating mechanism of the sun and the relation between it and other solar phenomena. --The tradectories of the particles and their distribution in space during an event, --Variation of the frequency and intensity of these events with time oveF an entire $1-year solar cycle. --Radiation levels in space. Auroral and Van Allen Belts Radiation Trapped and auroral radiation are related to the great radiation belts, The Van Allen radiation belts consist of two major regions. The inner region 18 stable with time and characterized by a high density of protons of energies in the range from a few million electron volts to 700 million electron volts, The character of the outer region varies with time, and the available evidence indicates that the radiation consists of particles with energies less than one million volts. (Recent evidence has shown that observed fluctuations in intensity in the outer region cannot be accounted for on the basis of solar particles injected into the earth's magnetic field,) Presumably, there must be a mechanism In the vicinity of the earth which accelerates the particles found in the belts. Measurements taken during the International Geophysical Year have shown that both Pow energy protons and electrons are associated with ~ I A P O F ~ with the major part of the incident , energy carried by the electrons, Some of the major questions in this area are: --Origin of the radiation in the various regions of the belt --Life time and tragectories of the particles. --Nature of the l o c a l accelerating mechanism. --Relation between the trapped and auroral radiation. --Effects of the radiation on the atmosphere and ionosphere, --Existence and nature of the belts on the other planets and the moon. Interplanetary Plasma There are several fundamental questions on the interplanetary plasma:
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--Composition of the particles. --Number density, directional flux, and energy spectrum of the particles. --Relation of these properties to the magnetic field at the same point at the same time.
--Time variations from short periods (hydromagnetic waves) to periods of 11 years (solar cycle).

Magnetic Fields The magnetic field portion of the NASA program seeks to measure the magnetic fields of the Sunj planets, and natural satellites of the solar system, and of interplanetary space. Experiments, such as the S-3, are! t o be carried out in conjunction with the scientific investigation of the physical processes causing the fields and their time changes. Simultaneous measurements of particle fluxes and plasma densities are required to understand the interaction between these phenomena and the magnetic field. The major problems and objectives of the program are: --To survey the geomagnetic field in as great detail as possible over the whole earth.

--To investigate the sources, presumably ionospheric, of electric current systems that give rise to such ground-observed phenomena as the diurnal magnetic variations (solar and lunisolar) including the more pronounced variations caused by the equatorial electrojet; and also the magnetic storm changes, particularly the polar disturbances.
--To study the character of the outer geomagnetic field including the rapid fluctuations that may be related to hydromagnetic waves in the exospheric plasma. The evidence from the Russian satellites and also from Explorer VI, and Pioneers I and V, has suggested the existence of a ring current. However, controversies as to the interpretation of these data have created the need for more investlgations, which the eccentric orbit of the S-3 series of satellites will make possible.
--To study the interplanetary field and its fluctuations which, presumable are due to "frozen" fields

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of plasma clouds e j e c t e d from t h e sun and hydromagnetic waves t r a v e l i n g through t h e i n t e r p l a n e t a r y medium. $or t h i s purpose, s e v e r a l types of s p a c e c r a f t are needed. The deep space probe, such as Ranger I, w i t h a l i m i t e d l i f e reaching g r e a t d i s t a n c e s from t h e earth; t h e f a r s a t e l l i t e , such as t h e S-3 s e r i e s which e s s e n t i a l l y w i l l be f r e e from d i r e c t e f f e c t s of' the e a r t h ' s f i e l d ; and s a t e l l i t e s o r b i t i n g t h e moon o r w i t h apogees extending t o t h i s d i s t a n c e ; and t h e f a r ranging deep space mission t o o t h e r p l a n e t s .
--To study t h e f i e l d s - - i f any--within t h e magnetospheres of t h e e a r t h 3 s moon and of t h e o t h e r p l a n e t s beginning w i t h Mars and Venus, B a s i c a l l y , t h i s i s a study of t h e permanent magnetic f i e l d s of these

b s d i e s by planned n e a r misses w i t h space probes. The i n i t i a l information desired about t h e magnetic f i e l d s of t h e moon, Mars, and Venus i s t h e e x i s t e n c e of such a f i e l d ; i t s c h a r a c t e r , approximate magnitude and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e p o l e s ,

Techniques and Instruments The b a s i c instruments used i n measurements of e n e r g e t i c p a r t i c l e s are t h e i o n i z a t i o n chamber, t h e g e i g e r counter, t h e s c i n t i l l a t i o n counter, and n u c l e a r emulsions--%he l a t t e r , however, must be recovered, S o l i d s t a t e d e t e c t o r s have laecently been developed and are now i n u s e . Boron t r i f l o u r i d e counters a r e used t o d e t e c t neutrons. I o n i z a t i o n chqmbers measure t h e t o t a l amount of i o n i z a t i o n produced both by charged p a r t i c l e s and electromagnetic r a d i a t i o n . S c i n t i l l a t i o n ccunters and a s l i d s t a t e d e t e c t o r s can be used t o i d e n t i f y p a r t i c l e s and t o measure t h e i r charge and v e l o c i t y . . A Cerenkov d e t e c t o r can be used t o determine t h e d i r e c t i o n of t r a v e l of a p a r t i c l e , S c i n t i l l a t i o n counters, Cerenkov counters and s o l i d s t a t e d e t e c t o r s g i v e out p u l s e s which are r e l a t e d t o t h e energy l o s t by a p a r t i c l e i n t h e counter, Pulse h e i g h t a n a l y z e r s , such as OM S-3, can determine t h e s i z e of such p u l s e and s t o r e i t i n an a p p r o p r i a t e channel f o r l a t e r transmission t o t h e ground, Such information can be used t o mearsuye t h e energy spectrum of charged p a r t i c l e s , The shape of t h e p u l s e from a s c i n t i l l a t i o n counter can be used t o d i s t i n g u i s h between protons and e l e c trons, Magnetometers are used t o measure magnetic f i e l d s . There are f o u r major types i n u ~ s ea t p r e s e n t : t h e s e a r c h c o i l , t h e

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fluxgate, the proton precession and the rubidium vapor magnetometer, The search coil consists of a coil of wire mounted in a spinning vehicle. The voltage output from the coil is a measure.of the scalar field at right angles to the spin axis. Such a magnetometer can also be used to measure fluctuating fields in a non-rotating vehicle. The fluxgate magnetometer is a three-core device: Each of the three orthogonal sensors will produce an output voltage proportional to the magnitude of the component of the combined magnetic field along the axis of that 8ensor. The output voltage of the three sensors w i l l each occupy a separate telemetry channel and will be combined after reception to form the total magnetic field vector, The output of a proton precession magnetometer is a frequency proportional to proton magnetic moment and the strength of the local field. Since the proton magnetic moment is known very accurately, the field can be determined to the accuracy with which this frequency is measured. The output of the rubidium-vapor magnetometer is also a frequency proportional to the local magnetic field. The advantage of thia instrument over the proton magnetometer is that it can be used to measure very rapid fluctuations and has a greater dynamic range.

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FACT SHEETS

S-3 SPACECRAFT AND SUBSYSTEMS
GENERAL

The 83-pound energetic particles satellite represents a milestone in engineering design with its capability of accommodating 10 particle detecting systems, and associated electronics, all in a usable volume area of 1.578 cubic feet.

An octagon-walled platform, fabricated from nylon honeycomb and fibreglass, with an aluminum cover .020" thick, houses
most of the electronics and instruments. Height of the octagon is 5* inches. It is 26 5/32" across the flats of the octagon: Volume within the octagon is 1.578 cubic feet. A transmitter is located in the base of the payload, allowing heat to dissipate through the structure and aluminum cover.
A magnetometer package, containing three orthogonally mounted saturable core magnetometers and calibration coils, is located forward of the platform on a boom which extends 32". This reduces field effects from the electronics and instruments.

3.84 sq. feet extend from the main structure, giving it a diameter of about 60" when in orbit. The paddles are 13.68" long and have a width of 20.18~'. The 5600 solar cells weigh
11 pounds. The paddles are oriented to allow a uniform solar cell projection area at any payload-solar attitude. The paddles are folded along the last-stage rocket t o permft their installation within the nose fairing. They are erected during flight. Ade-rspin device is provided to reduce the roll rate to approximately 31 rpm after last stage burnout. Erection of the paddles further reduces the r o l l t o approximately 18 r p m .

Four spring-loaded solar-celled paddles with an area of

Weight represented by electronics is 24.5 lb. Weight represented by scientific experiments is 17.85 lb. Weight represented by solar cells is 11 lb. Weight represented by structure is 23 lb. Batteryweight of 13 silver-cadmium storage batteries, providing 15 watts of power,is 11 pounds. Five watts of power are available from the solar paddle wheels.
A 2-watt, 136-megacycle transmftter, provides 50 samples of telemetry per second.

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Optical Aspect Sensor The spacecraft carries an Optical Aspect Sensor to determine the orientation in space of the satellite as a function of time. Six photo-diodes give 180 degrees digital indication of the sunDs elevation with respect to the spin axis of the satellite the 180 degrees from pole-to-pole being divided into 63 parts. The time within the telemetry frame of the sunfs appearance is coded in binary form. Read-out of all the time and position information is by two telemetry channels. The system consists of two basic parts. The fibst is a digital solar aspect sensor, consisting of a light mask aqd a number of photo-diodes placed behind the light mask so that each photo-diode sees only the portion of the light mask directly behfnd it. The second part is a digital computer having memory and logic f o r determining the time at which a photo-diode sees the sun and for remembering which photo-diode had the input. The sensor package is basically rectangular 2 x 2.5 x 2 lnclnea and weighs 248 grams. The electronics is a printed card, 5 x 7 inches.

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LAUNCE VEHICLE FOR

S-3

Launch v e h i c l e f o r t h e S-3 s a t e l l i t e i s t h e t h r e e - s t a g e Delta r o c k e t , The v e h i c l e i s programmed t o p l a c e t h e 83-pound s a t e l l i t e i n t o a h i g h l y e l l i p t i c a l o r b i t , w i t h an apogee of approximately 54,000 miles, p e r i g e e of about 170 m i l e s and an o r b i t a l i n c l i n a t i o n of 33 degrees t o t h e equator. The o r b i t a l p e r i o d i s expected t o be about 31 hours, Vehicle prime c o n t r a c t o r f o r t h e National Aeronautics and Space Administration i s t h e Douglas A i r c r a f t Company. A s prime c o n t r a c t o r , Muglas i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e design, manuf a c t u r e , assembly, t e s t and launch of t h e Delta. Vincent I. Johnson i s ' v e h i c l e program manager f o r Delta , a t N S Headquarters. AA Today's launch w2s t h e s i x t h i n t h e Delta v e h i c l e program. O f t h e previous f i v e f i r i n g s , f o u r were s u c c e s s f u l and r e s u l t e d i n t h e o r b i t i n g of t h e Echd I, Tiros 11, Explorer X, and

T i r o s I11 s a t e l l i t e s . The f i r s t Delta launch was an unsuccessful attempt t o o r b i t an Echo sphere on May 13, 1960.
The s u c c e s s f u l Echo was launched Aug. 12, 1960; T i r o s I1 on Nov. 23, 1960; Explorer X on March 25, 1961; and T i r o s I11 on J u l y 12, 1961.

FLIGHT SEQUENCE
A l i f t o f f , t h e 92-foot-high Delta weighs s l i g h t l y less t h a n 112,dOO pounds. The f i r s t - s t a g e Thor rocket burns f o r 160 seconds, and i t s l50,GQO - pound-thrust engine p r o p e l s t h e v e h i c l e t o an a l t i t u d e of 46 miles and 189 miles down range.

Second-stage s e p a r a t i o n and i g n i t i o n f o l l o w almost immed i a t e l y , and 4 seconds l a t e r t h e f a i r i n g s are j e t t i s i o n e d by ' 2 means of explosive bclts. Second-stage engine c u t o f f occurs about 270 seconds a f t e r launch. The second and t h i r d stages then c o a s t f o r s l i g h t l y more t h a n s i x minutes, t r a v e 2 i n g 1300 m i l e s down range and reaching an a l t i t u d e of 185 m i l e s during t h i s p e r i o d . I n r a p i d succession, r o c k e t s s p i n up the t h i r d s t a g e , explosive b o l t s and r e t r o r o c k e t s are f i r e d t o separate t h e second and t h i r d s t a g e s , and t h e t h i r d - s t a g e engine is i g n i t e d . It burns f o r 42 seconds, p l a c i n g t h e payload and t h i r d - s t a g e

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casing i n t o o r b i t . A t c u t o f f , t h e engine and payload are almost 2200 m i l e s from Cape Canaveral, and t r a v e l i n g a t a v e l o c i t y o f more t h a n 24,000 MPH.
A 24-minute c o a s t p e r i o d follows, p e r m i t t i n g exhaust gases from t h e burned-out third-stage engine t o d i s s i p a t e . During t h i s period, YO-YO weights on the payload despin t h e casing and s a t e l l i t e , A explosive-actuated c u t t e r then s e v e r s a n nylon lanyard, r e l e a s i n g t h e f o u r payload paddles, and explosive b o l t s and a s p r i n g mechanism separate t h e S-3 from t h e t h i r d stage.

During t h e f i r s t minute and a h a l f of powered f l i g h t , t h e Thor a u t o p i l o t s t a b i l i z e s t h e v e h i c l e . Radio command guidance provided by t h e B e l l Telephone Laboratories then takes over and c o n t r o l s t h e r o c k e t u n t i l second-stage engine c u t o f f . During t h e f i r s t c o a s t period, a Douglas-designed f l i g h t c o n t r o l system d i r e c t s t h e second and t h i r d stages, d e t e c t i n g d e v i a t i o n s i n p i t c h , yaw and r o l l and a c t i v i a t i n g t h e necessary s t a b i l i z i n g helium j e t s . S t a b i l i z a t i o n of t h e t h i r d stage i s achieved b y spinning i t and t h e payload up t o 143 r e v o l u t i o n s per minute.

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DELTA VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS
Height

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92 feet

Diameter Max. Lift-off

- 8 feet Weight - Slightly

less than 112,000 pounds

First Stage Modified Air Force Thor Rocket - Produced by Douglas Aircraft Co. Propulsion by Rocketdyne Fuel

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Liquid

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Lox and Kerosene

Weight Thrust

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About l O 7 , O O O pounds fueled About 150,000 pounds

Burning Time Guidance

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About 160 seconds

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BTL radio command guidance
system mounted in second stage and roll and pitch programmers.

Second Stage General

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Assembled by Douglas Fuel

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Propulsion by Aerojet

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Liquid

Weight Thrust

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More than 4000 pounds About 7500 pounds

Burning Time Guidance

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109 seconds

- BTL

radio command guidapce, plus Douglas Aircraft Co. Flight Controller

Third Stage - Assembled by Douglas Ballistic Lab. Fuel

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Propulsion by Allegany

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Solid

Weight Thrust

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More than 500 pounds

About 3000 pounds

Burning Time Guidance

- 42 seconds

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spin

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stabilized

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TRACKING AND DATA-ACQUISITLON O THE F €$;HmC P A m m ?

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Owing t o t h e h i g h l y e c c e n t r i c orbTt and t h e a n t i c i p a t e d q u a l i t y and amount 'of data, i t i s expected that 1-2 weeks w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o determine an a c c u r a t e o r b i t . An attempt w i l l be made t o use the Trinidad radar t o cover t h e p o i n t of injecticn. However, owing t o t h e low horizon a s p e c t of t h e t a r g e t a t t h i s t i m e (approximately 4 degrees eFevation) it i s not expected t o a c q u i r e any p r e c i s e i n y e c t i o n v e l o c i t y information ,other than a n l i n d i c a t i o n of s u c c e s s f u l o r b i t . Improved p o s i t i o n a l information w i l l be developed from succeeding passes of .satellite. The Minitrack network has i n s t a l l e d r e c e i v e r s and antennas f o r t r a c k i n g and a c q u i r i n g data from t h e s a t e l l i t e .
I

Telemetry Operations
Because of the h i g h l y e c c e n t r f c o r b i t , the s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be v i s i b l e for approximately 23 hours a t s t a t i o n s on the apogee side of the earth. Three r e c e i v i n g s t a t i o n s p r o p e r l y equipped and spaced i n l o n g i t u d e w i l l record t h e t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l for 90 p e r c e n t of t h e t i m e . These s t a t i o n s are a t Woomera, Santiago, ana Johannesburg. A l l s t a t i o n s are tuned t o 136.020 Mc. P r e s e n t p l a n s are t o record t e l e m e t r y continuously f o r 1 month and p e r i o d i c a l l y thereafter as r e q u i r e d . Tracking Operations E x i s t i n g Minitrack s t a t i o n s on the apogee s i d e have been modified t o improve s i g n a l - n o l s e r a t i o s on t h e i r f i n e - t r a c k dntenna groups. The apogee t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s a r e a t Woomera, Johannesburg, Santiago, Antofagasta, and Lima.
The r a p i d passes of the s a t e l l i t e through t h e p e r i g e e w i l l be sampled as t h e s a t e l l i t e @posses e x i s t i n g Minitrack s t a t i o n s such as Blossom Point, Maryland; F t . Myers, F l o r i d a ; and Goldstone, Calfformla.

n The o r b i t a l period i s approximately 31 hours. O t h e first o r b i t a l pass the l a t i t u d e i s p r e d i c t e d t o be 14ON a t pegigee, t h e longitudeo4g0W. A t apogee, the l a t i t u d e w i l l be 12 S, the l o n g i t u d e 99 W.
A t launch, e a r l y t r a c k i n g data w i l l be c o l l e c t e d by t h e Ft. Myers, F l o r i d a Minitpack s t a t i o n and the Goddard Space F l i g h t Center Cape Canaveral T/M s t a t i o n . Rzuaa and o t h e r A t l a n t i c Missile Range radar i n f o m a t i o n w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o GSFC f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o a, computer program. The v e c t o r informat5on on range and velocitydof the b o o s t e r s t a g e s provided by t h e AMR radar t r a c k w i l l provide i n p u t s f o r computing t h e

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i n i t i a l i n j e c t i o n p o i n t v e l o c i t i e s of t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o a nominal o r b i t , a f t e r which data f r o m t h e Minitrack and o t h e r t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s w i l l be added i n t o t h e computer problem t o c o r r e c t the o r b i t c a l c u l a t i o n s . As t h e Minitrack s t a t i o n s receive a d d i t i o n a l data, t h e accuracy of t h e c a l c u l a t e d parameters of the o r b i t w i l l be continuously improved.
The Ascension I s l a n d T/M r e c e i v e r w i l l provide an opport u n i t y t o a c q u i r e a f i r s t look a t the s p a c e c r a f t i n o r b i t . AFMTC, AM Range w i l l add a 136.020 M feed t o the TU-18 c antenna there.

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EXPERIMENTS I N S-3 SPACECRAFT

P r i o r t o P r o j e c t S-3, s e v e r a l import completed i n the Energetic P a r t i c l e s and-

t experiments were
elds Program.

--Explorer V I , launched August 7, 1959, d e t e c t e d a r i n g of e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t c i r c l i n g t h e earth, and obtained a complete map of the Van Allen Radiation B e l t . --Vanguard 111, launched Sepbmber 18, 1959, c a r r i e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n t o make a c c u r a t e magnetic f i e l d nieasurement s

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--Explorer VII, launched October 13, 1959, c o l l e c t e d data on e n e r g e t i c p a r t i c l e s i n the Van Allen Belt. --Pioneer V, launohed March 11, 1960, supplied a d d i t i o n a l data o w m e r g e t i c p a r t i c l e s and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and data on t h e i n t e r p l a n e t a r y maknetic f i e l d . --Explorer X measured magnetic f i e l d s i n n e a r e a r t h space.
The primary o b j e c t i v e of S-3 s e r i e s of s a t e l l i t e s w i l l be t o d e s c r i b e completely the trapped corpuscular r a d i a t i o n , s o l a r p a r t i c l e s , cosmic r a d i a t i o n , the s o l a r winds, and t o c o r r e l a t e t h e p a r t i c l e phenomena w i t h magnetic f i e l d observ a t i o n s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e experiments follows:

Proton Analyzer Experiment (Ames Research Gerit.er of NASA, D r . M. Bader) The purpose of t h i s experiment i s t o measure low energy proton flux and spectrum i n space from one q u a r t e r t o 10 earth r a d i i (1,000 t o 40,000 miles). These p a r t i c l e s are believed t o account f o r 85 p e r c e n t of t h e energized p a r t i c l e s i n space. Data obtained w i l l i n c r e a s e our knowledge of proton c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n s o l a r winds caused by s o l a r flares. These data w i l l a l s o be u s e f u l f o r c o r r e l a t i n g p a r t i c l e a c t i v i t y i n space i n t h e Van Allen Radiation B e l t s w i t h s o l a r a c t i v i t y . Many s c i e n t i s t s c o n s i d e r the i n t e r p l a n e t a r y plasma as simply the c o n t i n u a t l o n of t h e sun's atmosphere i n t o t h e space between t h e planets. This atmosphere, o r corona, The cloud i s c o n s i s t s mostly of protons and e l e c t r o n s . s o d i f f u s e t h a t o r d i n a r y p r e s s u r e and tern e r a t u r e measurements o t be made o 100 p a r t i c l e s p e r CM , as compared w i t h particles a t sea l e v e l ) . Some t h e o r i e s suggest t h a t t h e i n t e r p l a n e t a r y plasma i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i o n a r y cloud of g a s surrounding t h e sun. On the other hand, o t h e r s c i e n t i s t s b e l i e v e that a s o l a r wind c o n s t a n t l y streams away from the sun. T h i s solar wind c o n s i s t s of i o n i z e d

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atoms of gas (primarily hydrogen) which move with velocities
of several hundred to a thousand miles a second. Recent measurements from Explorer X have tended to confirm the existence of the solar wind.

All descriptions of the interplanetary plasma picrture it as being disturbed by outbursts of solar activity -- solar flares or magnetic storms on the surface of the sun. At such times, the density, the speed of flow, and the temperature of the interplanetary plasma probably all change.
The solar wind is presumed responsible in large part for many phenomena observed on earth, such as geomagnetic disturbances, auroras, and interference with radio communications. The flux of plasma particles number of particles incident on a given area per unit time is believed to be many orders of magnitude greater (107, which is 10 million) than that of the higher energy particles in the earth's radiation belts. Only two direct measurement attempts have been reported, one by the USSR (Lunik) and a recent one by Explorer X, neither of which has given a complete description of the interplanetary plasma, in part because of insufficient time in orbit and in part because of the restricted ranges of the instruments.

f

The plasma probe designed and built at Ames for the S-3 is basically a curved-plate electrostatic analyzer with an electrometer detector. The plate voltage is continuously varied so that the instrument will record the presence of particles as a function of their energy (200 ev t o 20 kev, corresponding to the expected 200 to 2,000 km/sec velocity range). The electrometer output is a measure of the particle flux for each setting of the plate voltage. Basically, it works this way: As a charged particle enters the analyzer, by means of a slit in the satellite skin, it finds itself in a curving tunnel. The two sides of this tunnel are metal plates carrying static electric charges, one negative, the other positive. The charged particle is attracted by one plate and repelled by the other, and so follows a curved path down the curved tunnel. If it is moving too slowly or too rapidly, it runs into one wall or the other. But if it is moving at just the right speed, it makes its way all the way to the end and is there detected by a particle counter. Thus, all the particles moving in the right direction to enter the tunnel and moving with the right speed to get all the way through will be detected. Automatically, at fixed intervals, the amount of the stat3 charge on the metal side plates is changed, so that a different range of energy is required for the particles to get through. The complete instrument package is housed in a box '2x3~4 inches, and weighs just under one pound. Its total power consumption iu 145 milliwatts (one one-thousandth of an ordinary light bulb).

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Magnetic Field Experiment (Univerpity of New Hampshire, Dr. E. Cahill), The purpose of this experiment is to measure the magnitude and direction of the earth's magnetic field between 3 and 10 earth radii (12,000 and 40, O Mles) ass accurately as possible; W >to investigate the possible termination of the geomagnetic fie1.d in the vicinity of 10 earth radii (40,pOO miles); and to use this data ta d e t e m n e the existence of postulated extraterrestial current systems and magnetic disturbances, particularly in relation to solar events and changes in particle intensities. Present-day theories of magnetohydrodynamics -- the study of the relation between the motion of charged particles and the magnetic field which surrounds them -- say that the plasma which flows away from the sun should drag with it the l o c a l solar magnetic field, since the motion of charged particles not only responds to but also creates magnetic fields. The mathematical description of this interaction between the stream of charged particles leaving the sun and the magnetic field which surrounds the sun is extremely complicated. The theories which have been used to describe these phenomena are incomplete and often contradictory. In order to make any headway at all against the mathematical difficulties, soientists are forced to assume various characteristics of the interplanetary plasma. However, at present, there is no way of determlning'whether or not these assumptions are realistic. The results of the S-3 measurements on the magnetic fields in interplanetary space will be used to check the conclusions of the various theories now existing, and will also be used to provide additional and more valid assumptions for the creation of a more conclusive theory. Several earth satellite measurements, and measurements taken by the probes, Pioneer I, Pioneer V, and Explorer X have given us a few pieces of information about the field at great distances from the earth, and information about the nature of the magnetic field in the space between the earth and the moon. It is in this latter region of space that the interplanetary field and the earth's magnetic field interact to form a complicated boundary. Some scien$ists believe that the detailed structure of this boundary may explain the creation of the Van Allen Radiation Belts. Results from Explorer v : 1 and Pioneer V suggest that the magnetic field in this region may be perturbed by a vast current ring encircling the earth outside of the major radiation belts. The particles in this current may have been detected by Soviet space probes.

The S-3 will study the undisturbed magnetic field of the earth to determine if the field is temninated by solar wind pressure within the range of measurement. Data will be studied
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for evidence of t h e “ r i n g ” c u r r e n t , revealed by Pioraeer V. V a r i a t i o n s of sun,li a c u r r e n t , both i n s p e c t r a l posIZtion and i n t i m e , w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Data a l s o wlll be examlned f o r r a p i d changes of the magnetic f i e l d i n time. These might be i n t e r p r e t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h information from ground magnetic o b s e r v a t o r i e s , as evidence f o r the propagation of hydromagnetic waves. Time v a r i a t i o n s i n the magnetic f i e l d w i l l be compared w i t h s u r f a c e magnetic measurements and w i t h records of s o l a r a c t i v i t y t o d i s c o v w p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y during magnetic storms. The t i m e v a r i a t i o n s i n the f i e l d w i l l be compared w i t h t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r t i c l e i n t e n s i t i e s for fixed l o c a t i o n s between the two neasurements. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d i r e c t i o n of -I;h.e magnetic f i e i d w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison w i t h d i r e c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p a r t i c l e i n t e n s i t i e s .

Comparison o f nagnetis f i e l d data from S-3 and a l s o t h e Ranger-type space probe w i l l enable s c i e n t i s t s t o study g r a d i e n t s of magnetic f i e l d s ane the r a t e of propagation of magnetic d i s turbances, and how solar wrrida eTfect t h e f i e l d . Thus, data from t h e mzgnetometer measurement w i l l be of fundamental importnrxe L:? i n t s T p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of the v a r i o u s charged pa:L,tlicles ex7eriments which a r e c a r r i e d OR board S-3. The combins.t-;on of charged n a r t i c l e measurements and magnetic fie16 measurements will be of tremendous value i n advancing our knowledge i n t h e behavior of t h e sun and i t s e f f e c t s upon phenomena h e r e on the s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h ,
The f l u x - g a t e rmgnetoomt$m i s a, t h r e e - c o r e device. Each of t h e t h r e e orthogonal SWISOTS 2roduce an output v o l t a g e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the magnitude of t h e component of the combined magnetic f i e l r ! along that sensor. The output v o l t a g e s of the t h r e e s e n s o r s each occupy a, s e p v a t e channel and are combined a f t e r r e c e p t i o n t o c’ozr:: t h e tc;tal magnetic field! v e c t o r . The range of measurerimit i s from a f e w ganunas t o 1,000 gammas. Accuracy i s p l u s o r qninus 10 gammas. Magnetometer i n s t r u mentation c o n s l s t s of “,wo packages: a sensor package 3x3x4.S inches, and an e’ecti-onics 2ackage _?x4x6+ inches. The f i r s t weighs 640 grams and t h e l a 3 t e r 760 grams. T o t a l power consumption i s 405 nill!-va-btsu
Trapped P a r t i c l e Radiation ( S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, D r . Brian J . OsBrien)

The purpose of’ this expe?lment I s t o measure c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c l e r a d i a t i o n -- trapped p a r t i c l e s , s o l a r p a r t i c l e s , and cosmic mys --- o m r t h e e n k i r e s p a c e c r a f t o r b i t t o determine t h e l r fluxes and e n e r g i e s and s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l dependence.

Instrumentation Coi~slSCvSof f o u r g e i g e r c o u n t e r s and t h r e e cadmium s u l p h i d e c e l l s . A Geiger-Mueller counter, similar t o t h o s e w i t h which Professor Van Allen discovered t h e e x i s t e n c e
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of" t h e v a s t b e l t s of r a d i a t i o n around t h e earth w i l l d e t e c t p a r t i c l e s a r r i v i n g from every d i r e c t i o n . It w i l l measure protons above 20 Mev and e l e c t r o n s above 2 M e V ,
The three o t h e r tubes make up an e l e c t r o n spectrometer. One geiger d e t e c t s e l e c t r o n s between about 40 and 55 kev which are focused onto i t by being d e f l e c t e d by the f i e l d of a small magnet. T h i s i s h e a v i l y shielded, b u t another geiger i s housed along side i n i d e n t i c a l s h i e l d i n g t o monitor p e n e t r a t i n g r a d i a t i o n s (protons above 50 M e V , e l e c t r o n s above 10 Mev). The t h i r d g e i g e r measures e l e c t r o n s between 90-100 'kev, The cadshium sulphide c e l l s are s o l i d - s t a t e semi-conductor devices which change t h e i r e l e c t r i c + r e s i s t a n c e i n proportion t o the r a t e a t which they are being bombarded by charged p a r t i c l e s , The c o n d u c t i v i t y i s measured by applying a steady v o l t a g e t o the c r y s t a l , Charge flowing through the c r y s t a l b u i l d s up on a condenser u n t i l a c r i t i c a l v o l t a g e i s reached a n d t h e condenser discharges through a glow t u b e , The r a t e of d i s charge t h u s i n c r e a s e s w i t h the c o n d u c t i v i t y and hence the i o n i z a t i o n energy l o s t i n the c r y s t a l also i n c r e a s e s the r a t e of discharge. These c r y s t a l s are uncovered and can d e t e c t p a r t i c l e s t o very low energies-protons and e l e c t r o n s down t o e n e r g i e s of t h e o r d e r of 100 ev o r l e s s , One cadmium sulphide c e l l measures t h e t o t a l energy flux o f both protons and e l e c t r o n s on it. Another c e l l has a magnet which d e f l e c t s e l e c t r o n s below s e v e r a l hundred kev from s t r i k i n g the c r y s t a l , performing as a low-energy proton d e t e c t o r , A t h i r d cadmium sulphide c e l l looks i n the same narrow region of t h e sky as do t h e o t h e r two, T h i s , however, i s f i t t e d w i t h a transparent s h i e l d so t h a t c o r r e c t i o n s f o r the e f f e c t s o f l i g h t ( e a r t h l i g h t o r sunleght) s t r i k i n g t h e o t h e r two c e l l s may ?e made a c c u r a t e l y ,
, S t a t e University of Iowa i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s an encoder, The spectrometer and the cadmium sulphide c e l l s view narrow p o s i t i o n s o f the sky perpendicular t o the axis o f s p i n of t h e s a t e l l i t e , The d e t e c t o r s are selected--two a t a time--to feed two scaling u n i t s f o r 10,24 seconds, The scalers each a r e read o u t twice and t h e information telemetered as a sequence of b i n a r y b i t s , The s c a l e r s are t h e n reset t o zero and the next pair o f d e t e c t o r s s e l e c t e d . T h i s information i s then fed t o an a p p r o p r i a t e d i g i t a l s u b c a r r i e r o s c i l l a t o r f o r transmission on t e l e m e t r y channels,

The s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y of the apparatus i s f o r 218 counts i n 10.24 seconds--a maximum counting r a t e o f about 25,000 counts/seconds. The three cadmium sulphide c e l l s weigh 494 grams; t h e Geiger-Mueller counter3 292 rams, and the three geigers i n t h e e l e c t r o n spectrometer, 7 3 grams, The encoder and hardware weigh 1540 grams,

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Cosmic Ray Experiments (GoddaFd Space Flight Center, Dr, Frank B. Mc Lk] n a1d At the present tine, the m o s Z fanportant problems in cosmic rays are the nature of the aczelerating mechanism and the nature of the modulation mechanism which produce the 11-year solar cycle variation and the Forbush type decrease, An accelerating mechanism which can produce particles with energLes up t o 1018 ev and a modulation mech@.sm which can influence particles with energies greater than 10 ev have important astrophysical implications. The theoretical explanations f o r these phenomena are hopelessly inadequate at this time and. additional experhental information is needed. The sun is a very impcrtant source o f low energy cosmic rays and the cosmic ray m o C u l a t i o n mechanism appears to be intimately connected t o solar events, If we can understand the mechanism by which solar cosmic rays are produced and the connection between s o l a r activity and cosmic ray intensity changes, then we will probably have the necessary clues to understand the general origin of cosmic rays. The S-3's cosmic ray monitoring prograrn beyond the effects of the earth's magnetic field permits the production and modulation of cosmic rays to be studied with the same set of experiments. The program will measure %he charge spectra and the energy spectra of the cosmic radiation as a function of dfstance from the earth, time and direction. Al?d a?_ncemany of the effects of solar related phenomena are transmftted via the emissicn of a s o l a r plasma or a solar wind, scientists f e e l the S-3 1 s o f the greatest importance in making simultaneous magnetiL f i e l d and plasma measurements, The cosmic, ray package c o n a f s t s of three basic detection units: a Double Telescope, a Single Crystal Detector, and a GM Telescope. The first d e t e c h r is a double scintillati3n-counter telescope in which the pulse f m m one of two coun5ers is selected for a given event. Ynis wit provides: the t o t a l cosmic ray flux; the flux of fast prstom w i t h energies greater than TOO Mev; the proton differential cne-gy spectran i n t h s saegl.cn 70-750 MeV; and the low energy portion of the Alpha particle differential energy spectrum. The double t e l e z t c p e is 2 %r.ches long, has a 2,5 0 inch diameter; weighs 765 g r m s and requires l,25 watts of power. When a particle traverm-e ?he two scintillators a coincidence is formed and %he pulse height from one of the scintillation counters f s processed by a channel analyzer, Data is accumulated in the a.nalyzer's magnetic core memory for four minutes and is then r d out serially, Read-aut is nondestructive. Channel capacity is ZTg pel. channel,

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In order to extend the proton energy spectra data down to 1 MeV, a thin cesium iodide scintillation counter is used as the second detection unit. The pulse height distribution of the incident particles is obtained in the region 1 0 Kev 0 to 20 Mev by means of a sliding channel pulse height analyzer, which basically determines the size of each pulse and stores it in an appropriate channel for later transmission to the ground. The shape of a pulse from a scintillation counter can be used to distinguish between protons and electrons. This unit also provides information on low energy solar gamma rays.
This detector, or scintillation counter, is connected t o an integral discriminator whose bias is furnished by an eightlevel staircase generator. A data accumulator (cosmic ray logic box) is subcommutated between the eight levels and two Geiger counter inputs of the GM telescope. In each case the actual number of counts per unit time is transmitted. Appropriate identification is also provided for each readout. When one input of the multi-channel analyzer is readout, the other inputs are disconnected. This single crystal detector weighs 615 grams, has a length of 4 inches, a diameter of 2.5 inches and requires .200 watts of power. The third unit, called a GM telescope, consi ts of two geiger counters. One is shielded with 2 grams/cmB of material. The effective geometric factors of these counters are several orders of magnitude larger than those in the State University of Iowa package and are intended to be cosmic ray monitors. The rate of the shielded, and the coincidence rate of the two counters is telemetered. These units furnish a check on the information received from the scintillation counter units. This unit weighs 4 0 grams, has a length of 5.2 inches, a diam0 eter of 2.5 Inches and requires .3OO watts of power. Ion Electron Detector (Goddard Space Flight Center, Leo R. Davis) This detector will measure particle fluxes, types and energy as a function of direction, time and position below, in, and above the V a n Allen Radiation Belts. This detector is most sensitive to the low energy partlcles which have not been directly measured to date and yet have been indicated to be in the inner and outer radiation belts. The ion-electron scintillation detector consists of a powder phosphor, on a photo-multiplier tube which is located behind a stepping absorber wheel. The dc current and pulse counting rates are measured simultaneously for each absorber position. Ion counting rates for two trigger levels are registered for seven absorber thicknesses from which ion types and energy spectra can be deduced. In these measurements electrons are
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discriminated a g a i n s t by t h e phosphor thinness (5mg/cm2) and the phosphor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e emitted l i g h t decay time being i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e square of the i o n i z a t i o n density.
The e l e c t r o n energy f l u x i s obtained by s c a t t e r i n g t h e i n c i d e n t e l e c t r o n s off a gold p l a t e ( i o n s w i l l be absorbed) i n t o the phosphored photo-multiplier tube from which dc c u r r e n t s a r e measured. E l e c t r o n energy s p e c t r a can b e deduced by comp a r i n g the responses from s i x absorber t h i c k n e s s e s .

The t o t a l energy f l u x i s obtained f o r seven absorber t h i c k n e s s e s by measuring t h e p h o t o - m u l t i p l i e r dc c u r r e n t .
100 Kev t o 1 Mev f o r protons w i t h m a x i m u m counting rates of

The i o n d e t e c t o r i s o p e r a t i v e over the energy range of

cps i n each channel.

lo5

The e l e c t r o n d e t e c t o r w i t h a dynamic range of lo5 i s o p e r a t i v e f o r e l e c t r o n s between 10 Kev and 100 Kev. For average pho3o-multiplier voltage, t h e minimum d e t e c t a b l e energy i s 1' 0 ergs/seconds.

The t o t a l energy f l u x detector w i t h a dynamic range of 105 i s o p e r a t i v e over t h e energy range of 30 Kev t o 1 Mev f o r protons, and 10 Kev t o 100 Kev f o r e l e c t r o n s . For average values

of ph t o - m u l t i p l i e r voltage, t h e minimum d e t e c t a b l e f l u x i s 2x10-8 ergs/seconds. The d e t e c t o r has a t o t a l weight of 1362 grams and i s housed I n a 5 31 x 6 7/8 x 3 1 8 i n c h c o n t a i n e r . /3 /

S o l a r C e l l Ekperiment (Coddard Space F l i g h t Center, @. W. Longanecker)
This experfment w i l l measure t h e e f f e c t s of the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of s o l a r c e l l s caused by d i p e c t exposure t o t h e r a d i a t i o n i n t h e Van Allen B e l t s .
The experiment c o n s i s t s of f o u r s t r i p s of s i l i c o n s o l a r c e l l s , w i t h 10 c e l l s p e r s t r i p , mounted on t h e s u r f a c e of the s p a c e c r a f t . One s t r i p of 10 c e l l s i s unprotected while t h e remaining three strips are p r o t e c t e d by 3 , 20 and 60 mil t h i c k g l a s s r e s p e c t i v e l y . During the l i f e of the s p a c e c r a f t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o compare t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the glass f i l t e r s i n preventing degr*adatfon of the s o l a r c e l l s due t o r a d i a t i o n .

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