Definitions: History Painting- Painting in which the subject matter is taken from classical, mythological, or biblical history.

From the Renaissance to Neoclassicism this was regarded in academic circles as the highest form of painting, for the artist had to show all his talents—not only the skill of eye and hand, but also his mastery of the often complex and erudite subject-matter. Pointillism: Pointillism: a form of optical painting involving short lozenge-shaped dashes or dots of complementary colours, intended to obtain the optimum degree of luminosity and brilliance a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are applied in patterns to form an image. developed the technique in 1886, branching from Impressionism. The technique relies on the ability of the eye and mind of the viewer to mix the color spots into a fuller range of tones. It is related to Divisionism, a more technical variant of the method. Divisionism is concerned with color theory, whereas pointillism is more focused on the specific style of brushwork used to apply the paint

Passage the breaking of the contours defining both the things depicted and the overall faceting so that surfaces appear to flow together, blurring above all the distinctions between solid form and space, foreground and background. The emphasis later placed on the planar depiction of space, mass and volume arose from its usefulness in asserting the flatness of the support. The painting is seen both to capture the palpable three-dimensionality of the world revealed to the eyes and to draw attention to itself as a two-dimensional thing Multiple Perspectives creating the composition of a paining based on many different angles, or points of reference Liberation of Color color is not mimetic (does not copy nature). The GazeKnown as the new modern gaze, it is both intimate and distant. The new modernized Paris with wide boulevards, café’s, and a new opera house creates new opportunities for the act of seeing and being seen. Plein-Air This is the practice of painting outdoors. Its popularity corresponds to the growing interest in the observation of natural phenomena. Portable paint boxes and easels were developed to respond to the needs of outdoor painters Oriental the term was long employed in the Western world to describe the east. Europeans responding to Orientalism invested the Middle East with several false stereotypes. It was seen as a sensual paradise, full of mysterious, enticing pleasures but also primitive and ripe for colonization by the superior Western nations. Linearity objects and figures have crisply drawn contours Planarity - objects and figures are parallel to the picture plane

Paintings David, Oath of Horatii, 1784 85, as a proclamation of the new neoclassical style in which dramatic lighting, ideal forms, and gestural clarity are emphasized. Presenting a lofty moralistic (and by implication patriotic) theme. He used lighting to ensinuate the manly effect and the woman use the dramaric white light to emphasis their femininity.

1814.is a painting completed in 1814 by the Spanish painter Francisco Goya. including a series by Édouard Manet. Although it draws on many sources from both high and popular art. The Third of May. and is acknowledged as one of the first paintings of the modern era. presentation. The painting's content. it was commissioned by the provisional government of Spain at Goya's suggestion. now in the Museo del Prado. and emotional force secure its status as a groundbreaking. . Diverging from the traditions of Christian art and traditional depictions of war. archetypal image of the horrors of war.[4] According to the art historian Kenneth Clark.Francisco Goya. Madrid. The Third of May 1808 marks a clear break from convention. Goya sought to commemorate Spanish resistance to Napoleon's armies during the occupation of 1808. in subject.[5]The Third of May 1808 has inspired a number of other major paintings. it has no distinct precedent. 1808. In the work. The Third of May 1808 is "the first great picture which can be called revolutionary in every sense of the word. in style. and in intention". and Pablo Picasso's Massacre in Korea as well as his masterpiece Guernica.

nor life.1819. The small head.. one critic remarked that the work had "neither bones nor muscle.[2] . [2] whose Madonna with the Long Neck was also famous for anatomical distortion. and cool color scheme all reveal influences from Mannerists such as Parmigianino.[3] This echoed the general view that Ingres had disregarded anatomical realism. It has been especially noted for the elongated proportions and lack of anatomical realism. elongated limbs.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. nor relief. 1814 The subject's elongated proportions. [4] Ingres instead favored long lines to convey curvature and sensuality. indicating a shift toward exotic Romanticism. The work is housed in the Louvre inParis. reminiscent of 16th-centuryMannerist painters. indeed nothing that constitutes imitation". neither blood. Grande Odalisque attracted wide criticism when it was first shown. He portrays a concubine in languid pose as seen from behind with distorted proportions. Ingres' contemporaries considered the work to signify Ingres' break from Neoclassicism. reflect Ingres's search for the pure form of his model….is an oil painting of 1814 by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres depicting an odalisque.[4]Ingres continued to be criticized for his work until the mid-1820s. or concubine. Grand Odalisque. as well as abundant. even light to tone down the volume.

but in a studio. She is a prostitute. The roughly painted background lacks depth — giving the viewer the impression that the scene is not taking place outdoors. the lighting of the scene is inconsistent and unnatural. Moulin de la Galette. 1863 . Manet shocked the French It is not a realist painting in the social or political sense of Daumier. The man on the right wears a flat hat with a tassel. naked as can be. but it is a statement in favor of the artist's individual freedom. Luncheon on the Grass (Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe). of a kind normally worn indoors. 1876 (this is not in your book. Her body is starkly lit and she stares directly at the viewer. Renoir.Édouard Manet. which was an affront to the propriety of the time. i will send separate attachment in another email) . which casts almost no shadows: in fact. its juxtaposition of a female nude with fully dressed men sparked controversy. was accentuated by the familiarity of the figures. casually lunching with two fully dressed men. This impression is reinforced by the use of broad "photographic" light. The shock value of a woman.

1905–1906 Henri Matisse did several versions of his Joy of Life painting. His paintings are also intended to convey social commentary. At the same time. He continuously experiments in his manner of applying paint. flat. with some dancing.. The orange dress of the young girl running (to the right) has a blue-tinted shadow. the artist has used bold. contrasting colors to create a work with much impact. Pablo Picasso. they still seem alone in their concision of form . by a series of dots (or blobs) of both primary colors so that they are optically intermingled in the spectator’s eye (rather than being pre-mixed). never their personalities.Georges Seurat. while the couple in the lower right are embracing each other. A monkey in French (and female) is known as “singesse. It is clear that Seurat never followed any of the popular theories rigidly. 1907 . they achieve maximum luminosity. The skirt of the woman in the center with a parasol is painted in an orange-pink hue. In this version. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon). Divisionism is a broader term meaning that it is possible to obtain brighter hues of color such as green.” denoting a prostitute. Notice the lighter yellowish “halo” separating the skirt from the foreground grass. A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. even strokes are laid over one another. His simplified figures with strong outlines are all finding their own peace in their own way. in the sunlit grass. It casts a blue shadow. 1884 1886 is a Pointillism the technique of using dots of pure color in such a way that. particularly just behind her skirt. Le Bonheur de Vivre (The Joy of Life). orange and purple. No figure encroaches on another's space: all coexist in peace. The Grande Jatte makes use of symbols. Her red jacket is seen against bright green grass. for example. short. seen at the appropriate distance.alone but not lonely. Henri Matisse. always their shapes. Even if the people in the park are pairs or groups. concentrating on the landscape of the park before focusing on the people. Seurat defines form by brushstrokes: close. The skirt of the woman with a parasol walking beside a man is predominantly purple — so it seems — but is made up of a myriad of hues. parallel strokes define the contour of the woman’s bustle. others relaxing.