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Data Tables

II
PART

1Population and Human Well-Being 2Food and Water 3Economics and Trade 4Institutions and Governance

WORLD RESOURCES 2008 Data Tables Each edition of World Resources includes a statistical appendix. and payments to home countries made by laborers working 204 . district. Similarly. economic. reliable data do not exist on the actual environmental impacts of agriculture. Table 2: Food and Water attempts to show the drivers of global food and water consumption and the consequences for both the environment and human well-being. region. online resource that highlights the environmental. population growth. water. Recent international attention to the issue of global poverty through the MDGs and the HDI has lead to a substantial improvement in the quality of these indicators in the past decade. and environmental dimensions. The data tables in this edition of World Resources are a subset of a much larger data collection available online through the World Resources Institute’s EarthTrends website (http://earthtrends. education. Nonetheless. while fish capture can be measured. social. Unfortunately. In an increasingly interdependent. The website offers the public a comprehensive collection of vital statistics. such as land degradation and nutrient pollution. and governance conditions. economic growth. along with some basic financial flows: private investment. and poverty. These data tables support the volume’s analysis by quantifying the poor’s assets in terms of food. exports. This section presents some of the data required to build a basic picture of the state of the Earth in its human. maps. EarthTrends is a free. a single number that captures the level of income inequality within a country. The main text of the book explores how the strategy of using the environmental assets of the poor to raise household income can be scaled up to achieve a major reduction of poverty. country. or worldwide. and HIV/AIDS prevalence—are measured under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). foreign aid. economic. and economic trends that shape our world. labor.org). which were established in 2000 to track global progress toward eradicating poverty and improving human well-being. it is impossible to quantify on a country-by-country basis the extent of fisheries depletion. and fertilizer—can be compared across countries with a reasonable level of accuracy. a compilation of country-level data culled from a variety of sources. and graphics viewable by watershed. and human capital while measuring background demographic. Two other indicators—life expectancy and literacy rates—are elements of the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index (HDI). we can show the approximate availability of water resources and loosely tie these issues to human well-being with the composite Water Poverty Index. globalized world. The four tables in World Resources 2008 were compiled to reflect the volume’s focus on managing ecosystems to reduce poverty. which measures achievement of development goals related to quality of life. this table displays the Gini Index. Three of these indicators—poverty rates. Water resources indicators are particularly sparse. Table 1: Population and Human Well-Being contains seven core indicators on population. The intensity of use of agricultural inputs—in terms of land. water. Table 3: Economics and Trade shows the size and sectoral distribution of national economies.wri. health. infant mortality. a picture of the whole is needed to understand the interactions of human development. and the environment. In addition.

many of the enabling governance conditions for scaling up the environmental assets of the poor cannot be measured comprehensively on a national level. Regional summations and weighted averages calculated with only the 155 countries listed in these data tables will therefore not match the published totals. General Notes The World Resources 2008 data tables present information for 155 countries. and high-income countries). medium-.. A full listing is available online at http://earthtrends. Table 4: Institutions and Governance measures. functioning property markets. Except where identified with a footnote. In order to capture a country’s investment in future growth and development.org/searchable_db/general_notes. Except where identified by a footnote. and the availability of data. and the damages of pollution in addition to standard economic savings measures. Therefore. communities. access to resources. I I I The regional totals published here use data from all 222 countries and territories in the World Resources/EarthTrends database (some of these countries are omitted from the current tables). land area. depletion of natural resources. the governing conditions that need to be in place for sustainable development: personal and political freedom. Comprehensive technical notes are available in the pages following each data table. Country groupings are based on lists developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (for developed and developing countries). responsible government spending. Specifically. Please review the technical notes for further consideration of data reliability. Many of these indicators are inherently subjective and can only be captured through an index calculation. In addition. and digital access are discouraged. or the distribution of land and other resources to individuals. (0) indicates a value less than zero and greater than negative one half. as with the former Soviet republics). These countries were selected from the 191 official member states of the United Nations based on their population levels.” in a data column signifies that data are not available or are not relevant (for example. and the World Resources Institute (for regional classifications). world totals are presented as calculated by the original data source (which may include countries not listed in WRI’s database). Unfortunately. original sources are listed after each data table. Many more countries are included in the EarthTrends online database. rigid country comparisons of indices on freedom. and the state. Missing values are not imputed. at the national level. country status has changed. Weighted averages of ratios use the denominator of the ratio as the weight. and access to information.wri. Negative values are shown in parentheses.abroad. the World Bank (for low-. 0 appearing in a table indicates a value of either zero or less than one half the unit of measure used in the table. Adjusted Net Savings—also known as Genuine Savings or Green GDP—calculates the “true” rate of savings of a country’s economy by taking into account human capital. Adjusted Net Savings is included in this table. the data are not shown. regional totals are calculated using regions designated by the World Resources Institute. no data exist to measure security of tenure. Totals represent either a summation or a weighted average of available data. I I I 205 . Regional totals are published only if more than 85 percent of the relevant data are available for a particular region. When available data are judged too weak to allow for any meaningful comparison across countries. corruption. several general notes apply to all the data tables (except where noted otherwise): I “.

.1 3 0.9 28 0....224 4....... .249 6. .877 92..422 17.434 63.. .599 79. . . ..1 26 .1 59 0. 26 2000 f 2 2 35 2002 f .475 58.. ...346 10. 43 1998 f 6 42 40 2002 d 7 43 33 2003 d 2 25 42 2002 d 21 59 41 1998 d 2 2 37 2003 d .. .491.. Rep Montegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Serbia {g} Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Middle East & N.294 10. 99 100 . .179 10. World Bank Human Health Total Population Estimates and Projections (thousands of people) {a} 2007 2030 8..411 5..328... .1 3 0.1 57 0. 5 < 0.. . FYR Moldova.925 6.070 71. 29 2000 f 2 2 30 2002 d .. .1 34 0.929 29. .643 9. 14 . . 34 2004 d . .190 3. .335 1. Middle East) Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Georgia India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Korea....283 706.348 11.169.. . . 87 94 99 99 g 98 99 .627 279. .1 63 0.. . .960 122. .993 47..666 127.4 81 < 0. 64 82 13 43 60 80 59 83 70 84 64 84 96 99 85 95 91 94 . . .1 74 0. . .1 75 1.160 8. .. . .4 5 0. .. 34 2000 f .. 30 2003 d 2 3 26 1996 f 2 2 28 1998 d .2 43 0..599 158.389 40..761 1. . . 99 100 .736 9.....5 79 0.. . International Poverty and Income Equality Gini Index {c} Percent of Population (0 = Survey Living on Less Than {b} perfect $1 per day $2 per day Year equality) .966 3.726 75.012 7. ..3 3 0.. . .224 39.. .629 3.375 110.2 4 0. 2 14 40 1999 d .277 2....735 37.. 98 99 100 100 100 100 94 98 98 99 ...099 4. . 76 . .301 5. . .067 649.361 8.630 1. ....768 Adult Literacy Rate 2000–2004 (percent) Women Men 77 87 71 86 99 100 98 100 ...647 66. Africa Afghanistan Algeria Egypt Iran. 2 2 32 1998 f 2 21 30 2003 d 27 74 35 2002 d 2 9 49 1997 f 11 45 33 2002 d ..5 ..794 3..468 4. 39 1997 f 2 13 31 2003 d 2 12 40 2002 d .653 7.186 9.458..204 48. .. ..505.467 9.858 44.. 27 0.390 5.. .682 9.681 28.. . 33 1995 f .639 6. 26 2001 d 2 6 29 2003 d 2 2 29 2001 d 2 2 25 1996 f .....769 66.. and Cultural Organization... .. 40 66 74 87 69 87 74 86 65 83 80 95 . 22 . .264 3.. 2 7 40 2000 d 3 19 44 2003 d .5 9 0.0 7 < 0. . .279 46..671.273 4.....023 2..1 18 ..2 102 . 31 1999 f .053 60. 2 10 31 2004 d ..3 56 0. .1 6 < 0....554 2..366 38..224 5..419 17.2 16 0.012 3. ..2 5 0. .1 10 .. . .1 14 1..727.967 118. 36 2000 f 2 5 38 2003 d 2 8 36 2003 d 2 2 39 2003 d 2 21 33 2003 d ....965 6. .388 598 613 16. .469 61. .4 16 < 0.421 4. .002 1.665 217. . . 4 0....932 658 851 14.. 34 78 42 2004 d.434 48. .208 91.935 3. .860 142.5 39 < 0.196 41.. 98 99 61 77 85 92 98 98 86 94 35 63 36 63 93 93 89 97 89 92 99 100 91 95 98 99 .907 3. ...252 33.528 10.1 2 0.1 65 < 0. . . .1 62 0..372 35.002 2.780 3. ... .199 87. . . .. .436 5..859 8.569 27.901 44. .376 6.. ...270 2.689 8.1 6 0.444 20.519 8.277 5.. 27 2000 f .1 14 1..2 i 165 < 0.. .327 12..499 123.343 5. 35 2000 f .353 10.838 8.457 10. .595 3.. Islamic Rep Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Oman Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Rep Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen 206 . 8 . .698 5..2 3 0.. .1 12 < 0.865 24. ....438 18.1 42 .205 38... 16 45 33 1998 d World Asia (excl.442 5. .. 64 85 87 95 . .1 12 0. .. .1 4 0..395 3.. . .146 4.6 3 0. 26 0.. . . .884 69.528 5. United Nations Children’s Fund. . .8 7 0.. Dem People's Rep Korea..3 13 < 0. ..607 21.572 35.119 10.145 53....1 3 < 0.1 4 0.4 4 0.. Rep Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Rep Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Viet Nam Europe Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia. ... . 36 0.030 9...155 28.1 31 0... .141 4. 94 99 98 99 97 99 . 20 0..142 23. ..218 4.605 82..1 . 4 0.915 10. 36 1999 f 2 20 2004 . 25 1997 f 2 8 36 2003 d . 21 .798 56.147 11.226 3.1 41 0. 16 . 34 2000 f 2 5 28 2003 d . .498 104...790 25..168 10. 28 2000 f ..276 87... 9 .299 20..380 6..270 27. . .902 240..202 19.1 18 1.1 10 0.2 4 0.2 6 1...707 6.317 6. . 24 69 47 2004 d 17 74 31 2002 d 15 43 45 2003 d .. .. . 75 78 81 81 82 68 79 69 44 72 71 71 60 81 73 78 72 74 71 76 73 74 74 72 79 63 Percent Of Infant Mortality Adults Ages 15–49 Living Rate With HIV (per 1..388 4.. .. . .160 5.. Life Expactancy at Birth (years) 2005– 2010 67 70 72 68 64 66 60 73 71 65 71 83 67 67 79 66 64 74 67 62 64 66 72 80 72 67 71 63 67 74 75 76 80 69 79 75 73 76 77 78 71 79 81 79 80 73 82 79 81 73 73 74 69 75 80 80 76 78 73 66 . 25 1993 f 2 16 34 2003 d .2 7 0. . .728 5. 2 15 35 1995 d 3 44 34 2000 d 2 7 43 1998 d . 39 2001 f 2 7 39 2003 d .1 3 < 0.. 2 31 34 2003 d 4 33 37 2001 d 41 84 33 2000 d .6 23 0. .1 54 < 0. .753 22.519 2.4 13 1..3 12 < 0..3 4 0.082 35. . . . 94 98 .. . .. .742 163.2 56 0.000 live births) or AIDS 2005 2005 52 1 ..259 2. 99 100 ...529 74.. .447 31.. 100 100 .555 4. . 25 2000 f .484 8.104 46..317. ..1 25 < 0. .1 4 0... .217 2.924 8.602 1....851 4.162 460.1 4 0..1 4 0..314 19.1 58 0.. 34 2000 f 2 2 27 2002 d ..748 231. 48 73 87 94 . 5 . .. 96 98 99 100 94 99 .3 10 0..429 731..... United Nations Educational.. . 33 2000 f . e 10 35 47 2004 d 7 25 40 2003 d 34 80 37 2004 d 8 52 34 2002 d .807 1.. . .877 57.1 28 < 0.. . .224 48..142 26..038 1.2 15 < 0. .259 301 344 4.623 10.252 15.928 9.016 1. Scientific.1 98 1. .. .. .390 3.... .. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS..1 Population and Human Well-Being Sources: United Nations Population Division. ..

1 56 83 50 1996 North America 338..652 54 83 43 154 3.525 13. 61 84 3.1 23 58 43 1997 Lesotho 2.4 57 55 1..unicef.343 6. 47 1993 Kenya 37.. .1 28 56 61 1993 Burkina Faso 14.8 11 34 58 2000 Sudan 38. .397 31. Gambia 1. .679 90 92 75 22 0. . ... .3 . ..468 5.550 54 75 48 79 14.2 . .183 50.....000 With HIV Percent of Population (years) (0 = (thousands of people) {a} (percent) live births) or AIDS Living on Less Than {b} Survey 2005– perfect 2007 2030 Women Men $1 per day $2 per day Year 2005 2005 2010 equality) 1..488 91 93 76 19 0. 72 20 0.187 . .236 81 84 49 55 18....332 90 91 73 26 j . . Measures the percent of the population living below $1.. . ...8 .479 99 99 g 76 5 . . 39 2003 Guinea-Bissau 1.. .. .pdf. . .. d.. .0 64 87 51 2004 Zimbabwe 13.268 11. .714 2. Data for Serbia include the country of Montenegro (these countries were a single nation from 2003 to 2006).3 i . 0.782 235... Estimates are for North Sudan only.826 366..549 26.603 7..6 11 31 52 2003 Suriname 458 481 87 92 70 30 1.. . .709 2..5 58 90 35 2000 Togo 6..127 8.635 19. . 0.646 60 71 46 118 3.691 63 75 70 32 0.0 27 72 40 2003 Burundi 8.6 57 75 63 1989 Somalia 8.. Belize 288 413 . a.. .317. 60 97 2.657 37.... 2004 Sub-Saharan Africa 807.179 4..925 23.004 6. 36 1997 Papua New Guinea 6. . Côte d'Ivoire 19.3 45 79 41 1998 Guinea 9.5 .922 17.341 16. . i.7 19 40 48 2003 Oceania 34.709 87 87 72 26 1.778 96 96 79 8 0. 53 109 .454 65..534 97 97 75 15 0.6 35 56 74 1993 Niger 14.856 39 69 58 78 3...9 63.358 82 80 51 87 24. .org/files/Table9.1 21 63 39 2004 Mali 12. .935 . . .548 58 77 52 79 6.331 9. 70 17 2. .126 100 100 78 6 0. .. . ... Based on per capita income data.5 2 6 45 2003 Venezuela 27.124 4. 51 1996 Solomon Islands 496 762 .842 15 43 57 150 1.343 4. .353. ..429 95 96 g 79 ...337 23. ... 44 81 20. . .4 2 6 43 1999 Paraguay 6.. c. .6 ..3 55 88 42 1998 Cameroon 18. Congo.358 ..8 i ..538 62.831 405..869 70 84 67 57 .5 2 14 46 2004 Mexico 106..074 2.287 ..944 43 60 64 78 0. . .. 35 1994 Fiji 839 918 .08 per day and $2.725 16.. Based on per capita consumption or expenditure data..4 14 30 58 2003 Peru 27. Uruguay 3. America & Caribbean 188.636 122..762 70 78 54 79 6.WORLD RESOURCES 2008 Human Health Infant International Poverty and Income Equality Percent Of Life Adult Mortality Adults Ages Expactancy Gini Total Population Literacy Rate Rate 15–49 Living at Birth Index {c} Estimates and Projections 2000–2004 (per 1..411. ... ..1 60 88 47 2000 Senegal 12... Benin 9. 48 133 0.226 30. .. Medium variant population projections.9 14 32 55 2002 Haiti 9. 41 2000 C.478 34.15 per day at 1993 prices..406 477.2 . .734 54 81 47 129 3..1 61 86 51 1995 Nigeria 148. 33 2000 United States 305. New Zealand 4... 58 50 2...554 29 51 63 77 0. . .. .598 12.750 7.903.. . 67 47 2. .5 . . .760 12.6 7 17 51 2004 Bolivia 9.407 77 77 73 30 0.9 .308...1 15 49 45 2002 Equatorial Guinea 507 854 81 93 52 123 3. The Gini Index measures the equality of income distribution within the population (0=perfect equality. .535 128.354 21.7 26 63 39 2000 Mozambique 21. ..433 .149 93 93 74 18 0. ...851 8.. United Rep 40.6 7 18 59 2003 Ecuador 13..876 39.3 3 10 50 2003 Cuba 11.866 9.4 59 83 50 1998 Ghana 23.5 61 85 48 2001 Malawi 13. . .695 3... .795 95 95 79 11 0.683 32. .5 .024 30..425 Angola 17. ..791 .088 39 61 48 118 7. 46 124 3.106 10.7 .250 12 27 55 120 1. . .. .531 47.3 18 41 54 1998 Guyana 738 660 ...884 61.799 13 41 51 124 3..699 15. Central America and the Caribbean.743 25..8 54 78 59 2001 Honduras 7. .1 23 42 60 2002 Brazil 191.. Dominican Rep 9. 23 78 30 2000 Gabon 1. ..560 58.7 36 72 40 2001 Mauritania 3...076 23 48 57 89 1.903 35. .. .....240 43.855 . 55 81 5.678 84 87 53 46 19.9 17 56 41 2001 Sierra Leone 5.105 .400 ..370 16..781 19.033 16. ..3 3 12 46 2004 Nicaragua 5. .931 65 77 59 74 0.797 . . ..052 . .287 1. Uganda 30.. please consult the technical notes for more information..1 .9 .1 36 74 47 2002 Namibia 2.994 . . .483 .9 19 41 52 2002 Guatemala 13.. ..577 53.5 15 36 54 2003 Jamaica 2..6 12 39 39 1992 South America 383. b. .. . Tanzania..895 .564 82 94 71 23 0.. 69 16 0.8 31 74 37 2003 Botswana 1.. 80 5 0.193 ..461 53 70 g 51 101 6.. .099 137. j.628 . .1 .892 60 77 50 87 5...590 . 100=perfect inequality)..882 2. Eritrea 4.. 57 60 7. .125 90 92 76 22 0. . 78 6 0.2 36 56 63 1995 Liberia 3.. a list of countries classified in each region is avilable at http://www... Regional total are calculated by UNICEF and combine South America.034 81 93 66 52 0.. 46 157 .008 2.. . .. . South Africa 48. Congo 3. 81 5 0.349 16.770 ...1 .. .924 86 74 73 17 1..768 5. .585 10. Australia 20.. d d d d d d DATA TABLE 1: POPULATION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING d d d d d d d d d d d d d f d d d d d d d d d d f f f f f f f f d d d f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f d 207 . Madagascar 19..2 .. e.331 1. ..3 2 6 55 2003 Colombia 46.1 i 41 72 .4 .516 62 78 53 76 6.. . 72 23 0.4 17 51 45 2001 Central African Rep 4.857 8.. g.784 26.1 3 16 52 2004 El Salvador 6.592 24 47 43 165 1.. Developing 5.298 80 80 70 31 1.9 7 18 56 2003 Trinidad and Tobago 1.170 18 43 56 98 1.214 34 65 45 115 10.487 88 90 74 26 j .379 19....... Costa Rica 4. .. . . . 47 100 3. . Poverty Rates for Cambodia were obtained from a 1997 survey.2 45 80 43 2001 Panama 3.340 3. .232 52 67 50 114 3..6 . Ethiopia 83. 42 100 16..508 17.. 76 14 0. 64 24 .156 57..9 71 92 44 2003 Rwanda 9. .8 ..234 50 66 60 68 2..9 .505 15 29 52 96 2. Canada 32...3 .5 8 21 57 2004 Chile 16.333 1.. .. f. Dem Rep 62.1 .117 ..824 .870 60 76 42 102 17.. . Regional totals are calculated by UNAIDS.093 226. .7 67 84 61 1993 Chad 10. 46 2002 Zambia 11. 76 15 2.. .7 .252 90 74 43 102 23.. Argentina 39.. h.577 93 93 73 17 0.446 52 h 71 h 59 62 1.791 236. 81 5 0.262 28..480 89 88 72 31 0. ....206 93 94 g 76 . Developed 1.

adjusting data when necessary. are used because they take into account local prices and goods and services not traded internationally. For estimates for 2005 and earlier. The United Nations Population Division prepares estimates and projections based on data from national statistical sources.1 Population and Human Well-Being: Technical Notes DEFINITIONS AND METHODOLOGY Total Population refers to the de facto population of a country. starting with the poorest individual or household. Infant Mortality Rate is the probability of a child dying between birth and 1 year of age expressed per 1. reliability varies among countries. If every person in a country earned the same income. Estimates for a single point in time and the starting date of the epidemic were used to plot an epidemic curve charting the spread of HIV in a particular country. When census and survey data are not available. whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS. The future projections reported here assume medium fertility (the UN “medium-fertility assumption”). produced at the World Bank. simple statement on their everyday life. Once compiled. The data on mortality of children in infancy are typically obtained from civil registration records on deaths and births. new survey results are compiled and released annually in the World Bank’s World Development Indicators. A score of zero implies perfect equality while a score of 100 implies perfect inequality. which make these data as comparable. and. estimates are derived from surveys rather than censuses.” Population Living on Less Than $2 per day is the percentage of the population of a country living on less than $2. Volume III: Analytical Report. labor force surveys. especially when countries lack a civil registration system or have one that does not achieve full coverage of all vital events. oral rehydration therapy. see World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. For more information on methodology. the United Nations Population Division (UNPD) compiles and evaluates census and survey results from all countries. Survey Year shows the year that both the poverty rate and income inequality data were collected in each country. the Gini index is compiled from household survey data. and HIV/AIDS infection rates are published every two years by UNPD and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Life Expectancy at Birth is the average number of years that a newborn baby is expected to live if the age-specific mortality rates effective at the year of birth apply throughout his or her lifetime. other sources. and agricultural surveys when they are available. if all income were earned by one person. UN demographic models are widely accepted and use well-understood principles. and antibiotics. Data for this age group capture those in their most sexually active years. In countries highly affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. and income below this level is referred to as “extreme poverty. the Gini Index would be zero. This amount is used because it is comparable to the poverty lines used in many developing countries. In many developing countries. PPP exchange rates. The United Nations Educational. for high-income countries the index is calculated directly from the Luxemburg Income Study database. F R E Q U E N C Y O F U P D AT E B Y D ATA P R O V I D E R S Country-level estimates of population. equivalent to $2 in 1985 prices when adjusted for purchasing power parity.000 live births. International Poverty Line data are based on nationally representative primary household surveys conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies and obtained from government statistical offices and World Bank country departments. and migration. Adjustments incorporate data from civil registrations (in developed countries). Literacy data are updated by UNESCO as new estimates are made available. 208 . All future population projections are based on estimates of the 2005 base year population and incorporate the three main components of population growth: fertility. employment surveys. For some developing countries. Most literacy data are collected intermittently during national population censuses and supplemented by household surveys.08 a day at 1993 international prices. Surveys were conducted between 1993 and 2004. income or expenditure distribution data are plotted on a Lorenz curve. population models based on information from similar countries. life expectancy. The indicator is used as a measure of children’s well-being and the level of effort being made to maintain child health: more than three quarters of child deaths in the developing world are caused by diseases that can be prevented or cured by low-cost interventions such as immunization. mainly population censuses and demographic surveys. These estimates include all people with HIV infection. expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. for developing countries the availability of detailed information on fertility and mortality is limited and the data on international migration flows are generally inadequate. industry surveys. civil registration records are incomplete. in thousands of people. literacy rates for a specific country are estimated based on neighboring countries with similar characteristics. when necessary. In these instances. however. Although estimates are based on incomplete data and projections cannot factor in unforeseen events (such as famine or wars). consistent across countries. the Gini Index would be 100. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) uses these data to graph a logistic regression model and create the estimates shown here. are consulted. Poverty rates and income equality data are updated irregularly as surveys are conducted in individual countries. The Gini index is calculated by compiling income (or expenditure) distribution data. using an estimation method consistent with that applied for developing countries. Also. who are alive at the end of the year specified. and reliable as possible. several types of surveys may be utilized to collect birth and death histories of sample populations to fill gaps in knowledge. equivalent to $1 in 1985 prices when adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). For developing countries. Percent of Adults Ages 15–49 Living With HIV or AIDS is the estimated percentage of people aged 15–49 living with HIV/AIDS in 2005. which illustrates the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients. population surveys (in developing countries). estimates of the impact of the disease are made explicitly by projecting the yearly incidence of HIV infection. Gini Index is a measure of income inequality that describes the deviation of income or consumption distribution from perfect equality. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) publishes the most recent infant mortality data in their annual State of the World’s Children report. When needed.15 a day at 1993 international prices. The Gini index is calculated as the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical (45-degree) line of absolute equality. these curves are used to create the estimates shown here. Population Living on Less Than $1 per day is the percentage of the population of a country living on less than $1. and a ratio can be calculated directly. as of July 1 of the year indicated. Scientific. Measuring infection within this age range also allows greater comparability for populations with different age structures. mortality. D ATA R E L I A B I L I T Y A N D C A U T I O N A RY N O T E S Total Population and Life Expectancy: Since demographic parameters are estimated on a country-by-country basis. earlier censuses. Adult Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the men or women older than the age of 15 who can both read and write with understanding a short.

When census and survey data are not available for a particular country.unaids. estimates are sometimes made based on neighboring countries. Online at http://go. 2007. Infant Mortality: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). there is an ongoing debate as to how well they capture poverty across nations. though familiar with the basics of reading and writing. indicators are still not strictly comparable across countries.un. UNESCO’s definition of literacy does not include people who. whether income or consumption is used). National census and survey data are typically collected only once every decade.org/B53SONGPA0. Literacy Rates: United Nations Educational. based on the sometimes incorrect assumption that universal primary education means universal literacy. Dataset on CD-ROM. Literacy Statistics.Adult Literacy Rate: The availability and quality of national statistics on literacy vary widely. 2006. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics. and individuals within a household may differ in age and consumption needs. Online at http://www. Consumption is usually a much better welfare indicator. Percent of Adults Living with HIV or AIDS: Data reliability varies on a countryby-country basis. Estimates are expected to change significantly in the next release of the World Development Indicators. DC: World Bank. In addition. Table 1. Surveys can differ in the type of information requested (for example. World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision. World Bank.unesco. New York: United Nations. the data used to derive these estimates come from a wide variety of sources of disparate quality: some countries have several sources of data covering the same period.org/en/HIV_data/2006GlobalReport/default. safe water. New York: UNICEF. do not have the skills to function at a reasonable level in their own society. However. A more detailed analysis of the collection methodology and reliability of HIV/AIDS estimates is available in a series of seven articles published online in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections in August 2004. In addition. 209 . and consistency of a country’s surveillance system. Online at http://www. Differences also exist in the relative importance of consumption of nonmarket goods. Geneva: UNAIDS. the values shown here fall between these two estimates. coverage. Paris: UNESCO. A concerted effort has been made by UNICEF and its partners to develop a consistent and transparent methodology. UNAIDS estimates low and high values for the total number of infections in its 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Values should be treated as rough statistical approximations of the number of people earning or consuming at a given level rather than a certain prognosis of how many people are poor.asp. many industrialized countries have stopped collecting literacy data in recent years. In addition. 2006. Percent of Adults Living with HIV or AIDS: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Gini Index and International Poverty Rates: Development Data Group. SOURCES Population and Life Expectancy: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. Actual definitions of adult literacy are not strictly comparable among countries.org/esa/population/ordering. 2007. other countries have many fewer sources and/or have sources of poor quality. or sanitation. The households that are surveyed can differ in size and in the extent of income sharing among members.org/sowc07. International Poverty Rates and Gini Index: Despite recent improvements in survey methodology and consistency. World Education Indicators. Washington. Scientific.org. Infant Mortality: These data tend to be of poorer quality than under-5 mortality data. Online at http://www.htm. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. 2006.uis.worldbank. International poverty rates do not capture other elements of poverty. Some countries equate persons with no schooling with illiterates or change definitions between censuses. The State of the World’s Children 2007: The Double Dividend of Gender Equality. allowing for data crossreferencing. particularly in developing countries.unicef. inaccuracies in birth and death totals in civil registries (with death figures typically less complete than those of births) may result in an underestimation of a country’s infant mortality rate. including lack of access to health care. The extent of uncertainty depends primarily on the type of epidemic and the quality. which will incorporate purchasing power estimates benchmarked to 2005 rather than 1993. Online at http://www. 2007 World Development Indicators. Although the $1/day and $2/day poverty lines are commonly used. education.

897 1.511 54 30 3. . Rep Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Rep Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Viet Nam Europe Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia.169 108 94 20 3.840 21 7 2.019 . Africa Afghanistan Algeria Egypt Iran.862 65 74 6..798 140 1. World Health Organization..513.824 62 3.050 (18) 25. .840 10 6.141 33 1. .464 11 4.397.035 56 476 32.837 59 4.289 61 35 15..948 .601 56 69 6.184 .5 3..356.. 14.104 67 35 12.653 66 104 10.5 3.338 7 19 2.403 .5 3. .500 94 5. 110 20.799 23 1.044 48 7.473 8 20 2.450 28 1.114 (26) 5.. 25 7.230 (30) 210 (45) 3..5 3.043 93 27..764 63 209 19.406 60 1.644 77 1. 100 100 100 100 100 100 99 91 100 100 94 79 63 31 88 80 99 97 99 84 97 50 100 100 99 91 ..874 28 6 3.356 8 4 3.837 55 1.409 535 17.342 34 947.601 5 46.327 (24) 7. 6 3.121 70 1.784 6 1.357 19 24 2.312 17 25 2.328 12 3 3...035 16 < 2.125 51 63 14.222 (40) 4. 147 2.148 16 .763 (7) 1.394 ... .423. Islamic Rep Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Oman Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Rep Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen 210 .870 175 736 16 130.681 15 15 2.345 77 .109 69 4. 1 29. 100 .818 76 7.246 118 30 5 29. 950 0 2. 8 1..552 32 < 2.697 9 949.276 71 32 16.390 19 3. .061 18 5 3.680 10 6 3...000 (23) 126.818 33 545.333 13 216.957 100 300 (12) 426..665 80 .250 39 27 2.921 (21) 151.178 (25) 262.228 8.326 126 521 6 3.376 53 1.951 8 21. 10. .133 48 5. 97 88 100 100 100 100 100 . 30 38.956 5 481 23 3..398 4 15. 43 770..435 3 207.771 27 1.482 110 .555 26 1.098 7 6 .096 9 4 .667 77 52 12.5 2.099 61 13 9.5 3.161 68 13 1.525 178 114 4 41.145. 78 9.5 3. .648 (26) 2. 12 2..980 46 111..736 366 11. .2 Food and Water Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 50 9.577 61 1 135 56 50 2.490 . 2.795 20 7 3.143 37 < 2.857 78 204 3.238 23 < 2.950 .465 139 24.033 (47) 9.514 3...449 72 657 1.744 8 74.051 69 554.375 34 173.773 4 1.236 92 .5 3.747 29 < 2.280 64 25 4.217 15 4.. United Nations Children’s Fund Water Resources Intensity of Agricultural Inputs Labor Agricultural (percent of Land {a} Fertilizer Water workforce in (1.928 31 63.768 21 < 2.290 61 6 1.801 29 1.5 2.353 58 479 5.984 85 3. 2. 98 74 92 48 98 100 93 54 95 75 99 80 100 .310 52 7.000 144 Actual Renewable Water Resources {b} Water Per Capita Poverty 3 Total Index (m per 3 person) 2002 (km ) 54.193 3 30 .472 36 < 2.001 137 617.247 11 < 2..376 221 14 4 8.019 187 8.541 143 7 10 1.167 1 329 102 2.979 70 50 1.503 11 14.137 ..5 3..300 53 32.5 3.316 20 24 2. 99 56 .370 452 0 9 15.014 (15) 5.582 91 21 11 2.940 22 12 2.648 5 30. 6.353 9 198.484 31 < 2.667 (19) 27 (93) 107.203.351 65 110 7.476 7 192.356 4 17..5 3.732 33 < 2.354 72 140 3.154 119 1.425 13 22 2.313 54 210 7.016 (18) 2.054 20 < 2.821 64 334 53..359 31 18. 21 2.057 25 10.537 26 9..118 22 3 2. 42 13.734 3 3.825 25 9.232 54 95 42.829 2.317 .589 (37) 712.355 13 588 13 16.097 14 366 132 2.791 8 552 2.056 43 559 237 6. 70 1. 2003 Percent of Population (kcal/person/day) Percent That is Underfrom Animal nourished Products Total 2002–2004 2.040 186 261 4 16..014 28 3 3.907 10 56 2.528 7 353 20 1.020 8 38 Fisheries Production Percent Total Change Production Since in 2005 1995 (metric tons) 157.046 20.424.970 7 26.071 80 5. . 2 240 54 1 148 46 0 7 54 4 1..5 3.271 (17) 3.5 2. 100 100 .557 64 174 19.208 36 < 2.859 54 580 22.600 79 2.283 44 4.547 .5 3.865 102 510 9 2.455 75 58 6.537 253 5. 1.372 56 16 2. Keele University.625 (54) 100.840 15 4 3.210 .696 .521 .275 41 < 2.912 43 32.703 35 9 2..517 46 3.966 . . 29 895 46 1 369 59 2 93 53 26 1. 17 2.259 .160 1 141. 99 94 100 100 100 100 100 100 99 96 100 97 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 .352 (81) 3.383 4 352.214 26 102.219 69 112 2. 14 423 50 58 759 58 138 1. .416 6 22 1.5 3.717 32 < 2.531.487 128 4.729 16 11 3. .658 136 236 3 829 436 9 10 2.012 60 4.902 367 4.000 95 3..539 69 382 81. 55 1.074 7 13. Rep Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Serbia {d} Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Middle East & N..366 26 < 2.894..166 118 96 3 1.554 32 27.405 58 77 3.136 (25) 146. 98 87 99 82 98 93 100 100 71 65 World Asia (excl.255 .871 64 3.273.. .242 22 .137 108 .579 (32) 48.5 3.200 88 1.302 118 527.270 28 1. 3.022 82 2.277 10 108 9 5.711.905 10 154 0 19.837 (43) 164.289 58 47.582 23 < 2.634 31 < 2..500 3 196 22 11. .164 17 3 3.858 25 6 2.071.886 77 62 1. 100 96 .751 61 38 9.666 23 < 2.5 3.275 207 2.308 25 < 2..131 72 54 7.839 66 39. .463 101 515..623 37 < 2.... 8 510 334 .447 54 223 1.800 37 1.5 3.433.5 3.403 221 .5 2.771 3 15. .337 11 < 2.885 24 8 2..383 18 3. 4 5.885 27 4 3.329 3.5 2.798 113 4..072 (17) 6.006 23 2.779 27 7 2.281 .048 . . .981 37 0 .885 153 134 11 1.557 26 6.082 (22) 480..004 619 1.5 3.931 60 75 2.472 (5) 4.5 3.066 .015 .797 63 106 23.000 279 60.628 19 889.5 3.545 34 < 2.353 61 170 566.222 26 < 2. 12.116 11 6 .595 434 .5 3.. 100 98 100 100 100 . 2.239 (36) 2.210 (36) 842...354 28 <2.421 28 < 2..852 18 5 2.5 3. 11.. 1.690 209 200 3 17. 2 2.793 10.314 55 5 442 51 229 3.866 (20) 13.999 52 585 .. 65 2. FYR Moldova.450 31 < 2.783 49 91 5.838 12.178 6 33 3.5 3.000 ha) (kg/ha) (m3/ha) agriculture) 2003 2003 2000 2004 4.675 26 < 2.. 2. Dem People's Rep Korea.356 130 6.268 25 9.526 46 2.995 (33) 2.686 .554 21 < 2.057 14 4 3..480.690.206 56 1 99 .630..743..372 27 < 2.407 45 12.398 ..323.670 53 2..956 306 47 2 460.448 62 21 3.668 13 9 2.778 55 16. 97 .939 .812 122 3. .651 8 10. 2..754 8 5. Middle East) Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Georgia India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Korea.215.622 15 5.850 3 1.974 66 480.250 46 4.350 4 1.436 (28) 31..431 115 1.5 2.570 (14) 263. 7 4...511 31 < 2.867 18 3 2.790 (16) 5.001 226 775 2 8.074 150 1..211 8.051 57 0 31 52 4 184 44 Use of an Improved Water Source (percent of population) 2004 Urban Rural 95 73 93 76 99 80 95 59 82 72 86 60 64 35 93 67 96 67 95 83 87 69 100 100 97 73 100 100 97 71 98 66 79 43 100 96 87 30 80 77 96 89 96 89 87 82 100 .870 .014 61 18 1.566 .842 61 891 10.293 2 3..019 2 1.441 65 430 3.480 15 18 .787 46 Food Security and Nutrition Calorie Supply.851 257 c 2.425 (61) 3..689 (2) 274.487 51 1..646 17 9 2.343 68 154 1..230 150 7.483 (6) 330..800 168 1..777 10 150. .270 118 18 7 2.096 (21) 909.. 3.173 18 4 2.006 18 180..321 16 2.617 13 16 3.809 17 14 2.217. 91 16 100 88 99 86 100 99 .854 (58) 218.5 2.070 505 8.392 59 410 6.673 (17) 90.912 5 2.466 169 42.080 88 15.055 10 4 3..767 (29) 9.954 31 3 3.187 73 191 3.200 130 16. 2. 10 2. 11 3.784 21 434 23 40..507 31...891 5 6 2.923 580 2.324 6 3.485 65 212 9.495 30 < 2.483 7 17 2.727 14 7 2. 29 7 4.074 9 33 2.016 32 5.5 3..

520 53 98 72 North America 484..000 13 232 67.980 .044 .407 (13) 25 2. they are long-term averages originating from multiple sources and years.900 5 168 92 2.. 96 84 Belize 152 263 303 30 2.086 (40) 21 2.693 52.314 45 88 64 Guinea 12.590 .. 94 65 Developed 1.644 4 13 55..074 69 .. . 14 61 1. b.196 13 32 132 (34) 14 8..066 54 8.000 7 14 1.310 50 14 1. 16 2..913 66.604. d.146 21 7 1.051 196 1.686 23 2.109 61 .266 67 99 79 Trinidad and Tobago 133 502 164 8 2.751 62 216 10..028 61 96 57 Chile 15.5 30.235 280 266 9 3.579 13 12 9.647 2 66 14.735 3 107 56 2.171 19 5 1..520 6 75 4. 4 68 .378 (23) 30 839 47 83 46 Lesotho 2.027 13 6 1.430 48 79 49 Kenya 26.137 16 2.580 61 96 12.965 40 1.707 49 78 64 Tanzania.421. 72 2.157 13 860 72 2...882 (31) 922 55.048 52 99 73 Sudan 134. .334 .166 57 2. 250.872.000 7 144 34.766 (34) 9 3.902 118 1.704 56 854 27 2.974 17 5 41..462 1 17 78 2. 61 2.786 18 10 247.674 .227 9 22 16.640 129 1.574 4 12 38.545 65 85 70 Oceania 459.262 79 2.315 46 97 74 Equatorial Guinea 334 ..537 58 286 2.600 7 179 30 2.5 307.576 16. DATA TABLE 2: FOOD AND WATER 211 .392 23 492 23.813 20 5 46.735 (6) 2. 263 82 2.765 39 78 57 Botswana 25.260 20 26 63.902 88.358 63 95 68 Brazil 263.000 52 2.816 .. 250 67 1.004 8 47 15.975 5 46 70.690 15 9 18.345 0 168 90 1.479 76 83 83 Paraguay 24. .268 66 100 82 Costa Rica 2.5 125.359 39 1.550 33 990 60 2. .959 28 3 933.876 22 4 14.291 48 85 49 Togo 3.558 .210 73 3.747 42 747 9 2.130 5 1.199 32 < 2.524 18 15 23.726 50 90 40 Zimbabwe 20.739 67 97 89 Guyana 1.155 13 31 149.582 536 801 131.046. 101 66 1.646 103 .532 2 515 76 1.132 45.007 13 13 890 42 94 54 Burundi 2..374 9 20 405.941 9 164 114. 1.535 3 457 4.141 12 2. 19 .295 59 97 91 El Salvador 1.328 26 <2. .5 6.605 (13) 14..608 41 65 1..125 3 35 59.267 139 15 2.925 59 92 88 South America 579.739 28 <2.133 44 87 56 Zambia 35.470 15 2.166 7 2.008.5 640.210 (3) 1... 96 65 Argentina 128.336 78 100 99 United States 416.. 69 78 2.580 8 133 80 2.056 8 38 144.845 2 327 79.378 92 112 25.550 2 4.409 13 3. .050 101 1 72 .259 6.283 20.431 64 89 65 Suriname 89 93 9.872 22 4 5.000 ha) (kg/ha) (m /ha) agriculture) from Animal Since Total Index 2004 in 2005 (m per 3 Products 1995 2003 2003 2000 2004 Total 2002–2004 person) 2002 Urban Rural (metric tons) (km ) Sub-Saharan Africa 1.355 35 81 11 Gabon 5.800 .000 35 8 5.788 17 10 13.450 1 850 82 2.626 4 13 46 15 3 1. 22 2.448 27 832 196.358 3 24 29..186 142 5 551 39 92 69 Senegal 8.368 .410 59 99 92 Haiti 1.883 27 < 2. 81 43 Angola 57.932 12 44 15.172 58 100 87 Nicaragua 6.071 3 33 8.955 99 2.658 60 98 81 Niger 38.157 67 100 92 Cuba 6.338 37 74 57 Ethiopia 31.764 16 8 53.962 13 < 2.023 (20) 432 31.071 6.812 (3) 18 8.234.5 830.051 7 39 6. Includes arable and permanent cropland and permanent pasture. Data from 2002..900 19 337 17.288 6 29 32..714 3 9 579.373 14 23 48.599 109 ....820 1 260 38 2. 95 78 Dominican Rep 3.242 215 3.. c.754 28 < 2.000 (22) 43 4.516 5 15 9..567 16 13 181.925.600 4 2.450 10.249 82 4.606 2 74 222.680 5 11 393.153..599 35 52 56 Honduras 2.500 52 26 49. ..085 44 67 31 Rwanda 1.957 .287 24 23 222.230 39 334 18 2.286 11 < 2.100 9 926 79 1. Dem Rep 22.255.602 .769 5 487 81 1.671 11 5 43.787 44 93 61 Chad 48.463 6..5 52.160 2 101 33 2.271 34 2.396.902 17 11 2.512 79 200 74 2...612 67 100 100 Venezuela 21.451 (9) 17. America & Caribbean 141..821 33 2. 1.058 1.210 19 3.953 (0) 139 39.600 140 562 15 3.724 18 2..360 6 19 427.865 339 2.452 (7) 20 1.147 7 35 70.425 69 100 58 Colombia 42.260 7 21 28.766 62 95 47 Gambia 779 .959 6 44 354.215 57 100 90 Burkina Faso 10. 3.135 33 < 2. United Rep 48.011 55 88 32 Solomon Islands 117 .083 18 2.317 178 25 3.404 14 2.500 46 356 4 3. 1. 2 3.254 18 2.655 13 1.200 (33) 4 442 40 92 77 Cameroon 9.WORLD RESOURCES 2008 Water Resources Intensity of Agricultural Inputs Use of an Fisheries Food Security and Nutrition Labor Percent of Actual Renewable Improved Water Calorie Supply.257 35 80 36 Nigeria 72.316.658 (55) 45 89..369 42 50 1.040.577 42 75 46 Somalia 44.. 7 37 2.597 39 29 33.219 18 23 7. 96 83 Australia 439.900 12 88 45 2.019 48 95 77 Ghana 14.866 (21) 81 4.546 56 94 70 Guatemala 4.170 31 5.387 (49) 38 3.111 2 3.827.714 5 1.170 5 32 50. 3.440 20 362 81 2. 2003 Production Agricultural (kcal/person/day) Water Resources {b} Water Source (percent (percent of Population Percent Total Per Capita Poverty Land {a} Fertilizer Water workforce in That is UnderPercent Change of population) Production 3 3 nourished (1.089 73 2.755 60 95 81 Jamaica 513 3 704 19 2. Data for Serbia include the country of Montenegro (these countries were a single nation from 2003 to 2006).630 7 29 57 2.272 7 30 5.911 62 100 100 Fiji 460 12 175 38 2.109 8 46 8..186 48 77 35 Malawi 4.160 6 102 55 2.531 45 72 26 Namibia 38.074 8 2.637 .697 12 8 40..272 15 18 492.290 16 24 552. 636 60 1. Papua New Guinea 1.191 209 122 268.225 45 92 60 Sierra Leone 2.450 48 110 1..696 .336 68 45 42 Eritrea 7.500 0 143 87 2. 54 71 2.200 (2) 31 18.319 57 84 27 Congo.233 43.159 62 43 51 New Zealand 17.836 69 119 33 2.042 52 78 35 Guinea-Bissau 1.467 1 22 50 2.5 1..453..133 56 99 68 Peru 21.641 19 6 486. 100 93 Developing 2.837 7.274 44.044 42 39..447 4 24 96. 211 44 2.300 68 2. 53 2.286 6 26 142.183 7 33 58.993 125 160 27...897 241 197 34. 6 3. Although water data were obtained from FAO in 2007.289 .556 13 11 43.477 131 .582. 846 60 2.653 .816 65 100 100 C.893 69 100 .408 66 99 71 Ecuador 7. 91 71 a. 32 27 South Africa 99.511 50 59 44 Mozambique 48.675 14 17 127..479 . . 72 52 Madagascar 27.886 21 9 18..174 39 41 43 Congo 10.100 9 336 52.976 30 502 17 2.272 46 80 36 Uganda 12.630 . 100 100 Canada 67.264 11 39 3.930 3 50 10.640 51 499 8 2..981 41 78 36 Mauritania 39.980 12 241 320.591 61 98 80 Bolivia 37.750 .132 75 98 73 Uruguay 14.920 54 86 44 Central African Rep 5.285 38 98 68 Mali 39.520 58 98 88 Mexico 107.832 28 2.449.149 . 30 38 2.207 .414 16 4 2.5 5..902 (21) 814 20.693 43 92 76 Liberia 2.577 366 11 3.087 4 371 43 2.348 1 5.416 58 90 63 Panama 2.595 11 17 1.845 .682 51 286 16.973 46 82 29 Côte d'Ivoire 19.428 11 53 2.547 .548 37 19 66.605 26 < 2.943 4 51 145.590 2 64 71 2. 30.098 (24) 100 6.351 (4) 91 2.291 11 27 40.874 86 . . 89 90 2.575 105 66 2.935 .089 8 35 240. 1 69 1.571 42 226 23.630 .620 .233 44.580 .854 11 .909 41 75 40 Benin 3.281 15 29 12..652 87 819 44 2.936 41 484 28 2.858 5 46 9.082 2 44 43.740 20 3.505 52 104 2 3.125 (6) 105 8.237 10 29 101.756 7 148 44.000 95 184 10.756 40 111 8.090 12 623 65.861 61 . 3..071 .

and surveys made by national or international research centers. Improved water sources are more likely to provide safe drinking water than unimproved sources but are not a direct measure of “safe” drinking water. reports from FAO. Most fisheries statistics are collected by FAO from questionnaires sent to national fisheries agencies. IRWR are composed of the average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater (aquifers) generated from endogenous (internal) precipitation. in cubic meters. mollusks. and subsistence purposes from marine. Data include all quantities caught and harvested for both food and feed purposes but exclude catch discarded at sea. Total refers to the amount of available food per person per day. capacity. Data on land use are reported by country governments. WRI calculates water intensity by dividing water use data by the extent of agricultural land. FAO estimates fishery production based on regional fishery organizations. Data represent country averages over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004. Permanent cropland is cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest. and inland waters. temporary meadows.” The ILO derives the labor estimates from population censuses and sample surveys. Percent of Population That is Undernourished refers to the proportion of the population with food intake that is continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity. 2003. tanker-provided water. Some countries report data based on the fertilizer year. 2003 data actually encompassed July 1. Data are collected by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United 212 . Actual Renewable Water Resources gives the maximum theoretical amount of water annually available for each country in cubic kilometers. Water use for agriculture is defined as the water withdrawals that are attributed to the agricultural sector.2 Food and Water: Technical Notes DEFINITIONS AND METHODOLOGY Agricultural Land. the annual volume of water used in the agricultural sector per hectare of arable and permanent cropland. Arable land includes land under annual crops. for a given country. and other aquatic animals taken for commercial. in cubic meters. the smallest urban agglomerations typically have a population between 2. hunting. kitchen gardens. including all types of meat and fish. and eggs and egg products. potash. and phosphate consumed annually per hectare of arable and permanent cropland. and cream. boreholes. where a low score indicates water poverty and a high score indicates good water provision.030 kilocalories per person daily. project documents. and environment. Both urban and rural access are shown here. vendor-provided water. including national water resources and irrigation master plans. FAO provided the annual figures used for these calculations through interpolating and extrapolating the ILO’s decennial series. access. and rainwater collection. Water intensity measures. Examples of unimproved water sources include unprotected wells and springs. Use of an Improved Water Source measures the total proportion of the population with access to an improved drinking water source. statistics. butter. forestry. surface water. and reports. crustaceans. aquatic mammals. This minimum energy requirement varies by country but typically averages between 1. crustaceans. Actual renewable water resources are defined as the sum of internal renewable resources (IRWR) and external renewable resources (ERWR). To estimate agricultural water use. reports from FAO. industry magazines. on a per person basis. FAO compiles statistics on apparent food consumption based on supply/utilization accounts (SUAs) maintained in FAOSTAT. recreational. Per capita water resources data are calculated by WRI using 2000 population estimates (or other appropriate year as indicated in footnotes) from the UN Population Division. and reports. milk. The Water Poverty Index (WPI) measures. including inflows from upstream countries and a portion of border lakes or rivers. animal fats and fish oils. edible offal. Permanent pasture is the amount of land used permanently (5 years or more) for herbaceous forage crops. national yearbooks. used primarily for irrigation. and bottled water if it is not consistently available in sufficient quantities. that is. Water resources data were compiled by the FAO from a number of sources: national water resources and irrigation master plans. Data are collected through the FAO fertilizer questionnaire. international surveys. the ILO estimates figures from similar neighboring countries or by using special models of activity rates. Any person not inhabiting an area classified as urban is counted in the rural population. and surveys made by national or international research centers. The total undernourished population is calculated as the number of people who fall below a minimum energy requirement.750 and 2. The International Labor Organization (ILO) defines economically active as “all persons of either sex who furnish the supply of labour for the production of economic goods and services. use. Abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included. which is estimated by sex and age group based on a reference body weight.000 people. An improved water source includes any of the following: household connections. in thousand hectares. Statistics for aquatic plants are excluded from country totals. AQUASTAT collects its information from a number of sources. When these data are missing or considered unreliable. protected dug wells. the impact of water scarcity and water provision on human populations. including land under trees grown for wood or timber. cheese. either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land). Fertilizer intensity measures the mass in kilograms of the nutrients nitrogen. industrial. taking into consideration the quantity of flow reserved to upstream and downstream countries through formal or informal agreements or treaties and possible reduction of external flow due to upstream water abstraction. Production of fish. with support from the Ad Hoc Working Party on Fertilizer Statistics. When country data are missing. brackish. 2004. international surveys. FAO estimates the number of undernourished individuals using calculations of the amount of food available in each country and a measure of inequality in distribution derived from household income/ expenditure surveys. Labor intensity refers to the percentage of the total labor force economically active in agriculture. and mollusks is expressed in live weight. The definition of an urban area varies slightly from country to country. an assessment has to be made both of irrigation water requirements and of water withdrawals for agriculture. protected springs. to June 30. Fisheries Production data refer to both the nominal catch (capture) and the harvest (aquaculture) of fish. or statistical interpolations. its on-line statistical service. FAO derives caloric values by applying food composition factors to the quantities of the processed commodities. The WPI is the culmination of an interdisciplinary approach that combines both the physical quantities relating to water availability and the socioeconomic factors relating to poverty to produce an indicator that addresses the diverse factors that affect water resource management. statistics. is the total area of all arable and permanent cropland and permanent pasture. The index is composed of five component indices: resources. the nominal weight of the aquatic organisms at the time of harvest. ERWR are the portion of the country’s renewable water resources that is not generated within the country. The WPI is a number between 0 and 100. or fishing. Calorie Supply. using statistics from FAO’s AQUASTAT information system in the FAOSTAT database. and land fallow for less than 5 years.000 and 10. national yearbooks. Percent from Animal Products refers to the percent of available food that is derived from animal products. public standpipes. expressed in kilocalories. in surveys distributed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Per Capita Actual Renewable Water Resources gives the maximum theoretical amount of water annually available.

such as Iceland and Singapore. and World Health Surveys. may not be accurately accounted for. it is important to note that there is considerable variation in consumption among individuals. The annual figures for total number of agricultural workers were obtained by interpolating and extrapolating past trends (1950–2000).uk/depts/ec/wpapers/kerp0219. Food Security Statistics. since the total agricultural labor force includes some workers engaged in these activities. 213 . 2006. so waste and other losses are not accounted for. Development and Management Service. Fisheries Production: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). consult Fishery Statistics Reliability and Policy Implications. Online at http://www. since production statistics are typically available only for major food crops. However. comparisons among countries should be made with care. Fishery Information. countries. these numbers will change in future revisions as estimates are refined. Sources of information vary but are rarely complete. Rome: FAO. TECHNICAL NOTES: FOOD AND WATER D ATA R E L I A B I L I T Y A N D C A U T I O N A RY N O T E S Agricultural Land: Data are compiled from various sources. labor.org. Meigh.htm. 2006. and categories of information. Calorie Supply: Figures shown here represent only the average calorie supply available for the population as a whole and do not necessarily indicate what is actually consumed by individuals. The Use of Improved Water Source data set is a Millennium Development Indicator and is updated every 1–3 years to measure a country’s progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. and costs of energy and machinery. Fertilizer. In addition.htm. Many instances of water scarcity are highly localized and are not reflected in national statistics. Fertilizer: Data are excluded for some countries with a relatively small area of cropland.fao.org/es/ess/faostat/foodsecurity/ index_en. Version 2. In all likelihood. Percent of Population That is Undernourished: Food balance sheets provide data for the available food supply. For more information. Labor: Values vary widely among and within countries according to labor scarcity. FISHSTAT Plus: Universal Software for Fishery Statistical Time Series.wssinfo. F R E Q U E N C Y O F U P D AT E B Y D ATA P R O V I D E R S Land. Labor. In these cases. Water Poverty Index: Lawrence. nutrition.org/pdf/JMP_06. expert consultations. All data should be considered order-of-magnitude estimates. Online at http://faostat. AQUASTAT Information System on Water and Agriculture: Review of World Water Resources by Country. Online at http://www. Living Standards Measurement Studies. Rome: FAO. While these figures provide a good overview of regional trends.fao. fluctuations in the labor force may not be captured in annual figures.keele. Online at http://www. Statistics from smaller artisanal and subsistence fisheries are sparse. The assessment does not account for intermittent or poor quality of water supplies. and Calorie Supply: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. and subsistence hunting of wild game and insects is typically ignored. Nonetheless. and C.org/fi/statist/FISOFT/FISHPLUS. Even if data are used as approximations of per capita consumption. However. Water Resources: While AQUASTAT represents the most complete and careful compilation of water resources statistics to date. data should be used with caution and supplemented with estimates from regional organizations. the freshwater data used to build this index are incomplete and frequently incomparable across countries. Also. freshwater data are generally of poor quality. non-commercial or subsistence-level production is not always included. 2007. academic literature. 2003. Food supply data are only as accurate as the underlying production. Rome: FAO. As a result. 2007. Crops that are either continuously or selectively harvested. Access to information on water resources is still sometimes restricted for reasons related to political sensitivity at the regional level. trade. Water Poverty Index: The WPI focuses public attention on the important issue of water scarcity and allows individuals to quickly understand the degree of water stress in a country. Renewable Water Resources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). including the Demographic Health Surveys. P. Online at http://www.asp.org/waicent/faoinfo/ agricult/agl/aglw/aquastat/water_res/index.3. country-level data are often submitted with a 1–2 year delay. the calculation of fertilizer consumed per hectare of cropland yields an unreliable number. as does the year in which the information was gathered. Labor intensity may be overestimated in countries with substantial fishing or forestry industries. not specific consumption. SOURCES Total Agricultural Land. As a result. the accuracy and reliability of information vary greatly among regions. FAOSTAT online statistical service. Data for 2002–2004 are preliminary. Total Fisheries Production: FISHSTAT provides the most extensive global time series of fishery statistics since 1950. The Water Poverty Index: an International Comparison. The Water Poverty Index was created by the Center for Ecology and Hydrology in 2002 and has not been updated. Geneva and New York: WHO and UNICEF. Sullivan. so definitions and coverage do not always conform to FAO recommendations and may not always be completely consistent across countries.pdf. UK: Keele University. Data and Statistics Unit.fao.Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) using a variety of household survey instruments.pdf. Water resources data are updated intermittently as new values become available. 2007. taken from ILO decennial population series. and trade data. Online at http://www. J. such as cassava and plantains.fao. production technologies. Staffordshire. 2006. Percent of Population that is Undernourished: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Definitions of urban and rural are not consistent across countries. Water Resources. Statistics Division. Use of Improved Water Source: World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).. Use of an Improved Water Source: These data have become more reliable as WHO and UNICEF shift from provider-based information (national census estimates) to consumer-based information (survey data). Rome: FAO. users of this index should always treat these numbers as order-of-magnitude estimates. Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade. published by the FAO Fisheries Department.ac. and fisheries data are updated annually by FAO. and utilization data. fertilizer. no consistency can be ensured among countries on the duration and dates of the period of reference.

524 3.427 35.891 25.2 21.628 2.8 4...862 6.3 1.889 2.2 5.372 174. 272 1.4 4.578 5. 36 25 39 9 62 30 15 36 49 10 45 45 9 70 21 . 4 7 .1 349.906 1.9 10.573 243 .208 31.002 4. . 43 39 27 123 76 .547 4.864 2.370.672 3.0 1.4 .6 2.868 6.870 11..0 1... 6. 14 30 56 2 56 42 4 59 37 23 35 41 12 29 60 12 24 65 2 56 42 13 41 45 Export of Goods and Services as a Percent of GDP 2005 .8 16. 2.188 960 3. (266) 336 Workers' Remittances as a Percent of Gross National Income 2005 0.175 2.0 8.5 0.4 .224 3.660 402 8.042 24.642 319 4. (1) .481 1.441 2.6 22. (48) 9 10 5 15 . 7.0 3..842 1.0 3.132 1.9 29.578 4.125 12.585 .6 1.8 40.3 11. 100 230 199 192 40. 3.211 3.0 12..285 .. Dem People's Rep Korea.4 Adjusted Net Savings {a} as a Percent of Gross National Income (GNI) 2005 7 19 15 (38) 17 ..462 4.805 464 . .757 450 310 6..775 1. 22.686 . 19.129 8.021 15.971. 69.905 570.003 6. Africa Afghanistan Algeria Egypt Iran..9 22.. 541 .287 5...978 6.3 1.4 1.4 2.621 1. 30 c 27 57 17 27 65 38 42 21 34 13 c 54 .961 .9 120.6 ..098 588 6..6 249...9 92.585 .3 156. 23 1 21 .370 .647 34. Islamic Rep Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Oman Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Rep Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen c c c c c c c e e e c c 214 .449 8. 6.8 258.. 1.2 6.4 0.8 0.7 6.4 132.352.129 3.. 16 15 47 243 34 54 74 65 40 70 37 22 53 61 87 36 61 47 72 49 84 39 26 40 21 66 32 83 c 26 48 58 45 53 71 45 37 29 33 35 27 79 65 25 49 46 c 54 26 47 12 48 31 39 .189 55 241 4. .034 . .4 16.352 23.959 .018 3.647 11..825 19.9 5.029 6.5 45. 81 4.5 4.9 24.8 0.680 223 803 1.347 234 3.445 4.430. (2.665 3.4 11.966 32 182 212 300 145 3 428 2.9 61.853 2. 12 (2) 18 .. . 0..624 4. .436 .534 26.0 5.7 16.911 1..836 6.943 4. 5.9 9.7 0.889. .412 4.5 8. 32.. 640 .809 39.. .127 1.130 5.9 0.347 396 6.3 0.0 0. 3.047 1..253 3.997 .0 0. .057 .2 GDP Distribution by Sector (percent) in 2005 Agriculture Industry Services 4 28 69 6 34 59 21 44 35 10 62 28 20 27 53 25 37 38 34 27 39 13 48 40 17 27 56 18 27 54 13 46 41 2 30 68 7 40 54 .1 1.235 483 3.1 2.287 11..0 0.... 11 . 1.9 112..9 246.794 1.602 . .214 ..3 1.762 3...167 18.3 184..1 0..4 10.. 15. 6. 17..121 3.1 20.8 208..945 13.357 433 5.696 2. 3 30 68 1 51 49 7 22 71 .261 1.367 2.663 1.321 1 90 379 538 79. 24 1.415 2.2 1.647 2.8 1.2 0.789 .796 2.2 104.3 ..570 5..3 639 1..6 21. .2 ..203 3..908 .724 5.2 0. ..778 1..0 0.7 18. 1..114 13.9 116.8 1.. 3.081 371 5. 70.131 23.9 23.1 112. 0..4 48.630 .0 124. Financial Flows (million curent $ US) Official Foreign Direct Development Investment Assistance (net inflows) and Aid {b} 2005 2005 974.. . 38 21 41 22 25 53 14 32 53 0 34 66 17 26 57 24 32 44 10 44 46 20 41 39 28 29 43 21 41 38 2 28 70 23 22 56 2 31 68 10 41 49 1 24 75 10 25 65 10 32 59 7 31 62 3 37 60 2 25 74 4 29 67 3 30 68 2 21 77 1 30 69 5 21 74 4 31 65 7 25 68 3 37 60 2 27 71 4 22 74 6 34 61 13 29 58 17 25 59 2 24 74 2 43 55 5 31 65 3 25 73 10 35 55 6 38 56 16 33 51 4 29 67 3 34 63 3 30 67 1 28 71 1 28 70 11 34 55 1 26 73 .552 652 715 31 ..1 14.807 430 2. 1.132.0 207.4 1.5 44.2 1.9 17.8 .5 ..5 1..718 538 6. 7 32 11 19 (2) 15 (38) . .975 6. (39) 9 8 .420 ..6 0...930 1.086 4.. 730 .132 562 20..845 4.3 0.612 1.032 . ..7 5..308 29.2 4.346 2.0 11.1 57. 25..436 1. ...730) .7 644. 21.785 2.4 0.136 4.654 5.2 6.713 3..283 106.319 4..215 258 193 1.480 23. .7 19.417 3. .. .. .075 1. 24 . ..156 5. 10.978 .216 1..4 .2 0.975 229 ...787 39. Rep Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Serbia {d} Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Middle East & N.. 9.1 4.344 971 5.954 2.891 2. 22 (2) (8) 9 17 .992..614 .8 .651 4. 2 16 12 19 .. 2.740 942 2.969 2.998 7.416 .259 2.194 2.4 403.761 125 .356 3..270.957 1..910 1.808 410 158.4 11.6 19.8 0.667 1. 2.5 . .151 . 43 269 28 296 3.2 3. 7.007 263 319 9.4 0.405 1.182 9.910 2..201 .3 134..761 2.183 1.369 1. 3. (13) . 21.810 16. .906 684 4.9 22.679 .3 0.954 1.7 93.3 171..023 2..706 8....846 5.. Rep Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Rep Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Viet Nam Europe Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia.121 530 4. 1.072. 29. 3 40 56 34 21 45 45 30 26 9 52 40 22 29 49 .. ...0 29.698 2.0 1. .7 1.4 2.238 ..7 .735 29.6 2..527 -171 62 28 45 172 1.5 9..8 3.598 1.6 3.329 1.532 5..148 . 26 427 78 723 377 9.4 142.8 67.. 2.9 678.532 622 250 .. .720 4.6 198.544 237 6...619.7 . 305 54 31..8 0.151 22.1 .8 11..9 7.799 4.6 0.215 25...8 5.260 2.6 .071 . c 229.3 Economics and Trade Source: World Bank Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (constant 2000 $US) Average Total Per Annual (million Capita Growth Rate dollars) (dollars) (percent) 2005 2005 1995–2005 36.071 2.696 5.623 3.. . 16... 10.5 17.6 52..681 25.472 ..7 0.783 .0 1..376 926 30 104 .437 4. 5 13 15 14 11 12 11 10 8 7 8 21 11 9 11 12 14 14 15 8 1 1 (10) .098 9. 2..991 7. 299 546 2.339 . 15. 3.0 43. (29. (2) (4) (16) .8 270.210 4.2 1.801 . 36 57 c 61 37 48 27 94 46 World Asia (excl. Middle East) Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Georgia India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Korea.494 2.432 3. 9. 46 52 68 19 ..6 0.771 596 3.. FYR Moldova. .727 1.4 0.174 20. 637.517 4.2 18.890 5.570 2.033 2.6 0.3) c 127.

267 3.231 2.566 3.1 Gambia 509 335 4.269 16.9 Kenya 15.2 42 21 37 12 11 8 576 1.796 43..193 192 0.863 2.1 14 31 55 23 41 464 681 22.9 New Zealand 62.8 28 16 56 6 26 29 929 0.8 13 34 53 1 22 10. (4) 64 0.3 Burkina Faso 3.1 7 74 19 (39) 74 (1.8 22 19 59 10 47 64 51 4.754 .382 f 494 4.2 Ecuador 20.3 31 25 45 (4) 88 77 137 26. 88 ..772 16.440 3.0 Colombia 99..976 36.1 Cuba .742 1.7 6 47 48 (6) 42 6. South Africa 159.018 141 . 15 29 c 1.695 3.2 Somalia .294 244 6. 0..353 2.351 260 7. .496 1.420) .9 Uganda 7.829 4.8 19 28 53 5 28 241 740 12.646 330 . .1 Paraguay 8..286 0.9 42 39 19 c . Data for Serbia include the country of Montenegro (these countries were a single nation from 2003 to 2006). depletion of natural resources.268 6.132.2 Liberia 444 135 13.0 Zambia 4.. DATA TABLE 3: ECONOMICS AND TRADE 215 .101 20.3 Congo.396 2.828 . 48 13 39 12 16 265 1.076 3.340 233 2..5 Rwanda 2.....2 33 13 54 8 45 52 58 13.3 12 26 62 8 34 1.939 0.957 49 0..4 Fiji 1.9) . . 10 515 25.334 252 4.597 2.4 El Salvador 14..8 Trinidad and Tobago 11.754 326 4.082 3.681.7 32 13 54 3 14 21 349 1.554 3.987 997 3.090 350 3.434.. Solomon Islands 323 677 (1.. .923 C.0 Mauritania 1..2 .430 37.480 f 2..357 287 4.1 Central African Rep 918 227 0.730 100 0.6 Gabon 5. Dominican Rep 23. ... .203 218 5.4 Peru 65.. .686 . Eritrea 757 172 ..4 Costa Rica 19.698 2.375 3. .4 18 19 63 9 27 54 689 7.856 9.. 2003 value..708 6. 693.0 11 24 65 . b..5 19 25 56 (5) 16 259 945 .660 2.999 43.734 3. .5 31 20 50 .646 210 5.3 41 14 45 (3) 23 18 414 0.2 34 30 37 (10) 18 2. e...910 5.7 9 38 54 3 24 44.9 Nicaragua 4. 6 95 . 1.0 Canada 809.612 2.337 2.3 40 17 43 e 1 15 12 515 1.6 25 36 39 (6) 26 102 182 1.0 Equatorial Guinea 2..701 434 0.WORLD RESOURCES 2008 Adjusted Net Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Workers' Financial Flows Savings {a} Export of (million current $US) (constant 2000 $US) Remittances Average as a Percent Goods and Foreign Official as a Percent Services of Gross Direct Total Per Annual Development of Gross (million Capita Growth Rate National as a Percent Investment Assistance GDP Distribution by Sector National dollars) (dollars) (percent) (percent) in 2005 Income (GNI) of GDP (net inflows) and Aid {b} Income 2005 2005 1995–2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 Agriculture Industry Services Sub-Saharan Africa 423.450 3.3 Sudan 16.0 Senegal 5. 51 279 71 1. f.236 91 (0.245 4.1 8 38 54 8 17 15. 0. 34 266 ..1 6 46 48 (47) 82 724 1.0 9 31 60 1 30 711 15 0.521 474 4..828 3..030 1.120 1.023 77 12.5 2 26 72 c 8 .270 4. 123 0.8 Mexico 636.547 426 (3.1 Togo 1.630 5.2 8 58 35 . . .4 Uruguay 21.5 9 30 62 16 49 861 30 2.. 23 23 55 3 9 11 355 ...626 8..4 5 52 44 e (7) 41 2.094 0.8 Lesotho 988 550 2.1 Argentina 313.6 Australia 468. .146 .2 10 39 51 11 37 258.6 10 30 60 2 27 518 199 16..9 35 20 45 (6) 9 1 365 .090 f 28.546 25.1 Mozambique 5.5 38 23 39 13 36 107 1. . Angola 14. .375 511 3. .. .... North America 11.783 643 0.7 Papua New Guinea 3.3 14 18 68 0 55 126 13 4.505 0.600 267 7.147 2.100 -2 0.649 7. and damages from pollution.9 Guyana 736 980 1. 44 0.7) 46 25 29 1 32 402 1.772 189 2.198 6.9 6 33 61 14 41 683 36 19. . Represents inflows of development assistance and aid..0 Mali 3. 45 18 38 3 17 473 1.0 Guinea 3.6 Brazil 670.0 Burundi 790 105 0.5 Botswana 8.860 39 .1 37 24 39 5 26 159 692 3. Regional totals calculated by the World Bank. 23 26 51 2 50 266 119 1...582 30.6 3 27 70 c 4 18 c (34. 59 300 54 0. .1 Guinea-Bissau 213 135 (1.9 10 32 58 34 46 .9 33 25 43 1 13 257 1..1 3 30 67 0 27 6. Congo 3..3 Niger 2.083 6. 5 39 c 34.0 2.4 a. 0.304) 442 .057 739 4..5 27 19 54 8 27 21 768 2.1 23 57 20 (31) 53 2..046.499 4.1 Malawi 1.061 2.196 5.7 23 51 26 (58) 59 705 380 .127 2.935 937 7.667 152 0. 37 194 236 .2 Bolivia 9..488 .. America & Caribbean 767.1 Ghana 6.4 46 24 30 (3) 24 59 343 0. formerly called genuine savings.855.317 429 3.986 154 2..172 3.408 4.4 21 29 50 10 26 21.502 244 .298 3..016 f 568 3.470 4.851 1. United States 11..1 Oceania 538.8 Nigeria 60. Dem Rep 5. Ethiopia 10..3 16 25 59 39 .0 64 15 21 . .0 Haiti 3.704 15.361 0. Adjusted net savings.8 Sierra Leone 1.634 2..064 3.130 2.184 156 3..0 Middle Income 6.246 0. 48 c (1) 198 0.4 22 30 48 (3) 33 108 1..413 459 4.. c.. United Rep 12.5 .397) 858 0. 24 236 . measures the "true" rate of savings by taking into account human capital.9 54 21 25 7 .786 270 5. .6 South America 1. Madagascar 4.0 Low Income 1.3 c 7 89 4 e ...549 2.749 462 6.900 0.3 4 27 69 c 6 20 c (32. Cameroon 12. .736 3. 2004 value.. 41 . .7 28 17 55 e .0 8 16 76 2 69 1.2 5 26 69 4 31 25.4 Tanzania.2 23 19 58 3 16 208 254 10.546. 1.3 Panama 14.829 1.1 2 53 44 . 1.449 0.519 398 1. . .8 Belize 1.216 5.721 3...4 Honduras 7.204 4.5 Chile 93.468 577 .9 Suriname 1.773 292 8..7 35 19 46 (11) 27 3 575 0.174 1.9 15 32 53 (20) 36 (277) 583 3. Côte d'Ivoire 10.4 4 26 70 4 30 18.406 3.039 3.632 6.2) 60 12 28 1 38 10 79 9.6 17 34 49 (6) 34 16.621 385 3.884 1...151 442 2.7 7 46 48 (14) 31 1. d.1 24 29 47 (43) 36 115 190 0.9 7 35 58 5 25 2.216 10.3) 18 23 59 (9) 43 103 368 .5 Venezuela 131. .3 17 41 41 19 48 92 69 19.9 Guatemala 21.083 3. Benin 2.305 1..369 23.979 . 9 20 660 1... Chad 2..291 0.937 1.9 Namibia 4.5 1 60 40 .019 4.437 4. .027 20 0. Zimbabwe 5. 42 23 35 0 34 3 87 6.098 985 3.198 2.013 6.298 4.. .257 700 0..577 889 3. .2 1 22 77 c 3 10 c 109.2 1 22 77 c 3 12 c 143.7 9 36 55 4 25 4.3 Jamaica 8.7 High Income 28.

as are loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent as well as technical cooperation and assistance. recorded remittance receipts to low. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion of natural resources. WRI calculates Workers’ Remittances as a Percent of GNI by dividing remittances by gross national income. construction. information. Values are obtained directly from the World Bank. electricity. Values are reported in million current US dollars. financial. Data are shown as a percent of gross national income (GNI). WRI assumes compound growth and uses the least-squares method to calculate average annual percent growth of GDP in 2000 US dollars. royalties. The growth rate is an average rate that is representative of the available observations over the entire period. Data are presented in millions of current US dollars. as this indicator attempts to describe money raised through labor rather than entrepreneurial activity. any discrepancies that may occur in the GDP distribution by sector calculation will appear here. health care. a classification system for economic activity developed and maintained by the United Nations. Remittances measure the transfer of earned wages by migrant workers to their home country. and gas. Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1–5 and includes forestry and fishing. dollars. The least squares method works by fitting a trend line to the natural logarithm of annual GDP values. Adjusted Net Savings (previously “genuine savings”) is equal to a nation’s private and public net savings (gross domestic product plus net income and transfers from abroad minus consumption of fixed capital) plus education expenditure. transport. minus energy depletion. Transfers made by self-employed workers are not considered remittances. transport. less any repayments of loan principal during the same period. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is private investment in a foreign economy to obtain a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise. Distribution of GDP by Sector is the percent of total output of goods and services that is a result of value added by a given sector. Gross Domestic Product per Capita is the total annual output of a country’s economy divided by the mid-year population. plus taxes and minus subsidies not included in the final value of the products. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. and government services. National accounts indicators for most developing countries are collected from national statistical organizations and central banks by visiting and resident World Bank missions. business. Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Aid measures the amount of ODA received by a country.and middle-income countries have increased sixfold. professional. and in the DAC annual Development Co-operation Report. and inter-company loans between parent corporations and foreign affiliates. It does not necessarily match the actual growth rate between any two periods. It comprises value added in mining. Average Annual Growth Rate of GDP is the average percentage growth of a country or region’s economy for each year between (and including) 1995 and 2005. supplemented by data from the OECD and official national sources. license fees. The data shown here record the actual receipts of financial resources or of goods or services valued at the cost to the donor. It measures the true rate of savings in an economy after taking into account investments in human capital. depletion of natural resources. industry. Adjusted Net Savings is an indicator of sustainability. FDI became the dominant means for funds transfer from rich to poor countries after the liberalization of global financial markets in the 1970s and accounts for more than half of financial flows to developing countries. The data for high-income economies are obtained from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data files (see the OECD’s monthly Main Economic Indicators). Services corresponds to ISIC divisions 50–99 and includes value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants). and government. Gross domestic product estimates at purchaser values (market prices) include the value added in the agriculture. The IMF defines FDI in its manual Balance of Payments as the sum of equity investment. Data are in million current US dollars. insurance. eventually. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. Negative numbers mean that outflows of investment by foreign countries into a particular country (or reinvestment of profits outside the country) exceed inflows. Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10–45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15–37). Data are based on balance of payments information reported by the IMF. Currencies are converted to dollars using the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) average official exchange rate for 2005. Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Aid Recipients. net forest depletion. The United Nations Statistics Division publishes detailed national accounts for UN member countries in National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables and updates in the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. To obtain comparable series of constant price data. construction. 216 . financial. manufacturing. F R E Q U E N C Y O F U P D AT E B Y D ATA P R O V I D E R S The World Bank publishes World Development Indicators each year in April. Since this value is calculated as total GDP less the portion from agriculture and industry. currently 2000. Grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD are included. travel. freight. and service sectors.3 Economics and Trade: Technical Notes DEFINITIONS AND METHODOLOGY Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the sum of the value added by all producers in an economy. and the quotient is expressed as a percentage. mineral depletion. reinvestment of earnings. The slope (m) of this trend line is used to calculate the annual growth rate (r ) using the equation r = e m – 1. Both values are originally in current US dollars. personal. The IMF data are supplemented by World Bank staff estimates for missing data for countries where workers’ remittances are important. and personal services such as education. and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage. Data for this table were taken from the 2007 online edition. It includes concessions by governments and international institutions to developing countries to promote economic development and welfare. water. They include all transfers by migrants who are employed or intend to remain employed for more than a year in another economy in which they are considered residents. WRI calculates Exports of Goods and Services as a Percent of GDP by dividing total exports by GDP figures provided by the World Bank. and other services. the World Bank rescales GDP and value added by industrial origin to a common reference year. The data on development assistance are compiled by DAC and published in its annual statistical report. which typically includes values through 2005. such as communication. and real estate services. Since 1980. and damage caused by pollution. Exports include the value of merchandise. Exports of Goods and Services represents the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. to declining well-being. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC).S. persistently negative rates of savings must lead. Data are expressed in 2000 constant U. Data are collected from the IMF’s Balance of Payments Yearbook.

please refer to the World Bank’s World Debt Tables 1993–1994. According to the World Bank. Technical improvements and growth in the services sector are both particularly difficult to measure. 217 . Online at http://go. chapter 3. Because values are measured in US dollars.worldbank. volume 1. data may not be comparable across countries. barter exchanges. 2007. since the ODA figures do not distinguish among different types of aid. and illicit or deliberately unreported activity. 2007 World Development Indicators. grants are tied to specific policy restrictions. fish. World Bank. definitions. the calculation omits several important resources including soils. where much economic activity may go unrecorded. Foreign Direct Investment: Because of the multiplicity of sources. informal economic activities sometimes pose a measurement problem.) In addition. they may not match aid receipts recorded in developing and transition economies. SOURCES Development Data Group. For a more detailed discussion. which has become an important source of financing in some developing countries. or technical assistance pays for the work of firms in other countries. Because data are based on donor-country reports. Variations in reporting standards do exist.org/B53SONGPA0. water resources. This may lead to some differences across countries. which can affect individual economies in different ways. due to methodological or data limitations. Worker Remittances: Data on worker remittances are reported by the countries receiving the transfers. and reporting methods.D ATA R E L I A B I L I T Y A N D C A U T I O N A RY N O T E S Gross Domestic Product: The World Bank produces the most reliable global GDP estimates available. Adjusted Net Savings: The data that were used to calculate adjusted net savings are mostly from official sources and are generally considered to be reliable. (Data do not include capital raised locally. How consistent and complete such estimates will be depends on the skill and methods of the compiling statisticians and the resources available to them. these data do not account for differences in purchasing power among countries. Washington. Obtaining a complete picture of the economy requires estimating household outputs produced for local sale and home use. Official Development Assistance: Data are not directly comparable.” The purchasing power of foreign aid can decrease when price and exchange rates fluctuate. “the nominal values used here may overstate the real value of aid to the recipient. However. especially in developing countries. data only capture cross-border investment flows when equity participation is involved and thus omit non-equity cross-border transactions. However. particularly in determining the residency status of a worker. DC: World Bank. and water and air pollutants.

. 2.6 2. 10= most access) least corrupt) 2002 2006 . .9 3.3 2. .. 2.5 1.8 .. 1.3 1... 8.1 32 2.6 .5 193 1 36 10..7 1.8 85 9. Law Enacted Law Enacted ..3 4 4.6 1.4 . Pending Effort Law Enacted Law Enacted .6 75 8.9 1. 30 2.0 5.1 3.5 .9 1. 2..4 38 3. ... ..3 46 2.5 0.1 40 5.0 5. .. Law Enacted .. Dem People's Rep Korea.2 82 9.4 38 10.2 8.2 6.2 48 3..7 2. . .. .5 231 0.0 3.5 0.3 51 4.4 44 3.4 Institutions and Governance Sources: Freedom House.2 31 2.3 3.7 3.3 . 2...9 3.9 6.. Transparency International Access to Information Freedom Indices (1–7. .. 1.2 .2 .6 72 7...7 3.8 . Rep Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Dem Rep Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Viet Nam Europe Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Rep Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia..4 3.6 6. 7.3 1.5 5. Digital Corruption Access Perceptions Index Index (1–100. ..6 8. Law Enacted .7 7.5 2.8 0.6 8 6.1 .6 57 5. 78 1...2 4.6 3.1 .8 8.7 3.7 . 69 61 61 84 71 28 61 56 60 96 61 70 79 84 83 48 65 81 Status of Freedom of Information Legislation 2004 .7 79 9.9 45 5.7 65 6.9 5 6.4 3.4 1.9 .5 1.9 9.8 48 3.0 59 4. Law Enacted .9 2..3 1.8 83 9. . .4 150 2.9 53 4...7 4.3 2.5 6. .4 61 0.8 5...7 1.. 1=most free) Civil Political Liberties Rights Index Index 2006 2006 . Privacy International.1 43 2..1 0. 11 6. .9 19 2. .8 1.1 74 7.3 144 7..2 3 2.0 3.0 66 4. 17 0.3 0.1 21 2.6 5..2 .4 1..6 5 0.8 4.6 69 7..7 56 4..4 11 2. .7 1.8 1.7 5.6 42 2.6 . 2.5 4..0 5.1 6 2 21 3.4 75 7. FYR Moldova.0 35 2.0 0.1 37 1.3 1.0 1. .1 132 12.. .0 17 2.4 4.8 17 1.3 5.2 43 2.7 .1 1.4 4.9 41 4.6 6.6 5.3 2.4 2.7 2.7 1.. 100= (0–10.2 2.5 2.9 0.5 24 2. International Telecommunications Union.4 66 4.9 1. .1 391 2 18 7..0 59 3.2 .9 4..7 2.2 4.8 32 3.6 6.7 331 5 19 2. 64 73 68 65 61 83 57 37 58 20 75 97 30 64 81 65 34 96 77 61 40 66 58 76 50 96 90 79 .3 43 2..9 2. 1.3 1. 7.7 5. . 3 3 1 1 6 7 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 6 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 .9 2.6 4. Law Enacted Law Enacted Pending Effort Law Enacted .2 1...7 4.4 2.8 2.8 0.2 5.7 42 10.0 7.7 1. .1 3.2 79 8.1 8.8 48 2. . . . 4 5 5 6 4 4 5 6 5 6 6 7 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 5 6 7 7 2 1 4 5 6 7 4 4 2 2 7 7 4 5 5 6 3 3 4 5 4 4 5 6 4 7 7 7 7 7 5 7 .2 43 5. Law Enacted .1 62 7.. Africa Afghanistan Algeria Egypt Iran.8 3... Pending Effort Law Enacted Pending Effort ..6 .5 1. .3 .0 1.2 .2 1.. 6.4 2.2 4.7 5.5 4..0 5.2 4.9 16 3 4 0 34 28.7 6... .1 43 3. . .3 33 4...... Middle East) Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China Georgia India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Korea.4 18 2.7 6.6 3.3 5. 1.8 59 3. .8 4.2 4..1 6 3.9 1.8 83 5.0 2.0 1..3 7..0 1.7 98 3. . Law Enacted Pending Effort Pending Effort ..0 3..7 3. .0 1.6 ..6 4.0 5.7 4.6 12. .3 1.4 50 5.3 1.1 3. 47 3.2 18 2.6 49 2..2 15 2.2 8.8 2. ..1 31 2.8 7. .4 93 3.1 40 3.6 ..2 144 2.9 1.9 24 2..4 2.5 14 5 52 0. ..8 7.2 9 2. .9 4.1 5.6 41 2.3 21 4..2 76 9.4 29 3.5 8.9 . 39 2.4 63 5.1 49 6..9 2 6.2 1.4 3. .2 23 4 63 11 4 2. .9 1.2 2.3 4.3 .6 World Asia (excl. 47 4.5 75 9.7 79 8.2 425 10.4 3.5 197 0. .8 52 0. .1 2 3 16 0.9 54 4.5 1.5 25 5.9 3.7 4.8 2.2 0.0 5. .5 2.1 135 4... 4.9 4. 4 0. Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Pending Effort Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Pending Effort Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Pending Effort Pending Effort Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Law Enacted Pending Effort Law Enacted Law Enacted ..7 1. .1 7. 2.7 4. 0= most free) 2006 . . ..5 3.3 4.6 54 2 3 0. 5 5 5 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 2 1 4 5 4 4 4 5 7 7 4 5 5 6 6 7 6 7 5 6 3 3 5 6 5 5 Regulatory Barriers to Registering Property.2 4.0 5.9 5. 1.3 64 0 56 4.3 8.3 37 2. 5 6..7 5. 1.1 0.0 .5 32 4.4 7..4 7.5 67 6.9 1..0 5. 250 7 51 7. . Islamic Rep Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Oman Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Rep Tunisia Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen b b b b b b b 218 ..9 6.2 4.1 1. . 2.5 4..7 4.2 ..6 6.3 34 2.6 51 0. Rep Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Serbia {c} Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Middle East & N.5 5. .5 .6 48 3.6 48 3.. .... .2 2.3 4.4 74 8.2 2.. 2.0 .0 13 6. .3 8.4 2.8 77 8..9 2.7 1. 50 21 88 11 45 34 39 20 10 16 9 21 16 28 21 9 15 35 19 18 49 65 11 10 21 14 44 72 40 20 20 21 10 11 53 19 .8 64 6.2 2.5 14 4 123 6.0 4..3 174 5 123 3 42 0.1 0.3 3.9 4..3 28 2..5 42 7.6 2.4 1.7 6.8 6.4 6....6 6.2 5.6 4..7 33 3.7 72 6.5 4.7 .2 2...5 2.5 45 3.3 3.1 7. World Bank.6 37 2.. United Nations Human Settlements Programme.3 1.0 0.5 22 10 55 0.2 2..8 5.5 48 0.1 3.3 3..3 .3 .6 2.7 2. .7 0.7 37 3..4 72 4.5 1..7 0..0 2. .2 27 0.4 67 1.7 7.. 6.4 67 6. 1. 82 5.1 50 2. .3 .7 6. 37 3.7 4. 2007 Average Average Cost Number of to Register Days to (percent of property value) Register .6 Press Freedom Index (0–100.9 70 5.1 3.9 Government Expenditures (as a percent of gross domestic product) Public Public Health Education {a} Military 2004 2000-2005 2005 5.

3 1...4 b 90 Law Enacted 29 2.4 8.2 2. 88 .6 Haiti 5 4 405 6..3 73 .5 5.6 Peru 3 2 33 3. .9 5.0 10.7 Mexico 3 2 74 4. that FOI legislation does not exist. .4 2.1 3. .8 6.6 3.4 .5 Senegal 3 2 114 19.9 4.9 4.1 4..3 1..8 4.4 1..7 .7 1.6 .4 41 Law Enacted 41 2...4 Uganda 4 5 227 4.9 Bolivia 3 3 92 4. 30 . 96 .2 Burundi 5 4 94 11. 10 2..9 3.1 50 Pending Effort 15 2..1 Malawi 3 4 88 3..3 1. May include subsidies for private or religious schools.6 .4 67 .7 5.3 Oceania .5 6... Data for Serbia include the country of Montenegro.4 Gabon 4 6 60 10..1 75 Pending Effort 10 2. 0.3 5... 17 2.8 Honduras 3 3 24 5.5 5. 65 .5 38 ...5 35 Pending Effort 43 5. 83 .1 6..5 78 .7 .4 48 Law Enacted 50 3... 1.5 0.0 Congo 5 6 137 27. 2.3 Colombia 3 3 23 2.8 1.5 2.5 United States 1 1 12 0..0 .8 1.0 .9 .5 .. Argentina 2 2 65 7. 13 2.3 1.0 65 Pending Effort 11 2.1 1.3 2. Digital Access Index (International Telecommunications Union): Scaled from 0 to 100.. a.4 1.1 3.3 1. ... 17 .. 64 Pending Effort 17 2...6 1.4 1..5 Costa Rica 1 1 21 3.6 4.0 1..4 2. 0.7 61 Law Enacted 45 3..9 3.9 1.5 Jamaica 3 2 54 13.3 C.4 2.2 2. 27 . 8 3..7 3.1 2.9 73 .. Dem Rep 6 5 57 9.4 1..5 2.. .6 Panama 2 1 44 2. .0 Côte d'Ivoire 6 7 62 16..2 3. .0 Tanzania..4 4.1 2....0 . 10 1... 100= (0–10.1 Equatorial Guinea 6 7 23 6.2 .4 1.2 1.8 19 Law Enacted 74 8.5 3.5 b 74 . ..7 1.3 1.2 .3 .5 1.6 52 Pending Effort 29 2. 5..9 54 Pending Effort 15 2. . 1. New Zealand 1 1 2 0.5 3. ..5 4..9 Togo 5 6 295 13.7 Mali 2 2 29 21. 2004 value. 1. 23 .5 2. 18 . 14 3. America & Caribbean .4 58 Pending Effort 38 2..5 29 Pending Effort 26 2..3 4. Australia 1 1 5 4.6 .9 1.." indicates that either no data are available for this country.4 . 10 2.4 Venezuela 4 4 47 2. .8 Mauritania 4 5 49 5. 15 3.9 6.1 61 .3 0.3 Chile 1 1 31 1.5 Dominican Rep 2 2 60 5.9 2. more likely. 61–100 = Not Free.8 3.1 1.4 5.. .5 44 .0 . .1 59 . 26 Law Enacted 53 3. 64 .9 6.0 0. b..7 .2 1. 10= Liberties Rights Index Index Days to (percent of Health Education {a} Military most free) Legislation most access) least corrupt) 2006 2006 Register property value) 2004 2000-2005 2005 2006 2004 2002 2006 Sub-Saharan Africa ..5 2.2 85 .1 72 .0 Gambia 4 5 371 7. 13 2. .. 1=most free) Registering Property.1 5.8 0.9 4.1 Trinidad and Tobago 2 2 162 7 1.5 9.8 3.2 South America .5 6. 14 3.1 Mozambique 4 3 42 8.. .5 0.2 Congo. 10 2.1 0.1 Eritrea 6 7 101 5.8 1...0 30 Pending Effort 39 4.9 24 . Status of Freedom of Information Legislation (Privacy International): Legislation is classified as either enacted or pending.4 43 Pending Effort 12 2..9 Ethiopia 5 5 43 7.5 4. . Kenya 3 3 64 4.5 0.8 .2 Liberia 4 3 50 14.6 4.8 Namibia 2 2 23 9. . DATA TABLE 4: INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNANCE 219 .6 39 Pending Effort 50 3....8 5.4 . . 7 represents a nation with virtually no freedom..2 Rwanda 5 6 371 9.2 Somalia 7 7 .9 1.. . .5 2.3 Central African Rep 4 5 69 11.5 2. .....8 4.3 Sierra Leone 3 4 235 14. 0.4 5.8 3...7 6....4 ....8 2.6 5..5 3..3 0.6 1. .. 49 .7 2.7 Fiji 4 6 48 12 2... 43 Law Enacted 47 3. c..7 28 Pending Effort 16 3.9 3.. 10 .. Angola 5 6 334 11. .8 26 Pending Effort 58 7.6 Burkina Faso 3 5 182 12.9 5. .8 0.8 El Salvador 3 2 31 3.7 1. .5 2.5 2. 0. 100 represents highest access... 0= Information (1–100. .1 81 . 13 2.5 ..7 3.3 ..6 .4 North America ..5 .6 3.3 9..2 5. 52 4.0 45 Pending Effort 53 2... 16 2.2 1.2 3.1 1.. 18 2.5 1.9 Guinea-Bissau 4 4 211 5. 1.2 1.1 Cuba 7 7 . .6 .0 3.3 Guinea 5 6 104 15.2 4. .7 1.9 .8 4.7 Brazil 2 2 45 2.3 Nicaragua 3 3 124 3.1 6... Madagascar 3 4 134 11.4 Solomon Islands 3 4 297 4. 12 2.1 16 Law Enacted 78 7.8 . Belize 2 1 60 4. 2.4 Cameroon 6 6 93 17.. Key to Indices: Freedom Indices (Freedom House): Scaled from1 to 7..9 33 Pending Effort 38 2. . 55 Pending Effort 15 2. 3.7 44 Pending Effort 19 2.8 5...2 2.3 2.1 . 38 3.6 ...3 1.5 4.WORLD RESOURCES 2008 Access to Information Freedom Indices Regulatory Barriers to Government Expenditures Press Digital Corruption (1–7.7 2. .6 43 Pending Effort 38 4.. 12 2.. 6. South Africa 2 2 24 8. 13 2.3 1.4 1. 10 2. Press Freedom Index (Freedom House): Scaled from 1 to 100. 43 2.7 4.9 3.4 27 Law Enacted 45 4. 9 2. 91 .9 1.9 3.0 13 Law Enacted 72 9. 68 .. .9 3..9 .6 Zimbabwe 6 7 30 25 3.2 3.5 Botswana 2 2 30 5 4.. or.2 b 28 Pending Effort 43 .7 5. .2 1. ..5 Paraguay 3 3 46 3. ..7 Zambia 4 3 70 9. 47 .4 28 Pending Effort 54 6. 85 . 1–30 = Free.1 Niger 3 3 32 9 2. Canada 1 1 17 1. 31–60 = Partly Free.6 1.4 4.7 3.. 6.1 1.1 3.3 3.2 . .4 0. .9 Ecuador 3 3 17 3 2.0 57 ..4 Chad 6 6 44 21. 4 2.3 Nigeria 4 4 82 22.. ..9 4. 51 ..3 3.3 Guyana 3 2 34 4.0 5.4 1.8 . .1 b 56 .8 5.3 Suriname 2 2 193 13. Corruption Perceptions Index (Transparency International): Scaled from 0 (most corrupt) to 10 (least corrupt).4 42 Pending Effort 19 3. . 67 .2 0..8 5.0 Guatemala 4 3 30 1 2.6 Papua New Guinea 3 3 72 5.2 2.6 b .4 5.5 6...9 5.8 57 Pending Effort 39 2.0 . . . 4. .2 4. 46 3.6 3. Data are for the most recent year available between 2000 and 2005..2 2. 34 3.6 Sudan 7 7 9 3. .2 Lesotho 3 2 101 8.6 37 Pending Effort 42 2..5 13.9 0.5 58 Pending Effort 19 2.5 Ghana 2 1 34 1.8 2..8 6. 15 1. 2.3 65 .. 20 2.7 2. 21 Law Enacted 47 3.. United Rep 3 4 119 5. 2007 (as a percent of Freedom Status of Access Perceptions Civil Political Average gross domestic product) Average Cost Index Freedom of Index Index Number of to Register Public Public (0–100.6 5. 1 represents a completely free nation. 30 . .2 39 Law Enacted 44 3.5 b 52 Pending Effort 17 2...7 17 Law Enacted 53 3.1 0.8 0.2 Benin 2 2 118 11. 47 2.6 2..0 Uruguay 1 1 66 7..1 18 Law Enacted 78 8. 15 2..8 1.0 2. ".2 1.7 3.5 .8 4.1 6.6 2.2 . .8 1.

and from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for its member countries. demobilization. political competition. religious hierarchies. notaries. including peacekeeping forces. needed to complete the legal and bureaucratic procedures required for registering property. stamp duties. Press Freedom is “the degree to which each country permits the free flow of information. political discrimination. where 100 equals the most access. A rating of 2 indicates some corruption. in calendar days. and other professionals routinely administering or advising on legal and regulatory requirements. These same factors play a progressively larger role in countries with a ranking of 3.” according to Freedom House. and post-secondary levels. Status of Freedom of Information (FOI) Legislation measures a government’s guarantee of public access to information by placing each country in one of three categories: In Effect: 57 countries legally guarantee public access to government records through comprehensive FOI laws. one-party dictatorships. or autocrats. (c) paramilitary forces. and economic environments that press in each country operate within. compiled by the nonprofit organization Freedom House. necessary for a business to complete the legal and bureaucratic procedures required for registering property. political terror. Education expenditure estimates are provided to the World Bank by the Institute for Statistics of the United Nations Educational. and destruction of weapons are not included as military expenditures. transfer taxes. with 1 representing the most free and 7 representing the least free. and military influence. while a rating of 3. Pending: 39 additional countries are considering adopting freedom of information acts. the findings of human rights organizations. 4. business consultants. (b) defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects. international visitors. political. A rating of 7 indicates virtually no freedom. The Digital Access Index is a composite score. A rating of 7 indicates nonexistent political rights due to extremely oppressive regimes. using a simple business case to ensure comparability across countries and over time. Data are also drawn from the International Monetary Fund. Civil defense. and autonomy for all citizens. published by the World Bank’s Doing Business database. are compiled via survey in conjunction with academic advisers. (including donations from international agencies and NGOs). violence. ranked on a scale of 1 to 100. developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). The estimates of health expenditure come mostly from the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Health Report 2003 and its subsequent updates. maintenance. public education. A rating of 1 indicates free and fair elections. Press freedom data are collected from overseas correspondents. The Index is calculated as a weighted average of eight variables describing infrastructure. such as capital gains tax or value added tax. and a variety of domestic and international news media. “Not Free. Surveys are administered through more than 5. and functioning of government. educational level of the population. association. are excluded from the cost measure. Public Health Expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (both central and local) budgets. higher values here represent regulatory environments that stifle the formalization of property rights. and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. it measures the degree of freedom in the flow of information. 31 to 60. Countries with a rating of 1 generally have an established and equitable rule of law with free economic activity.” The Civil Liberties Index measures freedom of expression. Governments differ significantly in the requirements for this process..” in the data table. affordability. Countries with a rating of 6 experience severely restricted freedom of expression and association coupled with political terror (for example. and 61 to 100.4 Institutions and Governance: Technical Notes DEFINITIONS AND METHODOLOGY Freedom Indices. Other taxes. UNESCO compiles its data from annual financial reports of central or federal governments and state or regional administrations. construction. political pluralism and participation. Broadly speaking. Freedom House notes that a poor rating for a country “is not necessarily a comment on the intentions of the government. external borrowings and grants 220 . making small adjustments for factors such as extreme violence. Access to information about government activities increases transparency and allows citizens to more effectively combat corruption. The final index is a sum of three separate components that reflect the legal. veterans’ benefits. and military activities in national economies. Public Education Expenditure consists of public spending on public education plus subsidies to private education at the primary. None: countries not listed have no pending FOI legislation (represented by “. and religion. research and development. or warlord rule.” Expenditures include the cost of procurements. Government Expenditures as a percent of gross domestic product roughly indicate the economic importance of public health. or 5 indicates varying degrees of censorship. or 5. quality of information and communication technology services. accountants. Countries and territories with political rights rated 6 are ruled by military juntas. Cost includes fees. civil war. 4. the reports of governments. and (d) military space activities. including minority groups. Military Expenditure is defined by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) as “all current and capital expenditure on: (a) the armed forces. extreme violence. government officials. staff travel. when judged to be trained an equipped for military operations. Average Number of Days to Register measures the time. “Partly Free”. It ranges from 1 to 100. Regulatory Barriers to Registering Property. To determine each rating. The World Bank uses data collected by SIPRI for its annual World Development Indicators military expenditure dataset. researchers answer a series of survey questions.” This survey does not measure press responsibility. The Political Rights Index measures the degree of freedom in the electoral process. range from 1 to 7. political prisoners). and any other payment to the property registry. and Internet usage. Data for registering property are produced assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building in the country’s largest business city. Foreign aid for education is excluded. expressed as a percent of the property value. Average Cost to Register measures the cost to a business. Scientific. assembly.000 local experts. personnel. which could indicate that no data are available for this country). Data are produced assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to purchase land and a building in the country’s largest business city. supplemented by World Bank poverty assessments and country-sector studies. and military aid to other countries. which reflects the ability of each country’s population to take advantage of internet communication technologies. or lawyers. A rating of 2 indicates some deficiencies. secondary. The specifics of each country’s legislation and constitutional guarantees are explained in detail in the source publications. public agencies. operations. Data are compiled by Privacy International by author David Banisar on a country-by-country basis. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). and prevention of free association. rather. Countries with a score between 1 and 30 are considered to have a “Free” media. including lawyers. specialists in geographic and geopolitical areas. but may indicate real restrictions on liberty caused by non-governmental terror.

Slums of the World: The Face of Urban Poverty in the New Millennium? Nairobi: UN-HABITAT. 2006. Nonetheless.The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. The methodology also assumes that a business has full information on what is required and does not waste time when completing procedures. DC: World Bank. Survey responses from residents in each country correlate well with responses from experts abroad.itu.org/B53SONGPA0. Berlin: Transparency International. 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index. 2003. World Telecommunication Development Report. the index components are clear. SOURCES Freedom Indices: Freedom House. SIPRI. not domestic and foreign corporations doing business in these countries. 2007. DC: World Bank. Spending on religious schools. It measures local and national governments. Nonetheless. Urban Population Living in Slums: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). 2004. Public Education Expenditure: In some cases data refer only to a ministry of education’s expenditures. figures for 2006 are based on surveys taken not only in 2006. To ensure comparability of the ratings from year to year. rigid international score comparisons are discouraged. New York: Freedom House. The data are reproducible and the index components are clear. any changes to the methodology are introduced incrementally. In addition.worldbank. For example. and ratings are assigned by a centralized team of researchers. Digital Access Index: The variables selected to build this indicator are from a number of reputable sources including ITU’s quarterly survey of information and communication technologies around the world. In practice. and the Status of FOI Legislation. Public Education Expenditures. as with any complex global dataset.privacyinternational. this index is measuring ideas and behaviors and not a discrete physical quantity. complete accuracy is difficult to ensure. excluding other ministries and local authorities that spend a part of their budget on educational activities. excluding access in other categories.html. collected data refer to only businesses in the country’s most populous city. Online at http://www. Doing Business Custom Datasets. Freedom of Information and Access to Government Records Around the World. 2007. Freedom in the World 2007: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Nonetheless. Corruption Perceptions Index: Overall. there are unavoidable difficulties in assigning each country to one of three categories. which are updated intermittently. Estimates are always based on empirical evidence. Corruption Perceptions Index: Transparency International.org/ publication/slumreport. completing a procedure may take longer if the business lacks information or is unable to follow up promptly. data often focus on a specific business form—a limited liability company of a specified size—and may not be representative of the regulation on other businesses. Online at http://www. findings indicate that in general. Military Expenditure: The entire data set has been carefully compiled with extensive analysis by a single provider. but the limited definition of this indicator may restrict its applicability. business people. When a time series is not available or a country’s definition of military expenditure differs from SIPRI’s. WHO cautions that these data should only be used for an “order of magnitude” estimate and that specific cross-country comparisons should be avoided. Online at http://go. making total public expenditure on health care difficult to measure. rigid score comparisons and rankings are discouraged. Data on public spending at the sub-national level are not aggregated in all countries. while the CPI can illustrate rough comparisons. Digital Access Index: International Telecommunications Union (ITU).doingbusiness. D. with the exception of the Digital Access Index. Some countries have laws guaranteeing access. but in 2004 and 2005 as well.transparency. Thus. estimates are made based on analysis of official government budget statistics.pdf. DC: Privacy International. Online at http://www. Survey results are combined in three-year periods to reduce abrupt variations that could potentially be caused by errors. as such. academics. Regulatory Barriers to Registering Property: World Bank Group.org/uploads/press_release/fiw07_charts. Confidence intervals are published in tabular format by Transparency International. The CPI is compiled from 12 surveys originating from nine different independent institutions. Government Expenditures: Development Data Group. but the laws are not enforced. Regulatory Barriers to Registering Property: Data are very reliable. Public Health Expenditure: The values reported here represent the product of an extensive effort by WHO. D ATA R E L I A B I L I T Y A N D C A U T I O N A RY N O T E S Freedom Indices: Data and methodologies are subject to rigorous internal and external reviews. Online at http://www. TECHNICAL NOTES: INSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNANCE F R E Q U E N C Y O F U P D AT E B Y D ATA P R O V I D E R S All of the data sets in this table are updated annually by the original providers.org/ policy_and_research/surveys_indices/cpi. The surveys measure the perceptions of local residents. the data are considered to be reliable. Status of FOI Legislation: Banisar. the data are reproducible. and. World Bank. Thus. 2007 World Development Indicators. OECD. and the World Bank to produce a comprehensive data set on national health accounts. not assumptions or extrapolations.unhabitat. the data are considered to be reliable. 221 . expatriates. few developing countries have health accounts that are methodologically consistent with national accounting procedures.freedomhouse. which makes these data fairly reliable. may be included. 2003.org/issues/foia/foia-survey. A country is included in the CPI only if there are data available from 3 or more surveys. Washington.pdf. Ratings range in value from 10 (least corrupt) to 0 (most corrupt). Washington. Geneva: ITU.html.int/ newsarchive/press_releases/2003/30. Washington. Status of FOI Legislation: While the FOI data have been thoroughly researched. and risk analysts. While year-to-year variation in scores is affected by changes in survey samples and methodology. Online at http://www. SIPRI cautions that military expenditure does not relate directly to military capability or security.org/CustomQuery. trends in the data over time are reasonably accurate. The survey measures public sector corruption or the abuse of public office for private gain. which constitutes a large portion of educational spending in some developing countries. Still others guarantee access to government documents in specific categories. However. The World Bank cautions that these data do not measure the effectiveness or levels of attainment in a particular educational system. Online at http://www. 2007.