OOAD 1. What do you mean by analysis and design?

Analysis: Basically, it is the process of determining what needs to be done before how it should be done. In order to accomplish this, the developer refers the existing systems and documents. So, simply it is an art of discovery. Design: It is the process of adopting/choosing the one among the many, which best accomplishes the users needs. So, simply, it is compromising mechanism. 2. What are the steps involved in designing? Before getting into the design the designer should go through the SRS prepared by the System Analyst. The main tasks of design are Architectural Design and Detailed Design. In Architectural Design we find what are the main modules in the problem domain. In Detailed Design we find what should be done within each module. 3. What are the main underlying concepts of object orientation? Objects, messages, class, inheritance and polymorphism are the main concepts of object orientation. 4. What do u meant by "SBI" of an object? SBI stands for State, Behavior and Identity. Since every object has the above three. ? State: It is just a value to the attribute of an object at a particular time. ? Behaviour: It describes the actions and their reactions of that object. ? Identity: An object has an identity that characterizes its own existence. The identity makes it possible to distinguish any object in an unambiguous way, and independently from its state. 5. Differentiate persistent & non-persistent objects? Persistent refers to an object's ability to transcend time or space. A persistent object stores/saves its state in a permanent storage system with out losing the information represented by the object. A non-persistent object is said to be transient or ephemeral. By default objects are considered as nonpersistent. 6. What do you meant by active and passive objects? Active objects are one which instigate an interaction which owns a thread and they are responsible for handling control to other objects. In simple words it can be referred as client. Passive objects are one, which passively waits for the message to be processed. It waits for another object that requires its services. In simple words it can be referred as server. Diagram: client server (Active) (Passive) 7. What is meant by software development method? Software development method describes how to model and build software systems in a reliable and reproducible way. To put it simple, methods that are used to represent ones' thinking using graphical notations. 8. What are models and meta models? Model:

How to represent the interaction between the modeling elements? Model element is just a notation to represent (Graphically) the entities that exist in the problem domain.It is a complete description of something (i. object notation etc. example: class A{ //some code }.g. }. car ? Containment: This relationship is applied when the part contained with in the whole part. ? Generalization: This relationship used when we want represents a class. etc. What do you meant by static and dynamic modeling? Static modeling is used to specify structure of the objects that exist in the problem domain.we can represnt it in diagram like this. It is represented as line with diamond in the master area. Since the slave works under the master. so the object class A dies when the object class B dies. ? Association: Its' just a semantic connection two classes.e. Meta model: It describes the model elements. // an object of class A. activity. e. Relationships are used to represent the interaction between the modeling elements. The following are the Relationships. It is represented by sequence. class B { A aa. which has captured the common states. collaboration and statechart diagrams. syntax and semantics of the notation that allows their manipulation. which captures the common states of objects of different classes. These are expressed using class. In the above example we see that an object of class A is instantiated with in the class B. 9. system). for modeling element is class notation. ex: car contains wheels.g. The master takes full rights than the slave. // some code for class B. object and USECASE diagrams. But Dynamic modeling refers representing the object interactions during runtime. It is represented as arrow line pointed at the class.: ? Aggregation: Its' the relationship between two classes which are related in the fashion that master and slave. It is represented as darked diamond at the whole part. dies when the whole part dies. e. 10. .

Jacobson. 12. A. Person. but all Bs' not A. Whether unified method and unified modeling language are same or different? Unified method is convergence of the Rumbaugh and Booch. You cannot apply the link and Association interchangeably. Its' the superset of all the methodologies. Employee. Differentiate Aggregation and containment? Aggregation is the relationship between the whole and a part. Interface. Since link is used represent the relationship between the two objects. what is meant by "method-wars"? Before 1994 there were different methodologies like Rumbaugh. B. Behaviour properties. Booch and Jacobson as well as Betrand Meyer (whose contribution is "sequence diagram"). Interface properties. Unified modeling lang. Can link and Association applied interchangeably? No. But Association is used represent the relationship between the two classes. but not all persons are employees. in the case of containment the whole part is affected when the part within that got affected. We can add/subtract some properties in the part (slave) side. Best example is Car. The developers were in a dilemma to choose the method which best accomplishes their needs. Booch. as it is Antisymmetric and Transitive. Any change in the independent class will affect the states of the dependent class. 16. ? Ivar Jacobson (Objectory): The father of USECASES. But. DIAGRAM: class A class B 11. Why generalization is very strong? Even though Generalization satisfies Structural. who described about the user and system . Behaviour properties. This particular span was called as "method-wars" 15. The human body is an apt example for this relationship. When the whole body dies the parts (heart etc) are died. Even though the parts are not there we can call it as car. Meyer etc who followed their own notations to model the systems. 13. ? Grady Booch: A veteran in design who came up with an idea about partitioning of systems into subsystems. ? James Rumbaugh (OMT): A veteran in analysis who came up with an idea about the objects and their Relationships (in particular Associations). is the fusion of Rumbaugh. It won't affect the whole part. Mathematically all As' are B.? Dependency: It is the relationship between dependent and independent classes. Salesman. link :: student:Abhilash course:MCA Association:: student course 14. Antisymmetric: employee is a person. It is mathematically very strong. Transitive: A=>B. C. B=>c then A=>c. Note: All the other relationships satisfy all the properties like Structural properties. which contains the wheels and some extra parts. Who were the three famous amigos and what was their contribution to the object community? The Three amigos namely.

Diagram: 20. It is given with in the << >>. Here the object on the customer accesses the ATM facility only when the guard condition is met. Representation: OMT UML. Who is an Actor? An Actor is someone or something that must interact with the system. Representation: 19. which acts as a firewall. It is represented elliptically. Suppose a class acts an Actor in the problem domain. how to represent it in the static model? In this scenario you can use "stereotype". Rumbaugh and UML? If you look at the class representaiton of Rumbaugh and UML.In addition to that an Actor initiates the process(that is USECASE). Differentiate the class representation of Booch. Since stereotype is just a string that gives extra semantic to the particular entity/model element. What is an USECASE? Why it is needed? A Use Case is a description of a set of sequence of actions that a system performs that yields an observable result of value to a particular action. 22. 17. class A . customer check customer number ATM.interaction. It is some what similar and both are very easy to draw. Diagram: 18. Diagram: Booch: In this method classes are represented as "Clouds" which are not very easy to draw as for as the developer's view is concern. It is represented as a stickman like this. 21. Differentiate the following notations? I: :obj1 :obj2 II: :obj1 :obj2 In the above representation I. How will the designer give the implementation details of a particular USECASE to the programmer? This can be accomplished by specifying the relationship called "refinement" which talks about the two different abstraction of the same thing. What is guard condition? Guard condition is one. For Example. calculate pay calculate class1 class2 class3 23. USECASE is an implementation independent notation. obj1 sends message to obj2. In SSAD process <=> In OOAD USECASE. Or example. The access from a particular object can be made only when the particular condition is met. But in the case of II the data is transferred from obj1 to obj2.

or. Why does the function arguments are called as "signatures"? The arguments distinguish functions with the same name (functional polymorphism). in other words.” The behavior of an object is invoked by sending a message to that object. 24. The name alone does not necessarily identify a unique function. Generalized objects can help in reduced maintenance as they are less dependant and reusable. They hide internal representation and expose only required functionality. Why OOA? Looking from both management and technical perspective. which themselves may be collection of smaller objects. Class contains all the statements needed to create an object. It’s the blueprint from which individual objects are created. However. Objects are real world entities as in they contain attributes and operations and they always represent a “state. void setsex(int). It is a template for an object and it specifies the object’s structures and operations. What is a class? Class is the building block of object oriented system. its attributes.<< Actor>> attributes methods. It’s a point of view where systems are constructed from objects. OO offers numerous inherent benefits like highquality programming and ease maintenance due to decoupled nature of the structure. In the above example we see that there is a function setsex() with same name but with different signature FAQs on Object Oriented Architecture What is Object Orientation? It’s a way of thinking to understand the given problem by identifying various objects and their associations. Object technologies are easier to adopt and are easily scalable. It’s a system where computation occurs by means of objects communicating with each other by message passing. What are the benefits of ‘object’ approach? An object becomes important in OOA because it is more than just a value or a record of values: it "knows" what it can do. }. In real life we see suppose. to model and solve the problem. void setsex(char). it has an associated behavior. the name and its arguments (signatures) will uniquely identify a function. interaction among the objects. in class there are two guys with same name. as well as the statements to describe the . The reason why objects are necessary is that it is usually easy to model real world objects. What are Objects? Objects are defined as tangible entity that exhibits some well-defined behavior. ex: class person { public: char getsex(). But the most important benefit is the reuse facility and hence faster development process. The same concept is applied here. but they can be easily identified by their signatures. The object then executes the appropriate method (operation).

These messages can be Synchronous (wait for a response) and Asynchronous (don’t wait for a response). Each car was built from the same set of blueprints and therefore contains the same components.operations that the object will be able to perform. running. OOAD techniques were more costly than traditional software development methodologies. such as structured analysis and design and functional decomposition. A method of training that has produced desired results at Stylus is to initiate pilot projects. highly reusable and easy maintainable. The advantage OOA provides is low coupling. and so on. How do objects interact? The object oriented approach really shows its worth in situations in which objects interact with each other. The result is speeding of the development time and proper class construction. . legs. Why choose Stylus to develop your software? The use of object oriented technology requires formal training in OOAD methods. each of which is a bundle of data and functionality. Aside from inheritance (about which we will talk in later paragraphs). in the real world. The program becomes easily scalable and easier to adopt. there are other ways for objects to interact. How does everyone benefit from OOA method? OOA is all about determining the best way to divide a program into an economical set of classes. one particular car is an instance of the class of objects known as cars. A good example of a class is Human. age. A human class would have characteristics (attributes) of gender. hands. i. Reuse results in far fewer lines of code. one object uses another object. is the foundation of this technology and provides an attractive alternative for the development of complex systems. OOA ensures better quality. Technical management at Stylus Systems is aware that the maximum impact from OOAD is achieved when used with the goal of designing reusable software. This in turn changes the state of objects. There may be thousands of cars in existence. This is a far-reaching departure from prior methods of requirements specification. All the instances created with a given class will have the same structure and behavior. They will only differ regarding their state.e regarding the value of their attributes. which translates to less bugs and lower maintenance costs. and conduct team reviews to properly train all the analysis and development staff as well as the program management team. The idea that a system can be viewed as a collection of interacting objects. better maintenance due to decoupled nature of the structure and high productivity. These objects are called instances of this class. What are class instances? Once a class is defined then as many objects as needed can be created. Another very important knowledge is that for objects without significant reuse potential. A Real Life Picture of Object Oriented Analysis and Design Object Oriented Analysis Object Oriented Analysis views the world as objects with data structures and behaviors and events that trigger operations (object behavior changes). It would also have actions (methods) such as walking. talking. In object-oriented terms. and so forth. For instance. conduct formal classes. there are many individual objects all of the same kind. For Instance. A class has the following members: attributes and methods. all of the same make and model. Objects interact by passing messages that hold an operation (method) invocation request. eating.

reusability of the design artifacts. defining data structures and procedures. This is also where a project can realize most of the reuse of object-oriented products. complex objects. deals with the breaking up of the system into large. an icon on a screen. or even a full screen with which a travel agent interacts. Ultimately designs can be implemented in software and hardware as well. and defining message protocols for all objects. For instance. It involves arriving at detailed descriptions of logical solution to the problem identified during the OOA stage. Design can be thought of in two phases. and easier verification by the user.e. . or the logic of its methods. the requirements of that object. This technology works best when used in new development. less complexity in system design. It builds on the products developed during OOA by refining candidate objects into classes. The fundamental question to ponder over here is what the problem is about and what a system must do. Analysis emphasizes and investigates the problem rather than how a solution is desired. For the uninitiated. The use of object oriented technology requires formal training in OOA methods. route. In this phase. OOD techniques are useful for development of large complex systems. What OOA does is to specify the structure and behavior of the object i. To specify the requirements of the objects different types of models are required. object is a representation of a real-life entity or abstraction. object attributes. The most important part of OOD is mapping the above mentioned things into an object-oriented programming language (OOPL). and object relationships to other objects. called high-level design.e. A method of training that has produced desired results at Stylus is to initiate pilot projects. and productivity gains through direct mapping to features of Object-Oriented Programming. and conduct team reviews to properly train all the analysis and development staff as well as the program management team. which provides for less analysis effort. including: object name. attributes and methods are specified at the level of individual objects. since it is possible to guide the design so that lower-level objects correspond exactly to those in existing object libraries or to develop objects with reuse potential. The information or object model will contain the definition of objects in the system. Another very important knowledge is that for objects without significant reuse potential. The first. such as the types of the attributes of a class. which saves time and costs.We all know what objects are. It seeks answers to questions like how the logical solution fulfills requirements and constraints. The second phase is called low-level design. the design part. It can yield the following benefits: maintainability through simplified mapping to the problem domain. OOAD techniques were more costly than traditional software development methodologies. objects in a car rental system might include: a car. OOD requires the specification of concepts that are not existent in analysis. OO Analysis involves the team to arrive at the description of the problem and subsequently identify the requirements. Technical management at Stylus Systems is aware that the maximum impact from OOAD is achieved when used with the goal of designing reusable software. it’s time to move on to the next phase i. Object Oriented Design Object-oriented design (OOD) is mainly concerned with developing an object-oriented model of a system to implement the identified requirements. Once this is done. conduct formal classes.