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Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 1
ݱ²¬»²¬­

Preface 7
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION 12
1.1 Scope of Work 12
1.2 Evolution Of The Project 13
1.3 Aims Of The Conservation Development Plan 14
1.4 Need For The Conservation Development Plan (CDP) 15
1.5 Principles of the Conservation Development Plan 16
CHAPTER TWO: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MONUMENTS 17
2.1 State Of Conservation 17
2.2 Threats To Conservation 20
2.3 Paravur Jewish Synagogue 21
2.3.1 State Of Conservation 21
2.3.2 Risk Analysis 22
2.3.3 Authenticity And Integrity 22
2.4 Pattanam Archaeological Site 23
2.4.1 State Of Conservation 25
2.4.2 Risk Analysis 25
2.4.3 Authenticity And Integrity 25
2.5 Kottayil Kovilakom 25
2.5.1 State Of Conservation 26
2.5.2 Risk Analysis 27
2.5.3 Authenticity And Integrity 27
2.6 Vypeekota Seminary 27
2.6.1 State Of Conservation 28
2.6.2 Risk Analysis 29
2.6.3 Authenticity And Integrity 29
2.7 Chendamangalam Jewish Synagogue 30
2.7.1 State Of Conservation 30
2.7.2 Risk Analysis 31
2.7.3 Authenticity And Integrity 32
2.8 Paliam Dutch Palace 33
2.8.1 State Of Conservation 33
2.8.2 Risk Analysis 34
2.8.3 Authenticity And Integrity 35
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 2
2.9 Paliam Nalukettu 35
2.9.1 State Of Conservation 35
2.9.2 Risk Analysis 36
2.9.3 Authenticity And Integrity 36
2.10 Gothuruthu 37
2.10.1 State Of Conservation 38
2.10.2 Risk Analysis 38
2.10.3 Authenticity And Integrity 39
2.11 Kottappuram Fort 39
2.11.1 State Of Conservation 41
2.11.2 Risk Analysis 41
2.11.3 Authenticity And Integrity 42
2.12 Cheraman Parambu 42
2.12.1 State Of Conservation 42
2.12.2 Risk Analysis 43
2.12.3 Authenticity And Integrity 43
2.13 Kizhthali Shiva Temple 44
2.13.1 State Of Conservation 45
2.13.2 Risk Analysis 46
2.13.3 Authenticity And Integrity 46
2.14 Thiruvanchikulam Mahadeva Temple 46
2.14.1 State Of Conservation 47
2.14.2 Risk Analysis 47
2.14.3 Authenticity And Integrity 47
2.15 Cheraman Juma Masjid 47
2.15.1 State Of Conservation 48
2.15.2 Risk Analysis 48
2.15.3 Authenticity And Integrity 49
2.16 Kodungallur Bhagavathi Temple 49
2.16.1 State Of Conservation 50
2.16.2 Risk Analysis 51
2.16.3 Authenticity And Integrity 51
2.17 Abdul Rahman SahibŽs House 51
2.17.1 State Of Conservation 52
2.17.2 Risk Analysis 52
2.17.3 Authenticity And Integrity 52
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 3
2.18 Marthoma Church 53
2.18.1 State Of Conservation 54
2.18.2 Risk Analysis 55
2.19 Pallippuram Fort 55
2.19.1 State Of Conservation 56
2.19.2 Risk Analysis 57
2.19.3 Authenticity And Integrity 57
CHAPTER THREE: VISION AND OBJECTIVES 58
3.1 Vision 58
3.2 Objectives 59
3.2.1 Management Of The Site 59
3.2.2 Architectural Conservation 61
3.2.3 New Development 63
3.2.4 Transportation 63
3.2.5 Archaeology 64
3.2.6 Culture And Intangible Heritage 65
3.2.7 Education And Interpretation 65
3.2.8 Visitor Management And Tourism 65
3.2.9 Natural Environment 67
3.2.10 Research And Monitoring 67
3.2.11 Managing Operational Impacts 68
CHAPTER FOUR: CIRCUIT TOURS FOR VISITORS 70
4.1 Circuit No.1 - Chendamangalam Monuments and Crafts 70
4.2 Circuit No.2 - Paliam Historical Tour 73
4.3 Circuit No.3 Š Paravur Tour 76
4.4 Circuit No.4 - Sunset Cruise, Kottappuram Fort 80
4.5 Circuit No.5 - Pattanam And Cheraman Parambu 80
4.6 Circuit No.6 - European Monuments 82
4.7 Circuit No.7 - Kodungallur Temples 85
4.8 Circuit No.8 - Paravur Temples 89
4.9 Circuit No.9 - Kodungallur Palaces 94
4.10 Circuit No.10 - Churches, Synagogues And Mosques 96
4.11 Circuit No.11 - Gothuruthu Lifestyle 101
4.12 Circuit No.12 - Cultural Tour 104
4.13 Circuit No.13 - Historical Buildings in Pallippuram 106
4.14 Circuit No.14 Š Timeline Tour 110
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 4
CHAPTER FIVE: IMPLEMENITNG THE CONSERVATION
DEVELOPMENT PLAN
113
5.1 Management Of The Site 113
5.2 Architectural Conservation 116
5.3 New Development 118
5.3.1 Need For A Buffer Zone For Each Monument 119
5.3.2 New Buildings 119
5.3.3 Street Furniture And Signage 120
5.3.4 Visitor Centre 120
5.3.5 Museums 122
5.3.6 Museum on Christian Religious Art And
Traditions, North Paravur
122
5.3.7 Museum of Aquatic Life, Vadakekkara 123
5.3.8 Pattanam Archaeological Site 123
5.3.9 Museum on Handlooms, Chendamangalam 126
5.3.10 Traditional Art Performance Centre,
Chendamangalam
126
5.3.11 Traditional Lifestyle Museum, Chendamangalam 126
5.3.12 Kochi Dynasty History Museum,
Chendamangalam
126
5.3.13 Museum on Inland Fishing, Gothuruthu 126
5.3.14 Chavittunatakam Centre, Gothuruthu 127
5.3.15 Museum on Coir, Moothakunnam 127
5.3.16 Kottappuram Fort 127
5.3.17 Military Or Armory Museum, Kottappuram Fort 127
5.3.18 Kerala History Museum, Cheraman Parambu 128
5.3.19 Students Workshop, Cheraman Parambu 128
5.3.20 Museum of Freedom Struggle, Kodungallur 128
5.3.21 Museum of Kerala Literature, Kodungallur 129
5.3.22 Islamic Traditions Museum, Kodungallur 129
5.3.23 Syrian Christian History Museum, Kodungallur 129
5.4 Transportation 129
5.4.1 Park And Ride 130
5.4.2 Muziris Bus Service 131
5.4.3 Boats 131
5.4.4 Pedestrian And Cycle Paths 131
5.4.5 Physical Access 131
5.4.6 Access For All 131
5.4.7 Guided Tours 132
5.4.8 Noise And Air Pollution 132
5.5 Archaeology 132
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 5
5.5.1 Identification of Archaeological Remains 133
5.5.2 Preservation In Situ 134
5.5.3 Preservation By Record 134
5.5.4 Future of Pattanam Archaeological Site 135
5.6 Culture And Intangible Heritage 135
5.7 Education And Interpretation Strategies 136
5.7.1 Education 138
5.7.2 Multimedia Teaching Materials 139
5.7.3 Evaluation of Interpretation Programs 139
5.8 Visitor Management And Tourism 139
5.8.1 Overseas Visitors 140
5.8.2 Foreign Language Visitors 140
5.9 Protection Of Natural Environment 140
5.10 Research And Monitoring 141
5.11 Managing Operational Impacts 142
5.11.1 Positive Impacts 143
5.11.2 Negative Impacts 143
5.11.3 Approach To Tourism 144
5.11.4 Conservation Of Monuments And Tourism 144
5.11.5 Branding Of The Muziris Heritage Site 145
5.11.6 Benefits To The Local Community 145
5.11.7 Generating Local Employment 146
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION 148
6.1 Management Structure Of The Project 148
6.2 Public Exhibition 149
6.3 Website 149



Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 6
Ý®»¼·¬­

Ю±¶»½¬ ݱ²­«´¬¿²¬
Benny Kuriakose
ݱ®» Ì»¿³
Sathya S.
Shri Padma Priya K.
Surya Prashant
Deepa John
Ú·»´¼ Í«®ª»§ Ì»¿³
Sebin
Rahul
Toni
Lifi
Dipash
Faizal Ali Khan L.
Ü®¿º¬·²¹ Ì»¿³
Shri Padma Priya K.
Rangasamy S.
Jeya priya D.
豬±¹®¿°¸­
Benny Kuriakose
Sathya S.
Shri Padma Priya K.
Surya Prashant


Û¼·¬»¼ Þ§
Yamuna N.S.

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 7
Ю»º¿½»
Muziris is a unique example of history and heritage. But the present
state of Muziris is sad.
What is Muziris?
In 1341, the profile of the water bodies in the Periyar River basin,
on the Malabar Coast in Kerala underwent a major transformation.
The prosperous city-port of Muziris, at the mouth of the Periyar,
overlooking the Arabian Sea, suddenly dropped off the map, due to
a flood or earthquake, or both. Muziris was silted over and its site
was left to conjecture. The excavations by the Kerala Council for
Historical Research (KCHR), in 2007 & 2008 unearthed valuable
information that threw light on its location and more. The
archaeological and historical data gathering on "MuzirisΠsince then,
provides further evidence to show that it was a veritable business
and cultural centre, with far reaching international associations. It
is found that, through the Muziris trade channels, the people of
South India were afforded connections and opportunities with many
civilizations in Western Asia, the Near East, Europe and further.
This excavation project has proved to be a turning point, as the
wealth of information now available is not only on the port, but also
on its hinterland, the whole Periyar Basin, and the historic towns of
Kodungallur, Pattanam and Paravur.
Muziris was an active port in the 1st century BC, though it is still not
known when the city-port was established. The merchants of Muziris
had instituted Indo-Greek and Indo-Roman-Egyptian trade
channels, dealing in gold and other metals, pepper and spices,
gemstones and textiles. From the 1
st
century onward, they traded
with Jews, Arabs, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese, British, and many
other travellers. The monuments from the Muziris era speak
volumes. However, these monuments are today in a dilapidated
condition and are hardly attractive to tourists, whether foreign or
local. As our industrial consumer society developed, during the last
four decades, it has done severe damage to our natural and built
environment.
We were asked to prepare a Concept Plan for Conservation, linking
all these monuments. It is a challenge that we have taken on, with
no illusions that the task ahead would be easy. We are always
conscious that it could take decades to really address and complete
this task. However, our project draws inspiration from all the above
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 8
archaeological and historical evidence and is called the Ó«¦·®·­
Ø»®·¬¿¹» Í·¬» øÓØÍ÷ò
We have intended that the monuments are not to be seen in
isolation, but have designed the process in a manner that involves
the local communities and integrates our proposals with the rest of
the developmental activities. The Muziris Heritage Project naturally
lends itself to bringing back memories of the past and the project is
not about tourism or recreation alone. It is about making a
difference - a big difference to conservation, restoration, the study
of history, environmental projects, research, development of craft
and art forms, occupations and other community activities also.
This project is pointedly relevant to current Indian Heritage
activities as it reflects two vital ideas. The first is from the evidence
of the importance of waterways to the evolution and sustenance of
people, societies and cultures. The second is from the evidence
recorded in the Kerala State Gazetteer
1
(Vol 2 page 287), on the
peaceful co-existence of different religious communities: "Christians
and Muslims, Jews and Konkanis lived side by side with the Kerala
Hindus in a state of perfect understanding and amity, respecting
each otherŽs customs and prejudices and scrupulously avoiding all
interferenceŒ.
The Conservation Development Plan will be prepared in relation to
the whole Muziris region. It is intended as a live and interactive one,
based on the discussions and the inputs received from various
stakeholders. We hope this document will invite commitment
towards the vision of the project and objectives for safeguarding the
outstanding universal values, for which the site was inscribed as the
Muziris Heritage Site. This will guide us, as all parties work together
and ensure that it is enjoyed both now and in the centuries to
come.
I would like to thank all the people who have helped in making this
Draft of the Conservation Development Plan for the Muziris Heritage
Site.
Ú»¾®«¿®§ ïטּô îððç Þ»²²§ Õ«®·¿µ±­»
1
Edited by Adoor K. K. Ramachandran Nair
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 9
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 10
“̸» »²¶±§³»²¬ ±º ±«® ¸»®·¬¿¹» ¼»°»²¼­ «°±² ·¬­
½±²­»®ª¿¬·±²ò  ɱ®´¼ Ø»®·¬¿¹» ¼»³±²­¬®¿¬»­ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»
·²¼«­¬®§ô ½®¿º¬­³¿²­¸·°ô ´±ª» ¿²¼ ½¿®» ±º °¿­¬
½·ª·´·¦¿¬·±²­ ©»®» ¹·ª»² ¬± ³¿µ» ¬¸»·® ­«®®±«²¼·²¹­
³»¿²·²¹º«´ò ̸·­ ­¸±«´¼ ²»ª»® ½»¿­» ¬± º·´´ «­ ©·¬¸
©±²¼»®ò ̸» °¿­¬ ½¿² ­°»¿µ ¬± «­ ¿²¼ ¸»´° «­ ®»¿´·¦»
©¸»®» ©» ¿®» ¹±·²¹ ·² ¬¸» º«¬«®»ò’
By BM Feilden and J Jokilehto in their book titled Management
Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Sites
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 11


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 12
ݸ¿°¬»® Ѳ»

ײ¬®±¼«½¬·±²
The Government of Kerala has been contemplating the creation of
the Muziris Heritage Project from 2006. However, realizing its
potential impact, the Government has initiated an ambitious project
to encompass a larger area includng North Paravur and Kodungallur
Taluks, which have various protected monuments.
The Muziris Heritage Site (ÓØÍ) stretches across from the two
municipalities of North Paravur in Ernakulam District to that of
Kodungallur in Thrissur District and includes four Panchayats in
Ernakulam District, which are Chendamangalam, Chittatikura,
Vadakekkara, Pallippuram, and two Panchayats in Thrissur District,
namely Azhikode and Methala. Although a large number of pilgrims
visit the various temples, churches and mosques during the
festivals, the number of tourists who presently visit the protected
monuments are few. However, Cherai Beach, in the project area is
a major tourist destination.
An understanding of a site and those elements which make it
significant must lie at the heart of any modern approach to the
management of an historic place.
Without this understanding, any proposals for change or
management activities may, at best, miss important opportunities
and, at worst, be misguided and therefore harmful. It is also
essential to look at a site in its totality, taking an interdisciplinary
approach which brings together a myriad of interests and areas of
expertise.
ïòï ͽ±°» ±º ɱ®µ
The scope of work outlined for the consultants under the
assignment as detailed in the Terms of Reference is as follows:
Documentation in digital form of the various monuments
which includes the plan, section and elevations as the case
may be.
Preparation of maps and other information which shows the
possibility of various tourism circuits that may be considered
for the area.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 13
Preparation of necessary details which can be used for the
presentation and interpretation of the site.
Historical analysis of collected information and preparation of
maps at site level.
Background material in English for tourist brochures and other
forms of information dissemination.
Preparation of a Conservation Development Plan (ÝÜÐ) drawn
from documentation of discussions with the various stake
holders with specific emphasis on conservation of the
monuments that will support tourism development. The ÝÜÐ
will incorporate the diverse heritage resources and the needs
of the stakeholders in an integrated manner. This means the
facilities and utilities to be provided at each site should be
identified along with the various conservational dimensions,
such as the archaeological, historical, architectural and
promotional aspects are to be considered simultaneously.
ïòî Ûª±´«¬·±² ±º ¬¸» Ю±¶»½¬
The ÝÜÐ presently has evolved to include several new parameters,
as from the development of the concept towards conservation and
its sustainability, the extent of the scope of works came to be
extended from just protected monuments to the other historic
buildings in the area as well.
Therefore the ÝÜÐ will now be prepared as a `process oriented planŽ
wherein inputs provided are from multi-disciplinary stake holders.
This means the involvement of various sector representatives such
as architects, planners, historians, social scientists, educationists,
panchayat members, trustees, religious authorities and so on.
A critical component of the process oriented plan is public feedback
on the concepts being developed and on their implementation. In
the long run, it is advantageous to "take alongΠthe public and
private concerns of the area and those interested in protecting the
built and natural environment into the planning of the project.
This document is a draft of the ÝÜÐ, which is being submitted for
discussion and will be finalised after due diligence is followed in
public dissemination. This draft document outlines the vision and
steps towards conservation of the monuments, the construction of
new tourist amenities, to improve infrastructure, manage visitors,
improve interpretation and presentation of monuments, and
protection of the natural environment. Based on the discussions and
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 14
the inputs received from various stakeholders, the final detailed
ÝÜÐ will be prepared for the whole area.
ïòí ß·³­ ±º ¬¸» ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±² Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ д¿²
The Conservation Development Plan aims to provide a framework to
conserve the cultural heritage assets of the ÓØÍ. This wide remit
includes protection and enhancement of the architectural,
archaeological, landscape and natural assets along with their
settings and a transference of intent towards improving
understanding of the Site, its interpretation and use as an
educational resource. It is intended to support the local community
in its cultural, social and economic vitality.
Each stage in the development of a ÝÜÐ is incremental. It builds on
the foundation of previous work and is intended to aid both day to
day and long-term management of the site. However, it needs to be
kept in mind that the Plan is a living document. It must continue to
be reviewed periodically, and take into account new knowledge or
changes in the condition of the fabric, or simply to reflect changing
perceptions of heritage merit.
The ÝÜÐ is a partnership document, providing guidance for the
activities of organizations and individuals operating within the
ÓØÍ, with a view to achieving holistic and co-ordinated
management.
The ÝÜÐ needs to be supported by a policy document in order to
2
:
Outline a sustainable approach to its future management, so
that it addresses the well-being of the historical,
archaeological, architectural, ecological, economic and social
environment of the Site;
Define a vision, principles, goals and objectives for the
management of the Site;
Identify the economic and cultural benefits of the ÓØÍ and
work with partners in the local community to maximise these
benefits, without damaging the heritage;
Suggest a programme of action that is achievable and will
contribute to the conservation, understanding and, where
appropriate, the improvement of the ÓØÍ for all those who
visit ÓØÍ and live or work in the area.

2
Stonehenge World Heritage Site Management Plan, Summary, Published by English Heritage.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 15
ïòì Ò»»¼ º±® ¬¸» ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±² Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ д¿² øÝÜÐ÷

The particular situation of Muziris, where ownership and
management responsibilities lie with many groups and organisations
and thousands of individuals, renders a conservation development
plan a valuable tool for strategic coordination. In an area so rich in
heritage, managing change in a way beneficial to both the historic
environment and the community is key. The ÝÜÐ will help the
Muziris area to move forward into the 21st century, secure on its
foundation as an internationally important heritage site.
Developed in stages, the Conservation Development Plan
3
:
Provides an understanding of the ÓØÍ within its historical
and contemporary context.
Identifies the key features, characteristics and elements of the
area, defining the outstanding universal values and cultural
significance of the ÓØÍ.
Identifies the key management issues and prescribes
objectives for addressing those issues.
Enables an holistic view to be taken with regard to the
challenges and opportunities for the management and
enhancement of the site.
Establishes the principles to enable the Site to be managed
and to safeguard and sustain its significance for future
generations, whilst allowing its various parts to be used
effectively for their primary functions.
Presents a programme of action to fulfill the objectives and
ensure that the ÓØÍ is managed according to its needs.
It is hoped that the ÝÜÐ will help to guide the future of the site,
unlocking the potential of its buildings, monuments, public realm
and context, for the education and further enjoyment of residents,
workers, visitors and tourists, without altering the principal
purposes of the various monuments and buildings.
It is a win-win situation for everyone involved: when the site is
better protected and maintained, the tourist experiences a pleasant
and interesting visit, and the general appearance being one of care
and prosperity, in turn, boosts the local economy.
3
Westminster World Heritage Site Management Plan Consultation DraIt, October, 2004.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 16
ïòë Ю·²½·°´»­ Ѻ ̸» ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±² Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ д¿²
Delivering the Vision will involve drawing together all the key
players involved in ÓØÍ to allow them to work in partnership to
unlock the heritage potential of the Site and maintain a high-quality
historic environment. The mechanism for delivering this Vision will
be the ÝÜÐ, which is based on the principles
4
of:
Defining, conserving and protecting the SiteŽs outstanding
universal value and significances
Protecting, conserving and enhancing MuzirisŽ historic
buildings and townscape
Encouraging, wherever possible, the continued use of historic
buildings for their original purpose,
Promoting sustainable new development and re-use of MuzirisŽ
historic buildings and water-spaces, where the original use is
no longer viable
Ensuring sustainable access to the Site for all
Continuing MuzirisŽ distinctive cultural life and identity
Fostering national and local partnerships and facilitating social
inclusion
Promoting knowledge of the Site and its significances to a
local and global audience.
The ÝÜÐ together with relevant national policies and legislation will
provide the overarching framework for managing the Site.
4
The Future Ior the World Heritage Site and Management Obiectives, Liverpool City.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 17
ݸ¿°¬»® Ì©±

Í·¹²·º·½¿²½» Ѻ ̸» Ó±²«³»²¬­
Muziris Heritage Site (ÓØÍ) is an outstanding example of buildings
and archaeological sites and landscape which illustrates a significant
stage in the human history of Kerala. The area bears an exceptional
testimony to a cultural tradition which is fast disappearing.
The built heritage of Muziris is extensive and spreads across the
Site. There are a few notable buildings from the 18th and 19th
centuries scattered around the Site, but mostly in Chendamangalam
and Kodungallur. The surviving elements of Muziris comprise not
only buildings but also the markets, streets and footways, bridges,
and cemeteries.
The natural environment is of great importance to the status of
ÓØÍ. The networks of waterways have influenced and inspired the
architecture and growth of the built heritage, and we find that for
some of the buildings, they have been beautifully incorporated as
panoramic views.
While the physical remains of Muziris are outstanding and form a
unique ensemble, there are also the intangible associations and
traditions which form such an important part of MuzirisŽ significance.
The culture of worship, teaching, fishing and bathing is several
thousand years old and continues today. This culture has been at
the heart of forming the outstanding physical elements of the ÓØÍ.
Muziris also has rich associations with prominent people from all
strata of society, like royalty, politicians, artists, writers, and
professionals, particularly from the 18
th
, 19th and 20
th
centuries.
îòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The sustainability of the monuments and landscape of the ÓØÍ
continue to be threatened in a variety of ways. Pattanam and its
immediate environs are under great pressure of development and
changes. The National Highway 17 cuts across the landscape. It is
poised for widening and many old buildings are under threat of
demolition. There are no facilities to speak of for visitors. Religious
buildings are under greater threat of modifications, which in turn
lead to the destruction of the heritage.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 18
ï Subramanya Temple î Neeleswaram Mahadeva Temple
í Mookambigai Temple ì Kalarikkal Temple

ë Chekuthan Thara Temple ê Nagarajah Temple
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 19
é Mosque, Chittattukara Junction è Vadakekkara Juma Masjid
ç Pattanam Church ïð Matha Church, Eriyad
ïï Kottappuram Market Chapel ïî Munambam Church
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 20
None of the sites have a management structure or a management
plan. There are staff employed in most of the buildings, especially
religious buildings and they do the regular cleaning, house-keeping
etc., but at the same time, in most of the sites, staff are
insufficient. In the case of monuments such as Kottappuram Fort,
there is no signage, nor even proper access.
îòî ̸®»¿¬­ ¬± ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
Due to the lack of a proper conservation plan, the main risk is that
nothing in the direction of sustainable protection takes place. The
issues, which now or in the future, might undermine the
outstanding values, of all the religious buildings in the area can be
grouped under the following headings:
The architectural significance is damaged: the care and
protection of the historic fabric
Symbolic fabric significance is affected: the setting and views
Changes in historic significance: the activities and uses
Tourism value
Educational value
Traffic
For example, Kodungallur Bhagavathi temple is a large complex
assemblage of buildings and spaces, serving a multitude of
purposes. Buildings of different periods, even up to recent times
have come up in the campus. Inevitably, it is subject to frequent
and ongoing programmes of maintenance, repairs and conservation.
Without proper coordination, these works, together with occasional
new developments, can combine to cause cumulative impacts on
the architectural significance of the site. It is important to ensure
that careful consideration is given to the potential impact of all
works, however small, on the outstanding universal values of the
site.
In the case of the religious monuments, the role of the various
religious organizations is very important. The cordial relationship
between the managing authority of the ÓØÍ and the religious
organization is essential for the success of the project.


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 21
îòí п®¿ª«® Ö»©·­¸ ͧ²¿¹±¹«»
ë

Taluk : North Paravur
District : Ernakulam
Location : About 100 meters from Paravur-Kodungallur Road
NH 17
This is the place of worship for the Jewish community that settled
very close to the Paravur Market. There are two rooms at the
entrance and the Synagogue is beyond the small courtyard. The
balcony is supported on decorated pillars and gilded beams. Ceiling
detailing and the door carvings are similar to that of Kottayil
Kovilakom Jewish Synagogue. In olden days, there was major
trading, using Vanchis in the Puzha close to the market. During the
week, Mondays and Thursdays are Chanda days. The entrance to
Jews Street, from the main road to Paravur is guarded on either
side by two tall pillars. One of the pillars has fallen and is in a
damaged state. The Jewish houses standing in the Street have been
altered insensitively.
îòíòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
This building is in a very bad state of repair and it is said that the
Government of Kerala intends to take over the monument.
Extensive conservation measures will have to be carried out for this
building.
ïí Entrance to the Paravur Synagogue ïì First Floor Passage of Synagogue
5
The write up on the various protected monuments are based on the details given by the Department oI
Archaeology, Government oI Kerala. Notes on Pattanam excavation site is based on the publications by
Kerala Council Ior Historical Research. The write up on the other monuments are based on the details
given by the respective owners and on oral evidence.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 22
îòíòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
Most of the Jews who had used this as their Synagogue have gone
away to Israel and there is no proper management of the building.
îòíòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
Part of the Synagogue was used as a residence by one of the
families. Changes have been made to the building, which are hurtful
to its original design; therefore the building should be restored to its
original condition.
ïë Courtyard between the Padipura and Synagogue ïê Pillared entrance to the
Synagogue
ïé Decorated timber columns and beams ïè View of the inside balcony
supporting the balcony
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 23
Ground Floor Plan of Synagogue First Floor Plan of Synagogue

îòì שּׁ¿²¿³ ß®½¸¿»±´±¹·½¿´ Í·¬»
Village : Vadakekkara
Taluk : North Paravur
District : Ernakulam
Location : At Pattanam about one and a half kilometres from
Kodungallur-North Paravur route.
The Pattanam excavations were the first ever multi-disciplinary
excavations undertaken in Kerala State. The first part of the project
was a surface survey for archaeological and historical evidence in
the region. This was followed by extensive excavations at the early
historic urban site of Pattanam. The main objective of the
excavation was to search for archaeological evidence that would
help to locate/identify an early historic urban settlement and the
ancient Indo-Roman port of Muziris or Musiri on the Malabar Coast.
The first phase of excavation was carried out by Kerala Council for
Historical Research from 18th February to 8th April 2007 in
collaboration with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the
State Department of Archaeology and the Tourism and Revenue
Department.
The site at Pattanam covers approximately 1.5 sq. km and the core
area measures about 600 x 400 m. The north-eastern part of the
site was chosen for excavation based on the surface exploration
undertaken earlier. Four Trenches (PT 07 I, PT 07 II, PT 07 III, PT
07 IV) and one trial trench (PTT 07 I) covering an area of 125 sq.
m. was systematically excavated. The "locus methodology" adopted
for this excavation distinguished each layer/feature/pit/structure/
activity area on the basis of colour, texture and composition.
Many important finds were obtained like human bones, storage jars,
a gold ornament, glass beads, stone beads, utilitarian objects made
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 24
of stone, copper and iron, typical pottery, early Chera coins, brick
wall, brick platform, ring well, wharf with bollards, and a six meter
long wooden canoe parallel to the wharf structure about 2.5 m.
below surface level. The structures indicate a vast `urbanŽ
settlement. The excavations suggest that the site was first occupied
by the indigenous "MegalithicΠ(Iron Age) people, followed by the
Roman contact in the Early Historic Period. It appears that the site
was continuously occupied at least from the 2nd.century BC to the
10th century AD. The maritime contacts of this region during the
Early Historic period seem to have been extensive as evidenced by
the large number of Roman amphora sherds, a few terra sigillata
sherds, Sassanian, Yemenite and other West Asian potteries.
Proliferation of roulette ware probably made in the Bengal-Gangetic
region signifies the site's importance in the pan Indian context as
well.
ïç ú îð Excavations done at the site
îï Excavated site at Pattanam area
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 25
îòìòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The bulk of the archaeological remains is buried, unexplored and
untouched. The excavated sites have been conserved by filling back
with earth. The visitors have no idea on what was excavated. All
these irregularities shall be solved by the setting up of the site
museum.
îòìòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
An increase in population is leading to increased pressure on land
and other resources and there is no immediate way of countering
this. The land here is privately owned. Although the current level of
development of the area is low, all the new buildings are built using
modern materials such as concrete and steel.
îòìòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
Since much of the archaeological site is unexcavated, it is as
authentic as possible. Similarly, it can be taken that its
surroundings have generally kept their authenticity.
Site Plan Of Pattanam
îòë Õ±¬¬¿§·´ Õ±ª·´¿µ±³
Village : Chendamangalam
Taluk : North Paravur
District : Ernakulam
Location : At Chendamangalam
Kottayil Kovilakom, the site of the royal palace of the Villar Vattathu
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 26
Raja of Villar Vattathu Swarupam is an important historical site.
Kottayil Kovilakom got its name from its original location, inside a
fort. The site around an old well was declared a protected
monument by the Department of Archaeology of the erstwhile State
of Cochin in 1936. A Vishnu Temple is located on top of the hill in
the same compound. The Jewish cemetery of the Chendamangalam
Jews is preserved in the valley of this hill. A mosque was also
established on another side,in the valley of the same hill. The
Jewish Synagogue, Vypeekotta Seminary and Forane Church are in
the neighbourhood of Kottayil Kovilakom, which is on the bank of
River Periyar.
îòëòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
Although this is a protected monument, not even a board is seen,
saying that it is so.
îî View of the Kottayil Kovilakom ground îí Steps leading to the Krishna Temple.
Construction of the RCC building was stopped by the Archaeology Department.

îì Approach pathway to the Krishna Temple îë View of the front yard of the Temple


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 27
îòëòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
There is no protection for the Jewish cemetery and the Kovilakom
site. Since this happens to be in a place where there are no major
development pressures, the site has survived.
îòëòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
One of the temple shrines seems to have been built during the last
few years, using concrete. There is also a partly built concrete
shelter, which was stopped by the Department of Archaeology.
îê Shrikovil of Krishna Temple îé The Chuttambalam & Oottupura of the
temple
Floor Plan of Kottayil Kovilakom Elevation Of Kottayil Kovilakom
îòê ʧ°»»µ±¬¬¿ Í»³·²¿®§
Village : Chendamangalam
Taluk : North Paravur
District : Ernakulam
Location : At Chendamangalam
The remains of the Vypeekotta Seminary built by the Portuguese is
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 28
preserved as a historic monument and site. A Seminary is the
college to teach Christian priests. This Seminary was established to
teach the priests of Malabar, the ceremonies and language to be
used in Roman Catholic Churches founded here by the Portuguese.
There were many buildings in the premises which were destroyed
during the wars in later period. There is a church still functioning in
the compound, probably built during the same period, but
renovated later. Many stone inscriptions were encountered from the
church compound during the exploration done here in 1935. The
inscriptions are fixed on a half wall in front of the church. The
remains of the Seminary were declared as a protected monument in
1935.
îè Seminary a few years ago îç The ruins of the Seminary at present
îòêòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
There is no management plan for the monument.
íð Overall view of the ruins of Vypeekota Seminary íï Buttress supporting the ruins
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 29
íî Historical Events displayed in íí Inscriptions fixed on the half wall in front of the church
front of the Church
îòêòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
Some new structures erected in the church compound is a threat to
the historic monument. The church cemetery which is very close to
the Seminary is a deterrent to further excavations being carried out.
The parish has a proposal to construct a hall close to the church
which may undermine the setting of the old church.

Site Plan Of Vypeekota Seminary

îòêòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
The monument is only partly excavated and the visible remains
have been preserved and protected without affecting their
authenticity.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 30
îòé ݸ»²¼¿³¿²¹¿´¿³ Ö»©·­¸ ͧ²¿¹±¹«»
Village :Chendamangalam
Taluk :North Paravur
District :Ernakulam
Location :At Chendamangalam
The Jewish Synagogue at Chendamangalam, constructed around the
17
th
century is of a traditional style, with a separate entrance for
women. The land for it was provided by the family of Paliam, the
traditional ministers of Kochi, who owned the village of
Chendamangalam during that period. The Synagogue was in a
dilapidated state. The Department of Archeology had scientifically
conserved the synagogue using traditional materials. A tomb
inscription believed to belong to one of the early members of the
Synagogue is found in front of it. Many other tomb inscriptions
have also been collected from the same site. On the East side of the
Synagogue, there is a cemetery of about 400 meters long belonging
to this synagogue. The Department, in collaboration with the Jews
abroad, has arranged a display inside the synagogue. which is titled
'The Jewish Synagogues in Kerala'.
îòéòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
This Synagogue was recently conserved by the Department of
Archaeology and an exhibition is put up on the Jews of
Chendamangalam.
íì ú íë Front view of the Jewish Synagogue before and after conservation

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 31
îòéòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
The Panchayat wants to widen the road which is a threat to the
monument. The setting of the Synagogue has already been lost due
to encroachments from all the sides.
íê Steps to the first floor íé View of the inside balcony
balcony

íè Side entrance to the Synagogue for íç Front door to the main hall
ladies

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 32
îòéòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
The lack of sensitivity to details of the interiors has affected the
authenticity of the Synagogue.
Ground Floor Plan of Chendamangalam Sectional Elevation Of Chendamangalam
Synagogue Synagogue
ìð Decorative timber ceiling ìï Decorative timber work
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 33
îòè п´·¿³ Ü«¬½¸ п´¿½»
Village :Chendamangalam
Taluk :North Paravur
District :Ernakulam
Location :At Chendamangalam
The Dutch built Paliam Kotta in 1663, as a gesture of gratitude to
the Paliath Achan, for helping them to conquer the Portuguese. This
Palace was once used as the residence of the Paliath Achans, who
were the prime ministers to the former Maharajas of the State of
Kochi. In earlier times, women were not allowed inside. Only the
elder members of the family could stay there. The Paliath Achans
used to address the people of Chendamangalam from the Prasanga
Peedum, which is on the top of the entrance passage of the Palace.
In addition to this building, there are a number of secondary
buildings. They are anywhere between 250 to 300 years old.
Kizhakke Padippura, Thekke Padippura, Puthan Malika, Puthiya
Malika and Bajanai Mandapam are found inside the Paliam complex.
The Palace is now open to tourists except on Sundays. At present,
this Palace is the property of Paliam Easwara Seva Trust.
îòèòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The Easwara Sewa Trust which owns the building has its office in
this building, which is in comparatively good condition from a
structural point of view. There are lots of minor repairs to be carried
out.
ìî Entrance to the Palace ìí Side view of the Paliam Palace

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 34
ìì The Prasanga peedam in the first floor ìë The Durbar hall & the balcony

îòèòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
There are other private properties with old buildings close to this
palace owned by the members of the Paliam family. The setting of
the palace will be disturbed if any new construction comes close to
this palace.
ìê Timber staircase to first floor ìé Paliath AchanŽs photos & the door to the
room of eldest member of the family


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 35
Elevation of Paliam Palace Ground Floor Plan of Paliam Palace


îòèòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§

Some ugly additions have been made to this building, using
concrete, which does not go with the rest of the historic building.
This will have to be reversed in conservation terms.
îòç п´·¿³ Ò¿´«µ»¬¬«
Village :Chendamangalam
Taluk :North Paravur
District :Ernakulam
Location :At Chendamangalam
This classical structure was built by the elder member of the family
in the year 1786, for the women and minor boys of Paliam. It has a
big courtyard at the centre with rooms surrounding it and
Purathalam, where the members gathered to chat and for
recreational activities. There used to be a common dining hall and a
common kitchen as all the members lived and dined together, under
the protection of Valiachan. In this kind of community living, they
had no need for money - everything was provided by the
administration. The boys, when they became majors, had separate
bachelor living quarters and after their marriage, the administration
provided them houses. This style of 'community living' continued till
the partition of the join family. The last members left the Nalukettu
after the family partition deed, and so the building is no longer
occupied. However, it is maintained by the Paliam trust.
îòçòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The Easwara Sewa Trust owns the building. The building is in
comparatively good condition from a structural point of view
although there are many minor repairs to be carried out.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 36
ìè Exterior of Nalukettu taken a few years ago ìç Exterior of Nalukettu at present


îòçòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
There are other private properties with old buildings close to this
building owned by the members of the Paliam family. The setting of
the building is disturbed if any new construction comes close to this
palace.
ëð Ìnternal courtyard of Nalukettu ëï View of the courtyard from first floor

îòçòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
The authenticity of this building, along with that of other historic
buildings nearby is not yet disturbed.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 37
ëî View of Purathalam - the ëí View of the first floor passage around the rooms
meeting and recreation place
Ground Floor Plan of Paliam Nalukettu Section Of Paliam Nalukettu


îòïð Ù±¬¸«®«¬¸«
Village : Chendamangalam
Taluk : North Paravur
District : Ernakulam
Location : Accessible from both the Chendamangalam
and Moothakunnam Village
Gothuruthu was cattle grazing land, owned by Paliathachan in those
early days. This area is famous for the art form "ChavittunadakamŒ,
which used Sanskrit for its script and dialogues. Portuguese
missionaries brought their art forms to this coastal area and
blended them with local art forms to create this tradition of dance
theatre called Chavittunadakam, which basically portrays Christian
history. Formerly, it was Kathakali and Koodiyattam that were
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 38
performed regularly in the temples. In this new hybrid art form, the
performers stamp their feet hard into the wooden stage to make a
loud noise, which gave the form its name: `chavittu nadakamŽ,
literally `stamping dramaŽ. In a typical show, there would be 150-
200 people on stage. Now the performers are down to 75 and the
duration of a show is shortened to 2-3 hours. The Chavittunadakam
performers now perform on Gothuruthu Island, where the Kerala
Chavittunadakam Academy has been established. Chavittunadakam
is performed annually in January, at the church in Cheria
Pallamthuruthu, in connection with St.StephenŽs festival. Vallamkali
is performed in September. "Chundan VallomΠor snake boat and
Iruttukuthy Vallom participate in the annual boat race. Both the
valloms are with the church under St. Sebastin Club. Gothuruthu
Church is at the centre of the village and the priestsŽ office is
nearby. A school, approximately a 100 years old is close to the
church.

îòïðòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
Since Gothuruthu was an island till recently, it was not affected by
the pressures of development, as were other areas. Recently, two
bridges were added connecting Gothuruthu with Chendamangalam
and Moothakunnam.
ëì Front view of Gothuruthu Church ëë Front view of the PriestŽs office

îòïðòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
The pressure of development is beginning to take its toll on the
natural resources, especially on aquatic life. The lifestyle of the
people is fast changing, which seriously threatens the loss of
traditional skills and occupations.
There are hardly any tourists now.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 39
ëê ú ëé Gothuruthu School a few years ago and now

îòïðòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§

When ÓØÍ is managed as an exemplary demonstration of
sustainable development and heritage-led regeneration, it will add
great value to the region.

îòïï Õ±¬¬¿°°«®¿³ Ú±®¬
Village : Methala
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : At Kottappuram, about four kilometers on the
Kodungallur-Moothakunnam Road
Kottappuram Fort, built by the Portuguese in 1523 was referred to
popularly as Cranganore Fort and is now known as Kodungallur
Fort. It was captured and destroyed by the Dutch in 1663. The Fort
had a strategic position, on the mouth of the river Periyar, before it
joins the Arabian Sea, which gave it the advantage of controlling
the ships and boats that passed to and from the interior of Malabar.
The town developed from just this fort. A church and many
traditional houses in the nearby area, built by the Europeans still
remain today. Kottappuram Fort played a significant role in many
wars between the Zamorin and the rulers of Kochi. In 1662 the
Dutch fleet had made an attempt to capture it from the Portuguese,
but that invasion was successful only in 1663. It was a heavy fight,
in which the Kottappuram Fort was severely damaged. After taking
over the Fort, the Dutch demolished it to the minimum and used it
as an out-house to guard their trade ships. The ruins of the original
Fort show that its walls were 18 feet thick and were made of
laterite.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 40
When the interest of the rulers of Mysore turned towards Malabar,
Haider Ali negotiated with the Dutch for the purchase of the
Kottappuram Fort and the one at Pallippuram. During Tipu SultanŽs
possession of the Malabar coast, the Travancore rulers felt it was
imperative for them to possess these forts, to safeguard their
kingdom against invasion by the Mysore rulers. So, the then
Travancore King, Ramavarma Dharmaraja (1758-1798), purchased
these two forts on 31 July 1789. The agreement was executed in
1909, by Raja Kesava Dasa, the Dewan of Travancore and John
Gerard Van Angelbeck, the Dutch Governor. Later, finding it in a
ruined state, the Department of Archaeology of Travancore erected
a memorial pillar inside the Fort and decided to preserve it as a
public property.
ëè The Fort wall after excavation ëç The foundations of the Fort wall after
Excavation
Site Plan Of Kottapuram Fort
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 41
îòïïòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The site has no proper comprehensive conservation plan and many
parts of the ruins are unstable.
îòïïòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
Recent excavations and exposure of walls without taking proper
conservation measures, has rendered the site at much higher risk to
such deterioration and damage, than before.
êð The remains of Fort wall at the site êï The storage space for
gunpowder

êî Memorial pillar erected by the êí Steps leading to the backwater from the fort
Department of Archaeology of
Travancore in the year 1909
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 42
îòïïòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
The site has kept its full authenticity. The only `non authenticŽ
elements are a concrete shelter and the planting of greenery that
was done many years ago, on the site.

îòïî ݸ»®¿³¿² п®¿³¾«
Village : Methala
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : At Methala about three kilometres from Kodungallur
on Kodungallur-Moothakunnam route
The Cheraman Parambu spread over an area of about 5 acres is
generally regarded as the royal seat of Cheraman Perumals, the
kings of the Chera dynasty who ruled Kerala during the 9th, 10th
and 11th centuries AD. Traditionally, the Chera dynasty of the
Sangam Age had its head quarters at Kodungallur. In 1936, the
Department of Archaeology, of the erstwhile State of Cochin
declared the site a protected monument. As the famous temples of
Thiruvanchikulam and Kizhthali are nearby and the Archaeology
Department of Cochin, during its explorations had noticed some old
laterite foundations and remains of walls in this area, the
department with the help of the Archaeological Survey of India
excavated the site between 1944-1945. At a depth of 1.5 meters,
various kinds of potsherds, copper and iron implements, bangles
and beads and small lead balls were found. And loose sand was
found below the occupation layers. The majority of the potsherds
belonged to a group called Celadon ware, a pottery made in China
during the Sung period, between the 10th and 12th centuries AD.
Later, 1960, when the Archaeological Survey of India excavated in a
different area of the same site, no serious archaeological evidences
were found. However, these explorations unearthed a number of
Shiva-lingas which are now exhibited in a corner of the site.
îòïîòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²

There is nothing much to conserve at this site because trial
excavations done did not yield enough results. However, before any
building is planned here, trial trenching should ensure that there are
no archaeological remains under the ground.



Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 43
îòïîòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
The site has no perimeter nor boundary walls. Such protection and
security are needed immediately as encroachment of land has
already happened.
êì ú êë Two views of the Cheraman Parambu ground


îòïîòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
A recent road has been cut across the Cheraman Parambu.
êê The memorial pillar & the exhibits
at one corner of the site
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 44
îòïí Õ·¦¸¬¸¿´· ͸·ª¿ Ì»³°´»
Village : Methala
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : On the Paravur Š Kodungallur Road/ NH-17
According to Keralolpathi, this temple existed during the Perumal
reign (B.C 113-AD 343.) During the time of the Chera dynasty, who
were Shiva believers, the kings had many advisors and they were
usually nambuthiris. These ministers or advisors habitually gathered
at a Shiva temple called Thali. Among the many Shiva temples in
and around this main temple were Melthali, Nediyathali and
Chingapuram Thali. This temple was first destroyed by the
Portuguese and, the Dutch. Then TipuŽs army destroyed it further,
raising most of the temple to the ground, except the garbagriham,
which still stands. In its original glory, the temple boasted of a
Koothu Parambu, a Kalari Parambu and a Kalapura Parambu.
êé The stepping stones and the panchamuga êè The front area of the garbhagriham
basement

Floor Plan Of Kizhthali Shiva Temple Elevation Of Kizhthali Shiva Temple
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 45
îòïíòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The temple was left in ruins after the attack of TipuŽs army.

êç Front view of the Kizhthali Shiva temple
éð The Oil lamp in the temple éï The outlet at the left side of the deity


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 46
îòïíòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
The temple is maintained by the Department of Archaeology, while
the religious functions are carried out by a private trust. The
proposal to restore the temple seems to have been dropped.
îòïíòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§

Ugly additions of steel pipes and a metal sheet roof will have to be
replaced, as they affect the authenticity and integrity of the temple
premises.

îòïì ̸·®«ª¿²½¸·µ«´¿³ Ó¿¸¿¼»ª¿ Ì»³°´»

Village : Methala
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : About six kilometers from Kodungallur
The western entrance of the temple is on the Kodungallur-
Ernakulam highway. This temple is very old and is remarkable for
its number of representations of Shiva. There is a Namaskara
Mandapam, with 16 pillars, which is in front of the Shrikovil. The
Utsavam is held in the Malayalam month of Kumbham (Feb-Mar),
during which the festival of Shivratri is celebrated in a grand
manner. Aanayottam is conducted as part of the festival. Devotees
attend the Palliyara pujas, held just before the temple closes in the
evening, on full moon nights, to pray for a happy married life and to
be blessed with children.
éî Rear side view of Mahadeva Temple éí Front view of Mahadeva Temple


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 47
îòïìòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
The temple is under the control of the Archaeological Survey of
India and is reasonably well maintained.
éì The roof and gable detail éë The Canal at the rear side of the temple

îòïìòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
When conservation of the monument is taken up, it will have to be
timed so as not to clash with the temple rituals.
îòïìòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
The site has kept its full authenticity.
îòïë ݸ»®¿³¿² Ö«³¿ Ó¿­¶·¼
Village : Methala
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : On the Paravur-Kodungallur Road, NH-17
The Cheraman Masjid is said to be one of the very first mosques in
India, built in 629 AD by Malik lbn Dinar. It is located 4 kms south
of Kurumbakavu Bhagavathi Temple. Kerala Vyasan Kunhikuttan
Thampuran is of the opinion that an old Buddha Temple was gifted
to the Muslims to establish a mosque. It is believed that this
mosque was first renovated and reconstructed in the 11th century
AD and again 300 years ago. When they found it difficult to
accommodate the large congregations that attended, the front
portion of the mosque was demolished and extended in 1974. Again
in 1994, further extension was done. People of all religions come to
this Mosque and many non Muslims conduct "VidhyarambhamΠof
their children here.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 48
îòïëòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
This is not a protected monument. A new addition which is not
sensitive to the local idiom of architecture has been added in the
front and it is difficult to justify an intervention of this magnitude. A
new building, with facilities for pilgrims has been added in the
compound, but it mostly remains unused.

éê ú éé Front View of the Cheraman Juma Masjid in 1905 and at present
éè Ancient old lamp with old éç View of the Mehrab and Mimber
Malayalam "VattezhuthŒ
script

îòïëòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
A new shopping complex is being added towards the rear of the
mosque, which poses a major threat to the overall integrity of the
building.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 49
îòïëòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
In terms of the authenticity, the new addition made in the Eighties
detracts from the setting of the old building.
èð Writing shows that the renovation work was èï The ancient tank inside the compound
completed in 1984

Ground Floor Plan of the Mosque Elevation of the Mosque

îòïê Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«® Þ¸¿¹¿ª¿¬¸· Ì»³°´»
Village : Methala
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : Kodungallur
Kurumbakavu Bhagavathi Temple is located 1.5 km south-east of
the bus stand. It is assumed that the placement of the idol of
Kannaki was done about 1800 years ago by the dynast Cheran
Chenkuttuvan. Bhadrakali is the presiding deity of the Temple.
Timings of the temple are 4 am - noon (till 12.30 pm during
festivals) and 4-8 pm. The Goddess faces the North. On the Eastern
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 50
side of the main shrine there is a secret chamber from which a door
opens to the shrine. The shrine is crowded on Tuesdays, Fridays and
Saturdays, and is busy during the Sabarimala season as well. The
most famous festival of the Kurumbakavu is the Bharani Festival or
Kavutheendal, which starts on the Bharani nakshatra of Meenam
(late-March or early-April). The animal sacrifices that once were
part of the festival are now banned, but the pilgrims still drink liquor
and sing lewd songs, all the way from their villages to the shrine, as
part of the ceremony. At the end of the festival, the temple closes
and opens on the seventh day, after the Aswathi nakshatra. Another
important festival is "NavarathriŒ.

îòïêòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²

The state of conservation of the various buildings within the temple
compound is good, except for the use of certain inappropriate
materials.

èî Exterior view of Bhagavathi Temple èí Another View of Bhagavathi Temple

èì The oil lamp in the temple èë Front area of the Temple
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 51
îòïêòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
The greatest threat to the site is from development, which has
caused erosion of its traditional setting. Many shops and other
establishments have come up on an ad-hoc basis. The four streets
surrounding the temple building shall need to be made part of the
overall scheme of conservation.
The number of visitors to the temple during the festivals remains
high. However, the facilities to take care of such large numbers of
people are inadequate, although the authorities take quick action in
day to day maintenance.
îòïêòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
This is an example of a building that has gradually been altered by
maintenance and repair. Inspite of local traditions, some concrete
structures have come up inside the temple compound. These losses
to conservation need to be rectified.
èê View of the roofing detail èé Gable detail of the roof
îòïé ß¾¼«´ ο¸³¿² Í¿¸·¾­ ر«­»
Village : Eriad
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : About six kilometers from Kodungallur
Abdul Rahman Sahib was a freedom fighter. His house is two-
storeyed with a courtyard in the middle. The outside verandah runs
on three sides.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 52
èè Exterior view of Abdul Rahman SahibŽs house èç Entrance view of the house
îòïéòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
A member of Abdul Rahman SahibŽs family still lives in the house.
The building is in reasonable condition, from a structural point of
view, but it has suffered many termite attacks. Other defects can
be seen at various places.
çð Side View of Abdul Rahman SahibŽs house çï Gable detail of the roof
îòïéòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
New constructions which are not sympathetic with the old building
seem likely to come up close to the house.
îòïéòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
The land immediately around the building is to be acquired by the
Government of Kerala, to make this into a protected monument.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 53
çî Internal courtyard view of the house çí View of the roof and courtyard from the first
floor
Ground Floor Plan Of Abdul Rahman SahibŽs Sectional Elevation Of Abdul Rahman SahibŽs
House House

îòïè Ó¿®¬¸±³¿ ݸ«®½¸
Village : Azhikode
Taluk : Kodungallur
District : Thrissur
Location : About six kilometers from Kodungallur
The Marthoma Church is located on the bank of River Periyar. A holy
relic of St. Thomas the Apostle of Jesus is enshrined here for public
worship. The Sannidhi is opened to the pilgrims every day on
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 54
request, so that they can pay their tribute and worship at a close
quarters. Azhikode derived its name from Azhimugham, meaning
an opening to the sea, since it is here that the Periyar joins with the
Arabian Sea. Boating facilities for pilgrims are available at a
moderate rate at the Marthoma Gate on the river. Other facilities for
pilgrims are as follows: a light & sound show, a dining hall, a mini
auditorium, daily stalls for mementos, research books, scenery
posters and so on.
çì Front view of the Marthoma çë The Marthoma Sannidhi inside the Church
Church

îòïèòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
All the buildings in this campus are post 1950, and they are
generally in good condition. Many ugly additions have come up,
some of which affect the setting of the main church. To preserve
the authenticity of this historic church all future development
requires to be done according to the ÝÜÐ.
çê The Marthoma stall inside the compound çé Marthoma boat jetty with boating facilities

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 55
îòïèòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
The Marthoma Church has become a major pilgrim centre as the
number of visitors per annum is as high as 100,000 plus. Facilities
for pilgrims require to be planned accordingly.

çè Exterior view of the Marthoma Smruthi çç Marthoma gate with the view of backwater
Tharangam in the background

îòïç п´´·°°«®¿³ Ú±®¬
Village : Pallippuram
Taluk : Kochi
District : Ernakulam
Location : About 8 kms on the North Paravur-Munambam
route
Pallippuram Fort known as 'Ayakkotta' or 'Alikkotta' was constructed
by the Portuguese in 1507. In many books, the Fort is referred to as
an octagonal structure, although it is a hexagon. The relics of this
Fort now stand as a bastion of three stories in height. Inside the
Fort, the floor is raised to 5 feet from the ground. Underneath this
platform, a small cellar opens on to a passage, which runs obliquely
from North to South, 3 feet wide and 3 feet high. The cellar is 4
feet high and 7 feet square. The Portuguese used this Fort as a base
to check the ships that ply up and down the Periyar to the Arabian
Sea and the cellar was used for storing gun powder. A church, a
hospital, living quarters and other buildings are found near this Fort.
It was attacked by the Dutch in 1662 and though the Portuguese
defended it, they were ultimately defeated, after which the Dutch
occupied the Fort. Its advantageous location location, caught the
attention of the Mysore rulers, who tried to purchase it from the
Dutch but the English East India Company interfered and
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 56
terminated that proposal. In 1789, the ruler of Travancore made a
strategic move and purchased the Pallippuram Fort along with the
Kottappuram Fort. After the decline of the Mysore rulers, the
English East India Company took possession of the whole Malabar
area. Gradually the Fort lost its importance and was abandoned by
the military. In 1909, the Government of Travancore erected a
'memorial' in front of the Fort and finally in 1964, it was declared a
protected monument, under the Department of Archaeology.
îòïçòï ͬ¿¬» Ѻ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
As a whole, taking into account the natural processes of decay, the
current conservation measures are reasonable and contribute to
maintain the authenticity of the Fort.
ïðð Exterior view of Pallippuram ïðï A small cellar used for storing gunpowder
Fort
ïðî Steps leading to interior of ïðí Stone base seen at the centre of Pallippuram fort
the fort
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 57
ïðì Writing says that this is the ïðë Well inside the fort premises
most ancient European
building in India

îòïçòî η­µ ß²¿´§­·­
Plaster has flaked off in many places and plant growth on the
structure can be seen. The building is reasonably away from the
river, but any flooding in the river may cause danger to the
monument.
Floor Plan Of Pallipuram Fort Sectional Elevation Of Pallipuram Fort
îòïçòí ß«¬¸»²¬·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ײ¬»¹®·¬§
There are very few tourists who visit this Fort, although it has
retained its overall historic authenticity and integrity. The access to
the monument has to be re-planned and the neighboring land to be
acquired to conserve its setting.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 58
ݸ¿°¬»® ̸®»»

Ê·­·±² ¿²¼ Ѿ¶»½¬·ª»­
íòï Ê·­·±²
The significance of the Muziris Heritage Site as a whole is not only
provided by the survival of the numerous temples, churches,
mosques, synagogues, forts and the other visible monuments in the
landscape, but also by the unique findings of buried archaeological
evidence belonging to the Roman Period found in Pattanam. This
vision for the future of the ÓØÍ is based on the need to conserve,
enhance and interpret the cultural significance of the whole Muziris
landscape and its outstanding universal values.
The ÓØÍ shall be managed as an exemplary demonstration of
sustainable development and heritage-led regeneration which aims
to:
Foster pride, awareness and understanding of the cultural
distinctiveness and diversity of Muziris.
Conserve the cultural assets of the ÓØÍ, their values and
significance and safeguard them for this and future
generations.
Practice and promote the unique qualities of Muziris as a
sustainable site.
Engage the residents of Muziris in helping to sustain its
significances.
Make Muziris accessible and enjoyable to all; a site that
understands and celebrates the atmosphere and outstanding
universal values of heritage and conservation.
Integrate heritage matters into educational programmes
within Muziris.
Integrate tourism and heritage management to have mutual
benefits.



Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 59
íòî Ѿ¶»½¬·ª»­
ê

As a means of achieving the Vision, this Draft Conservation
Development Plan identifies a set of objectives under different
themes, which are considered necessary for the effective future
management of the Site as a whole, in the short and long term. The
Plan objectives will be realised through a wide range of projects and
they require the support and participation of many organisations
and individuals. The Plan identifies a programme of actions,
priorities and responsibilities for these parties.
If Vision and Objectives are based on stakeholder needs, and fall
within the law, they can form a solid basis for management decision
making. In addition, activities such as interpretation, promotion,
visitor management, research and monitoring all depend on the
direction given by the Vision and Objectives.
The following themes represent the key areas of action proposed
within this Draft ÝÜÐ:
Theme 1: Management of the Site
Theme 2: Architectural Conservation
Theme 3: New Development
Theme 4: Transportation
Theme 5: Archaeology
Theme 6: Culture and Intangible Heritage
Theme 7: Education and Interpretation
Theme 8: Visitor Management and Tourism
Theme 9: Natural Environment
Theme 10: Research and Monitoring
Theme 11: Managing Operational Impacts
íòîòï Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ Ѻ ̸» Í·¬»
Proposals for change or actions which are not in accordance with
the broad principle of sustaining the outstanding universal value,
6
The policy themes and the obiectives are based on the Iollowing documents:
1. Cape Peninsula National Park Integrated Environmental Management System Final
DraIt Management Policy, December 1999.
2. Stonehenge World Heritage Site Management Plan, English Heritage
3. The Future Ior the World Heritage Site and Management Obiectives, Liverpool City.
4. City oI Bath World Heritage Management Plan 2003-2009, English Heritage.
Objective 1.1: Ensure that the management of the Site and
its Buffer Zone defines, protects, conserves and enhances
its significance.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 60
would be contrary to the basic guiding principles of heritage
management. The significance of the Site must be clearly defined
and stated so that the policy is effective for the purposes of the
future management of the Site.
It is difficult to manage and conserve what is not properly
understood. ¨For management to be effective, all stakeholders must
be aware of the existence and significance of the resource and the
principles guiding the future management of that resource. Access
to the Conservation Development Plan should be made freely
available to all those living within, owning, managing or with an
interest in the Site. The existence of the Site and its significance
must be widely promoted. This Consultation Draft of the
Conservation Development Plan should be widely distributed by a
variety of means to ensure that all stakeholders are aware of the
Conservation Development Plan process. Where possible, all
stakeholders should play an active and guiding role in the
management of the Site.Œ
7
At present, risk within the is managed for some individual
elements, but there has been no comprehensive assessment of the
risks to the whole Site, particularly not in relation to the outstanding
universal values of the Site. A thorough assessment of the risks to
the Site, both existing and potential, could inform strategies to be
actioned now to mitigate risk and others to be put in place for
potential disasters.
The project is driven by tourism considerations, but managed by the
principles and conventions of the international guidelines on cultural
heritage management.
7
The Future Ior the World Heritage Site and Management Obiectives, Liverpool City.
Objective 1.3: Identify risks to the ÓØÍ and put
mechanisms in place for their prevention and/or
mitigation.
Objective 1.2: Ensure that all stakeholders are aware of
the significance of the Site and the Conservation
Development Plan objectives.
Objective 1.4: Ensure that change within the Site and its
environs is managed and implemented in a manner that
respects the ÝÜÐ Objectives and is in accordance with
internationally established conservation principles and
national and local conservation standards and best
practice.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 61
The consultation draft of has been developed. The final
has to be prepared taking into account the feedback from the
various stakeholders. The is a complex site, the management
of which requires the coordination of a large number of disciplines
and agencies.
Local community support for, and involvement in, the management
of the Site is vital to ensure that their needs are met and concerns
addressed.
8

íòîòî ß®½¸·¬»½¬«®¿´ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²

Key to conserving the built heritage resource is the identification
and establishment of sustainable long-term uses for historic
buildings. This will require an innovative approach to the
conservation and refurbishment of buildings and a coherent
programme of public sector funding that balances the need to
conserve the historical and architectural significance of each
structure.
The setting of a built heritage feature is a key aspect of its character
and significance.
8
The Future Ior the World Heritage Site and Management Obiectives, Liverpool City.
Objective 2.1: Identify and secure sustainable and
appropriate uses for the built heritage resource of the
Site.
Objective 1.5: Implement, monitor and review the CDP
through an active and effective partnership of bodies with
responsibility for making and implementing decisions that
may affect the Site.
Objective 1.6: Meaningfully involve local communities in
the management of the Site and in making decisions that
may affect the Site.
Objective 2.2: Ensure that settings of historic buildings
and/or building complexes are taken into account when
planning change.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 62
A condition survey of all the major monuments in the is
needed to enable their condition to be comprehensively assessed
and a programme for their repair and long-term management to be
developed.
There is a need to ensure appropriate statutory protection for the
.
The information and meaning contained within the fabric of a
building requires recording and analysis to inform its conservation
and especially prior to demolition or significant alteration. This
process of preservation by record is an established conservation
practice in many countries. The preference is, however, always for
preservation in-situ.
Guidance on the conservation of the built heritage is very
important. This should be developed by the conservation agencies
in consultation with the management of .
The water-bodies on the site are an important aspect of its
significance and character. They have the potential to act as
Objective 2.6: Provide robust guidance on conservation
practice and encourage the preparation of conservation
plans / statements for all significant historic buildings and
complexes.
Objective 2.3: Continue to monitor the built heritage
resource to ensure that buildings at risk are identified and
conserved and implement a programme of regular
inspection and maintenance for all historic buildings and
monuments.
Objective 2.4: Ensure that historic buildings and
monuments within ÓØÍ are adequately maintained and
repaired, through future grant-funding initiatives and the
application of statutory powers where necessary.
Objective 2.5: Undertake appropriate recording
programmes for all historic buildings, especially prior to
substantial alteration or demolition.
Objective 2.7: Ensure that the redundant boat jetties, foot
bridges and other water spaces are managed and re-used
in a way that respects their significance and utilises their
potential.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 63
settings for new and historic buildings, and as a venue for leisure
activities. The future management and re-use of these water-bodies
needs to respect their significance and the range of possibilities for
their future use should be explored.
íòîòí Ò»© Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬

All new developments within the Site should be of high quality.
Developments, small or large, within and around the site may have
a substantial impact on the wider character (particularly visual
appearance), historic fabric and archaeology of the ,
depending on issues such as: design, size, materials used,
integration with public realm, impact of traffic types and volume
and change in use of a building, site or area.
There is no analysis as to the impact of permitted development
activities on the fabric, authenticity, character and outstanding
universal values of the , and the ability of the Site to sustain
such change. There is an acknowledged need to incorporate new
development in the Site and its Buffer Zone. If the sustainable
development of Muziris is to be achieved, modern designs should
not be ruled out, but given the outstanding universal value of the
Site. There is a need to ensure that new development is of an
appropriate design and in an appropriate location. This requires
sensitive guidance from the local planning authority and the
management of the

íòîòì Ì®¿²­°±®¬¿¬·±²

Objective 4.1: Manage transport into and across the
various monuments within the ÓØÍ in a sustainable
manner that aids the conservation of the character and
significance of the Site and Buffer Zone.
Objective 3.1: Continue to ensure that all new
developments within the Site and its Buffer Zone are of
high design and construction quality.
Objective 3.2: Ensure that new development respects the
significance of the Site and is appropriate to the historic
and the architectural context.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 64
The local transport system which consists of public and private
buses and boats supplies the framework for the provision of
sustainable transport and access to all monuments of the Site.
Adequate pedestrian and cycling access should be ensured to all
areas of the Muziris Heritage Site.
The public transport and associated facilities must together offer a
balanced strategy to the long-term transport needs of the Site.
The aims and objectives of the will help to guide the future
development of the public transport system.

íòîòë ß®½¸¿»±´±¹§

The Muziris Heritage Site contains a rich and substantial
archaeological resource covering all major periods of Kerala history.
This resource deserves greater public exposure and could form the
basis for increasing educational and interpretative opportunities on
the Site.
The excavation and subsequent research being undertaken by
Kerala Council for Historical Research (KCHR) shall form the basis
for developing a more comprehensive understanding of MuzirisŽ
archaeological resource. There is also scope to extend this process
Objective 4.4: Maintain the high levels of access to the
Site through the provision of a broad range of sustainable
transportation options.
Objective 4.3: Balance the needs of all users of the Site
and the local community when developing transportation
solutions.
Objective 4.2: Provide high quality pedestrian and cycling
routes across the Site and its environs and reduce conflict
between vehicles and pedestrians.
Objective 5.1: Interpret and promote the archaeological
resource of the Site and its environs to the local
community and visitors.
Objective 5.2: Develop a comprehensive understanding of
the Site's archaeological resource.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 65
further through archaeological deposit modelling and more intensive
archaeological evaluation and assessment.
íòîòê Ý«´¬«®» ¿²¼ ײ¬¿²¹·¾´» Ø»®·¬¿¹»


The intangible heritage and cultural associations of the Site are of
enormous significance. Interactions by the people with their historic
environment and the meanings they attribute to it are significant to
the management and interpretation of a Heritage Site.
Muziris was a historic city, founded on world-wide links and
associations. These links and associations form a major aspect of its
intangible heritage value.
The management of the should seek out and establish
linkages with organisations connected to the study and
understanding of the maritime trade.
íòîòé Û¼«½¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ײ¬»®°®»¬¿¬·±²

The basis for establishing clear and accessible intellectual access to
the Site is through the provision of adequate, innovative and high-
quality educational programmes and interpretative materials and
events.
íòîòè Ê·­·¬±® Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ¿²¼ ̱«®·­³

Objective 8.1: Establish and maintain a co-ordinated
approach to visitor management and sustainable tourism
on the Site.
Objective 7.1 Ensure that intellectual access to the ÓØÍ is
inclusive and that the widest possible audience is reached.
Objective 6.2: Promote and establish links with MuzirisŽ
wider maritime relations with national and international
sites to improve cultural understanding and management
of our common past.
Objective 6.1: Promote interaction with, and
understanding of, the Site's unique intangible heritage.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 66
There is considerable opportunity to benefit from visitors without
impacting on the significance of the Site. To achieve this, a co-
ordinated approach to visitor management is required. The most
appropriate form for this is a Visitor Management Strategy. This
would cover five principle areas
9
:
Promotion of the Site;
Interpretation of the Site;
Enhancing Visitor Experience;
Maximising Benefits;
Monitoring Visitor Impacts and Trends.
Historic sites often pose particular challenges for those with mobility
difficulties, such as wheelchair users and those with young children.
Around the there are numerous ground levels, uneven
surfaces, narrow pedestrian areas, narrow doorways and flights of
steps. The various issues such as providing access, visitor
orientation toilets, potable water, wholesome food, first aid, multi-
vehicle parking, etc. regarding visitor amenities and movement
should be addressed.
The Visitor Management Strategy should be focussed on maximising
benefits for the local communities and local attractions. This covers
two principle areas, firstly the provision of facilities that are relevant
to visitors and local communities alike, and secondly ensuring that
maximum economic benefit is achieved for minimal disruption.
now has very little amenities capable of handling substantial
visitor numbers. Adverse impacts through visitor overcrowding or
congestion could lead to both physical damage and degradation of
its character and distinctiveness to any of its sites. The Visitor
Management Strategy should incorporate monitoring regimes and
indicators by which visitor impact can be assessed and an optimal
9
The Future Ior the World Heritage Site and Management Obiectives, Liverpool City.
Objective 8.3: Maximise potential benefits for the local
community and other local attractions.
Objective 8.2: Improve visitor management, access,
movement and facilities within the Site and its environs.
Objective 8.4: Optimise visitor numbers to the Site,
ensuring that the significance and character of the Site is
not adversely affected.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 67
visitor capacity determined. Given the rural nature of it is not
considered a significant issue at present, but requires to be
anticipated for the future and appropriately planned.
íòîòç Ò¿¬«®¿´ Û²ª·®±²³»²¬


Although the natural environment does not contribute significantly
to the outstanding universal value of the Site, it still makes a
contribution to the character and distinctiveness of the Site. It is
therefore important that future change is managed within the
context of national and local legislation, policy and guidance.
Opportunities should be identified and prioritized for enhancing the
quality and diversity of the natural environment.
íòîòïð λ­»¿®½¸ ¿²¼ Ó±²·¬±®·²¹
Research priorities for the should be identified and a research
programme in co-operation with research institutes, relevant
authorities, staff, volunteers and stakeholders should be identified.
Understanding is the key to effective conservation management.
Although the historical sources, articles and books supply us with a
detailed understanding of the Site, there are still many areas where
improved knowledge would benefit the management of the Site and
its appreciation.
Additional research into all areas of the SiteŽs significance and
management should be encouraged and active links made with
research institutions and professionals from around the world. The
Objective 9.1: Ensure that the management of the Site is
undertaken in line with the national and local policy
frameworks for the Natural Environment.
Objective 9.2: Seek out and realise opportunities for
enhancing and conserving the natural environment
resources.
Objective 10.1: To co-ordinate a research programme in
co-operation with research institutes and volunteers.
Objective 10.2: Develop appropriate research strategies
and frameworks to ensure that the future management of
the Site is based on sound understandings.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 68
possibility of establishing a scholarship / fund to support such
research activities should be explored, perhaps in conjunction with
one or more of the Universities in Kerala and KCHR.
It is imperative that all research on the Site is coordinated and
inter-related. A complex site such as Muziris benefits more from
multi-disciplinary understandings of its significance and
management rather than from specialised and isolated accounts.
The dissemination of research is an important aspect of academic
study. All research on the site, whether for Management or
academic purposes, should be disseminated in a variety of forms to
a variety of audiences. Within this regard, the establishment of a
Website with a section for research papers would provide
cost-effective documentation and a relatively easily accessible
dissemination route.
The existing planning system does not incorporate regular or
detailed monitoring of the condition of the as required by the
.
íòîòïï Ó¿²¿¹·²¹ Ñ°»®¿¬·±²¿´ ׳°¿½¬­
The shall identify potential operational impacts, resulting from
its operations and develop and update management procedures, in
order to avoid or minimise such impacts.
Objective 11.1: To efficiently manage impacts resulting
from operations of the Site.
Objective 10.3: Ensure that all research strategies and
frameworks are co-ordinated and that opportunities for
inter-disciplinary communication and analysis are
realised.
Objective 10.4: Encourage researchers to disseminate and
present their findings to as diverse an audience as
possible.
Objective 10.5: To ensure that a monitoring programme is
designed and implemented to provide information relevant
to MHS management.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 69
The shall ensure that environmental management plans are
implemented for developments within the , where required.
The shall promote the development and use of rainwater
harvesting, solar water heaters, processes for waste and garbae
management, climatically suitable buildings and other similar
sustainable technologies, and within facilities associated with the
Site.
Objective 11.2: To ensure that all water, air, ground, and
noise pollution are avoided or minimised wherever
possible.
Objective 11.3: To conserve energy and water and manage
waste effectively.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 70
ݸ¿°¬»® Ú±«®

Ý·®½«·¬ ̱«®­ Ú±® Ê·­·¬±®­
ìòï Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±ò ï ó ݸ»²¼¿³¿²¹¿´¿³ Ó±²«³»²¬­ ¿²¼
Ý®¿º¬­
Chendamangalam, under the Paliath Achans, was a model of
religious tolerance. It is one of the unique places in India where
places of worship from the four major religions, Christianity, Islam,
Hinduism and Judaism exist within a short distance of each other.
This circuit includes monuments such as the Vypeekotta Seminary,
Holy Cross Church, Krishna Temple, the Synagogue and Jewish
houses Popular and slowly disappearing crafts like Pappad making,
Pottery, and Bell Metal Industry are also included in this tour.
# 1 Krishna Temple, Kottayil Kovilakom: Kottayil Kovilakom,
the site of the royal palace of the Villar Vattathu Raja of Villar
Vattathu Swarupam is an important historical site. A Vishnu Temple
is located on top of the hill, in the same compound. The Jewish
cemetery of the Chendamangalam Jews is preserved in the valley of
this hill
# 2 Synagogue, Kottayil Kovilakom: The Jewish Synagogue is in
traditional style with a separate entrance for the women. A tomb
inscription is found in front of the Synagogue, believed to belong to
one of its early members. The Department of Archaeology, in
collaboration with the Jews abroad has arranged a display, which is
kept inside and entitled 'The Jewish Synagogues in Kerala'.

ïðê # 1 Krishna Temple ïðé # 2 Jewish Synagogue
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 71
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.1 ŠChendamangalam monuments and crafts
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 72
ïðè # 3 Jewish House
# 3 Jewish House, Kottayil Kovilakom: 75 Jewish families once
stayed in this Jews Street, in the, 15th century. Most of the
Chendamangalam Jews have migrated to Israel leaving the Jewish
community here almost extinct. At present, only 2 Jewish houses
exist in their original form, the rest having been modified
substantially.
# 4 Holy Cross Church, Kottayil Kovilakom: This church still
functions in the same compound where the ruins of Vypeekata
seminary are seen. It was probably built during the same period,
but renovated later.
ïðç # 4 Holy Cross Church ïïð # 5 Vypeekota Seminary
# 5 Vypeekotta Seminary, Kottayil Kovilakom: The seminary,
the college to teach the Christian priests, was established to teach
the priests of Malabar the ceremonies and language to be used in
Roman Catholic Churches founded here by the Portuguese.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 73
# 6 Pottery: In early days, Chendamangalam was famous for
pottery items such as cooking pots, plates, and special vessels for
conducting pooja in temples. The objects were made in a
conventional way, by ramming the earth into desirable shapes and
firing them to very high temperatures. This craft was held closely by
a particular community.
# 7 Pappad Making: Konkani people who have settled here make
pappads in the traditional way. From early days, Pappad has been a
traditional item consumed at all functions. The taste of Pappad had
a wide appeal and because it was easy to prepare, demand for it
was encouraged. However, there are only a few people in the
business now.
ïïï # 6 Pottery ïïî # 8 Bell Metal Making
# 8 Bell Metal Industry: Chendamangalam was the home of bell
metal. Metal work is an ancient art of Kerala, where the production
of temple bells and lamps has been in existence from very early
times. Gleaming bell metal alloyed from a mixture of brass, tin and
copper provide the raw substance for making the tower-like lamps
that Kerala is noted for.
ìòî Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òî ó п´·¿³ Ø·­¬±®·½¿´ ¬±«®
As mentioned earlier Chendamangalam reached its zenith under the
Paliath Achans and prospered as an excellent model of religious
tolerance. Paliam family is one of the most ancient families in
Kerala, with almost 500 years of history. This circuit includes
monuments depicting the rich history of the Paliam family and
Kerala such as the Dutch Palace, Nalukettu, Puthiyathrikovu Shiva
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 74
Temple, Chendatrikkovu Vishnu Temple, and the famous handloom
weaving of Chendamangalam.
# 1 Chendatrikkovu Vishnu Temple: The antiquity and fame of
this Mahavishnu temple is evident from the reference in
"VishnuvilasamΠa rare poetic composition. The Chendamangalam
village derived its name from this temple. The temple had 4
gopurams out of which 3 exist today. The temple is more than 1000
years old.
ïïí # 1 Chendatrikkovu Vishnu Temple ïïì # 2 Paliam Dutch Palace
# 2 Dutch Palace, Chendamangalam: This Palace, built by the
Dutch was once used as the residence of the Paliath Achans, who
were the prime ministers to the former Maharajas of the State of
Kochi. In addition to this building, there are a number of secondary
buildings, which are anywhere between 250 to 300 years old.
# 3 Nalukettu, Chendamangalam: This Nallukettu has a big
courtyard at the centre, with rooms surrounding it and a
Purathalam, where the household members gathered to chat and
engage themselves in recreational activities. Everyone dined
together and lived together, under the protection of Valiachan. In
this kind of community living, there was no need for anyone to
handle money, as everything was provided by the administration.
# 4 Puthiyathrikovu Shiva Temple: This temple is very close to
the Paliam Tharavadu. The famous festival of Shivarathri coincides
with the annual festival of this temple. The annual festival is a 7 day
celebration, in the month of February or March according to the
Malayalam month of Kumbham.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 75
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.2 Š Paliam History
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 76
ïïë # 3 Paliam Nalukettu ïïê # 4 Shiva Temple
# 5 Handloom Weaving: Due to the dexterity of the weavers of
those days, Chendamangalam fabrics were known for their excellent
quality. The handloom products of this region represented the entire
Kerala handloom industry. Chendamangalam saris are still famous
today.
ïïé # 5 Handloom Weaving
ìòí Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òíó п®¿ª«® ̱«®
Paravur was once a bustling town with many commercial
establishments and trade links. The Jewish community settled here
very close to the main market. This circuit covers the Paravur
Market, the Jewish colony with the synagogue, Kottakavu church
and the Kannankulangara temple along with the St.Jacobite Church.
Paravur is also a great example communal harmony.
# 1 Paravur Market: Paravur market is situated on the bank of
the back waters, making it a very important market of its time. In
olden days, there was major trading, using Vanchis in the Puzha
close to the market. During the week, Mondays and Thursdays were
and still are Chanda days. Some of the old shops have been
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 77
retained along with their rolling shutters, giving us an insight into
the past of this commercial centre.
# 2 Jewish Street: The Jews who came here in search of new
lands settled in this area. They flourished in business and
established their community here. The entrance to Jews Street,
from the main road to Paravur is guarded on either side by two tall
pillars. One of the pillars has fallen and is in a damaged state. There
are old Jewish houses standing in the street and some of them have
been modified.
ïïè # 1 Paravur market ïïç # 2 Jewish Street
# 3 Synagogue, North Paravur: This was the place of worship of
the Jewish community that settled close to the Paravur Market.
There are two rooms at the entrance and the Synagogue is beyond
the small courtyard. The balcony is supported by decorated pillars
and gilded beams. The entrance to Jews Street, from the main road
to Paravur is guarded on either side by two tall pillars.
ïîð # 3 Paravur Synagogue ïîï # 4 Kottakavu Church
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 78




Map showing the locations of Circuit No.3 Š Paravur Tour

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 79
# 4 Kottakavu Church: Kottakavu Church is said to be one of the
seven churches founded by St. Thomas during 52 AD. It is also
known as Valiyapally or Big Church, indicating that it was a mother
church. In the 19
th
century, due to the lack of space in the old
church for conducting Holy Mass and community functions, the new
church was built. The parishioners have preserved the old church,
which is behind the new one, the elephantine wall, called Anamathil,
on the adjacent western side and the Pilgrim Pond where the
Apostle baptized the devotees and they continue to maintain them.

ïîî # 5 St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church ïîí # 6 Kannankulangara Temple
# 5 St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church: St.Thomas Jacobite
Syrian Church was founded in AD 1566. It is said to have been
constructed by the Big Bazaar Tharakan families in North Paravur
on the land given free of tax by the Ruler of Paravur. It is named
after St.Thomas, the apostle and is also known as Kizhakke Pally or
Cheriapally. Records show that famous historians, the Whitehouse
Priest, Dr. Buchanan and others visited it. The tomb of St.Gregorios
being here has made it a major pilgrim centre of the Malankara
Syrian Christians
# 6 Kannankulangara Temple: It is the temple for Lord Krishna
and is about 600 years old. There is a belief that those who are
childless will be blessed after they tie a cradle from the temple roof
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 80
and worship Lord Krishna. Also, the people whose marriages are
delayed come and pray in this temple.

ìò ì Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òì ó Í«²­»¬ Ý®«·­»ô Õ±¬¬¿°°«®¿³
Tourists can start their journey in the evening from Ernakulam, on a
sunset cruise, and reach Kottappuram Fort by water transport.
Tourists can also enjoy the light and sound museum here and have
dinner at the restaurant.
# 1 Kottappuram Fort: This fort was built by the Portuguese in
1523, but was later captured and destroyed by the Dutch, in 1663.
After taking it over, the Dutch reduced the Fort to the minimum and
used it as an out-house, to guard their trade ships. The ruins of the
original Fort show that the walls were 18 feet thick and made of
laterite.
ïîì # 1 Kottappuram Fort

ìòë Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òë ó שּׁ¿²¿³ô ¿²¼ ݸ»®¿³¿² п®¿³¾«

In this tour circuit, tourists can see two important historical sites,
which are Pattanam and Cheraman Parambu.
# 1 Pattanam: The Pattanam excavations were the first ever
multi-disciplinary excavation undertaken in Kerala State. The
maritime contacts of this region during the Early Historic period
seem to have been extensive, from the evidenced of a large number
of Roman amphora sherds, a few terra sigillata sherds, Sassanian,
Yemenite and other West Asian potteries.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 81
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.4 Š Pattanam
and Cheraman Parambu
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 82
ïîë #1 Pattanam ïîê # 2 Cheraman Parambu

# 2 Cheraman Parambu: The Cheraman Parambu is generally
regarded as the royal seat of the Cheraman Perumals, the kings of
the Chera dynasty, who ruled Kerala during the 9th, 10th and 11th
centuries AD. The Archaeology Department of Cochin discovered
some old laterite foundations and remains of walls in this area
during its explorations.
ìòê Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òê ó Û«®±°»¿² Ó±²«³»²¬­
This circuit includes European monuments at Pallippuram,
Kottappuram, Chendamangalam and North Paravur. They are the
Pallippuram Fort, Kottappuram Fort, Vypeekota Seminary, Holy
Cross Church, Chendamangalam Synagogue and Paravur
Synagogue.
# 1 Pallippuram Fort: The Pallippuram Fort was constructed by
the Portuguese in 1507. This Fort was attacked by the Dutch in
1662. As it is situated in such an important area, the Mysore rulers
tried to purchase it from the Dutch, but the English East India
Company interfered and terminated that proposal. In 1789, the
ruler of Travancore made a strategic move and purchased the
Pallippuram Fort along with the Kottappuram Fort.
# 2 Kottappuram Fort: This fort was built by the Portuguese in
1523, but was later captured and destroyed by the Dutch, in 1663.
After taking it over, the Dutch reduced the Fort to the minimum and
used it as an out-house, to guard their trade ships. The ruins of the
original Fort show that the walls were 18 feet thick and made of
laterite.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 83
ïîé # 1 Pallippuram Fort ïîè # 2 Kottappuram Fort
# 3 Vypeekota Seminary, Kottayil Kovilakom: The seminary
was established to teach the priests of Malabar the ceremonies and
language to be used in Roman Catholic Churches founded here by
the Portuguese.
ïîç # 3 Vypeekota Seminary ïíð # 4 Holy Cross Church
# 4 Holy Cross Church, Kottayil Kovilakom: This church still
functions in the compound where the ruins of Vypeekata seminary
are found. It was probably built in the same period, but renovated
later. Many stone inscriptions were encountered from the church
compound during the exploration done here in 1935. The
inscriptions are fixed on a half wall in front of the church.
# 5 Synagogue, Kottayil Kovilakom: The Jewish Synagogue is in
traditional style with a separate entrance for the women. A tomb
inscription is found in front of the Synagogue, believed to belong to
one of its early members. The Department of Archaeology, in
collaboration with the Jews abroad has arranged a display, which is
kept inside and entitled 'The Jewish Synagogues in Kerala'.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 84
Map showing the locations of Circuit No. 6 Š European Monuments
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 85
# 6 Synagogue, North Paravur: This was the place of worship of
the Jewish community that settled close to the Paravur Market.
There are two rooms at the entrance and the Synagogue is beyond
the small courtyard. The balcony is supported by decorated pillars
and gilded beams. The entrance to Jews Street, from the main road
to Paravur is guarded on either side by two tall pillars. The Jewish
houses standing in the Street have been altered insensitively.
ïíï # 5 Chendamangalam Synagogue ïíî # 6 Paravur Synagogue

ìòé Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òéó Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«® Ì»³°´»­
Many important and ancient temples in and around Kodungallur are
under this circuit. Temples covered are Alwar Temple Complex,
Kizhthali Shiva Temple, Thiruvanchikulam Mahadeva Temple,
Shringapuram Mahadeva Temple, Patakulam Temple, Kuladeva
Temple, Konkani Temple and Bhagavathi Temple.
# 1 Thiruvanchikulam Mahadeva Temple: This temple is said to
be very old and is remarkable for the number of representations of
Shiva within it. There is a Namaskara Mandapam in front of the
Shrikosvil with 16 pillars. Shivratri is celebrated in a grand manner.
The Utsavam is held in the Malayalam month of Kumbham (Feb-
Mar). Devotees attend the Palliyara pujas, conducted just before the
temple closes on full moon nights, to pray for a happy married life
and to be blessed with children
# 2 Kizhthali Shiva Temple: According to Keralolpathi, this
temple existed during the Perumal reign (B.C 113-AD 343). There
were many other Shiva temples like Melthali, Nediyathali and
Chingapuram Thali, in and around this temple. The Portuguese and
the Dutch first destroyed this temple partially and with Tipu SultanŽs
attack, all but the garbhagriham was reduced to ruins.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 86
# 3 Alwar Temple Complex: Shri Krishna Temple, Alwar Temple
and Iyyappa Temple are located close to one another, with a water
tank in the middle. The ancient Krishna Temple is believed to have
been constructed around AD 800, by Kulasekara Alwar, the famous
saint and poet. Idols of Lord Hanuman, Lord Shiva, Nandagopar,
Vasudevar, Mohini, Parthasarathy and Lord Parashuram are seen
inside the complex.
ïíí 1-Mahadeva Temple ïíì # 2 Kizhthali Shiva Temple
# 4 Shringapuram Mahadeva Temple: The temple is on the
Kodungallur-Paravur road and can be approached from straight off
this Highway, NH-17. It is also close to the palace, Kodungallur
Kovilakom. The presiding deity of the temple is Lord Shiva. The
temple faces east and Shivarathri is the famous festival celebrated
here.
ïíë # 3 Alwar Temple Complex ïíê # 4-Shringapuram Shiva Temple
# 5 Patakulam: This tank which is of historical importance is close
to the Chirakkal Palace. The Sastha Temple is on one side and the
Chirakkal Palace on the opposite side.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 87
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.7 Š Kodungallur Temples
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 88
# 6 Kuladeva Temple: This old temple is located on the
KodungallurŠParavur Road, which is NH17.
# 7 Konkani Temple: This is the temple of the Konkani people and
Lord Krishna is its main deity. The temple can be accessed from NH
17.
ïíé # 5 Patakulam ïíè # 7 Konkani Temple
# 8 Kurumbakavu Bhagavathi Temple: It is assumed that the
placement of the idol of Kannaki was done about 1800 years ago,
by the dynast Cheran Chenkuttuvan. Bhadrakali is the presiding
deity of the Temple. The Goddess faces the North. The most famous
festival of Kurumbakavu is the Bharani Festival or Kavutheendal,
which starts on the Bharani nakshatra of Meenam, which falls in late
March or early April. Another important festival celebrated in the
Temple is Navarathri.
ïíç ý 8 Kurumbakavu Bhagavathi Temple
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 89
ìòè Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òè ó п®¿ª«® Ì»³°´»­
The old temples of North Paravur, Chendamangalam and
Moothakunnam are covered in this circuit. They include Peruvaram
Mahadeva Temple, Kannankulangara Temple, Moothakunnam
Temple, Bhagavathi Temple, Krishna Temple, Shiva Temple,
Konkani Kshetram, Kunnathu Thali Kshetram, Arankavu Temple and
Shrivelliselly Temple.
# 1 Kannankulangara Temple: It is the temple for Lord Krishna
and is about 600 years old. There is a belief that those who are
childless will be blessed after they tie a cradle from the temple roof
and worship Lord Krishna. Those whose marriages are delayed,
come and pray in this temple.
# 2 Mookambika Temple: A temple for Goddess Saraswathi Š the
goddess of art and learning is rare in Kerala. It was built by a local
ruler, the Thampuran of Paravur, with a Shrikovil in the middle of a
lotus pool. The famous annual Navaratri festival is celebrated in
grandeur, over ten days during the month of Kanni, which falls
between September and October. On Durgashtami, books are
placed before Goddess Saraswathy and on Vijayadasami morning,
the 'Ezhuthinirithu' or 'Vidyarambham' ceremonies are done at a
special mandapam, when thousands of children utter the word
"harishreeΠfor the first time, and write it on rice, seeking the
blessing of the goddess.
ïìð # 1 Kannankulangara Temple ïìï # 2 Mookambika Temple
# 3 Peruvaram Mahadeva Temple: This temple is located a few
meters from the National Highway. Four small temples of Shree
Raman, Hanuman, Shree Krishna and Ayyappa are near it. The
annual festival is conducted during Medam month, which is during
April and May. The temple has idols of Shree Parvathy, Lord
Ganapathy, Lord Ayyappa and Yakshi.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 90
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.8 Š Paravur Temples
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 91
ïìî # 3 Peruvaram Mahadeva Temple ïìí # 4 Shrivelliselly Temple

# 4 Shrivelliselly Temple: This temple was built by the lower
caste people of Karimpadam as they were not allowed to enter the
temples of the higher castes.
# 5 Arankavu Temple Complex: A Sastha Temple and a
Subramania Temple are found in this Arankavu Temple complex.
These temples were built during the 17th century. The Subramania
Temple or the Kanda is reported to be centuries old. It is said that
Sri Chattambi swamikal did penance here. Even now thaipooyam is
celebrated with Abhishekams done on the sacred idol with milk,
honey, panineer and oil. These temples are presently under the
maintenance of Paliam Trust.
ïìì # 5 Arankavu Temple Complex ïìë # 6 Kunnathu Thali
Kshetram
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 92
# 6 Kunnathu Thali Temple : This temple was built during the
18th century and is maintained by the Paliam Trust. The shrine has
a prominent place in the ancient scheme of the 108 Shiva shrines.
Of the 18 and a half Talis, this is the place where a monarch took
solemn decisions with the Lord as witness.
# 7 Shri Venugopala Krishnaswamy Temple: The main deity of
this temple is Lord Krishna. It was built in 1900 by the Gowda
Saraswat Brahmins Trust, when Paliath Achan donated the land to
them. Many Konkani people have settled around the temple.
ïìê # 7 ShriVenugopala Krishnaswamy ïìé # 8 Chendatrikkovu Vishnu Temple

# 8 Chendatrikkovu Vishnu Temple: This temple was built
during the 18
th
century and it is said that the village derived its
name from it. The main deity here is Lord Krishna. The annual
festival or `UlsavamŽ lasts for seven days after Kodikayattam. The
antiquity and fame of this Narasimha temple is evident from the
reference in "Vishnuvilasam", a rare poetic composition by Kunchan
Nambiar's nephew, Ramapanivadan and the mention of it in "Kokila
Sandesam" by the versatile scholar, Udhanda Sastrigal. The temple
is now maintained by the Paliam trust
# 9 Puthiyatrikkovu (Shiva) Temple: This temple is close to the
Paliam Tharavad. Its main deity is Vaikkathappan. The story goes
that the Paliath Achan offered prayers at the famous Shiva
temple at Vaikom, in Kottayam district, on the last day of every
month and the first day of the following month. During one of his
visits, he had a premonition that he would not visit the temple again
due to his failing health. So, before going home, he had a bath in
the pond near his house, which is now the temple pond, and when
he went to take his umbrella, from the bank of the pond,
found to his surprise, that he could not lift the umbrella off the
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 93
ground. It was as if a divine force prevented him from taking his
umbrella. Astrologers concluded that the divine force was the Lord
of Vaikom himself who had accompanied the ardent devotee Paliath
Achan. Sree Vaikathappan Temple, also known as Puthiyathrikovu
temple, was built to commemorate this event. Shivarathri falls
during the annual festival of this temple. Vaikath Ashtami is also
celebrated here.
ïìè # 9 Puthiyatrikkovu (Shiva) Temple ïìç # 10 Bhagavathi Temple
# 10 Bhagavathi Temple: The annual temple festival lasts seven
days, from the first day after Kodikayattam. This Balabhadrakali
shrine stands near the Chendamangalam Panchayat office. Many
people find the "Swayamvara Pushpanjali" performed here, to gain
a suitable partner in life yields results. The "Vidyarambha" for
children done here is also considered to be propitious.
ïëð # 11 Sankara Narayana Moorthy Temple
# 11 Shree Shankara Narayanamoorthy Temple: This temple is
located at Moothakunnam Junction and is 106 years old. It was
blessed by Shree Narayana Guru, a social reformer. Lord Shiva and
Vishnu are featured together in this temple. The annual festival
lasts for ten days during the month of February, when Shivarathri is
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 94
celebrated. It is said that like the Alwaye Shiva Temple, this temple
is specially sought out by devotees to perform the `pithrukkul
karmasŽ.

ìòç Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òç ó Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«® п´¿½»­
This circuit includes all the kovilakoms in Kodungallur area.
Kovilakoms are the palaces where members of the royal family of
Cranganore lived. The sites covered inthis circuit are
Thiruvanchikulam Palace, Palace (at present Paradise Hotel), Puthan
Kovilakom, Manjeri Kovilakom, Chirakkal Kovilakom and Kottoyi
Kovilakom.
# 1 Thiruvanchikulam Palace: This palace is located behind
Thiruvanchikulam Mahadeva Temple. It is said that the members of
the Cranganore royal family stayed here during festival times and
when they worshipped Lord Shiva.
# 2 Palace (Paradise Hotel): This palace currently run as a hotel,
is located on the Paravur Š Kodungallur road, NH-17. It can be
accessed by road from the Shilpi junction.
ïëï # 1 Thiruvanchikulam Palace ïëî # 2 Palace & Paradise Hotel
# 3 Puthan Kovilakom: Puthan Kovilakom was the place where
the women of the Cranganore royal family stayed, whereas
Chirakkal Kovilakom was for the men. Puthan Kovilakom is now
being partitioned. The Kovilakom has a large courtyard and the
main residential building, water tank, temple and Sarpakavu are
within the Kovilakom complex. The Sanskrit University was near the
Puthan Kovilakom.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 95
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.9 Š Kodungallur Palaces
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 96
# 4 Manjeri Kovilakom: This palace is located behind the
Chirakkal Kovilakom. The Manjeri Kovilakom is said to be the palace
of the great scholar Kunikuttan Thampuran.
ïëí # 3 Puthan Kovilakom ïëì # 4 Manjeri Kovilakom
# 5 Chirakkal Kovilakom: The Chirakkal Kovilakom has two
Nalukettu structures, one larger than the other. The main
residential building and two more old buildings, a water tank which
is known as Padakulam, the family temple and Sarpakavu are all
within the Kovilakom Complex.
ïëë # 5 Chirakkal Kovilakom ïëê # 6 Kottoyi Kovilakom
# 6 Kottoi Kovilakom: Kottoi Kovilakom which is situated close to
the famous Kodungallur Bhagavathi Temple was the place where
the Raja stayed during the festival time. The Kovilakom is a small
Nalukettu building. Now, the ground floor is rented out and the
Devasam people live on the first floor.
ìòïð Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òïð óݸ«®½¸»­ô ͧ²¿¹±¹«»­ ß²¼ Ó±­¯«»­
Old churches, synagogues and mosques, including St. Thomas
Jacobite Syrian Church, Paravur Synagogue, Kottakavu Church, St.
Marys Jacobite Syrian Church, Pallippuram Mosque, Azhikode
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 97
Marthoma Church, Cheraman Juma Masjid and Holy Cross Church
come under this circuit.
# 1 St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church: St.Thomas Jacobite
Syrian Church was founded in AD 1566. It is said to have been
constructed by the Big Bazaar Tharakan families in North Paravur
on the land given free of tax by the Ruler of Paravur. It is named
after St.Thomas, the apostle and is also known as Kizhakke Pally or
Cheriapally. Records show that famous historians, the Whitehouse
Priest, Dr. Buchanan and others visited it . The tomb of St.
Gregorios being here has made it a major pilgrim centre of the
Malankara Syrian Christians.
# 2 Paravur Synagogue: This was the place of worship for the
Jewish community that settled close to the Paravur Market. There
are two rooms at the entrance and the synagogue is beyond the
small courtyard. The balcony is supported on decorated pillars and
gilded beams. The entrance to Jew Street, from the main road to
Paravur is guarded on either side by two tall pillars.
ïëé # 1 St.Thomas Jacobite Syrian Church ïëè # 2 Paravur Synagogue
# 3 Kottakavu Church: Kottakavu Church is said to be one of the
seven churches founded by St. Thomas during 52 AD. It is also
known as Valiyapally or Big Church, indicating that it was a mother
church. In the 19
th
century, due to the lack of space in the old
church for conducting Holy Mass and community functions, the new
church was built. The parishioners have preserved the old church,
which is behind the new one, the elephantine wall, called Anamathil,
on the adjacent western side and the Pilgrim Pond where the
Apostle baptized the devotees and they continue to maintain them.
# 4 St. MaryŽs Jacobite Syrian Church: St. Marys Jacobite Syrian
church was established in April 1802 with the permission of Sakthan
Thampuran. The founder parishioners of this church were members
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 98
of the ancient St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian church at North
Paravur. Cherai St. Mary's church is one of the prominent parishes
in the Kochi diocese. The church is popularly known as Cherai
Valiyapally and its main festival is celebrated on January 15th.
ïëç # 3 Kottakavu Church ïêð # 4 St.Marys Jacobite Syrian Church
# 5 Pallippuram Mosque: This mosque which is located at
Pallippuram is a few centuries old. The plinth level of the Mosque is
four feet higher than the road level.
# 6 Azhikode Marthoma Church: The Marthoma Church is
located on the bank of River Periyar. A holy relic of St. Thomas the
Apostle of Jesus is enshrined here in the Sannidhi, for public
worship. The Sannidhi is opened for the pilgrims every day on
request, so that they can come close to pay their tribute and
worship. Azhikode derived its name from Azhimugham meaning
`opening to the seaŽ, as River Periyar joins with the Arabian Sea
here at Azhikode. Boating facilities for pilgrims are available at a
moderate rate at the Marthoma Gate on the river. Other facilities for
pilgrims are as follows: a light & sound show, a dining hall, a mini
auditorium, stalls for mementos, research books, scenery posters
and so on.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 99
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.10 Š Churches, Synagogues and Mosques
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 100
ïêï # 5 Pallippuram Mosque ïêî # 6 Azhikode Marthoma Church
# 7 Cheraman Juma Masjid: The Cheraman Juma Masjid is said
to be the first mosque in India, built by Malik lbn Dinar. It is located
4km south of Kurumbakavu Bhagavathi Temple. Kerala Vyasan
Kunhikuttan Thampuran is of the opinion that an old Buddha Temple
was gifted to the Muslims to establish a mosque. This mosque was
perhaps first renovated and then reconstructed in the 11th century
AD and again 300 years ago. When it became difficult to
accommodate the large congregations, the front portion of the
mosque was demolished and extended in 1974. Again in 1994,
further extension was done. People of all religions come to this
Mosque and many non Muslims conduct "VidhyarambhamΠof their
children here. A Museum, adjacent to the Mosque, has been opened
recently.
ïêí # 7 Cheraman Juma Masjid ïêì # 8 Holy Cross Church
# 8 Holy Cross Church: This church, which is in the compound as
the ruins of Vypeekota Seminary, still functions. It was probably
also built during the same period, but renovated later. Many stone
inscriptions were unearthed in the church compound during the
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 101
exploration done in 1935. The inscriptions are fixed on a half wall,
in front of the church.
ìòïï Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òïï ó Ù±¬¸«®«¬¸« Ô·º»­¬§´»
The lifestyle of Gothuruthu village is covered in this circuit. Tourists
can experience the traditional boat trips, cook their own sea food,
enjoy the traditional arts and performances and try various other
local activities in the village.
# 1 Chavittu Natakam: In the 17
th
century, Portuguese
missionaries brought their art form to this coastal area and blended
it with local art forms to create the dance drama Chavittu Natakam,
which basically portrays Christian history. In olden days, Kathakali
and Koodiyattom were performed regularly in the temples. In
Chavittu Natakam or `stamping dramaŽ the performers stamp their
feet hard into the wooden stage, to make a loud noise, which gave
the form its name. The language of this drama is Sanskrit.
Originally, there would be 150-200 people on stage for a regular
show. Now, the performers are down to 75 and the duration of a
show is reduced to 2-3 hours. The Chavittu Natakam performers
live on Gothuruthu Island, where the Kerala Chavittu Natakam
Academy has been founded.
# 2 Gothuruthu Church: This is the old church located at the
centre of the village. A school which is about a 100 years old is
located close to the Church and the priestsŽ office is nearby.
Chavittu Natakam art is performed annually in the month of
January,at the church in Cheria Pallamthuruthu, in connection with
the festival of St.Stephen.
# 3 Traditional Boat Trips: Tourists can enjoy the traditional boat
trips to this island. Arrangements will be made for them to try their
hand at cooking traditional sea food dishes.
# 4 Chinese Fishing Nets: Chinese Nets are operated by a team
of up to six fishermen. This setup consists of a net, which is
suspended over the sea or river, at one end and stones suspended
from ropes as counterweights, at the other end. Access from one
end to the other is through the beam tied to the platforms. The net
is left for a short time in water and then is raised by pulling the
ropes. When the rope is raised the stones come to rest one by one,
on the platform. The operations vary depending on the tides.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 102
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.10 Š Gothuruthu Lifestyle
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 103
ïêë # 2 Gothuruthu Church ïêê # 3 Traditional Boat Trips
# 5 Lime shells: Using their Valloms, people go up the river and
dive in to collect shell fish called Kakkas, from the river bed. These
shells are used for making lime powder, which is widely used in
construction of buildings.
# 6 Vallom Kali: Vallom Kali is performed in the month of
September. "Chundan Vallom or snake boat and Iruttukuthy Vallom
participate in the races. Both the valloms are with the Church
under the guardianship of the St. Sebastin Club.
ïêé # 4 Chinese Fishing Nets ïêè # 5 Lime Shells
# 7 Traditional fishing nets: The fishing community here has
traditionally used various types of fishing nets. Tourists will find it
interesting to learn about the traditional nets and methods of using
those nets. The fisher folk are happy to allow tourists to try to make
a catch using these unique nets.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 104
ïêç # 7 Traditional Fishing Nets

ìòïî Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òïî ó Ý«´¬«®¿´ ̱«®
This cultural tour is focused on the great scholar Kunhikuttan
Thampuran and the freedom fighter Mohammed Abdul Rahman
Sahib.
# 1 Kunhikuttan Thampuran: This great scholar lived from 1865
to 1913. His father was Venmony Aphan Namboothiri. Kunhikuttan
Thampuran was a poet, historian, essayist and journalist. He
translated the Epic Mahabharatha within a short period which
demonstrated his amazing in-depth knowledge of Sanskrit and
Malayalam. His literary contribution includes numerous poems in
Sanskrit and Malayalam, translations, essays and satires.
# 2 Mohammed Abdul Rahman Sahib: He was a renowned
freedom fighter. During this tour, visitors may visit the museum
which has been set up at his house. The structure of this house is
interesting as it has a traditional courtyard at the centre with
verandahs on three sides.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 105
Map showing locations of Circuit No. 12 Š Cultural Tour
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 106
ïéð # 1 Kunhikuttan Thampuran
ïéï # 2 Exterior of Abdul Rahman SahibŽs ïéî # 2 Side Entrance to Abdul Rahman
House SahibŽs House
ìòïí Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±òïí ó Ø·­¬±®·½¿´ Þ«·´¼·²¹­ ·² п´´·°°«®¿³
Ancient churches, temples, mosques, fort and other important
buildings are found in and around the Pallippuram area. This circuit
includes St. Marys Jacobite Syrian Church, St. George Church, Old
Building, St. Rose Church, Thirumanamkunnu Temple,Varaha
Temple, Pallippuram Church, Pallippuram Fort and Mosque.
# 1 Varaha Temple: This temple established in the year 1565 AD
is located at Cherai Junction. There are two tanks in the temple
compound, one for elephants to bathe and the other for Poojaris.
There is another tank in the front of the Temple with a Shrikovil at
the center. This temple is now maintained by the Azheekal Varaha
Devasom Board. It is believed to be the only temple with Rathas
which are taken around the temple on rails. The famous festivals
celebrated here are Car Festival during November to December and
March to April and Varaha Jayanthi during April. Devotees pull the
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 107
chariot around the temple accompanied by the beating of huge
drums.
# 2 St. Marys Jacobite Syrian Church: St. Marys Jacobite Syrian
Church was established in April 1802, with the permission of
Sakthan Thampuran. The founder parishioners of this church were
members of the ancient St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian church at North
Paravur. Cherai St. Mary's church is one of the prominent parishes
in the Kochi diocese. This church is popularly known as Cherai
Valiyapally. The main festival of the St. Mary's Valiyapally is
celebrated on January 15th. Sunday School and Office buildings are
adjacent to the Church.
ïéí # 1 Varaha Temple ïéì # 2 St. Marys Jacobite Church
# 3 St. George Church: St. George Church at Cherai, popularly
known as Cherai Cheriapally, was founded by a few parishioners of
the nearby St. Mary's Church `ValiyapallyŽ on 12th October 1871.
This `CheriapallyŽ at Cherai comes under the diocese of Kochi.
ïéë # 3 St. George Church ïéê # 4 St. Rose Church
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 108
Map showing the locations of Circuit No.13 Š Historical Buildings in Pallippuram
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 109
# 4 St. Rose Church: This old church is located on the river bank
of the river Pallippuram River. The school and the priestsŽ office is
close to it.
# 5 Thirumanamkunnu Temple: It is said to be one of the old
temples with Devi as its presiding deity.
# 6 Sahodaran Ayyappan: Sahodaran Ayyappan was one of the
outspoken followers of Narayana Guru. Sahodaran was elected to
Cochin Legislative Council. He continued this role for the next 21
years. In 1946 he became minister in Panampilly's cabinet.
Ayyappan was also minister in the Ikkanda Warrior ministry of
1948. Then Travancore-Cochin fusion happened. Ayyappan was
minister for a brief time in the Paravoor TK ministry, but soon
resigned from active politics and concentrated his energy into social
and cultural activities.This place was where he spent a lot of time,
devoting his activities towards social reforms.
ïéé # 5 Thirumanamkunnu Temple ïéè # 7 Pallippuram Fort
# 7 Pallippuram Fort: The Pallippuram Fort was constructed by
the Portuguese in 1507. This Fort was attacked by the Dutch in
1662. As it is situated in such an important area, the Mysore rulers
tried to purchase it from the Dutch, but the English East India
Company interfered and terminated that proposal. In 1789, the
ruler of Travancore made a strategic move and purchased the
Pallippuram Fort along with the Kottappuram Fort.
# 8 Pallippuram Hospital and Police quarters: The hospital is a
very old building functioning as a general hospital now. The police
quarters along with the hospital are old buildings reminiscent of the
colonial past.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 110
ïéç # 8 Pallippuram Hospital

ìòïì Ý·®½«·¬ Ò±æ ïìóÌ·³»´·²» ̱«®
A timeline tour guides one through the early years of Muziris
Heritage Site. This timeline relates the history of the site, from
Roman times up to the 20th century. Visitors will be taken on a
three day journey, through time, to visit and enjoy the important
monuments in this area. This tour covers the periods of Romans,
Syrian Christians, Jews, Portuguese, Dutch, British and the late 19
th
and 20
th
centuries.
Day 1: Romans, Syrian Christians, Jews and 7
th
to 15
th
century period
This tour offers a visit to the monuments remaining from the times
of the Romans, Syrian Christians, Jews and through the 300 year
period of the 7
th
to the 10
th
centuries.
Pattanam has become the first ever site on the Kerala coast to offer
a fascinating transition story of the Iron Age or the Early Historic
period. The Roman presence seems to be dominant and in all
probability the site could have been part of an Indo-Roman
settlement or a commercial centre with international trade
networks.
Kottakavu Church: When St. Thomas reached Kerala in A.D. 52, he
brought Christianity to India. The Kottakavu Church is said to be
one of the seven churches founded by him.
Paravur Market & Synagogue: With the Roman demolition of
Jerusalem, the Jews fled from Israel and some of them reached
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 111
Kerala. They built the Synagogue close to the Paravur Market as
their place of worship.
Cheraman parambu: The Cheraman Parambu is generally regarded
as the royal seat of the Cheraman Perumals, the kings of the Chera
dynasty, who ruled Kerala during the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries
AD.
Cheraman Masjid: It is believed that this mosque was built in the
11th century AD.
Temples: The very old Thiruvanchikulam temple and Kizhthali
temple are located in Kodungallur area.
Day 2: Portuguese & Dutch Period
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a stronghold in
Kerala. This was later followed by the Dutch and the British. This
tour includes the most interesting monuments of the Portuguese
and Dutch Periods.
Pallippuram Fort: Pallippuram Fort was erected by the Portuguese in
1507. It is said that the Pallippuram Fort in Kochi was captured by
the Dutch forces in 1662, but according to the history of Kochi, the
Fort was sold to the State of Travancore in 1789.
Kottappuram Fort: Kottappuram Fort, popularly known as
Cranganore (Kodungallur) Fort was built by the Portuguese in 1523.
It was later captured and destroyed by the Dutch in 1663.
Vypeekota Seminary & Holy Cross Church: The ruins of the
Vypeekotta Seminary, which was built by the Portuguese is
preserved as a historic monument and site. The church, built in the
same compound and probably during the same time and renovated
later still functions.
Paliam Complex: The Dutch built the Paliam Kotta or Fort in 1663,
as a gesture of gratitude to the Paliyath Achans, for helping them to
conquer the Portuguese. The Nalukettu built in 1786, by the elder
member of the Paliam family, served as a dwelling place for the
women and minor boys of the family.
Day 3: British, late 19
th
and 20
th
century period
British supremacy in Kerala started in the mid 17
th
Century and
lasted for the next 200 years until Indian Independence. During this
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 112
period the British built roads and railways and other forms of
infrastructure and opened a number of educational institutions and
hospitals throughout the State, connecting it to the rest of the
country.
The Leprosy Hospital built by the Dutch and later maintained by the
British is now with the Little Flower school.
Kovilakoms or the palaces where the members of the royal family
Cranganore lived are found through the Kodungallur area. Puthan
Kovilakom, Chirakkal Kovilakom, Manjeri Kovilakom and Kottoi
Kovilakom are some of them. This tour also covers the separate
cultural tour about the great scholar Kunhikuttan Thampuran and
the freedom fighter Abdul Rahman Sahib.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 113
ݸ¿°¬»® Ú·ª»

׳°´»³»²¬·²¹ ¬¸» ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ д¿²


ëòï Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ±º ¬¸» Í·¬»
The following international charters should be followed in the
preparation of the ÝÜÐ
Venice Charter on the Conservation and Restoration of the
Monuments and Sites (UNESCO), 1964.
UNESCO 1972 Convention concerning the protection of the
World Cultural and Natural Heritage
Resolutions of the Symposium on the introduction of
contemporary architecture into ancient groups of buildings, at
the 3rd ICOMOS General Assembly, 1972
UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding and
Contemporary Role of Historic Areas, 1976
ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and
Urban Areas (Washington Charter), 1987.
Charter for the Protection and Management of the
Archaeological Heritage (1990)
The Nara Document on Authenticity (1994)
Principles on the Recording of Monuments, Groups of
Buildings and Sites adopted by the 11th General Assembly of
ICOMOS (International Council of Museums and Sites), 1996.
International Cultural Tourism Charter, 1999.
UNESCO 1999 Operational Guidelines for the Implementation
of the World Heritage Convention
ICOMOS 1999 Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage
Australia ICOMOS 1999 Burra Charter,
XIŽAN Declaration on the Conservation of the Setting of
Heritage Structures, Sites & Areas adopted by the 15th
General Assembly of ICOMOS, 2005.
Vienna Memorandum on "World Heritage and Contemporary
Architecture Š Managing the Historic Urban LandscapeŒ, 2005.
ICOMOS charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of
Cultural Heritage Sites, 2007 (Draft)
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 114
Of the many principles stated in the above documents, the following
are relevant for the cultural landscape and to this project;
The archaeological heritage constitutes the basic record of
past human activities. Its protection and proper management
is therefore essential to enable archaeologists and other
scholars to study and interpret it on behalf of and for the
benefit of present and future generations.
Policies for the protection of the archaeological heritage
should constitute an integral component of policies relating to
land use, development, and planning as well as of cultural,
environmental and educational policies. The policies for the
protection of the archaeological heritage should be kept under
continual review, so that they stay up to date. The creation of
archaeological reserves should form part of such policies.
Active participation by the general public must form part of
policies for the protection of the archaeological heritage.
Development projects constitute one of the greatest physical
threats to the archaeological heritage. A duty for developers
to ensure that archaeological heritage impact studies are
carried out before development schemes are implemented,
should therefore be embodied in appropriate legislation, with
a stipulation that the costs of such studies are to be included
in project costs. The principle should also be established in
legislation that development schemes should be designed in
such a way as to minimize their impact upon the
archaeological heritage.
It must be an overriding principle that the gathering of
information about the archaeological heritage should not
destroy any more archaeological evidence than is necessary
for the protectoral or scientific objectives of the investigation.
Non-destructive techniques, aerial and ground survey, and
sampling should therefore be encouraged wherever possible,
in preference to total excavation.
The overall objective of archaeological heritage management
should be the preservation of monuments and sites in situ,
including proper long-term conservation and curation of all
related records and collections etc. Any transfer of elements
of the heritage to new locations represents a violation of the
principle of preserving the heritage in its original context.
Reconstruction be carried out with great caution, so as to
avoid disturbing any surviving archaeological evidence, and
they should take account of evidence from all sources in order
to achieve authenticity. Where possible and appropriate,
reconstructions should not be built immediately on the
archaeological remains, and should be identifiable as such.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 115
The objective of academic archaeological training should take
account of the shift in conservation policies from excavation to
in situ preservation. It should also take into account the fact
that the study of the history of indigenous peoples is as
important in preserving and understanding the archaeological
heritage as the study of outstanding monuments and sites.
The introduction of contemporary architecture into ancient
groups of buildings is feasible in so far as the town-planning
scheme of which it is a part involves acceptance of the
existing fabric as the framework for its own future
development. Such contemporary architecture, making
deliberate use of present-day techniques and materials, will fit
itself into an ancient setting without affecting the structural
and aesthetic qualities of the latter only in so far as due
allowance is made for the appropriate use of mass, scale,
rhythm and appearance. The authenticity of historical
monuments or groups of buildings must be taken as a basic
criterion and there must be avoidance of any imitations which
would affect their artistic and historical value.
Interpretation and presentation programmes, in whatever
form deemed appropriate and sustainable, should facilitate
physical and intellectual access by the public to cultural
heritage sites.
The interpretive plan for a cultural heritage site must be
sensitive to its natural and cultural environment, with social,
financial, and environ-mental sustainability among its central
goals.
Architects and town-planners should be careful to ensure that
views from and to monuments and historic areas are not
spoilt and that historic areas are integrated harmoniously into
contemporary life.
At a time when there is a danger that a growing universality
of building techniques and architectural forms may create a
uniform environment throughout the world, the preservation
of historic areas can make an outstanding contribution to
maintaining and developing the cultural and social values of
each nation. This can contribute to the architectural
enrichment of the cultural heritage of the world.
Particular care should be devoted to regulations for and
control over new buildings so as to ensure that their
architecture adapts harmoniously to the spatial organization
and setting of the groups of historic buildings.
The isolation of a monument through the demolition of its
surroundings should not generally be authorized, neither
should a monument be moved unless in exceptional
circumstances and for unavoidable reasons.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 116
Historic areas and their surroundings should be protected
from the disfigurement caused by the erection of poles, pylons
and electricity or telephone cables and the placing of
television aerials and large-scale advertising signs.
In rural areas all works which cause disturbances and all
changes of economic and social structure should be carefully
controlled so as to preserve the integrity of historic rural
communities within their natural setting.
Decision-making for interventions and contemporary
architecture in a historic urban landscape demand careful
consideration, a culturally and historic sensitive approach,
stakeholder consultations and expert know-how. Such a
process allows for adequate and proper action for individual
cases, examining the spatial context between old and new,
while respecting the authenticity and integrity of historic
fabric and building stock.
The rights and interests of the host community, at regional
and local levels, property owners and relevant indigenous
peoples who may exercise traditional rights or responsibilities
over their own land and its significant sites, should be
respected. They should be involved in establishing goals,
strategies, policies and protocols for the identification,
conservation, management, presentation and interpretation of
their heritage resources, cultural practices and contemporary
cultural expressions, in the tourism context.
Tourism promotion programmes should provide a wider
distribution of benefits and relieve the pressures on more
popular places by encouraging visitors to experience the wider
cultural and natural heritage characteristics of the region or
locality.
ëòî ß®½¸·¬»½¬«®¿´ ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±²
This section is concerned with issues of conservation, care and
maintenance for all elements of the ÓØÍ, including archaeology,
buildings, gardens, parks, streets and other public spaces,
waterways, natural landscape and geological features.
Ownership patterns in Muziris are complex and responsibility for the
care of the ÓØÍ therefore lies in many different hands. There are
many privately owned residences in the region. Most of the
responsible parties are not experts in conservation and would
benefit from advice and guidance in the care of their properties.
Individual properties should be managed, maintained and repaired
in the wider context of the MHS. The Government, as one of the
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 117
largest landowners, needs to set a standard for its own property
portfolio that can become an exemplary for others to follow.
Conservation can be seen as a negative concept, a burden on
owners and an obstruction to change and growth. Clear advice on
the requirements of historic properties and sites could make
conservation more approachable and manageable.
Disused or damaged buildings, structures and sites deteriorate
faster than those in use and do not contribute to the local economy.
Securing the appropriate repair and reuse of a historic structure or
site can be a difficult and long process. There is a paucity of funding
available to help secure the repair and reuse of disused and
damaged structures. All disused or damaged historic structures
should be identified and all efforts put into securing their repair and
reuse.
Despite their general good condition, the historic buildings and
archaeological structures of ÓØÍ are vulnerable to inappropriate or
inadequate maintenance. The majority of conservation work is
carried out reactively, i.e. as problems occur, rather than
proactively, i.e. as preventative maintenance. It is difficult to ensure
that conservation work is of the highest quality. Application of
techniques and materials suitable for modern buildings can result in
damage or heightened deterioration of historic buildings. Using
specialist techniques and materials for appropriate conservation
work can cost considerably more than standard techniques and
materials, but is unavoidable in conservation work.
There is much room for improvement in the maintenance of the
public spaces of the Heritage Site and there is a need for substantial
capital investment to raise the quality of those spaces.
There is currently no guidance for the appropriate design, material
or citing of modern interventions in the public realm of the heritage
sites, such as street furniture, traffic management, garbage control
and so on. There is room for improvement in the tidiness and
cleanliness of the sites, by providing bins for litter, and the
prohibiting of graffiti, and spitting of chewing gum and pan. Private
organisations and individuals have a role to play in ensuring that
the public spaces they impact upon and the public aspects of their
private properties are well-maintained. There is as yet no strategy
for long-term investment or comprehensive management to
improve the public spaces of the Muziris Heritage Site. Maintenance
of the footways and highways in particular is challenging due to
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 118
constant and/or heavy traffic flows and the lack of infrastructure for
traffic management.
ëòí Ò»© Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬
Many monuments in the project area are protected by law and are
under the control of the State Department of Archaeology. These
monuments must not be seen in isolation for development and the
surroundings of the monument are also equally important. What is
needed is an integrated development plan considering all the
monuments and their surroundings and the people in its totality. A
Master Development Plan should be made taking into account the
above aspects and the interests of all the stakeholders.
The temples, churches and mosques will continue to play their
dominant roles. The historic significance of ÓØÍ, which depends on
the uses of the buildings and their continuity, will be undermined if
there is to be a radical change in the uses and if key activities were
to cease. The historic significance also depends on it being well
understood and communicated to as wide an audience as possible.
This will never be fully realised if the history and culture of the site
is not presented and interpreted to a world class standard.
The setting of a historic building is often an essential part of the
building's character, especially if a garden or grounds have been
laid out to complement its design and function. The setting of a
historic building may be limited to obviously ancillary land, but may
often include land some distance from it. Even where a building has
no ancillary land - for example in a crowded street - the setting may
encompass a number of other properties. The setting of individual
historic buildings very often owes its character to the harmony
produced by a particular grouping of buildings, (not all necessarily
of great individual merit) and to the quality of the spaces created
between them. Such areas require careful appraisal when proposals
for new buildings are under consideration.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 119
ïèð Kottappuram Market ïèï Jew Street, North Paravur
ïèî Paravur Market ïèí Paliam Market
ëòíòï Ò»»¼ º±® ¿ Þ«ºº»® Ʊ²» º±® Û¿½¸ Ó±²«³»²¬
There is currently no buffer zone which would help to sustain the
special qualities of the setting of the monuments. Without
appropriate consideration of the sensitivities of the ÓØÍ and its
setting, development beyond the monument boundary of a large
scale may pose risks to this key element of the outstanding
universal values. Any changes to the style or backdrop of the ÓØÍ
from any angle, must be carefully balanced against the need to
preserve the iconic value of the Site.
ëòíòî Ò»© Þ«·´¼·²¹­
The high concentration of visitors in certain areas is detrimental to
both the historic fabric and enjoyment of the visitor experience.
There should be enough refreshment places within and close to the
ÓØÍò But they should not generate litter which detracts from the
SiteŽs appeal.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 120
The design of new buildings to be built near the historic buildings
needs very careful consideration. New buildings should be carefully
designed to respect their setting, follow fundamental architectural
principles of scale, height, massing and alignment, and use
appropriate materials. This does not mean that new buildings have
to copy their old neighbours in detail.
ëòíòí ͬ®»»¬ Ú«®²·¬«®» ¿²¼ Í·¹²¿¹»
Street furniture, security and lighting equipment, traffic signals,
guardrail, and signage directly related to the architecture and
spaces around the monuments are important areas for
improvement in the reduction of poorly designed clutter. In the
worst examples the effect is to limit or block local views of
importance to the buildings and monuments.
ëòíòì Ê·­·¬±® Ý»²¬®»
The visitor centre facilities will vary at each site depending on the
requirements and the feasibility. These visitor centres should not
contravene the principles of international conservation guidelines.
They should blend into the landscape and need not make any
reference to the monument itself. Inside the visitor centre, the
following facilities should be added;
Ticketing
Tour & home-stay booking facilities
Information kiosks
Internet facilities
Café
Shop
Toilets
Cloak rooms and Rest rooms
Parking
The visitor centres at the smaller sites may not have all the above
facilities. They will have a small office, tourist information desk,
toilets and drinking water facilities. In addition, some of them will
have a small café where the tourists can have basic food. These are
being provided because the restaurants and hotels are not available
nearby and the class of tourists who come may not use the local
shops which are at a distance.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 121
Ê·­·¬±® Ý»²¬®»­ ¿¬ Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«® ¿²¼ Ò±®¬¸ п®¿ª«®
The quality of the entrances to the ÓØÍ can have a significant
impact on peopleŽs ability to access and enjoy the Site. The
entrances should be presented and maintained to the highest
standards. Entrance points and their facilities must be sensitively
sited and designed to avoid potential damage to the ÓØÍò The two
main entrances with visitor centres will be located at North Paravur
and Kodungallur. They should provide information on the ÓØÍô
including access details like transport and directional options and
interpretation.
The following are the various components of the Visitor Centres at
North Paravur and Kodungallur, in addition to the usual facilities.
Ñ®·»²¬¿¬·±²
Whilst the ticketing process is being completed, visitors can orient
themselves to the various monuments and sites in the Project Area,
to the maps of trails and other information displayed in the
reception. It will serve as the prime interface unit to implement the
education and awareness building objectives of the project.
Foyer: Space for special groups to assemble and waiting area.
Displays and exhibits including models in the foyer allow for
interaction with different themes.
Seminar Rooms: Areas planned for special lectures, small
colloquiums and meeting of small groups.
Audio-Visual Room: a compact theatre for watching of films
and educational audio-visuals will accommodate about 30
persons.
Û²¬®§ ú п®µ·²¹
Parking facilities for buses, cars and other vehicles should be
provided at these two visitor centres. The concept that is being
promoted is the "park and rideΠconcept.
Í»½«®·¬§ ú ß³»²·¬·»­
Security and amenities shall be located at the entry and exit points.
Amenities shall include lockers, internet, toilets, drinking water, rest
room, first aid etc.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 122
ß³°¸·¬¸»¿¬®»
A 250 people capacity amphitheatre is proposed for conducting
history education programs and related activities. This space will
also be used for staging passive regional art forms. The Stage is
essentially a raised podium.

ݸ·´¼®»²­ д¿§ ß®»¿
An interactive childrenŽs learning space is proposed in the form of
play areas. Various play facilities are proposed which will teach
children about protecting the built environment.
ëòíòë Ó«­»«³­
There are many museums in the country which use old concepts.
The stereotype of a museum in the traditional sense is a building
full of glass cases, with dusty old things. The visitor walks around
the various rooms and reads the small write-ups. The old concept
museums do not entice visitors.
The new generations of museums which have come up in many
parts of the world use various interactive techniques. The museum
is meant to be a learning environment and should attract visitors.
As their interest grows, the visitors will seek out and absorb the
information, since the displays will be at various levels.
The several museums proposed in the ÓØÍ will consist of the
following in varying combinations:
Gift shop
Café
Cloak room, toilet and other facilities
Library
Archives
Conservation Department
Back office
Interactive lecture theatre for groups

ëòíòê Ó«­»«³ ±² ݸ®·­¬·¿² λ´·¹·±«­ ß®¬ ¿²¼ Ì®¿¼·¬·±²­ô Ò±®¬¸
п®¿ª«®
The idea of this museum is to present the Christian religious art and
traditions through photographs accompanied by text and other
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 123
audio-visual materials. This will be located inside the ancient church
premises.
ëòíòé Ó«­»«³ Ѻ ߯«¿¬·½ Ô·º»ô Ê¿¼¿µ»µµ¿®¿
At ÓØÍ, it will be appropriate to develop a museum on aquatic life,
where visitors can learn about and understand the diversity of the
backwaters and its islands. It remains a critical factor in the
concerns of the public, especially those who are interested in
protecting the environment.
The Muziris Museum of Aquatic Life is the answer to the challenge of
protecting local biodiversity.
The museum will be expressed in such a way that the local flora and
fauna are protected. The project in its entirety envisages creating
awareness of the fascinating ecology of the river and raising the
consciousness amongst the general public on environmental issues.
After wandering through the monuments, the visit to the museum
will be a welcome change for visitors. An important component of
this museum will be the saline eco system with its wide variety of
flora, fauna, insects, birds, crabs and fish.
One can approach the area in a holistic manner, by thinking of
cleaning the waterways, rain water harvesting, easing water logging
problems in various areas because of the construction of new roads
and bridges, silting of the canals, solid waste management and
others. The problem will become serious with the advent of greater
numbers of visitors to the area. This has to be tackled in such a way
that the sustainability of the project is not threatened over a long-
term. The park will have several elements to sensitize visitors to the
natural environment, which can be demonstrated in a practical way.
This museum will be a focal point for interactive environmental
education and research for schools, educational institutions, eco
clubs, bird watchers, nature enthusiasts and the general public.

ëòíòè שּׁ¿²¿³ ß®½¸¿»±´±¹·½¿´ Í·¬»
A site archaeological museum can be considered in the excavation
site. The visitor center, the exhibition gallery, virtual reconstruction
centre, the public archive and documentation centre may be located
at a distance, because the acquisition of nearby land may cause
disruption of the local community. Locating the facilities at a
distance, where land is available will cause the least disturbance to
the excavated remains.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 124
The visitors may be taken to the site museum on foot, when they
will be able to fully appreciate the dramatic landscape setting. For
those visitors who are not able to walk, there will be special
arrangements to ensure that they too are able to reach the
excavated site. In addition to the boat jetty, road access to the site
and toilet block is being added.
Í·¬» Ó«­»«³
The concept of this project is to preserve and enhance the remains
of the ancient structure in such a way that would set it apart from
the modern construction. The use of light materials, such as wood,
glass and steel, contrasting the massiveness of the ancient brick
walls will be used. The museum building of glass and steel roofs
may be constructed above the ancient walls.
The access to the public is important. The building should be as
unobtrusive as possible. The form and the size of the building will
depend on the extent of the archaeological remains.
Û¨¸·¾·¬·±² Ù¿´´»®§
The new center will offer the visitor an in-depth archaeological and
historical introduction to the Pattanam excavation site by means of
an exhibition of archaeological objects, augmented by visual,
textual and audio information. The exhibition may be laid out on
two floors, part of it being below the ground, taking the visitor to
below the ground level. Access between the floors is to be by
moderate ramps.
The artifacts of each period will be exhibited in the various galleries.
The idea is that the visitor will be taken through various periods, as
he/she proceeds through the exhibition.

Ê·®¬«¿´ λ½±²­¬®«½¬·±² Ý»²¬®»
A virtual reconstruction centre will be planned. The new center will
offer the visitor an in-depth archaeological and historical
introduction to the Muziris Archaeological Park, by means of an
exhibition of archaeological objects, augmented by visual, textual
and audio information. Real-time technology will allow users to
interact with the computer environment, enjoying freedom of
movement as in the physical world.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 125
The most technologically advanced computer graphics, sound and
architecture currently available in the visual computing industry
should be employed in the Reconstruction Centre. The center shall
use cutting-edge visualization tools, including a powerful computer,
a high-resolution display and integration technology. This provides
audiences with breathtaking three-dimensional images that are at
the same time scientifically accurate.
Ê·­·¬±® Ý»²¬®»
The new visitor centre building will blend into the landscape and
make no reference to the excavated remains itself. Inside, the
visitor centre will offer world-class facilities, with exhibitions and
audio-visual presentations, to help visitors enjoy and understand
Kerala History. There will also be high quality catering, a shop and
dedicated space for educational groups.
̸» Ø·­¬±®§ ±º ß®½¸¿»±´±¹§
A documentary film will present the story of excavations in the
precincts of the Pattanam Archaeological Site.
Ы¾´·½ ß®½¸·ª» ¿²¼ ܱ½«³»²¬¿¬·±² Ý»²¬®»
Visitors should be able to browse through collections of photographs
and historic records so the Centre needs to be accessible to the
general public. Many databases of information requires to be made
available online.
Õ»®¿´¿ Ó¿®·¬·³» Ó«­»«³
This is a specialized museum describing the details the maritime
trade which Kerala had with several foreign countries. The museum
aims to undertake the promotion and study of the Kerala maritime
history and tradition. Therefore, the Museum will exhibit various
boats and ships, a large number of military weapons and devices
used on the high seas, such as guns, cannons, and telescopes.
There could be a section on how Vasco Da Gama led his fleet to
India in the late 15th century.
A separate building will be designed for large objects like boats.
There will also be displays where visitors can become acquainted
with old working methods. The museum will also have a separate
library and archives that meet modern standards.

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 126
ëòíòç Ó«­»«³ ±² Ø¿²¼´±±³­ô ݸ»²¼¿³¿²¹¿´¿³
Chendamangalam is an important handloom centre in Kerala.
Double dhoti and 'Mundu' and 'Neriyathu' are its famous products.
These fabrics are distinct in their structure. They have a special weft
direction. The idea behind this museum is to exhibit the history of
the fabric, the stages of manufacture and the fine finished
handloom products. A training centre, shops and a small café are
being featured with this museum.

ëòíòïð Ì®¿¼·¬·±²¿´ ß®¬ л®º±®³¿²½» Ý»²¬®»ô ݸ»²¼¿³¿²¹¿´¿³
Art performances in Kerala have an international reputation. The
objective of this centre is to present the local traditional performing
arts.
ëòíòïï Ì®¿¼·¬·±²¿´ Ô·º»­¬§´» Ó«­»«³ô ݸ»²¼¿³¿²¹¿´¿³
The mission of the Museum is to offer exhibits and programs
showcasing lifestyle, history, cultures, people, places, fashion
trends, architecture, furnishings, and information about popular
uses of artifacts by people and events of the various periods.
Visitors will be able to get an overall idea of the traditional arts,
heritage and culture of Kerala.
ëòíòïî Õ±½¸· ܧ²¿­¬§ Ø·­¬±®§ Ó«­»«³ô ݸ»²¼¿³¿²¹¿´¿³
The objective of this museum is to know about the ancient
dynasties of Kochi and their architectural and engineering
achievements during those periods.
ëòíòïí Ó«­»«³ ±² ײ´¿²¼ Ú·­¸·²¹ô Ù±¬¸«®«¬¸«
In this site, there will be a museum displaying inland fishing, fishing
nets, traditional boats of different kinds and other related objects.
A computer archive is also being planned, which can be consulted
for more information about the local fishing and traditional boating.
It will consist of the following components;
Exhibition area explaining fishing history
Boats of various types
Fishing methods
Different types of fishing nets & other fish gear
Recreated fishermanŽs house
Training centre
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 127
Memorial Room
ëòíòïì ݸ¿ª·¬¬« Ò¿¬¿µ¿³ Ý»²¬®»ô Ù±¬¸«®«¬¸«
Here visitors will be able to enjoy the "stamping dramaŒ, which is
the Portuguese art form mixed with local art forms. A training
centre is being added adjacent to this museum.
ëòíòïë Ó«­»«³ ±² ݱ·®ô Ó±±¬¸¿µ«²²¿³
Kerala, since time immemorial has been a land blessed with the
bounty of coconuts, and coir produced from the husks of coconuts
has made it a treasure of the land. Visitors will be able to see its
history and the stages of processing. Various coir products, such as
carpets, door mats, mattress and newer products will be exhibited.
ëòíòïê Õ±¬¬¿°°«®¿³ Ú±®¬
Fortresses are, due to their very nature, one of the most important
testimonies of understanding cultural exchange and the history of
human communication, throughout the world and throughout
history, and therefore constitute a global and universal heritage.
The bastioned systems of the Portuguese school of fortification are
important in the sense that, chronologically speaking, they were the
first to be developed during the organization of large territories
outside Europe.
A tourist information centre with a restaurant and an interpretation
centre explaining the details of the Fort and its construction is being
planned for this site.
Í«²­»¬ Ý®«·­» ¿¬ Õ±¬¬¿°°«®¿³ Ú±®¬
It is an incredibly different experience to cruise in the backwaters in
boats, closely observing the enticing beauty of Cochin. Visitors will
have an enthralling experience on the backwaters, when they
undertake a journey on a boat, from Cochin to Kottappuram.
Visitors will be able to have a theme dinner at the Fort in the
evening. A light and sound presentation will provide the visitors with
the appropriate historical back drop.
ëòíòïé Ó·´·¬¿®§ ±® ß®³±«®§ Ó«­»«³ô Õ±¬¬¿°°«®¿³ Ú±®¬
The purpose of the museum project is to build and maintain a
collective history of the soldiers from various kingdoms, weapons
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 128
used and the various wars that were fought in this area. In this way
the museum will provide an educational environment. Its mission is
to gather, collect, restore, preserve, interpret, and display materials
that reflect the history of the wars between the various princely
states, forts and their relationship with the history of Kerala.
Various weapons, uniforms, communication material and other
related objects will be exhibited for future research and display. A
library will be established in the museum for research.
ëòíòïè Õ»®¿´¿ Ø·­¬±®§ Ó«­»«³ô ݸ»®¿³¿² п®¿³¾«
The Kerala History Museum will show the history and cultural
heritage of Kerala, its customs, culture and historical development.
The idea is to make this an important focal point, in the area where
the events occurred and to portray by that means, the history of
Kerala through the ages. The museum may be divided into various
sections such as archaeological, social and natural history. The
archaeological objects excavated and archival records can be
exhibited along with large scale models. There will be temporary
galleries and permanent exhibitions. An elaborate conservation
studio for the museum objects is also being planned.
ëòíòïç ͬ«¼»²¬­ ɱ®µ­¸±°ô ݸ»®¿³¿² п®¿³¾«
It is important that school students participate in conservation and
awareness raising programmes concerning the safeguarding of our
heritage and historic buildings. This site will have a library, video
hall, lecture theatre and provisions for holding workshops for school
children and other students. Accommodation can be provided in the
form of a camp site.
ëòíòîð Ó«­»«³ ±º Ú®»»¼±³ ͬ®«¹¹´»ô Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«®
This museum is being planned with the hope of introducing the
freedom struggle and its multiple facets to school students. It will
highlight the roles of the unsung heroes apart from the well known
leaders of the Freedom Movement. The concept is to pay tribute to
freedom fighters and generate interest among the younger
generation about important milestones in the struggle for
independence. It is important that the museum makes sense to all
age groups and attract and interest especially the younger
generation.


Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 129
ëòíòîï Ó«­»«³ Ѻ Õ»®¿´¿ Ô·¬»®¿¬«®»ô Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«®
This museum is being planned in memory of the great scholar
Kunhikuttan Thampuram, who translated the epic, Mahabharatha,
within a short period. The arts and literature of Kerala have
consistently evoked much interest and enjoyed good patronage and
today, Kerala is still prominent in these fields with a number of well-
known artists and writers.

ëòíòîî ×­´¿³·½ Ì®¿¼·¬·±²­ Ó«­»«³ô Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«®
The idea of this museum is to exhibit the Islamic traditions through
displays accompanied by text and other audio-visual materials.
ëòíòîí ͧ®·¿² ݸ®·­¬·¿² Ø·­¬±®§ Ó«­»«³ô Õ±¼«²¹¿´´«®
This museum aims to present the interesting traditions and history
of the Syrian Christians. Visitors will have the opportunity to
observe origin of Syrian Christian traditions and their evolution to
present day practices.
ëòì Ì®¿²­°±®¬¿¬·±²
This section is concerned with the physical accessibility of the ÓØÍ
to residents, workers and visitors. There is also need to ensure that
access arrangements take into account the sensitivity and
vulnerability of the cultural assets of the ÓØÍ. The main themes
are:
Traffic
Parking
Entrance Points
Coaches
Public Transport
Integrated Transport
Pedestrians & Cycling
Travel Planning & Awareness
Pollution control
The maintenance of the architectural significance depends on good
conservation practice, but a poor visitor experience, which is
dominated by noisy traffic, congested footpaths and inadequate
orientation, will mean that the architectural significance cannot be
appreciated to the full and tourism revenue, which helps to fund
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 130
conservation works, may fall. Thus transportation planning is one of
the most challenging areas in the ÝÜÐ and one of the most difficult
to resolve. The traffic and transport problems faced by the Site are
complex and shall require comprehensive solutions that are likely to
take many years to implement. In addition, these problems involve
an area much wider than the ÓØÍ itself.
Managing access, however, is fundamental to the comprehensive
management of the whole ÓØÍ. Access has a wide impact
particularly on the condition and conservation of the ÓØÍ, on
peopleŽs ability to navigate, understand and enjoy the Site, and on
the SiteŽs viability as a modern residential and economically active
region.
As both a region and a Heritage Site, Muziris needs to be accessible
to a variety of transport modes. It must provide the appropriate
facilities, such as car parks, coach parks, boat jetties, access for
deliveries and traffic directional infrastructure. All of these must be
integrated into the region without detracting from the values of the
Heritage Site.
At present, there are no parking facilities for vehicles. Boat landing
facilities at the right locations are missing. Air pollution and the
weight and vibration of the vehicles are all threats to the historic
buildings and landscape.
ëòìòï п®µ ¿²¼ η¼»
Two transport interchanges have to be developed at the two
entrance points viz. North Paravur and Kodungallur, providing a
facility for transfer between car, boat and the ÓØÍ Bus, as well as
other local bus services. The success of persuading visitors arriving
by car to switch to alternative transport modes will depend on such
factors as cost of parking, the convenience of changing modes, and
the regularity, reliability and quality of alternatives. There could be
advantages of a transport interchange to provide a Park and Ride
scheme to serve the sites in Muziris.
The parking facilities presently available at most of the monuments
are limited, unless more land is acquired.



Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 131
ëòìòî Ó«¦·®·­ Þ«­ Í»®ª·½»
Muziris bus services have to be developed between the various
monuments. People who use cars as a mode of transport should
park and then get on to the public transport to be provided by
ÓØÍò
ëòìòí Þ±¿¬­
The boats are the primary means of transport and the best to see
the monuments. The use of boats will avoid some of the other
requirements foreseen, such as parking for cars, widening of roads,
etc. near the monuments. During the trip from one place to
another, the official guides can relate the story of the monuments
and explain the history of the area. Private boats should only be
allowed to dock at the jetties by paying a fee.
ëòìòì л¼»­¬®·¿² ¿²¼ ݧ½´» п¬¸­
Increased walking and cycling will help to lessen the number of
short journeys completed by car, thus diminishing the amount of
traffic around the ÓØÍ. Pedestrians and cyclists require safe and
attractive routes to encourage them to walk and cycle more.
ëòìòë и§­·½¿´ ß½½»­­
The public realm will help make the ÓØÍ accessible to everyone. At
present the public realm is still largely orientated towards motorised
traffic.
There is great potential for improving the public realm to encourage
greater pedestrian or cycle movement around the Heritage Site,
particularly to the less used areas. Presently, some of the public
facilities, particularly toilets, are inadequate in the main shopping
and visitor areas. Street lighting needs to be improved and to be
provided in a co-ordinated manner.
ëòìòê ß½½»­­ º±® ß´´
It is proposed that ÓØÍ will be made as physically accessible to as
many people as possible. There are a high number of historic
buildings in Muziris, many of them accessed by steps. Providing
comfortable access to all historic buildings, without damaging the
fabric or the visual integrity of the building is challenging, to say the
least. It is understood that there will be certain areas which will be
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 132
unapproachable by the public. Just clutter on the pavements can
obstruct the safe passage of physically or visually disabled people.
ëòìòé Ù«·¼»¼ ̱«®­
The guided tours can be taken by vehicles, walking, cycling and by
boat. The transport for these guided tours are always a
controversial feature of the tourism industry, as they are hazardous
to the air quality at the heritage site and to the quality of life for
residents in nearby areas. Yet, the guided tour buses provide a
service and interpretation of the monument that is valued by the
larger number of users of the Site. This makes it vital that they
design of these buses require to be carefully considered.
ëòìòè Ò±·­» ¿²¼ ß·® б´´«¬·±²
The effects of environmental noise and air pollution on the buildings
are complex and constantly changing. There are not many
industries in the region and the pollution is mainly by traffic fumes
as well as traffic noise and vibration. There is continuing research
into the effects of pollutants on buildings, but at present the only
effective remedies are the traditional ones of routine maintenance
of surfaces and joints, drips and flashings.
ëòë ß®½¸¿»±´±¹§
In India, at present, there is no policy on archaeological remains on
land, and how they should be preserved or recorded in a rural
setting. This section sets out some guidelines in the light of the
discovery of archaeological remains in Pattanam, within the existing
legislative framework. It presents some additional responsibilities on
the Panchayat without any financial burden regarding the
construction of new buildings.
"Archaeological remains are irreplaceable. They are evidence- for
prehistoric periods, the only evidence Š of the past development of
our civilization. TodayŽs archaeological landscape is the product of
human activity over thousands of years. It ranges through
settlements and remains of every period, from the camps of early
hunter gatherers 400,000 years ago to remains of early 20
th
century
activities. It includes places of worship, defense installations, burial
grounds, farms and fields, and sites of manufacture.Œ
10
10
Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning, Published by the Department oI
Communities and Local Government, London, 1980.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 133
In the case of Pattanam, the new village or settlement may be lying
on top of the old Muziris port. A strategy for management of this
heritage is essential to ensure that they survive in good condition
and is available to future generations for research. If modern
buildings are constructed over the archaeological remains, without
proper studies and investigation, part of the history of our country
will be destroyed. It may not be feasible to save all the remains in a
fast changing modern world, but a balance has to be struck
between the two.
All of the archaeological remains are not of equal importance. If the
archaeological remains are of national and universal importance,
then they will be preserved at any cost, while those of local
importance may be removed, after proper documentation and
studies. The archaeological remains found should be conserved
according to the guidelines issued by the international agencies.
ëòëòï ×¼»²¬·º·½¿¬·±² ±º ß®½¸¿»±´±¹·½¿´ λ³¿·²­
Few sites in Pattanam village have been excavated by Kerala
Council for Historical Research (KCHR) during the last two years.
Major finds have been during the excavations. The exact locations
where the archaeological remains are buried in the ground are not
available at present. KCHR should define the area where there is a
possibility of finding any archaeological remains based on the
studies and field exploration done so far. Designating this area is
the first step towards the conservation of the archaeological
heritage.
When the planning permission for the construction of new buildings
is examined by the Panchayat, those applications which are in the
designated archaeological area should be referred to KCHR. They
should do a field evaluation of the plot for which planning
permission is sought by doing a ground survey and small-scale trial
trenching. This sort of evaluation is quite distinct from full scale
archaeological excavation. It is normally a rapid and a cheaper
option, but should be carried out in the presence of a trained
archaeologist who knows the area and the detailed proposals.
Based on the above studies, an informed planning decision should
be taken. Whether it is preservation in situ or preservation by
record requires to be decided, based on individual merits of each
case. The Panchayat may refuse planning permission where the plot
owners do not seek to accommodate important archaeological
remains.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 134
KCHR should be provided funds by the State Government for doing
the archaeological studies and subsequent preservation by record
and in situ. For a plot owner, the construction of his/her building
should not get delayed by more than 90 days under normal
circumstances. Any excavation or recording should be carried out
within this period. But in the event of discovery of archaeological
remains of national and universal importance, no new development
should take place unless the detailed investigation has been carried
out.
There may be cases where the archaeological remains become
evident only after the construction of the new building has
commenced. In such cases, Kerala Council for Historical Research
should be given powers to do the necessary studies and the
planning permission given by the Panchayat should be conditional
taking the above facts into account.
ëòëòî Ю»­»®ª¿¬·±² ·² Í·¬«
When it is known that there are important remains, the design of
the building could be modified so that the foundations can avoid
disturbing the archaeological remains or the damage caused can be
made to the minimum. There are various techniques available for
sealing archaeological remains underneath buildings, thus securing
their preservation for the future generations even though they
remain inaccessible for the time being.
ëòëòí Ю»­»®ª¿¬·±² ¾§ λ½±®¼
In case, preservation in situ is not feasible, then preservation by
record should be resorted to. This is only the second option from
the archaeological point of view as the science of archaeology is
developing quite fast and the future generations may have more
expertise and knowledge at their disposal to analyse the remains.
Excavation leads to the destruction of the remains, although the
artefacts found in the excavation can be moved to a museum. It is
also more time consuming and expensive. The discoveries may be
evaluated in a hurry against an inadequate research framework.
Preservation by record should precede the commencement of
construction and the Panchayat should give planning permission
only on the basis of the owner allowing the archaeological
excavation to take place.

Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 135
ëòëòì Ú«¬«®» ±º שּׁ¿²¿³ ß®½¸¿»±´±¹·½¿´ Í·¬»
The State Government, the local Panchayat, the owners of the site,
the local community and Kerala State Council for Historical
Research have key roles to play in the preservation of the
archaeological remains. A research framework and the designation
of the archaeological site with its boundaries have to be made
urgently. A detailed development plan with clear policies for the
protection and preservation of site of archaeological interest and
their settings should be made. The proposal should clearly define
the areas and the sites to which the policies and proposals apply.
This will guide the future development of the area.
ëòê Ý«´¬«®» ¿²¼ ײ¬¿²¹·¾´» Ø»®·¬¿¹»
The World Heritage List prepared by UNESCO dealt only with
tangible aspects of culture. According to the 2003 Convention for
the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, the intangible
cultural heritage (ICH) Š or living heritage Š is the mainspring of
our cultural diversity and its maintenance a guarantee for
continuing creativity. It is defined as follows:
"Intangible Cultural Heritage means the practices, representations,
expressions, knowledge, skills Š as well as the instruments, objects,
artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith Š that
communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as
part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage,
transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated
by communities and groups in response to their environment, their
interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a
sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural
diversity and human creativity. For the purposes of this Convention,
consideration will be given solely to such intangible cultural heritage
as is compatible with existing international human rights
instruments, as well as with the requirements of mutual respect
among communities, groups and individuals, and of sustainable
development.
11
Œ
"The "intangible cultural heritageŒ, as defined in paragraph 1 above,
is manifested inter alia in the following domains:
oral traditions and expressions, including language as a
vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage;
performing arts;
11
2003 Paris Convention Ior the SaIeguarding oI the Intangible Cultural Heritage
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 136
social practices, rituals and festive events;
knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe;
traditional craftsmanship.Œ
12
As far as possible, the intangible heritage should not be removed
from its context or setting, to the extent that the authenticity is
affected. The presence of traditional torch bearers is necessary to
give life to the heritage. The integrity of the cultural space plays a
major role in presenting an authentic experience, although it may
not be traditional. Highly commoditized attractions by the tourism
sector for easy consumption have a shorter lifecycle.
The intangible heritage helps the visitor to gain a deeper
understanding about the place and the culture. Lot of questions can
be raised whether the cultural performances organised for the
visitors can be considered as part of the intangible heritage.
Detailed documentation should be carried out about the intangible
heritage of the Muziris. This is important for the successful
implementation of the Conservation Development Plan.
ëòé Û¼«½¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ײ¬»®°®»¬¿¬·±² ͬ®¿¬»¹·»­
This section is concerned with making the ÓØÍ comprehensible to
as wide a range of people as possible, and making the best use of
the site for educational purposes, either for leisure, formal study or
as a tool for raising awareness. The main themes are:
Interpretation
Education
One of the major aims of the Muziris Heritage Project is to provide
an environment which educates the public at different levels. At the
directly perceivable level, it educates about the conserved
monuments and its various components. At the conceptual level, it
deals with the macro issue of the conservation, the built
environment, the heritage and sustainability.
Interpretation is the means by which people can understand the
values and significance of the heritage site, both as a whole and as
individual elements.
There have also been significant technological developments in
interpretation since 1990s, particularly in such areas as GPS and
12
Ibid.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 137
computer generated imagery, touch screens, mobile phone
technology and video and audio wands which could be applied to
improve communication of the SiteŽs values to the visitor.
At the same time, the interpretation and education campaigns need
not be costly. It should be enquired whether they could be met just
as effectively through modest means. Personal contact between the
visitors and the staff at the site is one of the most effective methods
in education and interpretation.
The time spent by a visitor may vary depending upon each personŽs
interest. Interpretation panels at various levels should be designed
depending upon the amount of time to be spent by the visitor. They
may include local residents and repeat visitors.
There is a need to develop an overall framework in which sites are
differentiated from each other to develop a distinctiveness which
shall encourage visitors to go to more than one site in order to build
up the whole picture of the frontier and thus stay for longer in the
area and return. The overall interpretation needs to both underline
the particular individual aspects of each site and place each
component within the whole scheme of the frontier.
There is also a need to interpret the wider contexts of the ÓØÍ,
both in its later influence on the landscape, and the landscape itself
with its rich natural values. There is currently little to tell visitors of
the special and varied landscapes through which they pass.
Although there will be guidebooks for the various sites, more could
be done to create awareness of the archaeological, historical and
architectural features on its route.
The Interpretation and Education Strategy would provide a
mechanism to help people to engage with the site, appreciate its
significance and understand more of the way in which it is being
managed and conserved. The Strategy would:
Undertake and build on market research, identifying and
understanding the key audiences that the plan wishes to
reach;
Create guidelines for providing new facilities, ensuring that
provision is clear, accessible and where physical interventions
are necessary, that they are sensitive to the historic and
natural environment;
Identify the key messages which visitors should take away
with them on leaving the ÓØÍ, the themes and stories
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 138
through which these messages will be delivered, and the
media that will be used to convey these messages;
Provide for the regular identification of new educational and
interpretation opportunities as they arise;
Provide for constant review of interpretation and education
media, both to ensure that their message remains clear and
relevant, and that they continue to be accessible and
attractive;
Integrate and promote effective interpretation into all future
developments across the site in a co-ordinated manner.
ëòéòï Û¼«½¿¬·±²
Developing the educational use of the ÓØÍ fulfils the obligation
under the 1972 World Heritage Convention to transmit the site to
future generations. Educational activity in its broadest sense,
encompassing formal and informal education, is essential to
creating awareness of the values of the site and ensuring that these
are cherished and enhanced in the future.
13
Individual organisations within the ÓØÍ have varying provision for
promoting educational activities, both involving schools in formal
education and in lifelong learning. All sites shall engage on-site
education staff, who develop programmes at their sites. Various
programs involving school kids can be developed around a planned
interface with the environment in Muziris. For conducting such
programs, various museum staff shall be given adequate training.
Enabling people to understand what they see when they visit the
Muziris Heritage Site and to give access to the Site, its values and
significance are the key components of managing the Muziris
Heritage Site. It is complementary to the work of protecting and
conserving the Site and is intimately connected to providing
physical access and managing the appearance of the public realm.
Interpretation is the means by which people can understand the
values and significance of the Muziris Heritage Site, both as a whole
and as individual elements. This should enhance visitorsŽ and local
peopleŽs enjoyment and understanding of the Muziris Heritage Site.
At present, there is very little interpretation of the Muziris Heritage
Site, its extent and values, or of the wider heritage community, but
there is high potential for a coordinated interpretation programme
13
Frontiers oI the Roman Empire WHS Š HadrianŽs Wall: A New Management Plan 2008-13, A
Discussion Paper on the Issues on HadrianŽs Wall, UNESCO.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 139
for the entire Muziris Heritage Site which highlights and emphasizes
both the cohesiveness of the Site and its individual areas and sites.
ëòéòî Ó«´¬·³»¼·¿ Ì»¿½¸·²¹ Ó¿¬»®·¿´­
A range of guide books and work books can be prepared for the
visitors as pre and post visit materials. Compact Discs, posters,
teacher resource kits containing background materials etc. could
form the basis of educative material. Extra information can be
downloaded from the websites.
Sites can be provided with audio tours at an additional fee. This
should give clear information about the property and its history.
ëòéòí Ûª¿´«¿¬·±² ±º ײ¬»®°®»¬¿¬·±² Ю±¹®¿³³»­
"The most effective presentation materials were fun as well as easy
and quick to read. Videos were the most popular and the most
effective. Because videos bring information to life and show how
techniques work in practice, they are popular for use in schools and
with inexperienced groups. Comic posters, audio-visual materials
and multimedia presentations have also proven effective.Œ
14
"The easiest and most common way to evaluate the effectiveness of
an interpretation programme such as an exhibit is to assess its
ability to attract and hold visitorsŽ attention. In this case an exhibit
is judged on how many people stop and how much time they spend
looking and/or reading the exhibit material. Staff intuition
concerning attitude change is generally reliable and can contribute
to assessment studies.Œ
15
ëòè Ê·­·¬±® Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ¿²¼ ̱«®·­³
ÓØÍ could be developed into a "must see and returnŒ visitor
attraction through a major programme of development to enhance
the visitor experience, while still protecting and cherishing the core
values of the Heritage Site.
As the number of visitors to Muziris increase, a lack of maintenance
or poor maintenance and repair techniques could lead to gradual
degradation of the fabric and architectural quality. The pressures of
increasing tourist numbers on the sensitive fabric of the buildings
14
Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual Ior World Heritage Site Managers,
Arthur Pedersen, Published by Unesco World Heritage Center
15
Ibid
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 140
present a conservation problem that must be considered as part of
the normal conservation and maintenance arrangements. Tourist
visitors impose wear and tear on the fabric, by direct physical
contact, by raising the humidity and temperature in enclosed spaces
and by incidental damage and more rarely, by casual vandalism or
theft of items. Wear and tear is of particular concern in relation to
sensitive floor finishes, such as soft paving stone and memorials
and all painted surfaces in smaller spaces. Externally, paving and
grass can also suffer serious erosion.
Certainly the highly seasonal nature of tourism visits to the area,
and the possible concentration of visitor activity at certain key
points within the ÓØÍ, may lead to a number of localised
pressures. The religious monuments have a particular challenge in
that during festivals, the numbers of visitors increase many times
and their impact should be considered.
ëòèòï Ѫ»®­»¿­ Ê·­·¬±®­
Overseas tour operators are especially concerned about logistical
questions such as safety, tourist amenities such as parking, toilet
facilities and cafes, waiting time for the entry to the various
monuments, languages used for signage and interpretation of the
sites etc. Operators are anxious for a site to be well maintained.
These stakeholders often advocate efficient reservation systems,
good communications and regular maintenance.
ëòèòî Ú±®»·¹² Ô¿²¹«¿¹» Ê·­·¬±®­
The guidebooks and other literature should not be made just in
Malayalam and English. Availability of other Indian and foreign
language interpretive materials will make it easy for some overseas
visitors to access information on aspects of the culture and history
of the ÓØÍ. Literature in many languages will also encourage
research scholars from overseas.
ëòç Ю±¬»½¬·±² ±º Ò¿¬«®¿´ Û²ª·®±²³»²¬
Contemporary human society is in a transition, moving from the
rural to the urban. There is, consequently, an urgent need for the
urban community to re-establish and remain connected to such
systems, so it does not forget its fundamental dependence on them.
The natural environment of the Muziris Heritage Project has great
biodiversity. Rivers such as Periyar and Chalakudi flow over this
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 141
area, draining into the Arabian Sea. There are many small islands
and the network of rivers and canals covers almost the entire area
of the Project. The prevailing degradation of the waterways is
alarming as indicated by the level of recorded pollution and silting.
The garbage collection in the site may go up and more pollution
may result due to the increase in tourist traffic. Environmentalists
have important concerns over the potential negative impacts of
tourism development on the flora and fauna of the region.
The landscape natural environment in Muziris is integral to the
values of the Heritage Site. Its management must take into account
the values of the ÓØÍ and its role as a wider setting; in particular
there are some gaps in our detailed understanding of the
relationship of the architecture and development of the ÓØÍ to the
surrounding landscape. Inappropriate development in the region
could impact negatively upon the setting of the ÓØÍ. Trees,
mangroves and other flora make a vital contribution to the setting
of the ÓØÍ, especially to its skyline. The bio-diversity of the ÓØÍ
is vulnerable and requires careful management to ensure its
survival.
The network of waterways is going to be used by a large number of
new visitors for transport to the area once the Project Sites are
open. It is critical that the importance of clean waterways,
controlling mosquito menace, reducing pollution and such matters is
stressed.
The rivers namely, Periyar and Chalakudy are underused and a
poorly presented resource. The rivers have a potential for
improvement as a leisure amenity and as an integral part of the
visual and contextual environment of the Heritage Site. The canals
are a growing visitor attraction and holiday resource and the rivers
are a potential transport route. These opportunities require to be
explored and maximized.
ëòïð λ­»¿®½¸ ¿²¼ Ó±²·¬±®·²¹
The successful management of the ÓØÍ should be based upon a
comprehensive understanding of the site. There is high potential for
furthering knowledge and understanding of the ÓØÍ through
academic research. Professionals involved in the care of the Site
and owners of the elements of the Site can contribute widely to the
furthering of knowledge and understanding. Regular publication of
research can disseminate information to a wider audience, raising
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 142
general knowledge and appreciation of the Site and understanding
of its care.
There is a need for a research framework for the management of
the archaeology of the ÓØÍ. After the assessment of current
knowledge, the document may establish research priorities for
ÓØÍ. It needs to be considered how the framework, when
completed will be a dynamic document, in the future management
of the site and how it will be applied. There is also a need to ensure
that the results of new insights into ÓØÍ gained from research are
fed into interpretation to ensure that the most up to date
information is available to visitors.
ëòïï Ó¿²¿¹·²¹ Ñ°»®¿¬·±²¿´ ׳°¿½¬­
Visitor fees, concessions and donations provide funds for
conservation and presentation efforts. Tour operators and hotel
chains can play a role in the management of a site by making
financial contributions, aiding monitoring efforts, or instructing their
clients in responsible tourism. Tourism can also promote cultural
values by supporting local handicrafts or by offering alternative
economic activities.
On the downside, tourism spawns well-known problems. Literature
on tourism is replete with stories portraying tourism as a destroyer
of communities and culture.
16,17
Some tour operators exploit the
local culture and the heritage assets, while providing little in return
for the community or the continuing care of the assets.
Some of these mistakes could be avoided if sufficient care is taken
in the preparation of the Conservation Development Plan and its
implementation. There can be both positive and negative impacts
based on the various actions by the tourists and the changes which
are taking place. The thrust should be to minimise the negative
impacts of the project. At the same time, tourism may not attract
sufficient visitors quickly enough to generate the quantities of
revenue needed to meet the economic expectations of the
community. This results from the competitive nature of tourism or
the quality of resources in the communities.
18
16
Third World Stopover, OŽGrady, 1981.
17
Wanted: Tourists With a Social Conscience, DŽ Esa, Eddie.
18
Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual Ior World Heritage Site Managers,
Arthur Pedersen, Published by Unesco World Heritage Center
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 143
Impacts caused within the various monument sites can be
controlled and planned remedial measures can be taken, but there
are many wider impacts. The community is likely to support tourism
if the positive impacts outweigh the negative impacts or they stand
to benefit through employment for themselves or family members.
ëòïïòï б­·¬·ª» ׳°¿½¬­
Conservation of Monuments Š The Muziris will provide an entirely
new approach to conservation and presentation of monuments and
will serve as a role model for all other States to emulate.
Improved health and sanitary conditions Š With all the garbage
being stopped from going into the waterways and waste recycling
happening, the public and the Panchayats will have a new
responsibility to keep the good work going. It will surely mean less
disease and allergies.
Greater educational opportunities Š Old and young alike will have an
opportunity to learn about history, heritage, conservation and
environment.
Job opportunities Š The project will create employment and
livelihood opportunities for the local community. In some cases, the
touristsŽ interest in arts and crafts may foster a cultural renaissance,
it should be ensured that these should not be guided by the
products of commodification.
Increased public awareness on environmental issues Š People shall
be made more aware of built and natural environmental issues.
ëòïïòî Ò»¹¿¬·ª» ׳°¿½¬­
Dana says that once the social costs of tourism are considered, then
it may not be considered beneficial to the society. "One could argue
that the island residents are wealthier in monetary terms, but I
question whether they and their island remain as rich as they were
before tourists arrive.Œ
19
Social disruption caused by increased visitor traffic Š There will be
visitor traffic and it may disturb the people in and around the
monuments/sites, but if systematically organized, visitor traffic can
be easily and efficiently managed. The stress caused by increased
19
The Social Cost oI Tourism, Dana, Leop P
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 144
traffic and parking problems can be pre-empted, if it is well planned
before hand.
Rehabilitating people Š Rehabilitating people whose land is to be
acquired for the project is something that will need to be handled
carefully and considerately.
More Benefits to Outside Community Š Most of the tourism projects
do not benefit the local community and the tourism revenues often
reach a different segment of the population who are outside the
region. Big companies may deprive locals of anticipated economic
benefits.
ëòïïòí ß°°®±¿½¸ ̱ ̱«®·­³
Tourism is a commercial activity and tourists look for fun and
recreation. But tourists want authenticity, not necessarily reality.
Heritage assets need to be converted into cultural tourism products,
but commodification of culture should be avoided. As
commodification takes place, people begin to perform exclusively
for the touristsŽ benefit, and events may lose their value as a
cultural and spiritual manifestation. As a defensive mechanism
some communities try to limit touristsŽ intrusion by keeping
separate cultural manifestations closed to tourists, and offering
"staged authenticityΠperformances to visitors, including appropriate
interpretation and explanations.
20
Not all cultural tourists are alike. A small number of tourists really
seek a deep learning experience. Affluent tourists sensitive to local
culture will stay in local accommodations, have local food, have
basic facilities. This represents a tiny portion of the traffic, but is on
the increase.
All cultural assets within Muziris are not equal in terms of
attractions. Many of them shall not attract tourists, but must be
made to attract tourists.
ëòïïòì ݱ²­»®ª¿¬·±² ±º Ó±²«³»²¬­ ¿²¼ ̱«®·­³
Cultural tourism and conservation of monuments operate as parallel
activities in most places, with remarkably little dialogue between
the two. "The result is many lost opportunities to provide quality
visitor experiences while managing rare and fragile resources in a
20
Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual Ior World Heritage Site Managers,
Arthur Pedersen, Published by Unesco World Heritage Center
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 145
socially, environmentally, and ethically responsible and sustainable
manner. Sometimes, this loss results in some, and we stress some,
unscrupulous tourism operators exploiting local cultures and
heritage assets for their own personal gain, while providing little in
return for the host or the continuing care of the assets. Likewise,
some cultural heritage managers have a deep hatred of tourism and
do whatever they can to thwart it. In these situations, tourists also
lose, as visitor experiences are often well below their
expectations.Œ
21
The two should work in partnership to achieve
mutual benefits.
"Cultural tourism can, could, and should achieve both cultural
heritage management (learning about conservation of cultural
heritage assets) and tourism management (market appeal,
commercial viability of products) objectives›.. Sustainability can
occur only when the practice of trading off one set of values for
another ceases and, instead, tourism and cultural heritage
management interests work toward the achievement of common
goals.Œ
22
Heritage and monuments should not be viewed as cultural
products which can increase the number of tourists, but should be
valued for their intrinsic merits.
ëòïïòë Þ®¿²¼·²¹ ±º ¬¸» Ó«¦·®·­ Ø»®·¬¿¹» Í·¬»
There is a need for a new branding to express both the international
dimension of ÓØÍ and to continue to embrace all the elements of
the Site as part of a single Heritage Site. In tourism terms, this
means conveying the message that ÓØÍ is a single destination
with a variety of complimentary attractions driven to gain full
recognition of ÓØÍ as a national and international destination.
A further development emphasising the single site of Muziris with a
number of complimentary attractions could be a single ticket system
for the site. This could also encourage visitors to examine more
than one site and so explore the diversity of the collection. That
could have benefits for all site operators within the ÓØÍ.
ëòïïòê Þ»²»º·¬­ ¬± ¬¸» Ô±½¿´ ݱ³³«²·¬§
In order to benefit the local community and to get the community
acceptance to the ÝÜÐ, the following measures may be taken as
part of the overall plan;
21
Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management. Bob
McKercher and Hilary du Cros, 2002.
22
Ibid.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 146
Tour companies and hotels should be encouraged to use local
guides. The under-skilled local guides should be given proper
training.
Most of the tourism activities should involve the local
panchayats and community participation. Some sophisticated
activities need specific training before a community can be
involved.
The difficulty in getting credit for the local investors from the
various banks should be removed.
Cultural and economic impacts are reduced where local
groups have had some influence over the decisions and if they
are integrated into the tourism industry.
Free access should be available for the local community to the
various attractions within the ÓØÍ.
ëòïïòé Ù»²»®¿¬·²¹ Ô±½¿´ Û³°´±§³»²¬
Various proposals could be developed to generate local
employment;
Water Taxis Š Schemes for converting traditional boats
(Valloms) by fitting them with outboard motors and life
jackets for the passengers should be developed and linked
with other Government Schemes such Jawaharlal Nehru
Rozgar Yojana (JRY) etc.
Bicycle Parking Areas - Hiring Bicycles for tourists can give
employment for some youth and should be converged with
other Government Schemes.
Local cuisine should be promoted by the local wedding
catering groups and they should be encouraged to cater to the
tourist groups and run restaurants at designated places. The
State run Kerala Institute of Travel and Tourism Studies
should organise training programmes to upgrade the skill of
the community.
Local youths could be trained as tourist guides. Training of the
foreign language guides should be organised with the
assistance of Max Mueller Bhavan, Alliance Francaise etc.
Home-stays - Technical guidance and financial assistance
should be planned by the Government.
Training for autorickshaw and taxi drivers should be provided
to create accredited tourist friendly taxis and autorickshaws.
The local community should be given preference over the new
employment opportunities created as part of the various
facilities.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 147
Self-help groups should be given maximum preference over
the various outsourcing jobs created within the ÓØÍ.
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 148
ݸ¿°¬»® Í·¨

ݱ²½´«­·±²

The Conservation Development Plan for Muziris Heritage Site is
called a 'Draft' because it seeks the opinions and suggestions of the
people, panchayats, various religious authorities, scholars and
environmental groups before its finalisation. The final plan shall
incorporate the concerns and suggestions of all where ever possible
and appropriate and take a middle path, which ensures the common
good and wise use of the designated area.
êòï Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ͬ®«½¬«®» Ѻ ̸» Ю±¶»½¬
At present, some of the monuments are managed by the
Department of Archaeology, Government of Kerala. These include
the following;
Jewish Synagogue, Chendamangalam
Vypeekotta Seminary
Holy Cross Church, Chendamangalam
Kottayil Kovilakom
Jewish Synagogue, North Paravur,
Pallippuram Fort
Pattanam Excavation site
Cheraman Parambu
Kottappuram Fort
Thiruvanchikulam Temple is the only protected monument under
the control of the Archaeological Survey of India, Government of
India.
The buildings which are under the State Government are the
following :
Irrigation Office, Thiruvanchikulam
Travancore Palace, North Paravur
The religious buildings are under the control of the respective
bodies. The rest of the historic buildings is under the control of
private trusts and individuals :
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 149
Cheraman Mosque
Azhikode Church
Thiruvanchikulam Temple
Kodungallur Bhagavathi Temple
Paliam Palaces
Kodungallur Kovilakoms
There is a need to improve coordination between various
stakeholders and the Government of Kerala. This is in view of the
vast scale of the site and its complexity, covering both cultural and
natural assets. Therefore, it is suggested, that a more sophisticated
management system is required to address these challenges,
perhaps involving a coordinator or steering group. Fundamental to
the success of the Plan will be careful coordination of partners.
The Steering group should be formed to oversee the implementation
of the Plan. This would require new terms of reference, which need
to be agreed upon, as a matter of urgency. In terms of remit, there
are a number of areas where the group could play a significant role
and these include:
Influencing the development of Conservation Development
Plans, strategies, plans and documents that may affect the
Site;
Overseeing the implementation of the ÝÜÐ;
Coordinating and channelling funding to small-scale projects
within the ÓØÍ;
Disseminating and guiding research programmes;
Promoting Muziris to a range of audiences;
Undertaking periodic reviews of the ÝÜÐ;
Engaging local communities in the management of the Site.
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A graphical display of the draft ÝÜÐ for the area shall be held in
Kodungallur and North Paravur and it is proposed that it remain
open for a period of 2 - 3 months, sufficient for the general public to
visit and appraise themselves of the design and all its components.
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A website will be hosted at the URL: . It
will have extensive information about the project. The Plan is to be
publicly available on the DepartmentŽs website and be periodically
reviewed to keep it up-to-date. It shall thereby also be a primary
Conservation Development Plan For Muziris Heritage Site (Consultation DraIt) 150
source for anyone requiring accurate knowledge about the history
and significance of the Site. As such, we hope it will provide support
for the development of exhibitions, popular publications and
learning resources concerning the history of Muziris as a whole.
As stated earlier, this is only a Draft ÝÜÐ. More discussions should
be carried out with the various stakeholders who may be able to
contribute to developing tourism goals and objectives :
The owners of historic properties, the many employees who
are looking after the various monuments including temples,
churches and mosques and other members of the local
community.
Elected representatives of the panchayats and other
community leaders who often have concerns and ideas about
how tourism will affect local social values and economic
development.
Hotel owners
Tour operators
Tourist guides working for various agencies
Government officials
Historians, archaeologists, scientists, architects, planners and
other scholars can spell out concerns about the various
aspects of the project.

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