Chapter 22

The application of basic concepts of Zeta Potential to Cardiovascular Disease.

Control of Colloid Stability through Zeta Potential
With this closing chapter on its relationship to cardiovascular disease Vol. I by

Thomas M. Riddick
Consulting Engineer and Chemist, Thomas M. Riddick and Associates, New York, New York — and Technical Director
Copyright © 1968 by Thomas M. Riddick

Zeta Potential represents a basic law of Nature, and it plays a vital role in all forms of plant and animal life. It is the force that maintains the discreteness of the billions of circulating cells, which nourish the organism. The stability of simple inorganic man–made systems is governed by these same laws. The relevance and application of these principles is the subject of this book.

INTRODUCTION In the past it may have been considered questionable taste to include personal experiences in a technical book of this sort. If for some valid reason this must be done, one technique has been to retreat to the anonymity of the third person. The writer is purposely departing from this precedent, and presents this final chapter concerning heart disease in the first person. This is because my interest in this subject is more than academic. It is first hand, personal and intimate — and stems from the fact that during the past twelve years it has become increasingly evident that I have a cardiovascular condition. I do not mean to be dramatic, but the simple fact is, I am not ready or willing to die at the age of sixty. And I deeply resent the attitude of complete indifference on the part of Federal authorities toward correcting the conditions that I have reasonable proof are correctable causative factors in heart disease.

EARLY EXPERIENCES WITH ANGINA, PAROXYSMAL TACHYCARDIA, AND PREMATURE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTIONS I will relate my personal experience with cardiovascular disease only in sufficient detail to justify, or give reasons for, the action I took. Unless one experiences a heart attack of some severity, involving hospitalization, it is difficult to pin–point just when the condition started. Mine began with anginal pains, and the date appearing on my nitroglycerine prescription is March 7, 1955, or 12 years ago! The episodes of acute pain were not frequent or severe — just a few each year. I recall making several trips to the local hospital after midnight. Paroxysmal tachycardia, another manifestation of cardiovascular disease, soon appeared. It was reasonably advanced by August 1957, because I can remember a severe attack at that time and the circumstances attending it. Two years ago, my comprehensive medical examination read in part: "Ventricular premature contractions in all leads — Low voltage QRS in the limb leads." The interpretation stated: "The changes noted in your electrocardiogram are not important. We consider them to be within the normal limits." I verified the premature ventricular contractions* (PVC's) over a period of several weeks by placing my thumb and forefinger on my carotid arteries.
[ * Many types of cardiovascular disease are manifest in the early stages as "moderate to significant" intravascular coagulation, and in advanced stages as "heavy to very heavy" coagulation. In this latter stage, PVC's or malfunctional heartbeats, which throw virtually no blood, may range from 1 to as high as 50% of total heartbeats. The medical profession recognizes many different types of heart disease. These were reviewed briefly for us by a physician and are included as Appendix II. ]

My pulse "skipped a beat" about once every four to six beats. I did not then, nor do I now, consider such malfunction is "not important"; or "within normal limits." A PVC is very important to me. Any atypical beat is important to me, and any malfunction* is distressing to me.
[ * I have discussed the importance of malfunctional heartbeats, which throw no blood with a number of competent cardiologists and general practitioners. The ones I consulted consider the PVC to be extremely important. However, I understand that some medical men consider it unimportant. In my own field, we would not consider a malfunctioning valve in a chemical feed pump as normal, nor would we view the periodic failure of an electrical control device as unimportant. ]

Let me emphasize that I do not blame my physician for this state. While I had long been under his general care and was considered "reasonably healthy," there was nothing he could have done to forestall this development, or even foresee it. After all, every day, often without warning cardiologists and general practitioners die of heart disease in their 40's,

50's and 60's.*
[ * It seems significant that Representative John E. Fogarty of Rhode Island, who had suffered a heart attack in 1953, literally devoted his life to raising funds for expanding the cardiovascular research of the NIH. In 1966, in recognition of the extent of his recovery he was decorated by President Johnson as the "Heart of the Year." He died January 13, 1967, at the age of 53 of a heart attack. In 1965, the head cardiologist of a leading New York hospital died at the age of 43; and the pathologist of the hospital that had long furnished the writer with blood for research, died at the age of 45 — both from heart attacks. These and many other such cases point to the actual paucity of definitive knowledge of cardiovascular disease. ]

From a scientific point of view, it is difficult to reconcile this with the tremendous amount of research money and effort being expended without seriously questioning the validity and efficacy of the present approach. Strictly from a physical chemist's point of view, one may seriously question the validity of the chemistry and the rationale presently being applied it was intimately associated with morbidity and to the basic problems of cardiovascular disease. Returning to my personal case, my physician apparently could not correct this malfunction or prevent this tachycardia. And to state that it was "normal," from his standpoint was true. Unfortunately, it is presently normal in the United States for 55 out of 100 persons to die of some form of cardiovascular disease. It would seem that when a person is experiencing one malfunctional heartbeat in five, with unpredictable paroxysmal tachycardia, it is now accepted practice to simply await a more severe "heart attack" and then hospitalize the patient and place him on heparin, dicumaroll, coumadin, or a similar drug. Heparin is an excellent dispersing agent, but is apparently too large a polymer to diffuse from the stomach into the bloodstream. Therefore, it must be administered by hypodermic injection into the fat of the abdomen, twice daily, for "life." But with dicumaroll and other similar orally administered drugs, results apparently have not been so successful.


I began continuous research on Zeta Potential in 1956, and within two years was convinced that proper development of this subject must lead to the elucidation and control of cardiovascular disease. But much valuable time was then lost in trying to convince the research departments of two of our oldest and largest pharmaceutical houses. They thought the odds were too great. As one put it: "How can we successfully compete with $400,000,000 annual federally subsidized research?" My only alternative

but to learn the nature of and prevent the paroxysmal tachycardia that drove my heart from 80 to 180 beats per minute. And the prospect of two heparin injections a day for the rest of my life did not appeal to me. And too. operation and supervision of municipal and industrial Waterworks and Waste Treatment Plants. more than ten years earlier. I was not then aware that Melvin Knisely and Edward Bloch (and associates). would be the wrong approach. we replaced our old oscilloscope with the Tektronix described. Therefore. To launch this program. After studying Knisely's reprints.was to continue my work alone. I wanted not only to eliminate my malfunctional heartbeats. I have headed my own firm. and designed and built a "Sclerascope" for horizontally viewing (with the stereoscopic microscope) the blood vessels . in extreme. one logical approach would be to drink only distilled (rather than tap) water. it was intimately associated with morbidity and death. as well as routine examinations of water. I also resolved that I would attempt to solve this problem strictly within the confines of my own field of professional competence. I became more inclined to believe that the majority of serious cardiovascular disease [ except hypertension ] must stem primarily from intravascular coagulation. per se. engaged in the design. [ See Refs. and to add to this suitable electrolytes of a dispersing nature. had explored intravascular coagulation and "blood sludge" extensively. I had long felt that the conditions he described must exist. The problem at the outset seemed to be one of Physical Chemistry — not Physiology. I did not wish to await that "hospitalizing" heart attack — I wanted to prevent it. Moreover. They also revealed that. I decided to put into practice immediately my basic findings in Physical Chemistry and Zeta Potential. the more convinced I became that blood stability followed all the rules of colloid stability. it seemed to us that dispersion of the blood system and prevention of agglomerates was the crux of the matter. Moreover. ] They had shown it was widespread in human beings and could be induced in test animals. When I realized that my heart was seriously malfunctioning. as an Engineer and Chemist. where I am duly qualified and professionally licensed. We believed that the use of drugs. I have continuously operated a laboratory devoted to research. and unaided. With regard to possible methods of applying Zeta Potential to the problem of intravascular coagulation. For thirty years. I realized that while I did not actually know these facts. 11-16 and 11-47. But the more I worked with systems (from industrial concerns) and blood (from a local hospital). and that my own physician was apparently unable to prevent or control the situation.

I served after school as a "Model–T driver and surgical assistant" to Dr. While I ultimately chose chemistry and engineering. From age 12 to 16. at the age of 53. This meant long hours." is pertinent at this point. Thomas Carter. he publicly stated that on a certain Wednesday at 3 o'clock he would remove the tumor. he invited the four doctors to be present. My father was the nineteenth physician on my paternal side. in my native Eastern North Carolina in those days. (It may well be that this information will offer the first logical clue as to its origin. I will simply state that by applying certain pertinent basic principles of Zeta Potential and Physical Chemistry to blood stability. Finally. by the way. which therefore goes back to the pre– Pasteur era when the basic cause of microbial disease was as unknown as the cause of heart disease today. and surgery on short notice. and. My father was a country doctor during the horse–and–buggy days at the turn of the century." And so. they could not refuse. Carter spared me any sense of awe of medicine that I might later have developed. and addicted to drugs. Some may interpret my action as "a chemist trying to practice medicine. a door placed on the kitchen table was standard for surgery.) A few stories of my father's practice and sense of humor are still alive after sixty years. The reader will view my decision to take matters in my own hands in a manner which will. As it developed. and in what quantities they should be used. who scoffed at my father's diagnosis of "tumor of the womb. and he predicted it would weigh over a pound. My father died of a kidney infection in 1907. He was a country doctor — and gave me every encouragement. I was able to eliminate my malfunctional beats — and also gain insight into some of the vagaries of paroxysmal tachycardia. because of my early interest in medicine. When he saw her she was considered a "hopeless case" by the four local physicians. of course. the tumor weighed almost two pounds. Ultimately. under the circumstances. We then developed a system for appraising the extent of intravascular coagulation (IVC). my father had it brought in for the "appraisal and delectation" of his confreres on a large platter intended for serving a roast suckling pig. Over my mother's vigorous protestations. This enabled us to view coagulation. the .of the eye. In his announcement. One of his first cases after medical school was a local woman who had become demented with pain. we gave detailed consideration to which of the safe electrolytes would be the most appropriate. Returning to the problem of my malfunctioning heart. In fact." My "medical background" which. is "considerable. my early experience with Dr. reflect the reader's own background.

my malfunctioning heartbeats were corrected and my paroxysmal tachycardia significantly relieved. Now they are better able to fulfill their required functions of oxygen transport and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolic end products. AND THE DAILY INTAKE OF WATER AND DISSOLVED MINERAL SALTS From the point of view of physical chemistry. my heart is (and has long been) infarcted and. I believe of much greater importance than improved ability of the red cell to transport oxygen. I believe it would be considerably more if I had known how to correct this condition at its start. they are just harder to find. even today. I have. Medicine has come a long way since then. encompassing polymers and forces.woman recovered her senses and no longer required morphine. the writer will now develop the sequence of the cause. My red cells (and the other formed elements) are thus freed to a significant extent from the abnormal. OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING KIDNEY FUNCTIONS. But whatever it is. control of the Zeta Potential of my blood system. is significantly diminish my former high degree of intravascular coagulation through slight. which bound them into aggregates. And of course. including the heart. Without doubt. Within the limits of the present knowledge of chemistry. ten years ago. It is statistically possible for me to die. it would seem that infarction represents a structural defect and permanent damage. But the dedicated physicians of today are just as dedicated as they were then. However. I do not believe infarction can be eradicated. BLOOD ELECTROLYTES." But surely the probability of premature death is now greatly lessened. in a physicochemical sense. Three of these physicians became my father's closest friends. one never spoke to him again. Therefore. . from a "heart condition. not basically changed it. such professional rivalry no longer exists. What I have done. prevention and control of cardiovascular disease as it presently appears. but appropriate. How much "margin of safety" now exists is unknown. It is a sobering thought that by the simple expedient of ingesting distilled water containing appropriate electrolytes. is its increased ability to more freely transmit this oxygen to the countless cells that constitute every organ of the body. the connotation is much broader than simple anoxemia. as far as is presently possible. I do not delude myself that I have affected a "complete cure" of my cardiovascular disorder. from the standpoint of irreversible physicochemical sequences. only restored it to its normal state.

and most other fluids are not affected by the gastric juice. much lacerated and burnt.M. he said he felt a little hungry again. . William Beaumont produced visual evidence that water admitted to the stomach is always absorbed within a few minutes. and quiescent. Martin having eaten nothing since 2 o'clock. From 1825 to 1835. tearing off a large portion of the side . At 10 o'clock. 1822. the contents flow out copiously. treated Alexis St. At 9 o'clock P. and draw off about 1½ ounces of "pure gastric juice. St. but are passed from the stomach soon after they have been received. Experiment 68.As a country boy. with a syringe. . at the aperture. Martin.. Beaumont would insert a tube through the hole into the stomach several times each week. 1959. eight ounces of beef and barley soup. Later. and ate eight ounces more of the same kind of soup." and also the quick transfer of asparagus. at Fort Mackinac. . It satisfied the appetite. . I was further impressed by the even more rapid transfer of beverage alcohol from the stomach to the blood–stream and brain. . . ] For experiments in vitro. beginning May.D. Michigan (near the Canadian border). the interior of the cavity may be examined to the depth of five or six inches. ardent spirits. water. for a shotgun– blast at three–foot range. and he said he had no desire to eat.S. Army. and the food and drinks may be seen entering it. I was impressed by the rapid transfer of liquid from the stomach to the bladder in "watermelon season. — Original Edition 1833 — Dover Publications. lukewarm. . This is an interesting story and deserves retelling. and were closed internally by a "flap valve" of tissue (actually the inner coats of the stomach). I put into the stomach." We quote Beaumont: On pressing down the valve when the stomach is full.* [ * Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion — William Beaumont. William Beaumont. a young surgeon with the U. M. It caused no unpleasant sensation. On June 6. which could be readily pushed aside." These openings healed peripherally. introduced gently through a tube. through the ring of the esophagus . The charge entered just below the left breast. if swallowed at this time. if kept distended by artificial means. 1825.. When the stomach is nearly empty. who performed innumerable digestion experiments on him for ten years. On that date. St. an 18–year–old Canadian. the ribs fractured and openings were made into the cavities of the chest and abdomen (about 2½" diameter) through which protruded portions of the lungs and stomach. but allayed the sense of hunger. and feeling quite hungry. which had a similar effect as the other. Martin recovered and became the servant of Beaumont. an incident occurred that was to result in some of the most bizarre research ever recorded in medical history. enabling ready access and direct view of the stomach.

Martin complaining of being quite hungry. depending upon the nature and maceration of the food. . . Temperature 101°. but it is a very small percentage of our daily mineral intake. Weather damp and rainy.. A. and kept exercising moderately.. 11 o'clock. These liquids carry a small intake of mineral salts. twelve raw oysters. Beaumont seems to have felt that water absorbed almost instantly. It would seem that this absorption (surely in the case of alcohol) is directly into the blood stream. when he ate a dozen more of the same kind of oysters. has been the most common precursor of these diseased conditions of the coats of the stomach.12 grams of sodium chloride. He also showed that even the bone of a hog's rib would be digested in 21 days.. The free use of ardent spirits.M. he breakfasted on fresh broiled fish (Flounder). Beaumont showed that gastric juice. it would be equivalent to 0. and that gastric juice was never . . In situ. He was not hungry again till half after 4 o'clock. At 1000 micromhos. Experiment 114. Wind N. St.* [ * An eight–oz. Beaumont's views on spiritous liquors are also of interest: Diseased appearances .Experiment 71. tea or coffee. digestion periods ranged from 1 to 4 hours. glass of water contains 250 ml. 15–mins. The sensation was allayed.M. 99½°. bread and coffee.. 30 mins. stomach empty and clean. in the course of my experiments and examinations . and the appetite satisfied. the same as if swallowed. Some physiologists hold that liquids such as water are significantly increased in mineral salts before absorption to the blood stream. . stomach entirely clear of food. At 10 o'clock P. .M. and brisk. beer. Temperature of the stomach. . with bread.M.E. wine. At 9 o'clock. Average digestion time was about 3 hours. They have generally. have frequently presented themselves. either in situ or in a warmed test tube will digest foodstuffs. succeeded to some appreciable cause. March 27. St. but not always. 1 o'clock P. Now to return to the subject of the rapid absorption of liquids from the stomach. more than middling size. stomach half empty — pulp of bread only appeared. At 1 o'clock P. or any intoxicating liquor. has invariably produced these morbid changes. Martin lived to an old age. and was buried in Canada in a grave eight feet deep. Improper indulgence in eating and drinking.000 micromhos. 11 o'clock. Tap water usually has a range of 150 to 1. Apparently he didn't want any further experimentation on his stomach. particles of fish and bread still to be seen in the stomach. when continued for some days. . I put into the stomach at the aperture. Thus the blood is very slightly and temporarily diluted (for a period of perhaps 10 to 30 minutes) each time we drink liquids such as water.

1.500 micromhos. Alcoholic beverages are low to virtually absent in mineral solids content. about 50% 2.0–1." the intake is reduced to 1. Rae Schwenck — The Macmillan Co.1 0. They state that when salt is "not used at the table. New York.500 to 2. or an average of 9.. which is equivalent to 3.5–2. Y. coffee and tea. beer.0 1. 1961 — Stella Goostrav and J.300 to 6.1.) Input and output of Mineral Salts a) Sodium Chloride 5–14. 24 Range Average 1.7.000 to 6.found in the stomach except when food was present.0 1.000 to 1. Foodstuffs have a range that will be considered later in detail. Goostray and Schwenck** [ ** A Textbook of Chemistry.8–6.9 Ave.) Water Input.0 3.0 1. TABLE NO.5 9.700 to 2.3 (say 10) grams of NaCl per day.0 — — (say) 2. liters a) Insensible and vaporization b) Urine 1.20 0.0 grams of NaCl.0 grams of sodium chloride per day.600 mg of Na. Liquid + Foodstuffs (liters) a) Drink. one–half represented salt "used at the table. ] list the daily intake of sodium in the diet as 2. But the exactness of the figure is not too important here.9 to 12. or by "table use" they included salt employed in cooking.500 micromhos.5–3.) Water Output. 1. about 50% b) Food. ] milk (an exception to this rule) 5. 2. This is equivalent to 5. They also state that low–sodium diets restrict sodium to 585–780 mg/day— equivalent to 1.7 . N. but they represent a mineral intake approximating 18 grams per day.000 mg. This would imply that of 10 grams daily intake of sodium chloride." The writer cannot accept this value. Eighth Edition.80–1.000 micromhos. or an average of 5.00 1. and it would seem that two different sets of data might inadvertently have been employed.

the writer could not agree more. The average concentration of mineral salts in blood was given in Tables No. One was the residue from evaporated Red Sea water. the diet should include much less salt. excessive potassium chloride or sodium sulphate or potassium sulphate would if present be substantially as harmful as sodium chloride. 20. From the standpoint of Physical Chemistry. In medical circles it has long been believed that too much "salt" was conducive to a cardiovascular condition.0 Elkinton and Danowski in The Body Fluids* [ * Ref. 232 and 233) show that any electrolyte. Fig. regardless of type. the writer cannot agree. all could (and would) be lethal if carried to extreme. will "salt out" substantially any colloid system if carried to extreme. but regardless of such difference.** [ ** The entire River "disappears" on the desert floor (due to evaporation) and forms a salt flat.4 0. .9 Total 18. 494.7–11. and Figs. 13 and No. It is perhaps a minor point. but the medical profession singles out sodium chloride. The writer cannot believe that they obtain on a worldwide basis. condensed. The writer believes these values should be referred to as "average for the United States" — or "average" for the particular group which it represented. and it is about the cheapest "food seasoning" to be found. as to the preference between sodium and potassium. In Ethiopia in 1943. and used as a basis for Table 24.b) Potassium (as chloride) c) Miscellaneous-say 3. the other was the residue from natural evaporation of the Awash River as it flowed Eastward toward the sea. 14. and that if such condition was evident. hence the so called "low salt" or "salt–free" diets. the writer has good evidence and agrees with others who hold that potassium salts are much more favorably received by the system than sodium. ] list data. It should be stated that perhaps the only reason we employ sodium chloride for "table salt" is that it is found in large quantities in the United States (and many other areas). which the writer has rounded out. (as contrasted with potassium chloride or potassium sulphate) as being the offender. there were two varieties of "native salt" neither of which remotely resembled the sodium chloride we employ for human consumption.2 — 7. produced commercially at Aden. Figures 19. in the writer's opinion. 12-8. On this. These reflect the range of daily input and output for an average male weighing 155 pounds. Therefore. There would be some difference in the three. 157 and 158 (pp. But. p.

Natives gather the dried plates of "salt.3 — — — 100.0 21. 25 Constituents ( Column 1 ) Typical Ocean Water (2) (3) Water from the Awash River (approximate) (4) (5) Human Plasma (6) Atomic Formula mg / l ppm % mg / l ppm % 64.981 3.5 0.2 2.4 3. in New Jersey.2 1.1 % Ca(HCO3)2* *As CaCO3 150 50 23. suddenly begin to acquire it when they move into the metropolitan cities in Israel? ] We list the composition of these two salts in Table No.102 664 192 96 26 24 3 34. say." and barter them to desert people in North Africa. This residue was comparable in mineral composition to that from a typical limestone water found. together with the composition of human plasma.482 14.5 100.1 7.917 1.3 5 5 5 4.1 2. above sea level. TABLE NO.477 68.4 11.0 235 20 MgS04 NaCl SiO2 KNO3 MgCl2 Na2SO4 CaCl2 KCl NaHCO3 KBr H3BO4 SrCl2 NaF Total 8. where humidity is only 5 to 15%. Is this salt (or perhaps lack of salt) associated with the fact that Yemenites." it drops to an elevation 5 ft. with a history of freedom from cardiovascular disease. 25.9 0.When the River flows off the escarpments at "normal humidity.0 .

As we have before noted.Na Mg Ca K Sr Cl S04 Br HB03 HCO3 P04 Total — — — — — — — — — — — 30. 19.2 7.* [ * Relatively insoluble materials such as powdered calcium and magnesium carbonate will pass into the bloodstream only if they are solubilized by the HCl of the gastric juice.7 0. for culinary and dietary purposes. Although a SC of 6.5 100. The content of dissociated mineral salts of human urine will principally reflect the daily input of foodstuffs and liquids. only ocean water residue. It is hard to believe that the blood electrolytes of three persons would be closely comparable if.2 1. "normal" human blood (freshly spun–out serum) has a Specific Conductance approximating 12. nor the soils.15 1. assuming of course that the minerals are soluble.3 0.1 — 46. only residue from the Awash River.000 ppm of NaCl. a system could contain as much as 15.3 2.000 ppm of NaCl represents a ZP of about –18 mv.5 3.35 — 100.000 micromhos.0 41.5 0.2 — — 7.000 ppm of tetrasodium pyrophosphate. the first employed only sodium chloride.9 0. equivalent to 6.0 Note the difference in percent mineral constituents in columns 3 and 5. Can anyone today state that our mineral input is optimum in concentration and/or composition? It is pertinent to inquire "Just what is optimum?" The correct answer would undoubtedly be helpful.07 0. Neither are the fertilizers employed for cultivating foodstuffs the same the world over. Thus. or 32.04 55.000 ppm of sodium sulphate before ZP lowered to –18 mv. It will vary from day to day (actually.19 0. the second. which produce the foodstuffs. from hour to hour) in accordance with the nature and weight of the mineral input. and the third. .1 0.7 1. ] We now divert the reader's attention again to Fig.

and sodium hexametaphosphate. or a 1:3 for a 1:2.if the stability of the system was critical.) ] Suitable electrolytes which are dispersing in character include: sodium and/or potassium sulphate. or 1:3 electrolyte would be tremendously helpful in preventing coagulation. Schroeder closed with the statement that the data offered a "clue" to an influence of environment on cardiovascular disease. of West Brattleboro. This can be accomplished in the human system by reducing our mineral intake (employing a low–salt diet). Schroeder's work. 172. Schroeder. but substitute an electrolyte having an anion of higher valence. Thus if one wishes to render a colloid system more disperse.000 ppm of a 1:1 electrolyte (such as NaCl) would produce a ZP of –18 mv.) reduce the concentration of the electrolyte. In the April 23.. M. The former is a 2:1 and the latter a 2:2 electrolyte. That is to say. is the softest natural water in the U. an answer would be to decrease the 1:1. if our difficulty in intravascular coagulation lies in the simple condition of the blood being "salted out" by too much 1:1 type electrolyte (plus the presence of a low concentration of a 3:1 type). lime is employed extensively as a primary and secondary alkali in water treatment plants. the town with the lowest incidence of cardiovascular disease in the United States.S. 19 also shows that although 6.A. Reference to Fig. substitute a 1:2 type for a 1:1. existing concepts notwithstanding. 1960. Compared with 1:1 or 1:2 or 1:3 electrolytes. 1902–1908). Thus. and eliminate the 3:1 type. and/or. Vermont. he cannot agree with this thesis. which indicated that the incidence of cardiovascular disease lowers as the hardness of municipal water increases. electrolyte. a shift from 1:1 to a 1:2. this can be done by either or a combination of two ways. this same concentration of a 1:2 electrolyte (such as Na2SO4) would produce a ZP of – 30 mv. a." This was a rather abstract correlation of statistics. i.) maintain the same ionic concentration. pp. b. Whereas anionic electrolytes are by nature dispersing. such waters are coagulating (rather than dispersing) in their effect. issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (Vol. Although the writer has the very highest regard for Dr. sodium and/or potassium citrate. except for water softening. Some have interpreted the paper as an approval of calcium carbonate (which causes hardness) in water supplies. and a similar concentration of a 1:4 electrolyte (such as Na4P2O7) would produce a ZP of –47 mv.D. published an article entitled "Relation Between Mortality From Cardiovascular Disease and Treated Water Supplies. (This matter will be discussed in detail in Volume II. One should be cautious in any attempt to employ . Moreover. The water supply for Roseto. The writer does not believe that any calcium compounds should ever be employed at any municipal waterworks. most municipal water supplies are by nature "coagulating. Henry M.e.." ** [ ** Most natural waters in the United States principally contain Ca(HCO3)2 and MgS04. Penna. and/or by drinking an increased amount of water containing a 1:2 or 1:3 electrolyte.

24 that about half our water intake derives from food.000 micromhos. Thus. One will note from Table No. 1:2½ and 1:3. They felt that when unexplained ionic concentration (rather than dilution) was encountered. These basic principles of Zeta Potential. and reduces the "percent increase" of electrolytes from 150% to 25%. These values represent concentration factors of 1:2. who specialize in the. one generally looked for high temperature. Mass. the writer firmly believes that there must be variations reflecting one's intake of foodstuffs and liquids — and their attendant mineral salts. and control of the Zeta Potential of blood systems.000 micromhos. present concepts may be greatly in error. note that about one–half largely represents breath moisture. 30. Wayne MacRae and Daniel Brown of the Research Laboratories of Ionics. high pressure. with a molecular weight approximating 17.. is not absorbed. ******** Again returning to the subject of blood electrolytes. point a way to effecting much needed relief of human intravascular coagulation. heparin.000 range. very definitely reflected in the mineral constituents of urine.000 to 2.000 or even 36.000. The other liter represents intake of water per se. if it should get into the bloodstream at low concentrations.000. to double urine output requires only that we increase water input by about 1 liter. respectively. There are many hypotheses to account for the modus operandi through which the kidney can convert blood electrolytes at 12. Thus. to urine at 24.. although human blood the world over tends to be constant in its physicochemical characteristics. On the other hand. We spent a day discussing this matter with Drs. These salts are.potassium hexametaphosphate. On the water output side. which remains constant. Cambridge. With regard to the size of molecules that will pass from the stomach into the bloodstream. of course. or . 1 liter per day of increased water intake results in 1 liter per day of increased urine output — which halves the dissolved mineral solids concentration of the urine. there seems to be no difficulty in absorbing molecules with a MW in the 1. electrochemical aspects of ion transfer. Inc. /Although the large surface area of the kidney undoubtedly plays a prominent role in the concentration of urine. This can mean that the molecular sieve (controlling this absorption) will not pass a polymer of this size. because its high molecular weight and long–chain length could tend to induce agglomeration through mechanical bridging. now well established in industrial systems.

followed by a reversal of direction. and cardiovascular disease in general.8 ampere hours per equivalent molecular weight are required for concentration. sodium chloride. It is also possible that through habits acquired over the past few decades (or centuries). they must tend to "salt out" the blood and thus produce intravascular coagulation. then "salting out.000 micromhos. This would place the desirable limit of Specific Conductance of urine at 15. 19 it is evident that the Zeta Potential curve is driven to an electronegative peak. when incrementally applied. 11-13. ] and Bajusz* [ * Refs. but this evaluation is impossible since domesticated animals (or wild animals . followed by a plateau.000 micromhos throughout most of the day and night) would strongly indicate that excess mineral salts are "stacked–up" somewhere in our system each gram awaiting its turn to be concentrated by the kidney — then passed to the bladder. 1:2. There seems little doubt that these physicochemical relationships form the crux of the relief from intravascular coagulation.11-14 and 1115. infarction. humans drink much less water than Nature electrical gradient. If these mineral salts concentrate in blood and appreciably raise its SC. MacRae and Brown. But . With regard to blood electrolytes. The "reservoir" of temporary storage would logically seem to be our blood system. Since there can be no high pressure or temperature involved." A colloid system poised in the region of 6. It seems probable to the writer that our kidneys were not designed to operate routinely at an "overload" greater than about 25% to 50%. It is also evident that a system composed of at mixture of 1:1 and 1:2. of course. or 1:1 and 1:3 electrolytes would be more disperse than a system consisting entirely of a 1:1 electrolyte.000 to 18. Indeed it is possible they were not designed for any routine concentration. It can well be that the kidneys' ability to concentrate urine was just an emergency safeguard — comparable to an airplane operating at overload for takeoff. According to Drs. it suggests that the electrical impulse produced with each heartbeat (through inverse electroendosmosis) could be the driving force. 11-39. all the 1:1. The principal electrolyte in blood is.000 to 35. 11-40 and 11-41. It would be of interest to know the SC of the blood and urine of animals. From Fig.000 ppm NaCl will tend to coagulate if the electrolyte concentration is materially increased. the significant criterion is that 26. ] have stressed that they play a most important role in the overall picture of ischemia. 1:3 and 1:4 electrolytes (in dilute colloid systems) form a sequence. both Selye* [ * Refs. The relatively high SC of urine (25. but will tend to become more disperse if the electrolyte concentration is decreased. necrosis.

of which there are generally three in the first twelve–hour cycle — with none in the second. and readily verify this by a check on the SC of his urine. if one could go on a diet completely free of minerals. This is because one can tell a human to increase his water input.000 micromhos. Modern man makes available to his kidneys a very limited supply of water for dilution purposes. I must stress that these high concentration gradients. awaiting its turn to be "pumped" to waste by the kidneys.000 micromhos — but that the SC of human urine in the United States (at present) principally ranges from 25. I do not wish to belabor this point of kidney function. the mineral input must "stack up" in the blood system. It is amazing that the kidneys can perform against this . The reverse is also true. This is highly conducive to the maintenance of an abnormally high electrolyte concentration in the blood. plus the presence of 3:1 electrolytes in our foodstuffs. but from the standpoint of Physical Chemistry. I am firmly convinced that the real difficulty lies in the present need for the kidney to concentrate urine against the steep energy gradient of 1:2 or 1:3. or discharging it to the bladder. against which it must now operate almost continuously. but in a slightly different sense. Relief from this serious situation can be effected by significantly reducing the input of electrolytes and/or by drinking much more water — so that the kidneys can operate at a much lower concentration gradient.held in captivity) often eat foodstuffs (from cans) that are far removed from their native diet. the blood would recycle its electrolytes. probably by the glandular systems and hormones. appear to be the real crux of intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular disease. However. the writer believes that the servo–mechanisms of the body will tend to keep the electrolytes of the blood at minimum. It is obvious that tests of kidney function and mineral output are best made on humans. Thus after a meal. therefore. if the mineral input is low. which is tantamount to "salting out" the blood system. This necessitates a concentration factor of 100 to 200 percent. Animals cannot be "told" to drink. Our mineral input occurs principally at meals. It is highly germane to kidney function that human blood (serum) has a Specific Conductance approximating 12. His kidneys. It has long been known that the concentrations of electrolytes in the blood are controlled. Beaumont demonstrated that there is no real difficulty in absorbing any reasonable amount of water from the stomach to the bloodstream. and the mineral content of the urine would tend to approach that of distilled water. must operate almost continuously at near their maximum concentrating capacity. instead of animals.000 to 35. That is to say. and forced feeding produces "stress" — which Selye has shown produces symptoms of cardiovascular disease ranging from ischemia to necrosis.

000 12."uphill" gradient.000. and made it conveniently available to our employees and visitors.50 2.25 1. Literature is sparse on the Specific Conductance of urine. the SC of the urine will approximate 36. by simply controlling water intake.000 36. But the percent increase" (which in reality represents "work" done by the kidney) is lowered much more than half. This has been in service for a year. a ratio of 2:1.000 were occasionally found from 9:00 to 12:00 A.) At this juncture. we permanently installed a conductivity cell to read the SC of urine direct in micromhos.000 30. at any time he chooses.000 to 20.50 3.08 2.000 12. Since the Specific Conductance of blood approximates 12.0 0 25 50 108 150 200 It is obvious that if one gets rid of 18 grams of sodium chloride in 1 liter of urine. we wish to point to a most significant fact. and it was a source of wonder to August Krogh and Homer Smith. say 15. who devoted much study to this subject. (One can of course.000 micromhos.000. Thus.000 12. and produces more data than we can process. which halves the concentration.000 micromhos. doubling the urine output lowers this to 15. or slightly higher.000 15.0 1.000 micromhos. with occasional values of 38. Believing this information would throw much — needed light on kidney function.000 25. It soon became apparent that the kidneys of all ages and both sexes produced urine principally in the range of 25. produce substantially any value. A logical and obvious (but seldom employed) solution to the problem of kidney overload is to double the output. if we are normally operating at 30. This is just about our experience — give or take 10 to 20% on both the water and the electrolyte intake. But the "percent increase" (or work done by .000 micromhos. 26 Specific Conductance of Blood — in micromhos (1) Specific Conductance of Urine — in micromhos (2) Concentration Factor Column 2/1 (3) Concentration by Kidney — % increase in SC (4) 12.000 12. Somewhat lower values.000 12.000 12. the concentration factor (from blood to bladder) must be: TABLE NO.000 to 35.M.000 1.000 18.

the kidney in concentrating urine) is lowered from 150% to 25%, a ratio of 6:1.

A SPECULATIVE HYPOTHESIS TO ACCOUNT FOR INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION AND THE CLOTTING OF SHED BLOOD The writer will now briefly review the basic facets of Zeta Potential that seem most pertinent to blood stability, thus extending our concepts set forth in Chapter 14. One is at once confronted with the fact that this is a veritable jigsaw puzzle. But its apparent complexity is due largely to the condition that one of the major "pieces" is missing. Actually, Zeta Potential, determinations of blood in its natural liquid state (in situ) would be of the greatest aid in ascertaining just "how" and "why" the system works. But unfortunately, there are no worthwhile ZP determinations extant.* [ * There is a plethora of Zeta Potential determinations made in phosphate buffer
solutions and the like. The writer does not consider them really indicative of the ZP of a specific system, as it exists in situ. But he will accept the prevalent ZP value of –17 mv as usable. ] And this situation will prevail, until someone learns to arrest

(without use of chemicals in vivo or in vitro), the triggering mechanism that induces blood coagulation. This is, and has long been, the missing piece of the jigsaw puzzle. Elucidation of this mechanism will require meticulous, unhurried research, with the highest order of cooperation from all participating agencies and individuals. In this connection, my experience with the Red Cross taught me much. And I shall not make this attempt again unless I definitely have such cooperation. There is no urgency from my standpoint. But one would think there would be urgency from the standpoint of 975,000** persons in this country scheduled to die this year of cardiovascular disease — unless more effective steps are taken to alleviate this condition.
[ ** All statistical references in this book to cardiovascular disease are from the brochure "Cardiovascular Diseases in the U.S.— Facts and Figures." This was published in 1965 by the American Heart Association in cooperation with the NHI and the Heart Disease Control Program of the PHSU.S. Dept. of HEW. ]

But despite the missing piece of the puzzle, the coagulation of blood does not seem awe–inspiring, ultra–complex, or truly difficult. It is difficult only to the extent that say electronics and radio were difficult prior to the vacuum tube of DeForest. A reasonable hypothesis to account for intravascular coagulation and clotting of shed blood is: 1.) Blood is an aqueous system consisting principally of several plasma proteins; several electrolytes; and three formed elements — red cells, white cells and platelets.

2.) Of the plasma proteins (other than fibrinogen), we would judge that the effect of the globulins on the stability of the blood system is likely to be minimum. Their concentration is relatively low, and in the overall scheme of things, it would seem their basic functions lie along different lines from blood coagulation. However, it should be reemphasized that every anion and every cation in the system exerts its own influence (see Fig. 152, p. 227). 3.) This leaves albumin and fibrinogen,* [ * It should be noted that from the
standpoint of electrophoretic mobility, fibrinogen is spaced in the series of plasma proteins between beta and gamma globulin. ] [ SPECIAL NOTE: — Certain brands of 25% albumin contain aluminum levels within the toxic range. ]

both of which appear to play key roles in blood stability. Under normal circumstances of blood flow, albumin (a lyophillic colloid with a MW of 69,000) probably exercises major control. But when the integrity of the organism is threatened through loss of "shed" blood, fibrinogen completely overrides albumin and produces a fluid gel in about five minutes — a rigid gel in ten. (See the sketch of a gel, Fig. 161, p. 238.) 4.) The blood system is one of "reasonably rigid" balance. As are all of Nature's systems, it is poised just slightly on the side of discrete (but definite) stability. 5.) Normally, with a young animal or human in good health, there is no evidence of intravascular coagulation. That is to say, the cells of the blood system are completely discrete.* [ *It can be readily demonstrated with the
stereoscopic microscope that in the case of whole milk or skimmed milk (3 to 5 days after milking, and with a ZP in the range of –17 to –19 mv) every colloid is discrete with no two particles joined. ]

6.) The blood electrolytes (considered simply as say sodium and potassium chloride and bicarbonate; and potassium, calcium and magnesium sulphate and phosphate) adsorb on, and control the stability of the albumin. 7.) The albumin (in turn) adsorbs on, and controls the stability of all the formed elements. It also adsorbs on, and renders significantly electronegative, the walls of the vascular system. 8.) Albumin serves as a tremendous bulwark of resistance against inadvertent and sudden coagulation by 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 electrolytes, as was evident in Fig. 167, p. 245. The ingestion of a relatively high dosage of aluminum hydroxide does not immediately produce fatal intravascular coagulation, as will be later noted in the review of a report on aluminum by the Kettering Laboratory. But excessive 1:1 and/or 2:1, and/or 3:1

electrolytes can surely change the ZP of colloid systems, including those protected by albumin, or albumin — like proteins. 9.) Stability (of the blood) is "locked in place" to a high degree by pH, to which the albumin (but not the electrolytes) is quite sensitive. (See Figs. 110, 118 and 121, pp. 150, 159 and 163.) 10.) The writer simply regards fibrinogen as an anionic polyelectrolyte. Its molecular weight of 300,000 and concentration of 2,800 ppm are appropriate for the formation of a rigid gel. Like albumin, it must also adsorb on all the formed elements and the walls of the vascular system. Its electronegative charge (combined with the electro negativity of the albumin at pH 7.4) is sufficient to impart significant mutual repulsion. 11.) The absolute concentration of calcium in human blood is relatively low, 100 mg/l. But even its equivalent CaCl2 in a system exerts a significant influence on Zeta Potential. Its coagulating effect is equal to 4200 ppm of sodium chloride ( see Fig. 19,). The role of calcium in blood stability is two– fold. It serves as a normal divalent (coagulating) cation in the system, and it enters into the thrombin–fibrinogen reaction in a manner which falls into a highly "catalytic" category.*
[ * Apparently all physicochemical processes, which are not really understood, fall into the category of either "catalysts" or "enzyme action." ]

12.) Calcium and thrombin are particularly and specifically adapted to the lowering of Zeta Potential, which results in the coagulation of blood. However, there are many cationic electrolytes and/or polyelectrolytes, which will (if injected hypodermically) also produce massive coagulation in situ. 13.) We will assume that the ZP of, the red cell in its "normal" state (in situ) approximates –17 mv (an EM of –1.31 microns/sec per v/cm*). [ * This value
is of course quite veritable for red blood cells in a phosphate buffer solution. It was established more than thirty years ago by Abramson. See Ref. 4-6. ]

Thus we have a stable, fluid system at constant temperature and pH. Moreover, the system is continuously in motion, hence thixotropy must be an aid in maintaining the fluidity of the system. So long as the Zeta Potential of the system remains constant, the fluidity (viscosity) of the system will also remain constant. But if the ZP of the system is progressively lowered by the introduction of cationic electrolytes or polyelectrolytes, then the stability of the system will undergo progressive changes — from simple agglomeration to fluid gel formation — and finally to a rigid gel. We now arbitrarily establish a standard, setting forth varying "grades" and "degrees" of stability. And we ascribe to this classification what we

) A discharge (or release) into the system of a relatively strong cationic polyelectrolyte. and from metallic vessels employed for . We believe that intravascular coagulation is widely prevalent throughout the United States because of excessive electrolytes in our blood system. are: TABLE NO. b. respectively.) An increase in the concentration of 1:1. from zero to 10. including sodium chloride.* [ * Techniques for viewing and grading intravascular coagulation will be given in the next section. Another source of undesirable ions in the human system is the "peeling off" of metallic ions from cans. The "Degree" will coincide with the agglomeration observed in the blood vessels of the eye when employing a horizontally aimed stereoscopic microscope. Degrees.consider "appropriate" values of Zeta Potential. and Estimated Zeta Potential values. The "Numerical Grade" is arbitrary.) –17 –16 –15 –14 –13 –12 –11 –7 –7 As previously noted. electrolytes in the blood. This is due to excessive use of a wide variety of mineral salts. It reflects lack of appropriate laws governing the processing of foodstuffs. ] Our Grades. and/or 2:1.) Rigid gel (10 min. 27 Numerical "Grade" (arbitrary) "Degree" of IVC (Observed in Sclera) Probable ZP of Red Blood Cells (in situ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 Absent Slight Moderate Significant Heavy Very Heavy Terminal (death) Fluid gel (5 min. this lowering of Zeta Potential in the human blood system can be induced by several procedures. and/or 3:1. ZP would be lowered by each type of electrolyte (on a molal basis) in the proportions of about 1 : 15 : 600. including: a.

Among existing medical concepts are: a. but not high. there is (within a few days time) a significant rise in the SC of the water. I suggested that he send duplicate samples to Dr. of course. and the earliest stage of "fluid gel formation. There is the greatest probability that this polyelectrolyte exists in (or on) the platelet. Apparently nobody wants to "rock the boat. This condition should be investigated and corrected.) The platelets are formed in the bone marrow in large cells — megakaryocytes. I was unable to elicit any interest on his part. but this is often (if not generally) broken during the sealing process. and ten cities with the lowest incidence of cardiovascular disease in the United States. and determine their free aluminum content. ] This particularly applies toaluminum." It also may reflect the presence of a very small amount of fibrin in the system–sufficient to act as a long chain polymer and bind cell to cell. a trivalent cation. It has been known. for our laboratory appraisal. the presence in the drinking water (of some cities) of colloidal aluminum hydrate. .** [ ** I once selected ten cities with the highest incidence. These statistics. 11-50) concerning the mechanism of blood coagulation. This agglomeration of cells reflects the short–range Van der Waals forces of attraction. When such cans are cleaned and filled with distilled water. 247). however. It is." The writer has been able to prove the existence of this polyelectrolyte (by appropriate Zeta Potential techniques) for the past nine years. and that it is simply "expressed" into the system "when the need arises. One cannot exclude as suspect. Although the manager is a past president of the American Water Works Association. they are not sufficient to produce Grade 8 or Grade 10. the thrombin and/or prothrombin — so thoroughly investigated by Walter Seegers. could be interesting. These higher grades result solely from the release into the system of a cationic polyelectrolyte. p. Nor can one exclude the "excessive" use of beverage alcohol. and is on their Board of Directors. because it can be proved visually with the Sclerascope that 8 ounces of 90 proof spirits will induce significant intravascular coagulation (see Fig." I therefore just let the matter drop. Albritton listed five speculative hypotheses (these are repeated in Ref. 168.* [ * Many cans are lined with a plastic coating. and named and renamed dozens of times by hundreds of investigators in the medical field. The foregoing causes are fully capable of producing grades of intravascular coagulation of 1 through 5 or 6. The concentration would be persistent. We assume the rise in SC can be attributed to the presence of metallic ions. In 1952.processing foodstuffs. Henry Schroeder and to me. ] This is from improper and inadequate flocculation of raw water. But even if these forces were combined. I then asked the general manager of one of our major waterworks to collect samples from them.

000 per cubic millimeter. d.) The thromboplastin then converts the prothrombin molecule to thrombin. This "contact factor" is considered to be the "triggering" mechanism. wherein a cationic polyelectrolyte is contained in and released by the platelet to the system. then we must also consider that laundry detergents are effective because of "enzyme action. due to the platelet discharging a cationic polyelectrolyte to the system. and release some type of reagent to the system. thromboplastin. The writer sees no need for any "enzyme action" unless the change in Zeta Potential. e.) The released reagent converts thromboplastinogen (an inactive precursor in the system) to thromboplastin. and is it revitalized in the next "batch" of platelets? Is it neutralized by an anionic electrolyte or polyelectrolyte? Or what? One more pertinent and unanswered question: "Does the platelet ever undergo a slow leak into the system?" And is this a major cause of intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular disease? From the writer's point of view. The simple concept of Zeta Potential. If we consider that heparin involves enzyme action. it is pointless to pose these questions seriously until we first answer the major question of: What is the nature of the triggering mechanism which causes the platelet to discharge its ." Another highly pertinent but unanswered question in the field of blood stability is: At the end of the 8 day period of the platelet's useful life.) In due time the megakaryocytes rupture. how is it "defused"? Does the cationic polyelectrolyte gradually deteriorate and lose its electropositive characteristics? Does it remain active. f. another protein enzyme. one only clutters the picture with concepts of thromboplastinogen. releasing the platelets into the bloodstream where their concentration approximates 250.) Upon the release of blood from the vascular system to an exterior surface.) The thrombin (in the presence of an appropriate amount of calcium) then combines with the fibrinogen (another inactive precursor) to form fibrin — the polymer Which enmeshes the water of the blood and forms a rigid gel. prothrombin.b. a protein enzyme. c. the platelets (in some manner) rupture. and enzyme action. From the writer's point of view. Neither can the writer consider that heparin is connected with or related to enzyme action — existing concepts notwithstanding. is ample to account for the gelation noted. can be so termed.

it was not necessary to introduce any new facets to make blood stability conform to the overall pattern of industrial colloid stability — as controlled by Zeta Potential. This electron micrograph is taken from Coagulation and Transfusion in Clinical Medicine. ] If we are successful in overcoming some limitations of time. Or it can well be that the answer will never be known. And as far as we know.000 to 30. The writer will not outline this principle because someone inexperienced in Zeta Potential might try it out — fail — and then conclude that the principle did not apply. [ ** This microscope projects an image on a fine–lined TV screen. This necessitated the preparation of definitions and "ground rules" covering the semantics of colloid stability. N.polyelectrolyte — and only at a specific. In relating these principles to blood. J. We soon had no difficulty in distinguishing between a low and a high degree of agglomeration.* [ * Ref. it should be noted that the writer's simple hypothesis of blood agglomeration and coagulation is in agreement with all the precepts of Zeta Potential thus far developed for industrial colloid systems.OOO X is possible. it is well adapted to viewing and photographing highly motile microorganisms — and blood cells. but he does have one physicochemical principle. and appropriate time and location? The writer does not know the answer. which has not been tried that conceivably could be the answer. EVALUATION OF INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION WITH THE HORIZONTALLY AIMED STEREOSCOPIC MICROSCOPE After designing the Sclerascope. whose ultraviolet microscope** is now set up at Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn. and no desiccation is required. Therefore. * [ * These were included in Chapter 20. On Figs. In bringing this section to a close.. This has happened before. the writer believes it is possible we may be able to actually see the platelet exude its liquid to the system. The writer does not believe that this can be a contact factor. But what we required was a graduated scale to denote progressively increasing degrees of Intravascular Coagulation (IVC). and . 170 and 171.. it was readily possible to observe the presence or absence of agglomerates in the blood vessels situated in the white of the eye. The surfaces involved are just too small. ] an adjustable "stock" for holding the head steady. ] When time becomes available. Magnification of 6. on special order. there is nothing in this hypothesis that seriously conflicts with the dozen–odd "factors" which represent the medical approach to blood coagulation.* [ * This instrument is available from Zeta–Meter. dilution and tonicity. ] We attempted to have these express what is seen with the microscope. through the kind courtesy of Johnson and Greenwalt. Inc. we show human blood platelets. the writer plans to work briefly with Frank van den Bosch of Cedar Grove. 11-19. selected.

Light intensity is variable. Illumination of the left eye * [ * Only one eye is examined. These considerations rule out use of the 6X and 8X objectives. Details of the Sclerascope are shown on Fig. In selecting an optical system. As the magnification of the objective is increased. 2. numerically ranging from Grade zero to Grade 6. The "head stock" is adjustable in both a vertical and left–right traverse. In viewing the "white" of the eye.also convey some concept as to the origin of the forces that brought and held the particles together. However. The writer has worked for long periods with 1–2–3X. one first sees the bulbar conjunctiva — the thin. Since the nosepiece of the microscope will accommodate only three objectives. 6 & 8X). This situation is worsened by the natural curvature of the eye. The 1–2–3X combination with 20X eyepieces. The eyes are turned about 15° upward and 45° to the right. 40 and 6OX. and 2–3–4X. focusing on a target spot. eyestrain and fatigue. ] is provided by a thin beam of blue–white light. projected almost at right angles to the line of vision. 4. tremendous agglomeration — resulting in significant sedimentation in horizontally positioned large diameter vessels. using both 15 and 20X eyepieces. The stereoscopic microscope is positioned horizontally. opaque mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the . The face of the person undergoing examination is held steady and in a frontal position by the headstock. and minimizes glare. This of course gives overall magnifications of 20. These considerations are of prime importance because proper evaluation of the "degree of intravascular coagulation" depends. The former represented no detectable agglomeration or its symptoms. to a large extent. one might at first assume that the higher the overall magnifying power — the better the view of the blood vessel. and 1–3– 4X objectives. 2. and two eyepieces (15X & 2OX). and heat is removed by a filter. the "depth of sharp focus" becomes thinner. if necessary. 3 and 4X. has proved the most satisfactory. We gradually built up a system of classification. upon how clearly and definitively one can see the flow of blood in the arterioles and venules. the position of the microscope may be changed to view the right eye. one of these must be excluded. 3. This is not the case. It should be stressed that the microscope must be carefully aligned. particularly with regard to collimation. leaving only the 1. 172. Available with American Optical Company's equipment are six "fixed" objectives (1. the latter. and inability of the person under study to remain motionless during the examination. This enables the conjunctiva of the left eye (as far as the cornea) to be readily illuminated. and is adjustable in both vertical and horizontal planes.

and judgment is made. configuration and vascular connections to maximize the manifestations of coagulation. substantially the entire conjunctiva and sclera give evidence of intravascular coagulation. which are readily viewed with the microscope. in severe cases. which we list herein. It is likewise heavily laced with visible blood vessels. However. One should examine both the conjunctiva and the sclera. The sclera. the firm fibrous outer layer of the eyeball. An overall magnification of 6OX is necessary for this final evaluation. It should be stressed that evaluation is generally made on the basis of a "detail" examination of very few arterioles or venules. Appropriate examinations of the conjunctiva and sclera permit evaluations of progressive stages of intravascular coagulation. maximum coagulation will generally be found (in any given individual) in the same venules or arterioles. with a definition of terms: . but because of their position (to the rear) they do not stand out as plainly as those in the conjunctiva. which are well in advance of cardiovascular emergency episodes. that "clumping" is often more pronounced in the sclera than in the conjunctiva. The blood vessels of the conjunctiva stand out clearer and are therefore more easily studied. The 3X objective is then employed for obtaining an enlarged and more detailed view of the vessels under examination. Regardless of the relative degree of coagulation from day to day or week to week. Hence the flow of blood in the sclera is somewhat less visible than in the conjunctiva. One will note. The location of these critical vessels will vary from eye to eye. position. We term these vessels (and their surrounding areas) critical because it is here that the physical manifestations of intravascular coagulation are most clearly revealed. The 1X objective is employed in scanning the conjunctiva and sclera to locate the area containing the "critical" vessel or vessels. Consequently ophthalmic microscopes having a maximum magnification of 3OX are generally unsuitable. After selecting the critical vessel (or vessels) with the 1X objective. is covered by the conjunctiva. The vessels of the sclera are not affected by blinking. and often only one.globe of the eye. however. confirmation and further study is made with the 2X objective. because the vascular pattern of each individual differs — to a far greater extent than the thumbprint. This membrane is heavily laced with blood vessels. because these vessels will have optimum diameter. This is because frequent blinking of the eye during an examination tends to mechanically break up agglomerates and clumped cells in the conjunctiva. This is due to hydraulic considerations. We have classified seven degrees of intravascular coagulation.

In health. Thus blood pressure. becoming less noticeable at higher degrees.** [ ** The actual volume available for the containment of blood in arteries. This state is shown on Fig. with no aggloiheration. Comets are perhaps the first indication of intravascular coagulation. ] are substantially filled with discrete cells. At times. When a person is undergoing maximum physical exertion. and the flow is continuous and uniform. The linear spacing from blood cell to blood cell often exceeds five to ten times the diameter of the capillary. giving the impression of "shooting stars" or comets. which results in the formed elements becoming individually enmeshed in the first stages of a "fluid gel." One may also hypothesize that discrete strands of fibrin have formed to sufficient length to encapsulate . its distribution in the overall system will be uniform. is maintained fairly constant (and blood vessels remain filled) regardless of blood volume. Red cells will then "dart" singly or in small groups through the capillary. most of the capillaries in service* [ * Krogh showed that under normal conditions of sedentary work or inactivity. An increased degree of coagulation is manifested by a greater number of darting cells in a greater number of capillaries. instead of being filled uniformly with erythrocytes and other blood cells. in health. as the individual cells lose their "discrete" mobility. (This is not to be confused with rouleau formation. artery. veins and venules is controlled to a degree by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators." and cells flow in rope or chain–like fashion as though one cell was joined to another. (left) AGGLOMERATION Agglomeration is the condition when blood has partially lost its "fluidity. but if some cells are agglomerated and some discrete. The percentage of capillaries in service varies directly with physical exercise and oxygen requirements. the capillary may contain only one or two "darting" cells. it follows that the discrete cells will have more interstitial space in which to move. This is undoubtedly brought about by a lowering of Zeta Potential.COMETS A "Comet" results from a capillary being filled principally with clear plasma. all capillaries are in service. It would seem that the reason comets exist is that if every blood cell is free and discrete. only a small percentage of capillaries (say 10 to 15) are in actual service. 173. It should be noted that Comets characterize only the first and second degrees of coagulation. ] The onset of intravascular coagulation is therefore characterized by a few darting cells in a few capillaries.) The normal "turbulent" flow appears to change.

a mass of cells may traverse backward and forward in a venule or arteriole for as long as five to thirty seconds before resuming normal flow. With clumping. therefore. is an important criterion in judging intravascular coagulation. STASIS Arteries and arterioles can be distinguished from veins and venules in the sclera and conjunctiva. each cluster of cells which in turn branch and flow to the (smaller) capillaries. venules to the (larger) veins. Veins and venules show the opposite pattern. discrete cells cannot be readily seen in the largest veins or arteries of the eye.the red cells and loosely bind one cell to another. Arteries branch and flow to the (smaller) arterioles. One might classify the physical appearance of this blood flow as "coarsely granular. arterioles. This "cohesiveness" imparts a "rope– like" tendency to the flow pattern. they cannot be satisfactorily observed in the capillaries. counter to the direction of branching. Because of opacity. Stasis. In advanced stasis. A higher degree of stasis is evident when the flow periodically comes to a faltering halt — then actually reverses for a few seconds — then sluggishly flows again in its normal direction. with each cell closely following the path of the preceding one. veins or venules. Thus. • • Partial stasis (an abnormal state in which the normal flow of a liquid (such as blood) is slowed or stopped inactivity resulting from a static balance between opposing forces) is when the rate of blood flow is markedly reduced in arteries. and because they move too rapidly." This "rope–like" flow is in sharp contrast to "turbulent flow" — wherein each cell stands out boldly and seems to change its position continually in the general flow pattern. single file only. the direction of flow follows the branching. The direction of flow is. . which are 30 to 60 microns in diameter. Agglomeration is best evaluated in arterioles or venules. or 4 to 8 times the size of a capillary. Capillaries flow to the (larger) venules. in its varying degrees.

blood flow is brisk. There is no significant stasis or even temporary reversal of flow. Conversely.) Based on the foregoing definitions and illustrations. In reality. veins. They are not evident in capillaries. this is a worsening of the condition previously referred to as "agglomeration. agglomeration. Pronounced chain–like agglomeration. Some comets. Noticeable chain–like agglomeration of blood cells. each cluster of cells is separated from its adjacent group by a "cylinder" of clear plasma. Some clumping. where the small diameter permits red cells to traverse in single file only. the length of the clear cylinder is more often one to two times the diameter of the lumen. arterioles and venules. stasis. The length of these clumps is generally two to five times the diameter of the venule or arteriole. which is sketched below. Some stasis. SEDIMENTATION OF CELLS This condition. the writer categorizes the seven degrees of intravascular coagulation as: Grade 0 1 2 3 Characteristics No comets. as shown in the drawing." Clumps may be found in arteries. or clumps. CLUMPING The term "clumping" is used when cells adhere to each other.In health. uniform and unfaltering — from arteries to arterioles to capillaries to venules to veins. 11-16. has been thoroughly covered in pictures and text by Knisely and his associates — and we refer the reader to their published works. forming individual groups of about 5 to 100. . Many comets. (Ref. and in the absence of intravascular coagulation. With clumping.

Pronounced clumping in many blood vessels. Pronounced stasis in some blood vessels. 28. Another male (age 63) with a known but inoperable tumor of the pancreas was classified Grade 5. 6 These characteristics are set forth in Table No. 28 GRADES AND DEGREES OF INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION Grade 0 1 2 3 4 Degree of Comets IVC Absent Slight Moderate Significant Heavy Absent Some Many — — Chain–like Agglomeration Absent Absent Noticeable Pronounced — Partial Stasis Absent Absent Absent Some Noticeable in some vessels Pronounced in some vessels Pronounced in many vessels Clumping Absent Absent Absent Some Noticeable in some vessels Pronounced in many vessels Heavy in many vessels Sedimentation in lumen Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 5 Very Heavy — — Absent 6 Terminal — — Noticeable in a few vessels Forty to fifty percent of the persons in the age bracket of 25 to 65 who were examined by the writer have shown Grade 3 or higher. . He died of cancer two months later. TABLE NO. One male (age 75) with Grade 5 coagulation. with plasma containing the white cells seen above. the red cells occupying the lower quarter to half of the lumen. died shortly after being forced to climb two flights of stairs during the New York City electric power blackout (November 1965). Settlement of cells in a few horizontally–positioned veins and/or arteries.4 5 Noticeable stasis and noticeable clumping in some blood vessels. The examination of the sclera and bulbar conjunctiva with the horizontally– aimed microscope is highly essential to the evaluation of intravascular coagulation. Pronounced stasis and heavy clumping in many blood vessels. There is every evidence that IVC is closely allied to the physicochemical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. This represents Knisely's Stage III — after which all 75 of his Rhesus monkeys died within 3 to 12 hours.

EXAMPLES OF INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION BY MELVIN KNISELY We now show several pages of highly pertinent Figures from various technical papers by Melvin Knisely and associates (Refs. The flow. e. if it can be called "flow". the wall of the stem arteriole resists distention sufficiently so that as each mass passes through it. d. 3. and that high blood pressure (through vasoconstriction) has a tendency to mask intravascular coagulation. it arrives at a point at which the force exerted by the thin–walled .Minor illness (such as head colds or "two–day virus") will. the mass is forced to distort toward fitting the internal form of the artery. The top third consists of supernatant plasma. The lowest one–fourth to one–third of the vessel is covered with a paste made up of settled. We particularly recommend Ref. white cells and red cells. The vessel was between ½ and ¾ inch in diameter. 2. stationary masses of agglutinated parasitized and unparasitized red cells effectively segregated from the "circulating blood". The gravitational separation of plasma. Indications are that there is some increase in IVC during the menstrual period. At the upper left. of the moving materials was from right to left. and i). increase an IVC grade of 0– 1 to Grade 3. containing a few small suspended masses all moving forward more rapidly. Diagram showing condition of the blood in the inferior vena cava of the monkey whose blood had been changed to a sludge by Knowlesi malaria. 11-16-b. The middle third consists of somewhat smaller masses carried slowly forward in suspension. in 24 hours. and occasionally to Grade 4. It is probable that substantially all persons who are gravely ill with a disease caused by a microorganism will show a degree of Grade 4 to Grade 5. We are confident that Knisely's work will go down in history as one of the major contributions of this generation to biology and physiology. elastic masses of agglutinated red cells coming down a stem arteriole and passing out through terminal arterioles. Note that some of the white cells are in clumps. which contains an excellent summary of his work and many valuable sources of reference material. 11-16-i. 1. As each mass passes down into the terminal arteriole. Diagram of rather rigid.

showing some of the settling phenomena in flowing frog blood within a venule approximately 500 µ in diameter. stuck to the wall of the vessel. do not round up again as they pass into the narrow soft–walled vessels. and E. A photograph taken by transmitted light through a horizontal microscope. as described by E. Note the three masses farthest out in the portrayed vessels. One significant consequence is that any white cell carried along in the flowing supernatant plasma cannot come in contact with. Each mass then rounds up by means of its own internal elasticity and approaches a spherical form. Note that these masses. unlike those shown in photo to the left. and carried freely suspended in the supernatant horizontally moving plasma. Diagram of soft plastic masses passing down an arteriole into terminal arterioles. Note (1) large masses which completely fill the lumen of the vessel. (2) small masses settled between large ones. . This vessel contained slowly moving settled masses. Cinetracing of a small vein containing. L. stationary erythrocytes located on the bottom of the vessel. and (3) that the settled sludge in the upper right portion fell onto the lower internal surface of the vein as it came down around the vertically–placed bend. white blood cells in 3 separate types of location. These masses are undergoing a plastic deformation. It is not at all uncommon to observe masses going through these reactions as they pass through the terminal arterioles and pre–capillary arterioles of the bulbar conjunctiva of diseased humans. a bacterium deep within the settled stationary blood–cell masses (cinetracing). Gravitational separation of settled red–cell masses from suspended circulating white cells.terminal arterioze is considerably less than the force exerted by the thicker–walled stem arteriole. Clark. entrapped between large masses of settled. hence cannot ingest. The significant point here is that the masses have internal elasticity and return toward a spherical form as they pass into the soft–walled vessels. R.

Note that the capillaries of the system are partly obstructed. some had heavy coagulation with no malfunctional beats. and an attack of paroxysmal tachycardia every . as required. we were joined by several others who had some type of advanced cardiovascular disorder. Later. and half had less than 3. The writer had heavy IVC with PVC's every four to six beats. Same artery as shown in figure on page 268. we were able to secure the services of several physicians. My two secretaries (female. They examined our group and counseled us as far as their time permitted. This is a most significant phenomenon. showed that some of our group were heavily coagulated and had arrhythmia and pre–ventricular contractions. THE REGIMEN After establishing techniques and criteria for the evaluation of intravascular coagulation (IVC) as viewed in the conjunctiva and sclera. There were short segments of capillaries in true stasis. with no atypical beats.Gravitational separation of settled red cell masses from suspended circulating white cells. age 45 and 65) had heavy IVC but no atypical beats. Fortunately. Electrocardiograms with simultaneous phonocardiograms. Note the layer of concentrated white cells carried in suspension in the plasma. and some had moderately low intravascular coagulation (Grade 1 or 2). The flow shown here was almost quantitatively separating cell–free plasma from blood cells with just enough plasma between them to lubricate their mutually opposing surfaces and thereby permit forward motion. examinations of our immediate office staff (about a dozen) revealed that half of us had Grade 3 to 4 IVC. seen at a later time. and examinations with the Sclerascope. some degree of arrhythmia. in exchange for information on Zeta Potential and intravascular coagulation. This is a tracing from a motion picture taken through a horizontally aimed microscope.

month or so.) This ten .5 liters daily.0 grams per liter ) Formula Number 1 2 3 4 5 Electrolyte Sodium Sulphate Potassium Sulphate Sodium Citrate Potassium Citrate Sodium Hexametaphosphate Formula Na2SO4 — Anh.75 3. One of our group had a PVC which failed to discharge blood every other stroke.0 gpl 7. etc.0–8. potassium citrate. We add 10 grams of potassium (or sodium) bicarbonate to all Stock Solutions. The composition of five types of specially prepared water with dispersing characteristics is shown in Table No. K2SO4 — Anh. This raises the pH of the Standard Solution to 8. 15– 35. and another. We established (and maintain) what we term a "Regimen. We find so far that of the five reagents — and the possible combinations — 50 gpl of straight potassium citrate is the most effective. regardless of formulation.4. and 0–50 grams per liter.) Millimols / l @ 1. This water is in addition to that routinely consumed in tea.0 to 1. 25–25. Preparation is as follows: A "Stock Solution" of 50 grams of reagent is made up to one liter with distilled water.10 0. 29 COMPOSITION OF SPECIALLY PREPARED WATER WITH DISPERSING CHARACTERISTICS ( Normal concentration for drinking — 1. and four are absolute minimum. sodium–potassium citrate.4." This consists of drinking sufficient (specially prepared) water to limit Specific Conductance of the urine to a normal maximum of about 18. which (at 250 ml per glass) amounts to 1. 29. a similar PVC every third stroke. then the weight of the two combined is equal to 50 gpl. this requires drinking about four to six 8–ounce glasses of the water per day. As predicted. singly or in combinations. We consider it highly essential to maintain the pH of water somewhat above the normal pH of blood (7.000 micromhos.05 5. Na3C6H507 • 2H20 K3C6H5O7 • H20 14NaPO3 • Na2O MW 142 174 294 324 1490 Type of Electrolyte 1:2 1:2 1:3 1:3 1:3(Eqv. over a period of about two years. TABLE NO. Experience has shown that eight glasses are more than required. sodium citrate + potassium citrate. So far. If reagents are mixed for example. 35–15. in the following ratios: 50–0.000 and preferably 15.4 3. sodium hexametaphosphate.. coffee and/or milk. we have tried Stock Solution combinations of sodium–potassium sulphate.67 We have continuously employed these electrolytes.

Both Stock and Standard solutions should be kept in the refrigerator. a dosage of 20 ml/liter approximates optimum concentration. 5. are as follows: 1. 20. 6. We usually bring up the dosage slowly: 15.grams of bicarbonate is employed solely for pH control.0 grams per liter of the electrolyte (1. 20. None of our group is on a "low–sodium" diet of any sort. Reagent dosages for our group are always adjusted upon the basis of sclerascopic examinations and electrocardiograms.5 liters of water per day. of course.) Potassium compounds are more effective than sodium compounds in relieving PVC and IVC. we prepare (as required) a Standard Solution by diluting 15. ] We have no convincing evidence but it seems reasonable that if in early childhood one establishes the habit of drinking a relatively large amount of water.5. Stock and Standard solutions should be made with distilled water — not tap water. 4. 2.5 and 25 gpl of "Stock Solution" per liter of distilled water. This. From the 50 gpl Stock Solution. It is obvious that 20 ml per liter of stock solution gives a concentration of 1. It may vary from as few as one every two months.) A significant lowering of existing IVC and/or PVC* cannot be attained by drinking any amount of untreated distilled water — or tap water. 3. 1. Pre–ventricular Contraction (a malfunctional heartbeat which seldom throws blood). 22. [ * IVC signifies Intravascular Coagulation.000 ppm. agrees with all basic concepts of Zeta Potential. The periodicity of these examinations is geared to meet changing situations. Brief comments.) As a generalization.) In instances where PVC's were initially found. this should be a deterrent to IVC and PVC's in later years.) Except in cases of absolute unavailability. 25. At 1. being guided by the Sclerascope and ECG.000 mg/l). and is in addition to the 50 grams of dispersants. based on our lengthy consideration of this problem. The smoking and drinking pattern ranges from "moderate" to "abstinence" — upon a purely voluntary basis. 17.5 grams of electrolyte per day. this naturally equals 1. a reduction in the Grade of IVC has always been accompanied by a reduction in the percentage of . to bi–weekly.) The 1–3 electrolytes are considerably more effective than the 1:2. or 30 ml of the Stock Solution to one liter with distilled water. but we all attempt to control our salt consumption. and PVC.

) Under our Regimen. With very difficult situations.) Indications are that time is of the essence in correcting a PVC. . Upon return to the 1:3 electrolyte. 13. or partakes of foodstuffs that are known to have been in contact with aluminum.) If a person on a 1:3 electrolyte substitutes a 1:2.) The PVC which occurs as a "double" (two PVC's in succession) is more difficult to relieve than a single. the Grade of the IVC and the percentage of PVC's may increase appreciably. Thus far. the simpler the task and more certain the recovery. A PVC which occurs as a triple. 15.PVC'S. the Regimen is quite comparable to heparin. and smoking and alcoholic beverages must be held to a minimum. 8.) Arrhythmia usually responds well to the regimen. the pattern may level off in the 1 to 5 or even 5 to 10% range. with no dual malfunctions. it is often difficult to lower this to a Grade less than 2. Where a Grade of IVC of 3+ to 4 is found. and complete elimination has been obtained in a number of instances. in only one instance has an individual been able to discontinue the Regimen without any resumption of PVC'S. 7. the rate of reduction of PVC's generally forms a pattern. 9. the ratios seem comparable to the concept of the "ionic strength function" of 1:3:6. 12. 11. In this respect. The longer the duration and the higher the percentage of PVC'S. PVC's may appreciably increase." In this respect. the more difficult is the correction. is much more difficult than a double. More difficult situations require 1:3 (Or equivalent) electrolytes.) If one abstains from the Regimen for a period of 24 to 48 hours.) It seems necessary to maintain this Regimen daily. control can often be effected with 1:2 electrolytes such as potassium sulphate. In this respect. Lowering to Grade 1 is sometimes possible — but it requires meticulous adherence to the formula.) None of our group now employs aluminum cookware of any sort. Usually it is a reduction of malfunctional beats from say 30 to 15 to 7 to 4 to 2 to 1% in about 2½ months. the percent malfunction is again lowered. We consider that avoidance of aluminum is mandatory.) When PVC's are found in the 1 to 5% range. 14. it is similar to heparin or eyeglasses. Such reductions sometimes occur in less than half this time. and for "life. 10. The sooner remedial steps are taken after PVC's are discovered.

and the degree of IVC.000 micromhos until noon if one drinks 2½ glasses of the Regimen water before.) Without doubt.) The SC of one's urine can be kept in the range of 8. Some hold as much or more promise than the ones we presently employ.) It should be stressed that none of our reagents could be employed in "capsule" form. the FDA still does not have the slightest concept of them. because without the accompanying water. Their preoccupation with trivia. and drinking four to six glasses a day at home or at the office — wherever you are — is something of a chore.) There are many appropriate anionic electrolytes and polyelectrolytes available. one must guard against overdosage of heparin. But we see no relevance to. It should be spaced throughout a 12 to 16 hour day.000 to 16. page 335.) We have noted no untoward side effects from the daily ingestion of 1. Any of the electrolytes taken . or immediately after breakfast. ] 23. which can be employed. during. 20.5 grams of the reagents listed in Table 29.) Distilling water each week in the home. An absolute minimum of one liter (4 glasses) is required. 17. There has been no indication that there is such danger in any of the reagents we have employed. brings to mind the compulsive drive of the lemmings as they head out to sea.) We agree with those who stress the need for a low–fat. preparing solutions. the real answer to cardiovascular disease is to cease the practice of "salting out" the human blood system. 19. One and one–half liters (6 glasses) is often preferable. But to the writer (and others on this Regimen) it seems preferable to having a hypodermic injection twice a day for life — or dying of heart disease. low–calorie diet. Neither do we believe that this "anionic polymer approach" to the control of cardiovascular disease complies as closely with "natural states" — as does the use of simple anionic electrolytes. It is readily evaluated by Zeta Potential.* [ * See Note 3.) We believe that heparin is simply one of a great many anionic dispersing agents. Despite the fact that the basic chemical principles involved were common knowledge to Schulze and Hardy 87 years ago. they would actually increase the "salting out" effect. and eliminate all ingestion of 3:1 electrolytes. enzyme action.) It is well established in medicine that because of hemorrhage. and inability to face real issues and hard facts. 24. 18.16. 21. or connection with. 22.

but they are not recommended for small users because of possible bacterial growths. stills with block tin (not aluminum) condensers should be employed. 27.000 micromhos.000 or 18. one cannot detect any taste of the reagent in distilled water.) For obvious reasons. 26. distilled water is preferable to deionized. 25.) A strict Regimen of no tobacco. no alcohol. Neither can the situation be appreciably relieved by the intake of 1. — TRC — ] For the small user. Reverse Osmosis units are now available for homes. magnesium citrate is widely employed as a laxative. [ Tin can also quickly become toxic in the human system. Distilled water with an appropriate concentration of a dispersing agent is absolutely necessary.internally at a dosage of 10 to 20 grams would have a pronounced laxative effect. and provide an energy efficient alternative. . Stainless steel or lead–free glass are the only truly safe materials that should be used. selected foodstuffs and daily exercise is insufficient to eliminate existing intravascular coagulation. In fact. Deionizers are suitable for large. At 1.0 gram per liter.) It is not possible in one's daily life to always maintain urine at SC less than 15.5 liters/day of untreated distilled or tap water. But this Regimen should be maintained as far as possible. well–supervised installations.

000. the curves shown on Fig. 25. But if the dosage is increased thereafter. anionic surfactants reach a peak of dispersion. This increased load should naturally be held to a minimum. Sixty–three percent of the samples had a SC less than 15. .000 simply represent instances where.Figure 183 shows the SC of urine from several of our group over a period of a month. By nature. It should be noted that even the most effective 1:3 electrolytes we have employed thus far are barely capable of controlling the "really difficult" PVC of long standing. the daily ingestion of 1. for one reason or another. the person failed to drink water as required. based on overall findings.000. The values above 18. one works between two sets of opposing forces: the necessity for adding sufficient reagent to obtain maximum dispersion. the degree of dispersion is lessened. It is obvious that with a normal daily input of mineral solids equivalent to say 18 grams of NaCl. In particular. but not to a point where it would begin to "salt out" the system. Therefore.5 grams of electrolytes in the formula water actually increases mineral input by 9%. This balance is so delicate that the dosage should be carefully adjusted by frequent electrocardiograms and examinations of the sclera. and 90% less than 20.250 ppm (of a 1:3 electrolyte) agrees with one's expectations. But it is unlikely that any group record would be much better than this. The optimum dosage range of 750 to 1.

4 with caustic soda. Instead of considering the load simply as "mineral solids content.5. this evolved into a working hypothesis. et al. one can obtain no greater accuracy than ±100 micromhos. This is a long and tedious job of reagent screening. Thus if we have a certain coagulating power from 3.It is believed that safe reagents can be found which will have more pronounced electronegative effects on human albumin than the electrolytes we have thus far employed. This increase is due to the ingestion of foodstuffs. We believe that cardiovascular disease is brought about mainly through inability of the kidneys to adequately remove the abnormally high and ever–increasing mineral solids content of the blood. as one progresses from 1:1 to 2:1 to 3:1 type electrolytes. to trivalent cations. at 12. test reagents should also be acidified to say pH 1. then elevated to pH 7. which are abnormally high in "salts. and fail to regain it when the pH is subsequently raised. Thus.5.000 micromhos. BASIC CAUSES OF INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE From the standpoint of Physical Chemistry. A change of this magnitude for a 1:1 electrolyte would be insignificant. Actually. ionic strength increases in ratios of 1:3:6. These enormous changes in stability can occur without noticeable changes in Specific Conductance. and due to AlCl3 overwhehning. our ratio progresses as 1:15:600. And so. Therefore. to di–. Two years ago. Now expand this concept further to the basic work of Schulze and Hardy. Up to the present. the gastric juice brings all ingested foodstuffs to a pH range of 1 to 3." Now broaden the picture. we now present our original speculative hypothesis concerning the cause. ." consider it on the "ionic strength function" basis of Lewis and Randall. The writer does not wish to belabor the Point. von Helmholtz. But such a change in SC due to CaCl2 would be considerable. It is quite possible that some reagents would lose their dispersing power at a pH of 1. but he feels strongly that "trivalent cations. we can double it by as small a quantity as 200 ppm of calcium or 5 ppm of aluminum.4–8. It can be expressed quite simply. prevention and relief of intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular disease.000 ppm of sodium. these aspects have been totally ignored by those who control our food and beverage processing. From mono–." and "salting out" play by far the most important role in the overall problem of blood stability and cardiovascular disease. wherein valency is squared.

000 or to 36. in addition. now have a refrigerator on the main ledge and a TV antenna protruding through the roof.e. and plot the lowering and leveling off of SC in the blood and urine. 1966. 100-120). Within the past two or three decades.* the FDA regulations permit a food processor to add substantially any amount of sodium chloride. October 10. it could have been decades to centuries before. With the limited amount of water available to the kidneys each day (under our present habits of water intake). [ * For a list of chemical reagents permitted by the FDA. This is an effort to produce something from a can or package that is tangy. [ ** With proper technique and a suitable microscope. Juan Compte of the Barcelona Water Department advises us that the Andalusian Gypsies of Southern Spain. Sr. Food processors cannot be blamed for chemical additions . ] We can only surmise that this increased use of mineral salts in foodstuffs began in this country about the turn of the century. (Actually. "primitive man" is becoming much harder to find. No.) For many years. 12. 1964. No. see an article in Food Technology —Sept. this requires a concentration gradient from blood to urine (as we have previously noted) of 1:2 or 1:3. Vol. the writer has felt that a simple comparison between the SC of freshly–spun blood serum from patients on a coronary ward. the extent cannot now be established without making a comparison of the urine and blood electrolytes of "primitive man. 42.000 to 24. but it is an inescapable fact that this overload is the direct result of failure on the part of those concerned with nutrition and food processing to recognize that excessive electrolytes will "salt out" substantially any colloid system** — including the blood system.* and to Chemical and Engineering News. 17. such items as American processed table salt. see Part II in the succeeding issue—Vol. ] Food processors add excessive "salts" (excessive over that normally provided by Nature) to improve so–called "taste" of the product. ] According to Food Technology. i. who still live in rock–hewn caves." with the electrolytes of a typical group of Americans today. even "semi–primitive man" is becoming much harder to find. 5 grams total (equivalent NaCl). Apparently. One can imagine they have. 43. would be enlightening. and even Albritton's values may not be too representative. it is difficult to establish even approximately when this overload began — or its extent. this statement can be verified with dozens of systems. 9—entitled: "Chemicals: Twenty–five Years of Progress" (pp. Also. and a group of non–coronary patients. Oct. 1966—Part I of an article entitled "Food Additives" (pp. Probably. palatable and attractive. We have no real standards for the SC of blood. is.000 micromhos.But to return to the kidney. this represents an overload for which the kidneys were not designed. also. and some American processed baking powder containing sodium aluminum sulphate. We may never ascertain when our overload of "salts" began. say. See. No. A most informative experiment would be to place a small group of persons on a mineral salt intake of. 44. Chemical and Engineering News Vol.* [ * Due to greatly improved transportation facilities within the last few decades. 45. 131135).

is due to lowering intravascular coagulation. 245) shows that ovalbumin provides a tremendous bulwark against coagulation by strong cationic electrolytes such as AlCl3. We think reduction or elimination of both arrhythmia and the PVC by the reagents and distilled water employed in our Regimen. It seems likely that human albumin performs the same function. If kept supplied . should be investigated thoroughly. as well as in beverage preparation and packaging. and in commercial food preparation.* [ * The fact they have not heretofore been found to a "significant extent" in the human system does not mean that they cannot be found. permits more effective transport and transfer of oxygen. ] These aluminum compounds are permitted by the FDA with little or no restriction. independent of all nervous control. This. necrosis. of fibrous and inflexible quality. are associated with failure of the heart valves to close properly and/or seat.that increase sales. upon standing in contact with distilled water at room temperature. we quote from Burton's Physiology and Biophysics of the Circulation (Ref. this bulwark is sufficiently overridden* to permit serious intravascular coagulation. it does not initiate it. The blame lies with the authorities who permit violation of the simple law of "salting out" — known to every industrial chemist. often will increase the water's Specific Conductance to 6–15 micromhos in a few hours. which eventually imparts to them a sort. With regard to the rhythm of the heart. and removal of metabolic products. 11-28): The beating of the heart is intrinsic. and "T. cardiac infarction — and. in the extreme. in pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs. We assume this failure to close properly is due to ischemia. [ * The detail mechanism through which "resistance to coagulation" is lost. And some will produce sizeable precipitates. Our Fig. But apparently at age 45 to 65. our health authorities should be more cognizant of the effect of trivalent cations upon the stability of any colloid system." dinners and snacks packaged in aluminum plates — wrapped in aluminum foil. in addition to being prematurely timed. Once this resistance is lost.** [ ** Examples of packaging are beer and soft drinks in aluminum cans. it apparently cannot be regained. aluminum cooking utensils are employed extensively in the home. Moreover. Moreover. if one searches in the right places. ] Doubtless this progression is: ischemia. or 30–50 micromhos in a few days. One cannot fail to be impressed by the findings of Selye and Bajusz on this subject. We also think the PVC and several other types of atypical beats. ] Those examined by the writer. Insoluble aluminum compounds such as Al(OH)3 will dissolve in the stomach through reaction with the HCl of the gastric juice — and the writer rejects any concept that they cannot diffuse directly into the bloodstream. 167 (p. in turn. V. and in similar manner. which merely modifies the rhythm.

rather. In dilute suspension. thus aiding in its proper closing and seating. All of the nervous and muscular tissues of the heart are capable of independent rhythmic activity. which takes up the role of the original pacemaker. which normally dominate cardiac activity. they assume a lenticular shape with elongated filamentous processes.with oxygen and nutrients. a collection of individual muscle or nerve cells in intimate contact with one another. which breaks down the substance binding the cells together but leaves the individual cells intact. a completely isolated mammalian heart will continue to beat just as does the isolated frog or turtle heart. 21. By incubation of minced–up heart tissue of young rats with the enzyme trypsin. they establish contact with one another. evidently paced by an individual cell. it is seen that areas of many cells in contact beat in unison. slower rhythm results from a new "pacemaker" (in the region of the sinoatrial node). the cells are spherical and not in contact. but in a few days of culture on a glass plate. all the cells of a culture beat together. . as in the classic experiment of tying a Stannius ligature between the atrium and the ventricles of the frog heart. the heartbeat does not cease. Finally. not merely the cells of the cardiac pacemaker (located in the wall of the right atrium). Some of these isolated cells (a few per cent) begin "beating" with rhythmic contractions but with independent rhythms. each cell having its cytoplasm separated from that of its neighbors by true cellular membranes. suspensions of separate cardiac cells can be prepared and cultured in nutrient material. but a new. Figure 184. from the Bayne–Jones paper of 1917 ("Blood Vessels of the Heart Valves" — American journal of Anatomy. Electron microscopic studies now show that the heart tissue is. At this time. As the cells multiply and grow. 449) shows the tremendous vascular structure of a human mitral valve. It would seem that blood in a fluid (rather than agglomerated) state would be able to impart tone and flexibility to this valve. It should be noted that there has been much disagreement over a long period as to whether or not the valves of the heart contain a vascular system. If conduction from the pacemaker area is cut off.

375) That the consumption of canned foods increased in the U. It is a composite made from photographs of dye–perfused mitral valves from 14 autopsies. there is every reason to believe that this is just the peak of a gradually worsening physicochemical sequence — one that is observable from the age of 22. P. College of Medicine." They note: p. financed by the Aluminum Association.Figure 184 pictures the elegant drawing by Max Brödel. 15. Department of Preventive Medicine and Industrial Health. to 23 billion cans in 1955 (140 cans per person). Robert Kehoe (Director of the Kettering Laboratory. According to an article in the New York Times Magazine (January 16. C. but that much greater quantities (of aluminum) are required for such manifestation than are likely to be ingested. 369) That the physicochemical characteristics of aluminum compounds can display themselves in (test) animals. It is more difficult to appraise the elimination of arrhythmia unless one simply attributes it to improved oxygen transport and transfer — to the nerves per se. 1966. and published in the AMA Archives of Industrial Health (Vol." Mr. 5. 381) That according to the U. Although death from cardiovascular disease is more prevalent between the ages of 45 and 65. P. . from one billion 500 million cans (20 cans per person) in 1900. No. p. aluminum foils and other aluminum containers are ideal (!) p. Gilmore has assured me his information was obtained from the most authoritative sources. 367) That aluminum hydroxide dissolves readily in cold HCl at pH values below 4.S. p. p. 381) That sodium aluminum sulphate is employed in baking powder. Johns Hopkins Medical School kindly loaned us the original for this reproduction. This was a literature survey.A. In 1957. Food and Drug Administration. University of Cincinnati) and his associates gave aluminum a clean bill of health. May 1957) under the title of "Aluminum in the Environment of Man. Dr. 377) That aluminum is not corroded by canned vegetables unless the media is acid or alkaline. p.S. 16). Gilmore states: "Autopsies performed on 300 soldiers in Korea — average age 22 — showed that 75% of them had definite early arteriosclerosis.

the role of the mosquito was not properly recognized. While this is quite unusual. The report states that: a. p. 100 mg/kg of aluminum sulphate is equivalent to 73 mg/kg of aluminum chloride. It should be recalled that prior to the findings of Walter Reed and others. 1 to 3 g/kg. p.000 mg/kg. (They state that this is equivalent to a maximum possible administration of 2.07 grams aluminum/day. a waterworks which was passing (to consumers) about 80% of the applied alum dosage. aluminum sulphate with 18 waters of crystallization (MW 660).) The lethal oral dosage of aluminum chloride (for test animals) approximates 1. it did happen. b. 404) That acute and even fatal poisoning of test animals can result from subcutaneous injection of aluminum sulphate (100 mg/kg).73. is administered as an antacid with apparent success at a dosage of 4 to 8 ml taken every 2 to 4 hours.) The report closes (p.) The lethal subcutaneous dosage of aluminum chloride for test animals approximates 73 mg/kg. 415) with a statement to the effect that the public and the producer need have no concern about the hazards to public health from widespread usage of aluminum products. Thus.** [ ** The writer does not question the sincerity of this report. and aluminum chloride. We will assume the crystalline. They not only felt sanguine about the situation now.000 to 3. 4 to 6% Al(OH)3. 382-3) That aluminum salts are used in the treatment of both beer and water* [ * The writer once called to the Public Health Service's attention. ] p. 399) That the lethal oral dosage of aluminum acetate for test animals is 5 to 15 g/kg.p. and we intend to pose certain questions. The PHS did not even investigate the matter. but he seriously questions its factuality and believes that it should be reappraised. but saw no change in the future. ] We believe the Kettering Laboratory report should be critically reviewed in the light of Zeta Potential. . P. The conversion factor for the sulphate to the chloride (for equivalent aluminum) is therefore 241 X (2 ÷ 660) = 0. 405) That dissolved aluminum compounds cannot be injected in the bloodstream except in very dilute forms (1% or less) — else precipitation occurs in the bloodstream. The report employs the terms "aluminum sulphate" and "aluminum chloride" without stating whether they refer to the anhydrous or the crystalline material. 412) That aluminum hydroxide gel. and aluminum chloride with 6 (MW 241). that is.

0 grams of aluminum chloride. it is probable that in the case of aluminum hydroxide antacid.000 = 10. it will be found that (according to Albritton's statistics) something like 5 to 13% does pass. The writer questions whether any aluminum compounds should be employed in foodstuffs or medications.c.07 grams per day of aluminum. . That is. Thus.5.5 times that considered safe by the FDA. This criterion would therefore limit the oral administration to 1 ÷ 100 X 1.1 electrolytes. That is to say.460 = 22. the writer finds it difficult to apply these lower standards to either 2:1 or 3. with a possible oral administration of 18. to 30 X 82 = 2. As a broad generalization.5 = 4. Now viewing the matter from another aspect: If the Kettering subcutaneous lethal dosage for animals of 73 mg/kg is applied to the 82 kg human this would approximate 82 x 73 = 6. say 14.0 ÷ 18. ] of about 100. the following observations and questions: 1.5 to 7. a food additive for use by man will not be granted a tolerance that will exceed 1/100th of the maximum amount demonstrated to be without harm to experimental animals. Instead of a safety factor of 1:100. a dosage of applied drugs and/or chemicals could not exceed about 1/100 of that amount which (under comparable circumstances) would produce a detectably harmful effect.5 = 32% absorbed from the stomach to the bloodstream. to 1 ÷ 100 X 3.) The oral dosage of aluminum hydroxide.5 grams/day of aluminum chloride. The question: Is this any suitable safety factor? If one computes the amount of beverage alcohol that can be found in the blood after taking one drink (or several). this limit would range from 10 x 82 = 820 mg. Again having in mind Schulze and Hardy. 100 ÷ 7. ] The question: Is this safe practice? 2. under the heading "Safety Factors To Be Considered. d.500 ÷ 820 to 18.460 mg. which is 18." It is true of course. the real factor of safety depends upon the quantity of gastric juice (and its HCl) that is in the stomach at the time — for converting the Al(OH)3 to AlCl3 — But it would also seem that an antacid would not "live up to its name" unless it did exactly that. which is equivalent to 18.** [ ** 100 ÷ 22. We consider germane to our position in this matter. that can be taken as an antacid with apparent safety is as high as 2. it must therefore be as low as 1:5 or to 1:14.) Aluminum hydroxide is soluble in HCl at pH values less than 4. a safety factor in applying animal experimentation data to man of 100 to 1 will be used.5 grams. Yet the dosage of aluminum hydroxide (as equivalent aluminum chloride) apparently considered by the Kettering report to be safe is 18. death of the human would result if 6.5. Furthermore.5 = 13.500 ÷ 2. If we assume a human of 180 pounds = 82 kg. say 5." state: "Except where evidence is submitted which justifies use of a different safety factor.500 mg.000 = 30 mg/kg of aluminum chloride. that certain extensively used items such as sodium chloride are employed at concentrations much higher than would be tolerated by this 1:100 ratio. the FDA re quires a safety factor* [ * FDA regulations.

34 and 37). It is unlikely that within the foreseeable future.4% of aluminum chloride does pass. what is the real resistance of the blood to coagulation by a 3:1 electrolyte. why cardiovascular disease becomes lethal principally in one's . to 73 X 100 ÷ 3.000 mg/kg lethal oral. 245) indicates that albumin (or an albumin–like protein) is the real bulwark against coagulation of the blood.3% to 2. 25 and 26 (pp. the dosage of aluminum chloride required for this coagulation was between 1.5 grams/liter). The question: With 2 to 7% of aluminum chloride known to pass from the stomach to the bloodstream. and that which is then adsorbed on the colloid. one finds that 73 X 100 ÷ 1.000 and 2.5 = 9 grams of aluminum chloride to coagulate. and 1. We are not attempting to make aluminum the "whipping boy" for heart disease. If we assume that our aforementioned 82 kg individual would have 6 liters of blood. In the presence of 3.0 grams (82 x 72 ÷ 1. This production is due.4 to 7. and onFigs.000 to 3.If one uses the Kettering figures of 73 mg/kg lethal subcutaneous. then his albumin would require 6 X 1.2% albumin. One more approach: In the past. to the reaction of aluminum hydroxide with the (natural) hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice.000.000 = 7.3% of ingested aluminum chloride pass from the stomach to the bloodstream? And second. And all the suspected causative factors must be explored if the answer is to be found why 975. 25 and 32). many serious scientists must have wondered how the human body can ingest up to 18.500 or 1. This value checks very closely with the 6. we showed that the applied reagent must be considered in two parts: that which remains in the bulk and forces the adsorption. one will be able to state definitely. The passage of aluminum chloride from the stomach to the bloodstream must represent that which remains in the bulk — hence is free and available for this absorption. We believe that our Zeta Potential curves do much to answer two basic questions: First.000 ppm (say 1.6%) must adsorb on the colloids in the stomach and in the small intestine.5 grams of (equivalent) aluminum chloride and not be killed immediately. which are known to have a tremendous surface area. and a passage of 32% known to be lethal. of course. Our Figure 167 (p.000 persons die yearly of cardiovascular disease. The major portion (92. but we believe that its apparent position in the overall picture of blood coagulation should be made clear. do we have any adequate margin of safety? Do Kettering and FDA consider this safe? 3. But we again note the importance of the condition that the daily absorption of aluminum from the stomach into the bloodstream is undoubtedly limited to the quantity of aluminum chloride that can be produced in the stomach over a period of 24 hours.7 to 97. why does only 2.000) set forth by Kettering. In Chapters 8 and 10 (pp. and in particular on the villi protruding from the walls of the small intestine.

or 4.) There is a marked reduction in the quantity of albumin. which also results in leakage of small amounts of cationic polyelectrolyte into the system.4 pounds / person / year. We also took up this matter with certain other officials in the aluminum field. It is the maximum item of the family budget. When one tries to go further than this.) We excerpt briefly from Part 1.) Platelets have become "leaky" and discharge small amounts of their cationic polyelectrolyte into the system.2 grams / person / day. (This does not include such items as sodium chloride. 5. Retail sales amounted to approximately 80 billion dollars in 1966.) The mechanism for "de–fusing" the platelets begins to deteriorate.) The dollar value of food additives increased from 172 million dollars in 1955. 3. The answers would seem to lie along one or more of the following speculative hypotheses. 4. who spent the day with us at our laboratory in discussing these matters.50's and 60's.) The food industry is the largest single industry in the country. as follows: 1. a gain of 66%. the albumin becomes less able to resist the action of excessive 3:1.) 2. we have reached the age of 50 to 60: 1. the basic causes are there. one encounters the still greater enigma of why all plant and animal life "grows old.) There is a gradual breakdown and deterioration of the organs which produce the albumin." We repeat that the Kettering Laboratory and the FDA should reexamine their concepts in the light of Zeta Potential. By the time. . 2:1 and 1:1 electrolytes. In October 1966. to 285 million dollars in 1965. Why don't more succumb in their 20's and 30's? Surely.) There is a significant reduction in the "buffering" properties of the albumin. This is equivalent to 3. we brought these facets to the attention of the head of the New York office of the Aluminum Association. Food additives rose from 419 million pounds in 1955.) 2. We again refer to the two–part article in the October 1966 issues of Chemical and Engineering News (a publication of the American Chemical Society. to 661 million pounds in 1965. (That is to say.

mono– and diglycerides. and trisodium pyrophosphate. calcium phosphate.45 to 3. includes: salt. This category. aluminum potassium sulphate. papain. we present Table No. baking powder." these GRAS substances are not even considered food additives under the terms of the Food Additives Amendment. An Administrative Fellow at Mellon Institute: "There is no such thing as a class of substances that are poisons. because of years of widespread use in foods. It is significant that when we divide the SC of today's much more concentrated urine. calcium citrate.) The public is becoming increasingly interested in more sophisticated. sodium acetate. and about 575 other materials. sodium aluminum phosphate. sodium tripolyphosphate. ." In closing this section on foodstuffs. monosodium glutamate. sodium citrate. about 2. sodium phosphate. . These foodstuffs were first put through a "juicer"* to bring them to a pulp. to separate the liquid from the pulp.) Chemical and Engineering News notes that "on the basis of somewhat tortured reasoning. [ * Panasonic model MJ-15.3. 31 which shows pH and Specific Conductance for seventeen canned vegetables and fruits (selected at random). . we obtain the values shown in Table No. mono–. pepper. sodium tetrapyrophosphate. to which apparently some type of salt had been added to improve taste and/or sales.3 billion pounds in 1954. with an average of 2. (The September 1964 issue of Food Technology [pp. aluminum sulphate. Henry F.) The laws of the Food and Drug Administration do not apply to certain additives that. are "Generally Recognized As Safe" by experts in the field. . citric acid. the increase in Specific Conductance ranged from a factor of 1. Smyth. potassium citrate. 5. abbreviated as GRAS. compared with fresh vegetables and fruits. 131-134] lists under the classification of GRAS: vinegar.) 6.OOO G.75. di–. Jr. The list under the classification of "Additives" with stated tolerance and/or "restrictions" includes: sodium hexametaphosphate. cinnamon. sodium metaphosphate. salt. It would seem that mineral salts in our processed (canned) foodstuffs are being increased by about this same amount.54.0 billion pounds in 1964. flavorful and exotic foods — less bland and more "highly formulated.) As of June 1966. to 2. ] then centrifuged at 30.) Consumption of quick–frozen foods rose from 0. sugar. 30. citric acid. 26..54. A poison is simply too much. we concluded that the kidney was being overloaded by a concentration factor of 2 to 3." 4. From Table No. 7. by the factor of 2. 8.430 food additives (not including GRAS additives) were subject to FDA regulations. potassium bicarbonate. aluminum ammonium sulphate. aluminum sodium sulphate. For the vegetables. sodium phosphate.) Says Dr.

In closing this chapter on the basic causes of intravascular coagulation and cardiovascular disease. 31 SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE AND pH OF CANNED v.900 11.000 micromhos range — not 25. Apparently.000 35. 30 Present SC of Urine in micromhos 20. These figures may not impress the reader. it should be noted that "salting out" and the effect of highly coagulating electrolytes are not the only factors contributing to cardiovascular disease. Paul Dudley White's statements on the value of proper exercise and nutrition in maintaining the cardiovascular system in good condition. It is of interest that the Specific Conductance of fruits is considerably lower than vegetables.000 30. We are also in complete agreement with Dr.100 for the series listed. and it impedes the travel of dissociated ions — thereby reducing the apparent Specific Conductance.000 2. TABLE NO.000. his kidneys would operate in the 5. alcohol and tobacco — in excess — as traceable causes. it would seem that if a person ingested only fresh vegetables without salt (with any reasonable amount of water). this is simply the nature of these foodstuffs. FRESH VEGETABLES AND FRUITS * Vegetables and Fruits pH Fresh pH Canned SC Micromhos SC Micromhos Concentration Factor Percent Increase .000 Present SC of Urine in micromhos — divided by 2.000 to 35. ranging from 2.900 9. The medical profession has repeatedly pointed to table salt. but we doubt that many anthropologists would be surprised at the failure of the kidney and heart under these circumstances. Selye has also pointed strongly to "stress.800 13. Sugar is of course nonionic. Conversely.54 7. therefore the processors add sugar instead of salt. This is because a characteristic of fruits is sweetness.000 to 15.000 to 7.700 Therefore.s." We are in full accord with these points of view.5. two values shown represent a decrease. In no instance was there a rise in SC upon processing (canning).TABLE NO.

84 2.9 6. as above shown) is due principally to the addition of sodium chloride.2 — 3.0 4.5 5. it would also seem probable that produce from "organic" gardening would be lower in mineral solids than produce raised with conventional fertilizers. — decr.) Oranges 15.400 — — — — 1.000 4. a large increase in the SC of a processed food (particularly a canned food.000 12.2 4.84 2.600 7.) Grapefruit 13.) Lima Beans 5.600 — — — (6) 3. It is obvious that a person substituting fruits for vegetables would halve his mineral solids input.00 1.) Pears 14.000 13.2 5.0 4.75 3.400 4.9 5.) Bananas 12.2 4.3 4.500 micromhos.1 5.56 2.000 7.3 — — — — 3.700 3.) Apples 16.6 4. In this connection.000 7.55 — — — — — — — — — — (7) 275 236 60 184 156 100 45 184 155 — — — — decr.300 4.) Strawberries 17. ] It should be stressed that in many instances. and fresh fruit about 3.) Peas 4.) Black Grapes 10.200 11.) Red Grapes 11. — — — [ * Note that the SC of fresh vegetables averaged about 7.100 — 1.3 6.) Tomatoes 7) Carrots 8.3 — — — — 3.3 6.45 2.800 5.900 2.6 — — (3) 5.000 2. 40 & 41.100 2.000 21. Both Bajusz and Selye (Refs.4 3.400 3.6 6.500 19.) Watermelon Average (2) 6.Fresh (1) 1.500 21.700 6.8 6.3 6.36 1.000 17.4 — — — (4) 4.000 2.600 Canned (5) 18. 11-39.) Asparagus 2.540 3.800 13.3 6.2 4.000 17. 11-13 & 14) outline the role potassium plays in .600.400 7.) Beets 3.60 2.) String Beans Average 9.500 17.) Corn 6.

all containers should be marked . Moreover. Unfortunately at the present time. is improvident and presumptuous. Only a few would be necessary and I list them as a "public service." (But I suspect there is little likelihood they will be employed. and in quantities far exceeding the original mineral content of the foodstuff. S.) 1. Contributing to this trend is the increasing usage of chemical additives. It reflects a flagrant disregard of natural laws — which cannot. They emphasize that heavy additions of sodium to the diet deplete potassium (by increasing its output in the urine). and also the increasing usage of aluminum for food packaging. realistic. be violated. large–scale prevention can be readily effected — but only through appropriate Food & Drug Administration regulations. Our arbitrary use in food processing of sodium (rather than potassium). But this of course would require positive action on a national scale. the writer believes the death rate from CVD could be halved in one year. and reduced more than 90% in a decade. 12-41). PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION Obviously. Unless remedial and control steps of this order are taken in food processing and preparation. one finds that potassium — not sodium — is the principal cation in most raw (natural) foodstuffs. in cardiovascular disease (CVD) the aim should be prevention through elimination of the basic causes.) As an indication of the degree to which the "salt" content of a foodstuff has been increased through processing. Dept. Control measures should be considered simply a temporary expedient. necrosis. and even death. This would tend to maintain the original K / Na balance of the foodstuff. myocardial infarction. with impunity. and often result in high blood pressure. principally for those now over 40. of Agriculture Handbook #8 (Ref. the proper time to institute preventive measures has long since passed. When one critically examines the U. In the writer's opinion. indications are that the death rate from cardiovascular disease will rise. we believe that all "salt" added to foodstuffs in processing — and "salt" sold by the grocer for table and cooking use — should consist of a mixture of 60% potassium chloride (or sulphate). and 40% sodium chloride. the individual does not become fully aware of CVD until he has experienced some sort of attack — such as severe angina or paroxysmal tachycardia — and of course at this stage. Even allowing for persons who drink or smoke excessively. and also reduce the addition of sodium by about half.cardiovascular systems and disorders.

Here. Aluminum sulphate should be permitted for coagulation — but not in quantities to exceed 100 mg/l or 200 mg/kg of system. 2. and the final processed SC.* [ * Figure 185 shows the rise in Specific Conductance of distilled water added to the ten cans containing the eight vegetables and two fruits shown on Table No. ] The concentration of the cation in the distilled water after standing 5 days at room temperature should not exceed 3 ppm when analyzed by spectrographic or other approved methods. followed by removal of this sludge from the product. yellow and red criteria representing actual SC values of: zero to 750.10 ppm. We assume that conductivity is caused by metallic ions. In the light of our overall findings. For the yellow stripe.) The release of metallic ions from "cans. 3. Also shown is an aluminum beverage can. we believe that all existing food additives should be re–screened with respect to Zeta Potential. 5. yellow or red stripe. 31.) No trivalent or quadrivalent cationic electrolytes (or cationic polyelectrolytes) added to food or beverages should show a residual in the finished product to exceed 0. but of course. foodstuffs and medications of electrolytes containing trivalent or quadrivalent cations (employed for purposes other than coagulation) should be prohibited. 6. expressed as the cation.) The label on all foodstuffs and beverages should show (in micromhos) the initial SC. 25%. should be similarly coded — with the green. The standards set forth in item 4 (above) should apply. care should be exercised to insure maximum precipitation of the aluminum as a hydrate. handling or storage of food that permit trivalent cations to be discharged to the foodstuff should be manufactured. their nature should be determined by a spectographic analysis. When empty food containers are thoroughly cleaned and filled with distilled water." and from vessels employed in food and beverage packaging. and over 1. For a green stripe. Increases over 25% should be marked with a red stripe. should be controlled by more effective linings and coatings. and kept under agitation at room temperature. 4. including milk. the allowable rise in the SC of this distilled water should be limited to not more than 2 micromhos per day. employed or offered for sale.) All beverages.500 micromhos. All .with a green. 10 micromhos in 5 days. 750 to 1.) No utensils for the preparation. or 20 micromhos in 30 days.500. respectively.) The addition to beverages. 7. the SC of the processed food should not exceed the original value by more than 10%.

It is readily seen that these reagents could be employed for industrial dispersion. . It is almost superfluous at this point to go into greater detail on how dispersing agents break up and/or prevent intravascular coagulation. We therefore present without comment the basic dispersion curves for heparin. It is obvious that they render the system more disperse through increasing mutual repulsion. 59-61. CONTROL In the main. ) Dextran is now employed in medicine as a dispersant. Therefore. 19. As we have stated before. not decreased. intravascular coagulation is related to an insufficiency of water intake. 187. it is evident that with care in selection. the writer cannot envision control without use of water. ] sodium hexametaphosphate. Other trivalent anions (or anions of equivalent valence) are almost equally effective. 188. and that albumin (or an albumin–like protein) serves as a veritable bulwark against sudden or accidental change that would threaten the integrity of the organism. 189. ( Figs. Those who still want food "tangy" with salt would be free to purchase them.* [ * We do not believe that the potassium citrate employed in our Regimen has any significant relationship to the KREBS (citric acid) cycle (see pp. 2:1 and 3:1 electrolytes. potassium citrate. and this is due to the trivalence of its anions.additives with dangerous cationic properties should be prohibited — now and in the future. and manufacturers would then plan their production accordingly. Ref. The curve for sulphates is given on Fig. many industrial dispersants could be employed for preventing or correcting intravascular coagulation.12-40). 190. Conversely. and low molecular weight dextran. The public should be adequately appraised of the effects on the human system of excessive 1:1. if any of the dispersing agents we have discussed were taken in capsule form without water. intravascular coagulation would be actually increased. The potassium (or sodium) citrate in our Regimen functions because of strong electronegative Zeta Potential.

etc.Our Regimen for control of intravascular coagulation poses certain problems that are not easily solved. the quantity of water needed is a matter of concern. . finished waters from municipal sources leave much to be desired from the standpoint of taste. This would involve complete deionization. Since only 1½ quarts of drinking water is needed per person per day. Even with no added electrolytes.) The individual would thus be free to prepare a water containing a proper dispersing agent for drinking use.* [ * With present–day heavy stream pollution. Tap water will not suffice. the individual could install his own distillation equipment. odor. ] (As previously noted. as shown. it would seem simpler to have all waterworks throughout the country dispense deionized water in plastic containers at a few cents per gallon on a cash and carry basis. They are not recommended for home use because of the possibility of undetected bacterial contamination. distilled water may prove a welcome change. then treating with appropriate reagents the entire required output of 125 gallons per person per day. deionizers are preferred for the removal of mineral salts from large volumes of water. Or. And also. The writer does not believe it is economically practical for municipal waterworks to produce a water containing suitable dispersing characteristics and furnish it under pressure to the distribution system. For example. only distilled water (with appropriate quantities of a dispersing agent) should be employed.

is fulfilled. The writer has every confidence that cardiovascular disease will soon be prevented. my "obligation to society. several physicians became personally acquainted with our research and they seem convinced that we are on the "right track." My satisfaction with what we have accomplished in this field fully justifies the effort expended. Thus. In these mobile laboratories. I say "less power to him. unfortunately. And only after this basic pattern was firmly established. those persons involved who are genuinely concerned. We have no way of knowing at this stage how our work will be received by the medical profession — individually or as a whole. of course. I am not a reformer. During the past year. as well as controlled." as it were." They are enthusiastic about our results. malfunctions in the range of 10 to 30% — or even higher — are not uncommon.There should be mobile cardiological laboratories in every city in the country where one could." The writer felt an obligation to prepare this chapter on blood stability and cardiovascular disease. "one swallow maketh not a spring. But I feel no reluctance in setting forth and sharing with any interested party or group my personal experience and the considerable information that has become available through our research. Therefore. could one hope to apply it successfully to biological systems. malfunctions are sometimes observed. no probability of any meaningful program to control cardiovascular disease on a national level in the foreseeable future. it . one should also be able to have his ECG monitored for malfunctional beats. the application of basic principles of Zeta Potential to the human organism was an ideal test of their verity — because a most important criterion for evaluating any hypothesis involving a natural law is: "Does it obtain (prevail) for biological systems?" But with Chapter 22. control should be instituted at Grade 2. must face the problem individually. It was necessary to spend ten years of intensive research to develop the role of Zeta Potential in the stability of industrial colloids. I would not debate my thesis for a moment with anyone of a different discipline than mine. but in the order of only 1 to 5%. We have never observed malfunctional beats at Grade 2 IVC. have a quick examination and grading of his sclera. The writer is a research chemist and does not prescribe. At Grade 3. At Grade 4 or 5. plus 25 grams of a 3:1 electrolyte. But. This is left to one's physician. Moreover. These are realistic steps that could be taken. and if a person wishes to ingest 50 grams of "salt" a day. without appointment. If it is not accomplished in this country. In the writer's view there is.

will be in some country where politics and science are less financially intertwined. .


He comes to the table each morning for fruit. he is encouraged to fly.EXAMPLES OF THE REMEDIAL EFFECTS OF THE REGIMEN EXAMPLE 1 — The Story of Koko and the Aluminum Dish Left. due to well–balanced foodstuffs. is high and his talk enlightening after any two–day convention or one– day trip to Washington. the writer's six–year–old Panama Parrot. For exercise. is a photograph of Koko. His I. and again at night for a green salad. His plumage and coloring are excellent. .Q.

The General Manager of the company who made the cage was very cooperative and promised to immediately change all his units to glass or plastic feed dishes. Koko's feet suddenly grew cold.If one is accustomed to "handling" a parrot. The writer concluded that Koko had simply become another victim of intravascular coagulation. In about 24 hours the ZP of the system progressively changed from –30 to +15 mv. undoubtedly released aluminum ions at a more rapid rate than normal for kitchenware." I did not change his mode of life. 50's and 60's. Instead. except to eliminate his intake of aluminum by substituting a Pyrex dish — and provide him with a water of known dispersing characteristics. half and half. particularly a young and healthy bird. he lost most of the feathers from an area 5 cm in diameter on his chest. Within five days. The dish was probably "cast scrap. and the case is interesting and significant. and was on his way to a genuine heart attack. and went to work on Koko's water dish. it was filled with distilled water plus 100 ppm of Minusil. 191. It is available to any genuinely concerned party for further study.0 gpl of combined sodium and potassium citrate. one is quite aware that the feet are noticeably warm. with no change in the formula — which at that time was 1. Koko's aluminum dish was cycled a dozen or so times with distilled water to bring out the full bloom of the aluminum oxides. He joined our group and was placed on the Regimen. His delayed intravascular coagulation (of a truly serious nature) may be compared to the death of most persons from cardiovascular disease in their 40's. For "treatment. the writer withheld all vitamins or other forms of treatment. and he began to fly in three days. For test. A competent veterinarian examined Koko. which was cast aluminum. The veterinarian thought his recovery was amazing. Then he ceased to fly. and his down appeared dry and lifeless under the microscope. He suggested vitamin deficiency and prescribed B Complex." and in corroding. Koko had drunk from the same dish for more than three years. He grew back all his lost feathers in five weeks. At about the time the writer established his Regimen of synthetic water. and it is shown on Fig. It is a source of the greatest satisfaction to me that our . His feet grew warm in 48 hours. It would appear that the blood and albumin of the parrot and human have much in common.

The onset is sudden and without warning. But usually there is no apparent precipitating cause. Saunders Co. Actually. from this standpoint. indications are that one should view paroxysmal tachycardia as a blood disorder — not a cardiovascular condition. Koko is (and has since remained) in excellent health. fatigue. There may be dizziness. and he is still on the same formula I employ.. The ventricles almost always respond to each atrial beat.. an unexpected emotional upset or an unpleasant dream appears to unleash the attack. The atrial rate varies usually between 140 and 220 per minute. . . which have been held responsible for premature beats. .. but most commonly between 180 and 200. Often a rapid change in position of the head or trunk.. toxic and digestive disturbances. have also been indicated as responsible for attacks of atrial tachycardia. and a sense of smothering may occur early. for the first time.... exertion and disease of the biliary tract. EXAMPLE 2 — The Writer's Paroxysmal Tachycardia As previously noted. A medical friend suggested that it would be enlightening for me to describe one of my attacks in detail. The same nervous. . emotional stress. Third Edition. Anxiety or even angor animi.. Pa. fullness or a sense of pulsation in the neck and head or epigastric distress. Sometimes there is definite precordial pain. a smothering sensation in the chest and throat. B. Philadelphia. I quote briefly from Chapter 14 of Friedberg's Diseases of the Heart. ] The etiology of atria paroxysmal tachycardia is obscure.research enabled us to combine. 11-24-Published by W. These local symptoms are often overshadowed by psychic and reflex nervous manifestations. the writer has a ten–year history of paroxysmal tachycardia. weakness or exhaustion. from the standpoint of Physical Chemistry and Zeta Potential.. especially when the attacks persist for more than a few minutes.* which describes this condition: [ * Ref. faintness or momentary syncope at the onset. the basic contributions of von Helmholtz and Knisely — and put them to such dramatic and worthwhile use. . coldness or sweating. Occasionally the atrial rate is as high as 300 per minute. There may be polyuria during or at the termination of the paroxysm..

The attack may occasionally terminate fatally. injected intravenously.. . takes a deep breath. As a rule. As a rule.. Digitalis. . . Paroxysms of atrial tachycardia stop as abruptly as they begin... the attacks subside spontaneously in seconds or minutes. .. at a time.. but especially if there is underlying cardiac disease and if the paroxysm is prolonged.. 15 to 25 cc of a 20 per cent solution.... either with signs of progressive failure or suddenly.. or because the physician controls the attack. The pulse is very rapid and small... holds his breath with glottis closed. Magnesium sulfate. Weakness. . however.. A similar vagal reflex may be induced by firm pressure over one eyeball at a time and then if necessary over both eyeballs simultaneously.. either spontaneously or because the patient adopts certain positions. . . ... pallor. develop. . the left carotid sinus for 10 to 30 seconds. .. normal rhythm is restored and the symptoms and signs of circulatory insufficiency abate rapidly. In severe and prolonged attacks the patient may appear obviously anxious or agitated and there may be objective signs of congestive failure. The clinical picture of shock with extreme hypotension may. . Pronestyl may also succeed in terminating attacks of atrial tachycardia although it is generally less effective than in the control of ventricular tachycardia. is now widely employed as the drug of choice in the treatment of atrial tachycardia. Ouabain is administered if there is great urgency. administered intravenously.. but attacks with disturbing symptoms last for several hours and occasionally for several days. the paroxysm ends abruptly. perspiration and coldness of the extremities may be due to diminished cardiac output... . Potassium salts have been employed to control the atrial tachycardia resulting from digitalis intoxication.Serious circulatory disturbances may develop if the rate is exceedingly rapid. The physician's most useful procedure is to massage the right carotid sinus and. has been effective in the control of paroxysmal tachycardia.5 cc. 0. if this is ineffective..

I term this the "rate per day. Figure 193 shows the plot of this data. compared with a previous ten–year experience of an attack every month or two. I decided to solve this perplexing question of polyuria. and forewarned an assistant that he might be called upon at any time of the night to operate the oscilloscope. he gives as good a description of paroxysmal tachycardia as one can obtain. and the quantity.The prevention of frequent attacks of paroxysmal tachycardia is difficult because of ignorance as to the underlying or precipitating cause. This inability of recall put the writer in about the same state as the long– bearded octogenarian who was unable to get a good night's sleep after he was asked: "Do you sleep with your beard under the covers." because 17 hours represents one's normal.0 liters/day. indigestion and constipation." I long shared his indecision on what now appears to be a most important point.5 to 3. All of the measures advised in the treatment of frequent extrasystoles should be employed including the avoidance of emotional tension. .5 liters/day. Certainly. wakeful "micturating" day. Eventually the attack occurred. I recorded the hour. fatigue. His symptoms are accurate and his appraisal realistic. and the "equivalent rate" for a 17–hour period. But he appears undecided when he states: "There may be polyuria (excessive urination) during or at the termination of the paroxysm. or an average of say 1. I found that they were also undecided. Results were rather astonishing. coffee and alcohol. or on top of the covers?" Therefore. because I believed that the nature of the mineral salts discharged during an attack (compared with normal) might give some clue as to the basic cause of the attack. the time interval between sample collections. In fact. also that of a subsequent attack about one year later. tobacco. This represents a current incidence of two attacks in two years. One stated that his extreme fright completely dominated his other sensibilities. I therefore kept a graduated cylinder handy. From this I computed the rate per hour. It may be that Friedberg speaks from personal experience. Values throughout a "normal" day range from about 0. and measurements were duly recorded. in discussing this matter with others who are subject to these unpredictable attacks. I can testify to the reasonableness of that. In collecting this data. unusual effort or exertion.

and that there were numerous malfunctional beats which threw no blood.* [ * 6. A peak of 17. 1 passed 1. I passed 860 ml of urine in 130 minutes.8 liters/day. and pulse rate 105.600 ml of urine in 180 minutes.9 ml/minute. or 6. It is seen from Fig. and Episode #2. This was equivalent to an average rate of 6. During Episode 41. I therefore had a continuous cardiographic picture of my electrical output and wave forms. At the onset of these attacks I put on an overcoat and trousers. In Episode #1. Therefore.5 liters/day was reached about 1 hour and 20 minutes after the start. I was awakened from normal sleep by these attacks. an average of 9.000 micromhos. equivalent to 4. On most of the beats where blood was discharged.6 ml/minute.5 liters/day was reached in 1 hour and 15 minutes after the start. the SC of my composite urine was 9. it was evident that my pulse rate was about 100 per minute.5 grams of sodium chloride per .8 liters/day.6 X 60 X 17 ÷ 1000 = 6. ] Peak production of 12. The ECG and the traces of the radial pulse showed that the average rate of heartbeat 20 minutes after the onset was 190/minute. 193 that Episode #1 lasted 2 hours and 10 minutes. the pulse traces indicated that the quantity was significantly subnormal. or 8. By finger and thumb pressure on my carotid arteries. 193.Referring to Fig. exactly 3 hours.1 liters/ day. and was at my laboratory two blocks away with leads connected and the oscilloscope in service within 20 minutes. In Episode 42. it was evident that 45% of my heartbeats were pumping no blood. and the slope of the curves indicates that I must have awakened at the actual onset.

. which I thought would contain the electrolytes my kidneys were endeavoring to "get rid of.70 (as contrasted with 0. my kidneys removed from my blood 4 ÷ 37 = 11% of my mineral salts in 2 hours 10 minutes.9 grams per hour. say 1.4 grams of NaCl.6 X 3.5) is equivalent to 3.500 X 0.860 X 4. This (0. or substantially the entire mineral content of my blood system. During Episode #2. my comments are confined to my own kidneys.08 gpi given in Table No.liter. equivalent to 4. say 0.500 micromhos. However.72.3 grams of salt/liter.M.3 (say 2) grams per hour. about which I can express my own professional opinion.000 = 1. We have never determined the factor for urine..500 ÷ 9.M. the SC of my composite urine was 8. During Episode #2.9 (say 4 grams) of NaCl passed in a period of 2 hours and 10 minutes. or 1. the grams of equivalent NaCl per liter of blood would be 12. Conversely. my blood must contain the equivalent of 6 X 6. the factor to convert blood minerals to SC should be 12.** [ ** Actually. If so. But before discussing the composition of the mineral salts discharged." I also collected a "catch" sample at 9:00 A.50 — say 50 g total This seems reasonable and checks closely with the concentration of 9.0 grams of mineral salts per liter.500 = 0. My purpose was to determine the norm after the Episode.50 for NaCl). The question: "Why?" Naturally. Even an eight– hour siege at this rate of mineral loss would halve our blood electrolytes — probably producing death through osmotic imbalance. but we presume it would approximate that of blood. ] During Episode #1. making the factor for conversion from SC to blood minerals 9. for good and sufficient reasons (known best to my glandular system) my kidneys rid my blood of mineral salts at a rate of 1. we will not undertake this refinement in these computations because we are mainly demonstrating principle. according to typical analyses shown on Table 13 blood contains about 9. It would seem that here we have a reason.000 ÷ 12.4) is equivalent to 6. Assuming my system contains 6 liters of blood at 12. This (1.75 = 52. they would have removed 17 x 2 = 34 grams. This rate is equivalent 7 ÷ 3 = 2. 6 hours after the termination of the Episode. my kidneys removed 7 ÷ 37 or 19% of my mineral salts in 3 hours. normal after the kidneys had purged these unwanted salts. 13.40 (vs 2.9 to 2..0 for NaCl). Thus. therefore.9 (say 7 grams) of salt passed during this 3–hour period.39. I collected a composite urine sample from 1:00 to 3:10 A. Had they kept this up for a 17–hour period.600 micromhos.3 grams/hour.7 = 8. it should be noted that paroxysmal tachycardia generally has been regarded as an episode of short duration. that is to say.75 g/l — giving an overall mineral content of 6 X 8.25 = 37. During Episode #1.

) Discarded the manganese. but retention of potassium and magnesium. lead. these salts would be of a coagulating nature. In columns 4 and 5 we show percent of total solids. sometimes dangerous. because the kidneys: 1.Results are shown in Table No. Therefore it seems reasonable that during this "paroxysmal purge" the kidneys would tend to discharge the objectionable cations and anions. but retain the needed ones. The latter expression compensates for the difference in the dissolved mineral content of the samples. 167 (p. silicon and silver I will not comment on the other elements. are generally considered undesirable. It must be concluded that this intake was due to foodstuffs — either processed with aluminum compounds and/or prepared in aluminum . These salts were probably "tied up" somewhere in my blood system. But despite this. The results of analysis (Table 32) bear out this hypothesis. there also would be an excess of the 2:1 and/or 3:1 types. it is evident that my system continued to ingest it — from sources unknown. But these indications are that my blood was overloaded with mineral salts. One must be cautious in drawing conclusions from such sparse data. It would seem that to produce these reactions.) Discarded the sodium.) Discarded the aluminum. It is obvious that the riddance of sodium. agrees fully with concepts that Selye and Bajusz have stressed for years. as previously noted. but retained (to a very high degree) the magnesium 3. 245). The constituents of columns 2 and 3 are on the basis of mg/l. by a 13:1 ratio 4. as I have no criteria for assessing either their value or their harmfulness. whether di– or trivalent. Thus. Another point: For the past two years I have attempted to completely avoid intake of aluminum in any form. but retained the potassium 2. in addition to 1:1 electrolytes. the ratio in my urine during and after this purge was 13:1. Judging from the curves of Fig. And. 32. it is possible that the strong cations could be combined with my albumin.) Discarded the calcium. The cations of the heavy metals.

0037 3:1 1:4 3:1 1:37 13-1 13:1 3:1 30:1 1:4 — 13:1 — 1:4 — [ * Again.9 0.010 0.00037 0.010 0.2 0.2 0.2 0. Inc.037 0.1 0.001 NF 33 33 0.2 0.89 0.47 0.02 NF 0. the spectrographic analyses were done under the supervision of Dr.vessels.02 2 NF 0.02 0.00037 NF 0. TABLE NO.001 0.037 NF 0.005 0. Bell of Lucius Pitkin.2 0. 32 SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSES* OF URINE COLLECTED DURING (AND 6 HOURS AFTER) AN ATTACK OF PAROXYSMAL TACHYCARDIA Adjusted Probable Concentration mg per Liter Element (1) Percent During Attack (4) Ratio After Attack (5) During Attack (2) After Attack (3) Ratio Cols.02 NF 1800 1800 18 1800 2 2 0.2 89 8.005 0. 4:5 (6) Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Aluminum Phosphorous Iron Manganese Rubidium Lead Silicon Silver Copper Cadmium 1700 170 17 17 9 9 0.33 33 0.010 0.037 0.0037 0. ] Elements checked for but not found: .0037 0.89 0. In fact they apparently consider aluminum excellent for packaging.47 0. Both practices are permitted by the FDA.1 0.

000 micromhos at which most kidneys now generally operate because of insufficient water. Gallium. time was of the essence. They would permit excessive back–slippage at even 100 beats per minute.) A sensing mechanism (possibly one or more glands) detected that something was wrong — that 1:1 and/or 2:1 and/or 3:1 electrolytes had built up to a dangerous concentration in the blood stream. Arsenic. 3. not the 20. This peak apparently is in the range of 8. 5. Cobalt. through preoccupation and politics) — had long since "salted out" my blood. 4. [ The Elements in green are required for a healthy body. Strontium. and they must operate at their peak efficiency for mineral solids removal. one may form a speculative hypothesis: 1. Tungsten. ] In rationalizing these episodes of paroxysmal tachycardia. My heart action was stepped up. Moreover. Lithium. Germanium. Thus the rate of liquid output (for a short period of time) reached 12½ to 17½ liters per day* [ * To obtain this much–needed water. Indium.) My cardiovascular system responded to this alarm by increasing the rate of heartbeat.) But the warning signal went through. Titanium.Zinc. Bismuth. and my valves commenced to malfunction. the valve closure worsened.000 to 35. Thus the increased pumpage which my Sensing mechanism called for. my kidneys could not withdraw it from the . thus making 150 to 200 beats even more impossible. Thallium." through improvement of "taste" (and the FDA. through ischemia and infarction they had rendered my heart valves fibrous. Molybdenum. ironically resulted in significantly diminished blood output. and transport of oxygen and metabolic end– products. My sensing mechanism was also unaware that my mitral and aortic valves (that once would have seated properly at a high operating rate) would now fail to close properly. Zirconium. Amtimony. which normally should increase the rate of blood circulation. inflexible and petrifactive. However. It therefore activated an alarm. Vanadium. Tin. and they began immediately to discharge to waste the dangerous concentration of mineral salts. from the standpoint of Physical Chemistry.) My kidneys also received the danger signal from my sensing mechanism.000 micromhos. As my heart beat increased. Nickel. they apparently sensed that to do this. 2.) My sensing mechanism had no way of knowing that the food processors of our "advanced western ecology. Barium.600 to 9.

decreased the liquid volume by 860 ÷ 6. The necessity for additional water. It can be that paroxysmal tachycardia can be prevented. ] This emphasizes that both heparin and the writer's Regimen should be considered as regulatory and control techniques.M. but they cannot so operate simply because of insufficient water input. to 5 P. ] 6. (The writer refrained from drinking water during these episodes.) After Episode #2.) before any significant quantity of urine was discharged.** [ ** I do not now permit my Regimen to be interrupted. the incidence of my paroxysmal tachycardia has decreased about 80%. This indicates that the water had been "borrowed.) In these two cases of paroxysmal tachycardia. because this would have concentrated the blood electrolytes. after which the emergency was ended. to supply the kidney during this period of very heavy discharge. And the two episodes discussed herein came after out–of–town trips which interrupted my Regimen for periods of 4 or 5 days. Riddick — Introduction Understanding Colloidal Suspensions A summary of this book submitted by Frank Hartman. We have every proof that the kidneys function more efficiently when discharging a relatively low concentration of electrolytes. they must have "borrowed" this water from some other source — say interstitial fluid. 7. it must run its course. UNDER CONSTRUCTION --. .) We again stress that the 860 ml of water for Episode #1.blood. If our hypothesis is correct." In closing this section. Therefore. is clearly evident. and 1. for this would have had the effect of concentrating the solids. we would judge from the curves of Fig. i.. But it would seem worthwhile for someone to find out.M.More Coming " Control of Colloid Stability through Zeta Potential " by Thomas M.000 = 15%. it should be noted that through the use of the Regimen.600 ml for Episode #2 could not have come from the blood system. the unwanted electrolytes were discharged in two and three hours respectively. not truly curative measures. The writer has no idea how close the paroxysmal tachycardia described conforms to the average pattern — or whether it resembles it at all.e. the writer drank two quarts of water (from 9 A. This water must therefore have been "borrowed" from some other source." and was being "returned. It would seem that the ingestion of one or two quarts of distilled water during the paroxysm could be helpful. 193that once the paroxysm is triggered.

Chapter 19 — Dilatancy. Thomas M. and the double and diffuse layers Chapter 19 explains the science of how agitation can break up blood clots and what else can be Using Hydroponics to Understand the Earth's Life Processes On the Atomic Level Tommy's History Of Western Technology Site Link List The Tortoise Shell "Science of Health" Newsletter — Putting an End to Disease on Our Planet — Tortoise Shell Life Science Puzzle Box Front Pa . McDaniel — "Using Zeta Potential as a Healing Tool" The Art of Healing Ourselves There Has To Be Something Wrong ! A careful look at heavy metal intoxication by Jann M. Part 2 — Asbestos – Blood This is the part of Thomas Riddick's book that Dr. Riddick's "Dynamic Systems"– Chap. McDaniel quotes the most. 14..Thomas M. MD discusses his studies with Vitamin C and other Nutrients Animals have an Enzyme in their Livers that makes Vitamin C !!! Lots of it !!! Vitamin C controls “Free Radicals” a major factor in preventing heart disease.. Dr. But People Do! Matthias Rath. Riddick's Chapter 14 — " Dynamic Systems " Static images help us understand.C. T. Excerpts and Important Material — Glossary Riddick's Suggested Reference Mateial The EDTA Story — Using Disodium EDTA as an Anionic Surfactant by Tommy Cichanowski Why Animals Don't Get Heart Attacks . Gentry-Glander jmg@derglanderhaus.C. but we live in a Dynamic World & need to view it that way. thixotropy. T.

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