# Synchronous Generators

Introduction
• source of all the electrical energy • largest energy converters • Convert mechanical energy into electrical energy up to 1500 MW

Commercial Synchronous Generator • Stationary –field synchronous generator • same appearance as dc generator • salient poles – create the dc field. 3-phase voltage is induced – depend upon a speed of rotation and dc exciting current in the stationary poles • frequency of the voltage – depend upon the speed and number of poles on the field . cut by a revolving armature • Armature possesses a 3-phase winding – connected to 3 slip ring mounted on shaft • a set of brush sliding on the slip ring – connected to an external 3phase load • as the armature rotates.

Commercial Synchronous Generator • Revolving –field synchronous generator • stationary armature called stator • 3-phase stator winding is connected to the load • stationary stator – easier to insulate the winding – not subjected to centrifugal forces .

Number of poles • Depends upon the speed of rotation and the wanted frequency f = pn / 120 f p n = frequency of the induced voltage = number of poles on the rotor = speed of the rotor .

If the induced voltage has a frequency of 60 Hz. how many poles does the rotor have? .Example A hydraulic turbine turning at 200 r/min is connected to a synchronous generator.

Stator – main features • identical to that of 3-phase induction motor • composed of cylindrical laminated core • wye connection on windings • voltage per phase is only 1/√3 (58%) of the voltage between the lines • the highest voltage between a stator conductor and grounded stator core is 58% of the line voltage • reduce the number of insulation in the slot • increase the cross section of the conductors – larger conductor increases the current – increase the power output • avoid line to neutral harmonics .

contains a series of longitudinal slot .Rotor – main features • two types: • salient poles • cylindrical rotors • Salient poles • mounted on a large circular steel frame which is fixed to a revolving vertical shaft • made of bare copper bars – ensure good cooling • Cylindrical rotors • long rotor. solid steel cylinder.

No-load saturation curve • Ix – current to produce a flux in the air gap • Ix gradually increased • small value of Ix. the voltage rises much less . Eo changes proportionally • as the iron begins to saturate.

Synchronous Reactance • N1 and N2 is not connected as the load is balanced .

produces flux as the field revolves. the flux induces in the stator • each phase of the stator possesses a resistance R and inductance L Xs = 2πfL Xs = synchronous reactance f = generator frequency L = apparent inductance of the stator .Synchronous Reactance • the field carries an exciting current.

Synchronous Reactance • simplified circuit – per phase • R (winding resistance) is neglected • Ix – produces the flux which induces the internal voltage Eo • E – voltage at the terminal of the generator – depend on Eo and Z • E and Eo – line to neutral voltage • I – line current .

the exciting current is gradually raised to Ixn • resulting short circuit current Isc in the stator is measured Xs = En / Isc Xs = synchronous reactance En = rated open circuit line to neutral voltage Isc = short circuit current .Determining the value of Xs • open circuit and short-circuit test • the generator is driven at rated speed • exciting current is raised until the rated line to line voltage is attained • exciting current Ixn and line to neutral En is recorded • the excitation is reduced to zero and the three stator is short circuited together • the generator is running at rated speed.

Example A 3-phase synchronous generator produces an open circuit line voltage of 6928 V when the dc exciting current is 50 A. The ac terminals are then short circuited. Calculate • the synchronous reactance per phase • the terminal voltage if three 12 Ω resistors are connected in wye across the terminals . and the three line currents are found to be 800 A.

• Ex = jIXs • voltage Eo generated by the flux is equal to the phasor sum of E plus Ex • both Eo and Ex are voltages that exist inside the synchronous generator windings and cannot be measured directly • flux is that produced by the dc exciting current Ix . following fact applies: • Current I lags behind terminal voltage E by an angle θ • cos θ = power factor of the load • voltage Ex across the synchronous reactance leads current I by 90o.Synchronous generator under load • types of load applied to the generator • Isolated loads • Infinite bus • in order to construct the phasor diagram for this circuit.

The excitation is adjusted so that the terminal voltage remain fixed at 21 kV. 3-phase alternator has a synchronous reactance of 9 Ω and nominal current of 1 kA.8 kV. No-load saturation as figure below. calculate the exciting current required and draw the phasor diagram for: • no-load • resistive load of 36 MW • capacitive load 12 Mvar .Example A 36 MVA. 20.

Synchronization of a generator • Connecting two or more generators in parallel to supply a common load • the load varies depend on power demand • the selected generators are temporarily disconnected if the demand falls • the generators must be synchronized • synchronization achieved when: • the generator frequency is equal to the system frequency • the generator voltage is equal to the system voltage • the generator voltage is in phase with the system voltage • the phase sequence of the generator is the same as that of the system • to synchronize: • adjust the speed regulator of the turbine so that the generator frequency is close to the system frequency • adjust the excitation so that the generator voltage Eo is equal to the system voltage E • observe the phase angle between Eo and E using synchroscope • the line circuit breaker is closed – connecting the generator to the system .

Active power delivered by the generator P = EoEsinδ/Xs P Eo E Xs δ = active power = induced voltage = terminal voltage = synchronous reactance = torque angle between Eo and E .

If the exciting voltage is 12kV (line to neutral) and the system voltage is 17. 3-phase generator connected to a power grid. 21kV. has a synchronous reactance of 9 Ω per phase. 1800 r/min.3 kV (line to line).Example A 36 MVA. calculate: • active power which the machine delivers when the torque angle is 30o • the peak power that the generator can deliver before it falls out of step (loses synchronization) .

Power transfer between two sources • Only interested in the active power transmitted from source A to B or vice versa • E1 = E2 + jIX • I lags behind E2 by θ •E1 leads E2 by δ • IX leads I by 90o • active power absorbed by B: P = E2Icosθ • IX/sinδ = E1/sinψ = E1/sin (90 + θ) = E1/cos θ • Icosθ = E1sinδ/X P = E1E2sinδ/X .

The transmission line connecting them has an inductive reactance of 14 Ω. source A generates a voltage E1 = 20 kV /50o and source B generates a voltage E2 = 15kV / 42o .Power transfer between two sources • Example • Referring to the figure. Calculate the active power that flows over the line and specify which source is actually a load .