LIBERTY THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

A STRATEGY ON SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP
DEVELOPMENT FOR TRANSITIONING OF GAEUMJUNG
CHURCH INTO A CELL-BASED CHURCH







A Thesis Project Submitted to
Liberty Theological Seminary
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree




DOCTOR OF MINISTRY






By

In Ho Jei




Lynchburg, Virginia

May 2008


ii






LIBERTY THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY










THESIS PROJECT APPROVAL SHEET










A A+ B
GRADE




Frank J. Schmitt
MENTOR



Rod Dempsey
READER



iii











ABSTRACT


A STRATEGY ON SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT FOR
TRANSITIONING OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH INTO A CELL-BASED CHURCH
In Ho Jei
Liberty Theological Seminary, 2008
Mentor: Dr. Frank Schmitt

The purpose of this project is to invent a strategy of small group leadership
development to transition Gaeumjung Church to a cell-based church. This project was
performed on the basis of field analysis, case study, and literature research. The case
study was performed on nine churches with outstanding small group ministry. The author
had been an associate pastor of Gaeumjung Church for one and half years and will be the
senior pastor of the church in a few years. Therefore, this thesis is a result of his
experience and expectation on the small group ministry of the church.

Abstract length: 98 words



iv



ACKNOWLDEGEMENT


First of all, I would like to give thanks and glory to my Lord for the opportunity
of this thesis project. My research mentor, Frank Schmitt, Ed. D., is acknowledged and
deeply appreciated. He has led me to perform this research project with deep concern and
thoughtful consideration.
The researcher also wants to give thanks to my reader, Rodney Dempsey, D.Min.,
not only because he read this thesis carefully but also because he exerted an effect on the
researcher in connection with the subject of this thesis.
I can never give thanks to all the members of Gaeumjung Church enough.
Especially, I would like appreciate Young-Sik Kang, the senior pastor of Gaeumjung
Church, the elders, and my fellow ministers. Gaeumjung Church had appointed me as the
senior pastor of the next term and has supported me spiritually, emotionally, and
financially.
I would like to be thankful to all the staff of Liberty Theological Seminary, the
three co-pastors, Daniel C. Kim, David H. Chung, and Timothy Chong, and all my
friends who I have met in Lynchburg, VA.
Young Hye Jang, who is my wife, has been a great source of motivation with
prayer, patience, encouragement, and emotional and spiritual support. My lovable
children, Surin and Suah have endured till the completion of this thesis.
All of thanks and glory to God!
I. H. J.


v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………….. iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………… v
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………. x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………… 1
The Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………… 4
The Statement of Limitations …………………………………………………. 5
The Theoretical Bases ………………………………………………………… 5
Biblical Basis …………………………………………………………. 6
The Great Commission ……………………………………….. 6
Eph. 4:11-12 …………………………………………………... 9
2 Tim. 2:2 ……………………………………………………... 13
Theological Basis ……………………………………………………... 16
Theology of Community ……………………………………… 16
The Triune God ……………………………………….. 16
Principle of Creation …………………………………... 17
Biblical Examples ……………………………………... 19
Church as a Community ……………………………….. 20
Priesthood of All Believers ……………………………………. 22
Theory on Small Group Leadership Development ……………………. 24
The Statement of Methodology ……………………………………………….. 25
The Review of the Literature ………………………………………………….. 27
On Building Small Group Based Church ……………………………… 27
On Small Group Leadership …………………………………………... 29
On Leadership Development ………………………………………….. 30
Questionnaire and Interview Questions ……………………………………….. 32
Summary ………………………………………………………………………. 32


vi

CHAPTER TWO: ANANYSIS ON SMALL GROUP MINISTRY AND
SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN
GAEUMJUNG CHURCH ………………………………………… 33
Introduction to Gaeumjung Church …………………………………………… 33
Small Group Ministry of Gaeumjung Church ……………………………….... 34
Stagnant Small Group Ministry ……………………………………….. 34
Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members …………… 38
Geographically Organized Small Groups ……………………………… 42
Women-centered Small Group Ministry ………………………………. 43
Teaching-centered Small Group Meetings ……………………………. 46
Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development of Gaeumjung Church …... 48
Very Low Degree of Satisfaction of Small Group Leaders
on the Strategy ………………………………………………... 49
A Premodern Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development ……. 50
Low Efficiency of the Strategy of Small Group Leadership
Development ………………………………………………….. 53
Unsystematic Process of Selection and Examination of New
Small Group Leaders …………………………………………. 54
Inefficient Follow-up Training ………………………………………... 55
Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 58

CHAPTER THREE: CASE STUDY ON SEVERAL KOREAN CHURCHES …….. 59
Targets and Methods of Case Study …………………………………………... 59
Targets Used for This Case Study ……………………………………. 59
Principles Used for Sampling …………………………………………. 60
Methods of Case Study ………………………………………………... 61
Results of the Case Study ……………………………………………………... 63
Seoul Baptist of Houston (http://www.seoulbaptist.org)
– House Church ………………………………………………... 63
Global Mission Church (http://www.jiguchon.org)
– House Church ………………………………………………... 68


vii

Church of Dream(http://www.cod.or.kr) – House Church …………….. 70
Guminam Church (http://www.guminam.or.kr)
– House Church ………………………………………………... 72
Wonchon Baptist Church (http://wonchon.org/) – Vineyard ………….. 74
Light Global Mission Church (http://www.jiguchon.net)
– Cell Church ………………………………………………….. 77
Open Door Presbyterian Church (http://opendoorpc.org)
– Oikos ………………………………………………………… 79
Hyangsang Church (http://hyangsang.com)
– Of-Small Group Church ……………………………………... 82
Hosanna Presbyterian Church (http://www.hosanna21.com)
– Darakbang …………………………………………………… 84
Generalization of Results of the Case Study …………………………………... 87
Summary ……………………………………………………………………….. 89

CHAPTER FOUR: LESSONS FROM A LITERATURE RESEARCH ON
SMALL GORUP LEADERSIHP DEVELOPMENT …………… 90
Perceive the Urgency and Importance of Developing Leaders ……………….. 90
Approach Strategically ………………………………………………………... 91
Recognize the Senior Pastor’s Role …………………………………………… 94
Responsibility for Developing Leaders in the Church ………………… 94
The Senior Pastor as a Point Leader …………………………………... 95
Trustworthiness of the Senior Pastor ………………………………….. 96
Develop a Vision and Communicate It Effectively …………………………… 98
Develop a Vision ………………………………………………………. 98
Communicate the Vision ………………………………………………. 99
Work as a Team ……………………………………………………………… 100
Develop Leaders in Accordance with Your Small Group Ministry ………….. 103
Create a Leadership Culture ………………………………………………….. 105
Empower the Small Group Leaders ………………………………………….. 107
Develop a Training System …………………………………………………… 109


viii

Provide Follow-up Programs …………………………………………………. 112
A Coaching System …………………………………………………… 112
Meeting with Fellow Leaders ………………………………………... 113
Follow-up Training …………………………………………………… 114
Encouragement ……………………………………………………….. 114
Implement and Evaluate ……………………………………………………… 115
Implementation ……………………………………………………….. 115
Evaluation …………………………………………………………….. 116
Develop a Spiritual Atmosphere ……………………………………………… 117
Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 119

CHAPTER FIVE: A STRAGEGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUP
LEADERSHIP IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH …………………... 120
The Whole Transitioning Process and Position of Leadership Development
in the Process ………………………………………………………… 122
Small Groups in Gaeumjung Church as a Cell-based Church ……………….. 125
A cell-based church …………………………………………………... 125
Small Groups in Gaeumjung Church ………………………………… 127
Small Group Leadership Required in Gaeumjung Church …………………... 132
Overarching Nature: Transformational leadership …………………… 132
Servant leadership ……………………………………………………. 135
Shepherd leadership ………………………………………………….. 137
Coach leadership ……………………………………………………... 140
A Strategy in the Development of Small Group Leadership in
Gaeumjung Church …………………………………………………… 141
Long-term Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership …………. 143
Goals of Temporary Strategy in the Development of Cell
Leadership during the Transitioning Period ………………….. 145
Strategy to Achieve the Goals during
Four-year-transitioning Period ………………………………... 145
A synopsis …………………………………………….. 145


ix

Fourfold training strategy …………………………….. 146
Fourfold support strategy …………………………….. 150
Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 153

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR KOREAN
CHURCHES CONSIDERING TRANSITIONING TO
A SMALL GROUP BASED CHURCH …………………………… 154
Lead the Transition Strategically ……………………………………………... 155
Expect There Would Be Resistance and Overcome the Resistance …………. 156
Achieve the Goal in Persistence ……………………………………………… 156
Develop Small Group Leaders Systematically ……………………………….. 157
Empower and Encourage the Small Group Leaders …………………………. 158
Recognize the Importance of a Team ………………………………………… 160
Share the Vision Effectively …………………………………………………. 161
Have a Good Relation with the Church Members,
Especially, the Lay Leaders ………………………………………….. 162
Illuminated by the Holy Spirit ……………………………………………….. 163
Produce Leadership Culture …………………………………………………. 164

APPENDIX A ……………………………………………………………………….. 165
APPENDIX B ……………………………………………………………………….. 169
APPENDIX C ……………………………………………………………………….. 170
BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………………… 209
VITA …………………………………………………………………………………. 223



x

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Responses to “Which public gatherings did you attend last week?” …………… 1
2. Succession of apostolic teaching ………………………………………………. 15
3. Succession of Christian belief in a small group setting ………………………... 15
4. Three approaches of this thesis ………………………………………………… 26
5. The state of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry for the last 10 years … 35
6. Change of the number of persons at small groups at 2007
(January through October) ……………………………………………………... 36
7. Responses to “How long have you been a member of Gaeumjung Church?” …. 37
8. Responses to “How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung
Church?” ……………………………………………………………………….. 37
9. Average number of members in each case …………………………………….. 38
10. Percentage of members in each case …………………………………………… 39
11. The structure of Gaeumjung Church for the small group ministry …………….. 40
12. Responses to “Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group
leader first of all?” ……………………………………………………………... 42
13. The number of each type of small group ………………………………………. 44
14. Attendants of Sunday Morning Worship Service for ten weeks ………………. 45
15. Topics of the textbook by The Board of Christian Education
for the last four years ………………………………………………………….. 47
16. Opinions of small group leaders about Gaeumjung Church’s supports
for them…………………………………………………………………………. 48
17. Degree of satisfaction of small group leaders on Gaeumjung Church’s
strategy of small group leadership development ………………………………. 49
18. Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive
to be a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” …………………………… 50
19. Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to
be a small group leader in the church which you have served as
a small group leader in?” ……………………………………………………… 51
20. Responses nullifying 26 plural responses ……………………………………… 52


xi

21. Responses including 26 plural responses ……………………………………… 52
22. Process of being a small group leader at Gaeumjung Church …………………. 55
23. Responses to take follow-up training in Gaeumjung Church ………………….. 56
24. Responses to kinds of follow-up trainings …………………………………….. 57
25. Target churches of the case study ……………………………………………… 60
26. Interviewees and methods of interview ……………………………………….. 62
27. The reality of House Church ministry at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston …... 65
28. An outlook to set up a new Mokja and Mokjang at Seoul Baptist Church of
Houston …………………………………………………….………………….. 66
29. The reality of Global Mission Church ………………………………………… 69
30. The reality of Church of Dream ……………………………………………….. 71
31. The reality of Guminam Church ………………………………………………. 73
32. The reality of Wonchon Baptist Church ……………………………………….. 75
33. The reality of Light Global Mission Church …………………………………... 78
34. The reality of Open Door Presbyterian Church ………………………………... 81
35. The reality of Hyangsang Church ……………………………………………… 83
36. The reality of Hosanna Presbyterian Church ………………………………….. 85
37. Responses of the nine pastors to the question if qualities are absolutely
necessary for small group leaders ……………………………………………… 89
38. A diagram on strategic plan ……………………………………………………. 93
39. Clinton’s five phases of development in a leader …………………………….. 110
40. The whole process of transitioning in Gaeumjung Church ………………….. 123
41. Comparison between Church with groups, Church of groups,
and Church is groups …………………………………….…………………… 126
42. Features of a cell in Gaeumjung Church ……………………………………… 129
43. Small Group Leadership in Gaeumjung Church ……………………………… 133
44. Biblical characters who were servants ………………………………………... 136
45. The results from each research method ………………………………………. 142
46. A diagram of cell leadership training system in Gaeumjung Church ………… 144
47. A synopsis of temporary strategy of cell leadership development
in Gaeumjung Church ………………………………………………………… 146


xii

48. An outline of experience-based strategy ……………………………………… 147
49. The curriculum of the formal training ………………………………………... 149
50. The threefold prayer support strategy ………………………………………… 150
51. The fourfold encouragement strategy ………………………………………… 152
52. Various ways to develop small group leaders ………………………………… 158
53. Number of persons of a team according to church size ………………………. 161




1





CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


In a report from a joint census
1
of Hanmijun
2
and Gallup Korea, we can find some
interesting data concerning the question, “Which public gatherings did you attend last
week?” merely 15.1% respondents said that they attended small group meeting (Figure
1).
3

N=1000 (Permission of duplicate responses)
Sunday Morning Service
Sunday Evening (or Afternoon) Service
Wednesday Evening Service
Kuyeok meeting (Small group meeting)
Friday Midnight Prayer Meeting
Early Morning Prayer Meetings
The others
No attendance
81.4%
29.3%
20.8%
15.1%
13.4%
12.8%
2.3%
16.4%

Figure 1. Responses to “Which public gatherings did you attend last week?”


Just 15.1%! This result frankly shows the present state of the small group ministry
in the Korean church. In spite of the importance of small group ministry in the past, it has
been shrinking in recent times in Korea.
Small group ministry is very important in a church. Especially, the importance of
small group ministry is more embossed in the modern church. In an interview with

1 This census was carried out on 1,000 Christians all over the country in South Korea in 2005.
2 Hanmijun stands for “the institution preparing the future of Korean Church” established in 1997.
This institution is well known and far-reaching as an institution with public trust in South Korea.
3 Hanmijun and Korea Gallup, A Report for the Future of the Korean Church (Seoul, South
Korea: Hanmijun, 2005), 146.
2



Ministry and Theology,
4
Bill Donahue said that “considering how the early church
practiced the more than 25 “each other” commands like love each other, serve each other,
take care of each other, respect each other, etc., I want to ask how we can form a
community in which the each other commands are performed without small groups.”
5
As
Donahue said, the small group ministry is absolutely necessary in all churches.
Traditionally, the Korean church has had small groups named “Kuyeok.”
6
But, the
Kuyeok system has not been vitalized as an animated small group system. To the
Western world, the Kuyeok system of the Korean church has been known as Dr. Cho’s
model, according to Sang-Hwa Lee who is the General Director of Institute of Korea
Small Group Ministry. Sang-Hwa Lee says “the Korean church’s Kuyeok system, which
is known as Dr. Cho’s model, could be called an integrated model. An integrated model
is a small group system that the small group leaders connect directly between the pastor’s
teaching and the members’ lives by reproducing what they learned from the pastor every
week in their small group meetings.”
7

When the author started the ministry at Gaeumjung church as an associate pastor
taking charge of small group ministry and the designated senior pastor for the next term
in 2003, the church had a Kuyeok system like other Korean churches. The author,
however, found that the Kuyeok system of the church was not productive though it had

4 Ministry and Theology is a monthly magazine of South Korea dealing with acute issues related
to the field of ministry. It has had great effects on Korean Church since it started to be published in 1988.
5 Bill Donahue, “It Has To Be a Ministry Which Builds up a Community: An Interview with
Ministry and Theology.” Ministry and Theology, February 2003, 62.
6 Kuyeok is a small group system of the Korean church which is organized geographically.
Though Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul, Korea has been known as the typical model of a cell church,
most Korean churches have small groups like the church and the name of the small group is Kuyeok.
7 Sang-Hwa Lee, “A Look Around Small Group Ministry For Understanding ‘Cell’,”Ministry and
Theology, February 2003, 112.
3



almost 100 small groups. Most small groups had stayed in the line of merely managing
the members. In other words, the church was using the Kuyeok system to manage the
church members, dividing them into geographically organized small groups. This fact
gave the author a kind of sorrow. At the same time, however, it also gave a challenge to
him because he had a vision for building up the church as a biblical community. The
author is going to be the senior pastor of the church. From that time, he will try hard to
build a cell-based church and develop small group leaders for it.
In these days, many churches are trying to transition into a small group based
church
8
in Korea, recognizing the necessity of change. But, a kind of risk is still in
existence for trying a change. That is, many churches have experienced a failure in
transitioning. In-Ho Kim, who is the representative of KISA (Korean Institute of
Seminarians’ Association) and the professor of cell ministry at Seoul Theological
University, says that:
Because the books on examples and theories of cell ministry of foreign countries’
churches have been published in large numbers and so many pastors have applied
without filtration what they had seen and experienced through visiting the fields
of cell ministry in foreign countries, we came to have a kind of problem. A
program or system which is verified in a foreign country could not be applied to
the Korean church because Koreans’ feeling and emotion are different from the
foreigners’ those.
9


This is a reasonable comment. But, there is another significant reason for the
failure which Korean churches have experienced. That is a failure of developing small
group leaders. Many churches failed at transitioning into a small group based church
because they failed at developing small group leaders, trying to transition too hastily. It

8 “A small group based church” could be a cell church, a house church, a G12 type church of
small group churches or anything else which is based on any kind of small group ministry.
9 In-Ho Kim, “Cell Ministry Does Not Be Formed As It Is,” Ministry and Theology, February
2003, 117.
4



tells its own tale that a church trying a transition without developing leaders has a good
chance of being unsuccessful.
Facing a very important moment of changing the senior pastor, Gaeumjung
church is in need of a transition into a cell-based church and its success or failure depends
on developing competent small group leaders. The development of small group leaders is
exactly the very core for its transition, and ultimately for its effective and productive
small group ministry.

THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The overarching purpose of this thesis is small group leadership development in a
local church, Gaeumjung Church, for its transitioning into a cell-based church. It is never
achieved easily. It has to be realized under a thorough preparation and a concrete plan. So
to speak, small group leadership development is a strategic affair. This thesis will cover
the analysis of the current situation of the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church, a
theoretical approach to small group leadership development, and a case study of several
churches which have transitioned successfully into a small group based church.
This thesis has a secondary purpose. It will make several meaningful suggestions
to Korean churches which are in transitioning or preparing transitioning into a small
group based church. The key of the success of transitioning is put on the development of
competent small group leaders who have the same vision, mind, and attitude with the
senior pastor.


5



THE STATEMENT OF LIMITATIONS
As the statement of the problem implies, this thesis will be limited in the
following ways. First, it will not cover the whole process of Gaeumjung Church’s
transition into a cell-based church. It will just focus on devising a strategy for developing
small group leaders. Therefore, theoretical foundations and the object of research will be
concentrated on the restricted issue.
Second, this project will not deal with all aspects of the small group ministry. It
will be concerned about just small group leadership development.
Third, this thesis will not suggest general principles on development of small
group leadership to all Korean churches. Though, the thesis would have valuable
implications on the subject, fundamentally it is about one church’s strategy. A strategy
for small group leadership development is formulated keeping a specific field in mind.
The strategy will be applied in the specific field. Therefore, to make general suggestions
on the issue is outside of the interest of this thesis.
Fourth, the objects of the research of this project will be limited to several
churches. If we think of the current situation of Korean churches, we easily reach the
conclusion that it would be better not to study examples of many churches, but to just
study the examples of several outstanding churches.

THE THEORETICAL BASES
What are the theoretical bases for small group leadership development? It can be
studied in three realms: biblical, theological, and theoretical small group leadership
development.
6



BIBLICAL BASIS
The Great Commission
The first biblical foundation for small group leadership development is the Great
Commission. Ascending to heaven after completing the earthly life of ministry for three
and a half years, Jesus gave His disciples the Great Commission (Matt. 28:19-20).
Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of
the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I
commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.
10


In this Great Commission, the most important and the only used verb is “make
disciples.” And make disciples is the kernel of the Great Commission. Though NASB
says “go therefore and make disciples . . . ,” “literally the original says, ‘Having gone,
therefore, make disciples. . . .’”
11
“Baptizing and teaching (v. 20) are participles
dependent on the main verb, make disciples; they further specify what is involved in
discipleship.”
12

“Make disciples” is exactly what Jesus did while he was on the earth. Jesus
indeed commanded the disciples to do what He did. Concerning this point, Getz says that:
Jesus Christ spent three and a half years ministering on this earth. He went
everywhere preaching the kingdom of God to the multitudes, teaching people who
He was and demonstrating His deity by working miracles (John 20:30-31). But
He also spent much of His time with twelve men He had carefully selected and
then trained, not in a formal educational setting, but in a “field-type,” real-life
learning situation.
13



10 Unless otherwise noted, Scripture quotations are taken from the New American Standard Bible
(LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995).
11 William Hendriksen, New Testament Commentary: Exposition of the Gospel According to
Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1982), 999.
12 R. T. France, The Gospel According to Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans
Publishing Company, 1985), 414.
13 Gene A. Getz, Sharpening the Focus of the Church (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1984), 56.
7



It is worthy of notice that the Great Commission is given not only to the eleven
disciples, but also to all Christians. France says that “to accept that only the eleven were
present does not, of course, require us to believe that the commission and the promise of
vv. 18-20 applied only to them; here, as often, they represent the whole body of Jesus’
brethren.”
14
Hendriksen also says that the order is “first of all for the eleven and for all
ordained teachers; but certainly in a sense also for the entire church, the whole
membership.”
15

According to France, “Jesus’ universal Lordship now demands a universal
mission.”
16
This is true in the point that the targets of the Great Commission are universal
and the accomplishing subjects of the Commission are universal. In Barna’s words, “it’s
our marching order from God.”
17

Therefore, all churches have to be disciple-making churches and all Christians
have to be disciple-making Christians. Hull says about this point that:
I believe the discipling church is the normal church and that disciple making is for
everyone and every church because:
1) Christ instructed the church to take part in it.
2) Christ modeled it.
3) The New Testament disciples applied it.
18


Make disciples is none other than the way for a church to be a true church.
According to Getz, “wherever believers made disciples, local churches came into
being.”
19
When a church makes disciples, obeying the Great Commission, the church

14 France, 412.
15 Hendriksen, 1002.
16 France, 413.
17 George Barna, Growing True Disciples (Colorado Springs, CO: Waterbrook Press, 2001), 7.
18 Bill Hull, The Disciple-Making Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell, 1990), 10.
19 Getz, 57.
8



could render great services to the kingdom of God. Hull says that “when the church
makes disciples at home two good things happen: Christians become healthy and
reproduce, and as they multiply, the world becomes evangelized God’s way.”
20

Then, what does make disciples mean? The King James Version translated it as
“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them . . .” But this is not a precise
translation. Like Morris’ words, “Jesus is not speaking about education for education’s
sake.”
21
Teach all nations can never be make disciples. Besides, make disciples is “not
exactly the same as make converts, though the latter is surely implied.”
22
And it is not the
same as make church members.
Today’s English Version translated it as “Go, then, to all peoples everywhere and
make them my disciples.” This is as it is. Make disciples means that we have to make
Jesus’ disciples. As Hendriksen says, “the term make disciples places somewhat more
stress on the fact that the mind, as well as the heart and the will, must be won for God. A
disciple is a pupil, a learner.”
23
It is accurate for Morris to say that “He (Jesus) speaks of
the taught as ‘observing’ what Jesus has commanded. In other words, Jesus is concerned
with a way of life.”
24

Why can the Great Commission be a biblical foundation for small group
leadership development? It is because “today’s disciples have discovered that a small

20 Hull, 9.
21 Leon Morris, The Gospel According to Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans
Publishing Company, 1992), 749.
22 Hendriksen, 999.
23 Ibid.
24 Morris, 749.
9



group remains the best discipling tools” as Hull says.
25
Dempsey’s comment is noticeable.
He says that:
This command is surrounded by three modal participles: (1) “in your going”; (2)
“baptizing them in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit”; (3) “teaching
them to observe all that I commanded you.” This has particular import in regard
to Small Group methodology. The primary way a disciple is developed is to
enable and help them to “observe all that I commanded you.” The only way to do
this is in the context of a smaller sized group or one-on-one.
26


Like Hull’s saying, “the charge to a churchocentric discipling model required a
community relationship, a shared discipling among several people.”
27
It is obvious that
make disciples can get accomplished the most effectively in a small group setting. Jesus
said “teaching them to observe all that I commanded you.” But, this can be realized best
in a small group setting.
The process of making disciples has to be realized continuously in a small group.
On that occasion, the Great Commission can get accomplished more effectively. In this
point, the small group leadership development is the one of the most important factors for
make disciples, i.e. for achieving the Great Commission.

Eph. 4:11-12
The apostle Paul said to the Ephesians “And He gave some as apostles, and some
as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as pastors and teachers, for the equipping
of the saints for the work of service, to the building up of the body of Christ,” (Eph. 4:11-

25 Hull, 25.
26 Rodney Dempsey, “A Strategy to Transition a Traditional Church Educational System to a
Small Group System” (D. Min. diss., Liberty Theological Seminary, January 2004), 20.
27 Hull, 18.
10



12). Simpson and Bruce say that “a spiritual house must grow, not by astuteness of tactics,
but by spiritual agencies and methods.”
28
Evidently, the offices of which Paul made
mention were given to the Lord’s church for her growing.
Scholars have diverse opinions concerning whether pastors are different from
teachers or not. But the most part insists that they can’t be separated from each other.
Simpson and Bruce say that “some follow Calvin and Owen in differentiating pastors
from teachers; but the omission of the Greek article between the two substantives
militates against this duplication of functions.”
29
Lloyd-Jones also says that “this group
(pastors and teachers) is much simpler to understand, although there has been much
dispute as to whether pastors and teachers are two different offices. I agree with those
who say that they are one.”
30
Concerning this issue, Bruce says “the two terms pastors
(shepherds) and teachers denote one and the same class of men.”
31
After all, pastors are
teachers. Namely, the apostle Paul said about pastors-teachers in this passage.
A pastor-teacher is very significant office to the modern church as Foulkes says
that “it is possible that this phrase (Eph. 4:11) describes the ministers of the local church,
whereas the first three categories are regarded as belonging to the universal church. . . .
Pastors and teachers were gifted to be responsible for the day-to-day building up of the
church. There is no hard and fast line to be drawn between the two.”
32
Lloyd-Jones also

28 E. K. Simpson, and F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and the
Colossians (Grand Rapids, MI: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1975), 94.
29 Ibid., 95-96.
30 Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Christian Unity: An Exposition of Ephesians 4:1-16 (Grand Rapids, MI:
Baker Book House, 1982), 192-193.
31 F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Ephesians (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1974),
85.
32 Francis Foulkes, Ephesians: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Grand Rapids, MI:
William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989), 127.
11



says that “here, then, are three offices (which are apostles, prophets, and evangelists)
which were extraordinary and temporary. The permanent offices are described as those of
pastors and teachers.”
33

In conclusion, the command of equipping of the saints for the work of service, to
the building up of the body of Christ has been given to the pastor-teacher. Considering
that a pastor can represent a church, this command has been given to a local church.
Then, we have to examine closely the connection between “to equip the saints”
and “for the work of service” and “for the building up of the body of Christ.” The heart of
the question is the problem whether the first, to equip the saints, is in apposition to the
others or not.
KJV puts the three in apposition, using same proposition for: “And he gave some,
apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For
the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of
Christ.” Re-translated Korean Bible which has been accepted as an authoritative Bible to
most Korean Christians for almost fifty years since it has been published also arranges
the three in a same row.
But, correctly speaking, the first cannot be placed in appositional position with the
others. Lloyd-Jones says that:
The same word is used three times in the Authorized Version, but if we go back to
the original we find that in the Greek the first for is a different word from that
employed in the second and third cases. The first for is more general than the
others. I entirely agree with those who say that the difference is that the first for
has reference to the ultimate purpose, whereas the second and third refer to a
more immediate purpose.
34



33 Lloyd-Jones, 192.
34 Ibid., 197.
12



Foulkes also says that “the difference of the prepositions in the Greek is against
this,
35
and at least implies that the later two are dependent on the first.”
36
As Foulkes
points out well, “the ministry of the church is given to it to equip the saints. . . . Their
being brought to this condition is not an end in itself, but for a purpose, that they may be
fitted for the work of ministry.”
37

Why is this problem so important? If we understand the connection between the
first and the others as appositional, all tasks which are for the perfecting of the saints, for
the work of the ministry, and for the edifying of the body of Christ belong to a pastor-
teacher. But, if we understand the first, to equip (or perfect) the saints, is pastor-teacher’s
job and the others are dependent on it, the others, i.e. for the work of the ministry and to
build up the body of Christ (or for the edifying of the body of Christ) are jobs of all
Christians as a necessary consequence.
Being affected by Re-translated Korean Bible, most Korean Christians have been
thinking that all of the three jobs are pastor’s. Young-Ki Chai, who is the senior pastor of
Seoul Baptist Church of Houston, says that:
Many pastors think that the three jobs are given to pastors. They consider that to
equip Christians, to do ministries, and to revive the church are all pastor’s jobs. If
we read Re-translated Korean Bible, we might think like that. Because it
translated the original text into “for equipping of the saints, for doing ministries,
and for building up of the body of Christ.”
38


A thought of this sort leads the pastors to do excessive works and the church
members to be inactive to take part in the ministries in a local church. The fact that “do

35 “This” means that the first and the others can stand in same line.
36 Foulkes, 128.
37 Ibid.
38 Young-Ki Chai, The Laity Ministry Through House Church (Seoul, South Korea: Durano,
2006), 57.
13



work of service” and “build up the body of Christ” are dependent on “equip the saints”
supports the importance of small group leadership development in a local church. The job
of a pastor is to equip the saints, i.e. to develop small group leaders, and the jobs of a
small group leader are to do work of service and to build up the body of Christ.

2 Tim. 2:2
The apostle Paul encouraged Timothy “The things which you have heard from me
in the presence of many witnesses, entrust these to faithful men who will be able to teach
others also,” (1 Tim. 2:2). According to Towner, the things which you have heard from
me “identifies the commodity Timothy is to pass on to others. That commodity, the
things, refers to the Pauline expression of the gospel.”
39
Knight points out that “Paul uses
akouo to refer to his apostolic message because that message was so often given in oral
preaching and teaching.”
40
All of these two opinions are much the same in their meanings.
It could be expressed as apostolic teaching.
Timothy received an admonishment from Paul to entrust the apostolic message to
faithful men. And the faithful men have to teach others without distorting or weakening
the apostolic teaching. As things turned out, Paul wanted two qualifications of the
persons to whom Timothy could entrust the apostolic teaching: faithfulness and desire
and ability to teach others.
41
The faithful men have to teach others what they get handed

39 Philip H. Towner, The Letters to Timothy and Titus: The New International Commentary on the
New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2006), 489.
40 George W. Knight III, The Pastoral Epistles: The New International Greek Testament
Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999), 389.
41 To use Guthrie’s words, “a loyalty to the truth, i.e. a loyalty which has been proved, and an
aptitude to teach are required.” Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles: Tyndale New Testament
Commentaries (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989), 138.
14



down from Timothy. In this case, “the ‘others’ are distinguished from the reliable ones
who teach them the apostolic gospel, which anticipates the outward growth and
movement of the ministry.”
42

What Paul wanted to give emphasis to through this passage is that the apostolic
teaching has to be taken over. Marshall says that “some commentators find here the
beginnings of a doctrine of apostolic succession, or, more precisely Pauline
succession.”
43
Guthrie also says “no doubt exists as to the precise nature of the tradition
and doctrine to be transmitted, for Timothy had heard them from Paul’s own lips.”
44

Succession or to be transmitted is the kernel of the passage.
In 1 Tim. 2:2, we can find at least three steps of a succession of the apostolic
teaching. And those steps can be shown at Figure 2.
Step 1. Timothy heard (apostolic teaching) from Paul.
Step 2. Timothy entrusts what he heard from Paul to faithful men.
Step 3. The faithful men teach others.
Why is this passage so important to developing small group leadership in a church?
The principle of succession of apostolic teaching or Christian belief can be realized in a
small group setting. A small group leader has to pass on what he/she received from
pastors or his/her predecessors to the members. And he/she has to help each of the
members be a leader of a small group. And then, they could be appropriate to transmit
what they received from their leader. From this view point, Figure 2 can be modified as
Figure 3.

42 Towner, 491.
43 I. Howard Marshall, The Pastoral Epistles: The International Critical Commentary (New York,
NY: T&T Clark Ltd., 2003), 727.
44 Guthrie, 137.
15



Step 1. Small group leader heard from the pastor or his/her predecessor.
Step 2. Small group leader entrusts what he heard to small group members.
Step 3. Small group members can be leaders of other small groups and teach
others.








Figure 2. Succession of apostolic teaching











Figure 3. Succession of Christian belief in a small group setting
Paul
Timothy
Faithful men
Others
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Pastor or
predecessor
Small group leader
Small group members
who will be leaders
Others
16



THEOLOGICAL BASIS
Theology of community
God has had a vision of a community. God has wanted to realize a holy
community among His people. Therefore, to make divine community is the way to
achieve God’s vision.

The Triune God
That God has a vision of a community sets off the fact that God Himself is the
Triune God. “God exists as a Trinity – God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy
Spirit.”
45
“Among the religions of the world, the Christian faith is unique in making the
claim that God is one and yet there are three who are God.”
46
In accordance with
Chafer’s words, “while the doctrine of the Trinity is a central fact of the Christina faith, it
is also beyond human comprehension and has no parallel in human experience.”
47

The biblical evidences that support God exists as a Trinity are very clear. One of
those evidences is elohim as God’s name. Like Chafer’s words, “many believe that the
doctrine of the Trinity is implicit in the use of the word elohim, as a name for God which
is in a plural from and seems to refer to the triune God.”
48

We can see other evidence at the scene of Christ’s being baptized. Chafer says
about the scene that:
Here in the Person of Jesus Christ is God incarnate, conceived by the Holy Spirit
and yet Son of God the Father. At the baptism of Jesus, the distinctions in the

45 Lewis Sperry Chafer, Major Bible Themes (Grand Rapids, MI: Academic Books, 1974), 39.
46 Millard J. Erikson, Christian Theology. 2
nd
Ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998), 347.
47 Chafer, 40.
48 Ibid., 39.
17



Trinity are evident with God the Father speaking from heaven, the Holy Spirit
descending like a dove and lighting upon Him, and Jesus Himself being baptized
(Matt. 3:16-17).
49


It is an obvious truth that God exists as a Trinity. There is no stronger statement
than this truth that supports God has had a vision on a community. God who exists as a
community wanted to see a true community in His people. Icenogle says that “God is
described as existing in divine community, in dialogue with other members of the God-
self, an intra-communicating group who also created humanity to exist in group intra-
communication.”
50


Principle of Creation
We can find God’s vision of a community in His creation work. Ericksen says
that “creation is the work of the Triune God.”
51
That is, creation was the result of co-
work of Triune God. Especially, God created man in His own image. Therefore, man can
not cast away the nature of community. The nature of community is one of the kernels of
human nature. Human nature becomes clearer in a community.
That man was created by Triune God teaches us that humans are dependent on
God. According to Erickson, “that humans are created means that they have no
independent existence.”
52
On the basis of the fact that God created male and female (Gen.
1:27), we come to know that humans are dependent on other people. As a result, humans

49 Ibid., 40.
50 Gareth Weldon Icenogle, Biblical Foundations for Small Group Ministry (Downers Grove, IL:
InterVarsity Press, 1994), 21.
51 Erickson, 398.
52 Ibid., 510.
18



are dependent on both God and other people. In this point, Erickson’s statement is
noteworthy. He says that:
There is a brotherhood among humans. . . . The doctrine of creation and of the
descent of the entire human race from one original pair means that we are all
related to one another. . . . We are one with them (all human beings) in the most
basic sense – our origin.
53


Erickson says again that “there is room, then, in our theology for humanism, that
is, a Christian and biblical humanism that is concerned to bring others into proper
relationship with God.”
54
In other words, we have to form relationships with other people
in relationship with God.
There is an episode in the account of creation. The Bible says “God saw that it
was good” six times in Genesis 1. And at seventh time, it says “God saw all that He had
made, and behold, it was very good,” (Gen. 1:31). But, we can find an unexpected
passage at Genesis 2. “It is not good,” (Gen. 2: 18). Why is it not good? “For the man to
be alone.” It is noticeable that “even though this man was in a state of sinless perfection,
he was alone. And it was not good.”
55
Stanley says that “when our human-shaped-void is
not filled, when we live life alone in isolation, it is not good.”
56

This not good is never because God made a mistake in His creation work. That is
not good made intentionally. God wanted to make the first man, Adam realize the
importance of being together with somebody. Human beings were created to be in a
community.

53 Ibid., 512-513.
54 Ibid., 535.
55 John Ortberg, Everybody’s Normal Till You Get to Know Them (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan,
2003), 32.
56 Andy Stanley and Bill Willits, Creating Community: 5 Keys to Building a Small Group Culture
(Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 2004), 31.
19



Biblical Examples
We can find some examples of forming a community, especially a small group, in
the Bible. The first example in the Old Testament on a small group as a community is in
Exodus 18. In that chapter, Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law suggested Moses to “find
capable men within the community to whom he can delegate responsibility for decision
making.”
57
Actually, this suggestion has been understood as on leadership development.
But, it is also on small group because leadership cannot be separated from a group in
which leadership has a meaning. We come to know that all of the Israelites numbering
more than 1.5 million were organized into groups large and small.
In the Gospels, Jesus’ pattern can be a good example of forming a community.
Jesus formed a group, that is, a community which was composed of twelve disciples.
Jesus prepared God’s laborers who will do what Jesus did on this earth succeeding Him.
Getz notes “at the end of these three and a half years, Jesus had basically accomplished
two major goals in terms of strategy: He had saturated the minds of the multitudes with
His teachings, and prepared a small group of men in depth to enter into His labors and
bring in the harvest (John 4:35-38).”
58

After hearing Peter’s confession, Jesus said to Peter that “you are Peter, and upon
this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it,” (Matt.
16:18). That is, Jesus wanted to build a holy community with divine authority which is
named as church. It is never the same community as a secular community.

57 Aubrey Malphurs and Will Mancini, Building Leaders (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2004),
10.
58 Getz, 56.
20



The New Testament church consisted of small community churches which mainly
assembled in houses. Towns, Stetzer, and Bird say that “the New Testament church was
primarily a house-church movement.”
59
The representative examples are Jerusalem
church (Acts 2:42-47),
60
the church in Prisca and Aquila’s house (Rom. 16:3-5), and
Philemon’s house church (Phm. 2). According to Towns, Stetzer, and Bird, “house
churches have existed since the day of the early church. Early Christian communities met
in homes for centuries, not just the first few decades (the first known church building was
not built until A.D. 201).”
61
The New Testament Church is a holy community church as
Packer says “we notice, as we read the New Testament, that fellowship features in the
first description of the young church: “they devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching
and to the fellowship,” (Acts 2:42).
62


Church as a Community
Church is essentially a community. “There are many words and figures of speech
for Christ’s church in the New Testament. Yet the common and special word is ekklesia,
derived from ek, out of, and kaleo, to call. Hence the basic significance of ‘called out’ is

59 Elmer Towns, Ed Stetzer, and Warren Bird, 11 Innovations in the Local Church (Ventura, CA:
Regal Books, 2007), 34.
60 “If the 5,000 men counted in Acts 4:4 represented 5,000 households and included women and
children in the total number of converts, there could be easily have been up to 25,000 in the Jerusalem
church! Obviously, this megachurch couldn’t possibly meet in one house but assembled in many different
households. Thus, it would be considered a house church – the first ‘mega-house church.’” Elmer Towns,
Ed Stetzer, and Warren Bird, 34.
61 Elmer Towns, Ed Stetzer, and Warren Bird, 34-35.
62 James I. Packer, Honouring the People of God: The collected Shorter Writings of J. I. Packer.
Vol. 2 (London, Great Britain: Caledonian International Book Manufacturing Ltd., 1998), 12.
21



derived.”
63
Church is an assembly of the called out. One of the most important natures of
church is that church is an assembly, that is, a community. According to Chafer, “in the
New Testament the church including all regenerated persons from Pentecost to the
Rapture (1 Cor. 15:52) was united together and united to Christ by the baptism of the
Spirit. Christ is the head of the body (Eph. 1:22-23).”
64

On this issue, Erickson says that:
Obviously the church includes all persons anywhere in the world who are
savingly related to Christ. It also includes all who have lived and been part of his
body, and all who will live and be part of his body. . . . In view of this
inclusiveness we may offer a tentative theological definition of the church as the
whole body of those who through Christ’s death have been savingly reconciled to
God and have received new life.
65


It is noteworthy that the Bible says figuratively that the church is Christ’s body.
Strong says “the church, in this large sense, is nothing less than the body of Christ – the
organism to which he gives spiritual life, and through which he manifests the fullness of
his power and grace.”
66
Of course, “most significant of the teachings inherent in this
metaphor is the relation of the Head to the body”
67
as Radmacher says. But, we can not
overlook the importance of the implication which the metaphor has. When the Bible says
that the church is Christ’s body, the church is a community of all Christians. Segler says

63 Robert Duncan Culver, Systematic Theology: Biblical and Historical (Fearn, Great Britain:
Christian Focus Publications, Ltd., 2005), 816.
64 John F. Walvoord, Donald K. Campbell, and Roy B. Zuck Ed., Lewis Sperry Chafer Systematic
Theology Vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1988), 234.
65 Erickson, 1044.
66 Augustus Hopkins Strong, Outlines of Systematic Theology (Philadelphia, PA: The Griffith &
Rowland Press, 1908), 234.
67 Earl D. Radmacher, What the Church is All About (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1978), 237.
22



“individuals who have experienced fellowship with Jesus Christ actually become a
community of persons. This is the primary meaning of the ‘body of Christ.’”
68

The church is the “fellowship of Jesus Christ, or fellowship of the Holy Ghost,
where fellowship or koinonia signifies a common participation, a togetherness, a
community life.”
69
In a community as Christ’s body, the most important thing is
fellowship. We have to take part in the fellowship with Christ as the head of the body and
the other Christians as the members of the body in a church. “Fellowship is one of the
great words of the New Testament. It denotes something that is vital for our spiritual
health and central to the church’s true life.”
70

Small group ministry can expose the nature of community of a church. It is
because a small group is a community and a church is a community. The direction of
small group leadership development has to turn toward making divine communities, in
which genuine fellowship with Christ and other Christians can be experienced, through
the small group leaders.

Priesthood of All Believers
Generally, the thought that the doctrine of “Priesthood of all believers” was
brought up by Luther has spread broadly like George says that “Luther’s greatest
contribution to Protestant ecclesiology was his doctrine of the priesthood of all
believers.”
71
Actually, however, Wycliff and Lollards who followed him insisted on the

68 Franklin M. Segler, A Theology of Church and Ministry (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press,
1960), 9.
69 Ibid., 10.
70 Packer, 12.
71 Timothy George, Theology of the Reformers (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1988), 95.
23



doctrine before Luther. On this subject, Radmacher notes: “repudiating the authoritarian
position of the church and believing in the priesthood of all believers, the Lollards set out
with the primary task of studying and declaring the Word of God.”
72
Therefore, it is right
that Kendall says “the subject of ‘the priesthood of all believers’ is one of the
contributions, or rediscoveries, of the Great Reformation of the sixteenth century.”
73

What does priesthood of all believers mean? Timothy George notes that “the
essence of this doctrine can be put in one sentence: Every Christian is someone else’s
priest, and we are all priests to one another.”
74
Insisting on priesthood of all believers,
“Luther broke decisively with the traditional division of the church into two classes,
clergy and laity.”
75

We can find the biblical foundations of this doctrine in 1 Pet. 2:9 (“But you are . . .
A royal PRIESTHOOD . . .”) and Rev. 1:6 (“He has made us to be . . . priests to His God
and Father.”).
What does priesthood of all believers imply? At first, all believers come to share
the fellowship with Jesus Christ without any other’s mediation. In Kendall’s words, we
can have “immediate and direct influence and communion with God without an earthly
mediator.”
76
This was the most important meaning at the age of the Reformation.
But, there is other important implication in the doctrine. That is all believers have
to serve God and people as holy priests. Timothy George says that “the priesthood of all

72 Radmacher, 57.
73 R. T. Kendall, Understanding Theology. Vol. 1 (Fearn, Great Britain: Christian Focus
Publications, 2002), 232.
74 Timothy George, 96.
75 Ibid.
76 Kendall, 233.
24



believers is a responsibility as well as a privilege, a service as well as a status.”
77

Marshall also emphasizes this point, saying that “the Christian congregation is declared
to be both temple and priesthood with the task of offering the spiritual counterpart of
sacrifices to God.”
78

The doctrine of priesthood of all believers can give us the conviction that all
believers, not only pastors but also the lay believers, have to take part in ministries for
service. A church can grow and be healthy because of the lay believers’ effective
ministries. This truth strongly supports the importance of small group leadership
development in all churches.

THEORY ON SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
The question which we have to ask first of all is “can we develop leaders?” or
“can we develop leadership?” The answer to this question is obvious. We can develop
leader or leadership. Maxwell says that “leadership is developed, not discovered.”
79
A
leader is not born but developed as a leader. Nevertheless, many churches have been
negligent of developing leaders. Malphurs and Mancini note “though many churches
have awakened to the need to develop godly, competent leadership and are talking about
it, few are doing anything about it.”
80


77 Timothy George, 96.
78 I. Howard Marshall, New Testament Theology (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2004),
654.
79 John C. Maxwell, Developing the Leader Within You (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.,
1993), 3.
80 Malphurs and Mancini, 11.
25



Christian leadership has to be developed in all churches. Especially, it is not too
much to emphasize the importance of small group leadership development. It is no
exaggeration to say that the level of small group leadership development determines in a
church the level of the church’s growth and maturity.
Then, how can we develop small group leadership? What kind of leadership has
to be developed for small groups? The overarching nature of Christian leadership in a
setting of small group is “transformational leadership.” And it can be shaped up by
servant leadership, shepherd leadership, and coach leadership.
81


THE STATEMENT OF METHODOLOGY
This thesis will take three approaches to make a strategy of small group
leadership development for transitioning Gaeumjung church to a cell-based church
(Figure 4). First, this thesis will examine the church’s past and current strategies of small
group leadership development and its relevancy with the church’s current small group
ministry.
Second, it will do a case study on several churches with outstanding small group
ministry and find some instructions from the case study.
Third, it will find useful suggestions on small group leadership development
through a profound literature research which can be applied to Gaeumjung church’s
situation.
And this thesis will make a strategy of small group leadership development by
analyzing the three results of examining the church’s current situation, of the case study

81 The author will give a full explanation on this subject at chapter 5 of this thesis.
26



on other outstanding churches, and of the suggestions from literature research on the
basis of the church’s reality.
















Figure 4. Three Approaches of this Thesis


For this:
1. Chapter 1 discusses the theoretical bases, i.e., biblical basis, theological basis,
and theoretical basis on small group leadership development.
2. Chapter 2 examines strategies on small group leadership development which
the church has used until now and how the strategies have had an effect on the
church’s small group ministry.
3. In chapter 3, the results of a case study on several Korean churches with small
group ministry are presented.
Examination
of the
church’s
actual
condition


Case Study

Literature
Research
The Reality of
Gaeumjung
church
A Strategy of
Gaeumjung church
27



4. Chapter 4 suggests some instructions from literature research on the small
group leadership development.
5. In chapter 5, a strategy which would be the most effective and the most proper
to the church is established.
6. Chapter 6 makes some useful suggestions to Korean churches on the small
group leadership development.

THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
From the viewpoint of the peculiarity of this thesis, a review of the literatures is
divided into three categories: on building small group based church, on small group
leadership and on leadership development.


On Building Small Group Based Church
Concerning building small group based church, Ralph Neighbour Jr.’s book,
Where Do We Go From Here? is noteworthy. The reason why this book is remarkable is
that it plays the role of textbook on the cell church. He wrote this book on the basis of
what he had acquired through seeing, learning and experiencing about cell churches all
over the world for 25 years. Prescribing “the primary assignment in a cell group church is
to develop Basic Christian Community,”
82
he suggests that all churches become cell
ministry churches. To see abundant examples of cell churches across the globe in this
book is a precious value of this book.
Carl George wrote Prepare Your Church for the Future and this book has become
a classic on the cell church movement. In this book, George suggests to develop the
meta-church model. He wants to emphasize “a change of mind about how ministry is to

82 Ralph W. Neighbour, Jr. with Lorna Jenkins, Where Do We Go From Here (Houston, TX:
Touch Publications, Inc., 1990), 94.
28



be done and a change of form in the infrastructure of the church.”
83
And these are the
very things which we can learn from the book.
Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson’s book, Building A Church Of Small Group can
be recommended to be read. They take a different position from Ralph Neighbour and
Carl George in the point that they want to build an of-small group church. Actually, the
book is a story of an actual occurrence in Willow Creek Community Church. We can
hear vivid sounds from the field about the church’s struggle and process for being an of-
small group church.
Young-Ki Chai wrote a significant book, The Laity Ministry Through House
Church. This book is about a house church. He is the senior pastor of Seoul Baptist
Church of Houston. He has transitioned his church successfully into a house church since
he became the senior pastor of the church in 1993 with the hope of returning to the early
church. Chai is trying to spread the principle of house churches to Korean churches
which are dispersed worldwide, hosting seminar for pastors, seminar for lay leaders,
conference for pastors, and conference for the leaders of house churches.
84
In his book,
Chai introduces how he started the house church and what are the principles and
theological bases of the house church. This book can be a good guide book for any
Korean Christians who are interested in the house church.
Joel Comiskey’s From 12 to 3 is a valuable book. This book guides us to
understand how to apply G-12 principles in our church. Therefore, we can get important

83 Carl F. George, Prepare Your Church For the Future (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell,
2000), 57.
84 Refer to http://www.housechurchministries.org about the house church ministry including the
news on seminars and conferences.
29



principles on G-12 style small group church which is different from cell church, house
church, and of small group church.
Deok-Soo Kim’s book, The Role of Leadership in Church Renewal Toward a
Cell-Based Ministry, is very meaningful and can be recommended to be read. The book,
actually it is his D.Min. thesis at Fuller Theological Seminary, is published in Korean. It
is a story of Global Mission Church which is in Yong-In, South Korea. The church has
been transitioned successfully into a cell-based church indebted for Deok-Soo Kim’s
theoretical support and this book is about the very story. He suggests theoretical bases for
a cell-based ministry and the reasonable procedure for transition into a cell-based church
in the book. Also, he emphasizes the role of leadership for transition.

On Small Group Leadership
Oswald Sanders’ book, Spiritual Leadership which is a classic about spiritual or
Christian leadership is very valuable. It explores many aspects of spiritual leadership on
the basis of sound biblical foundations. Anyone who wants to learn about spiritual
leadership has to read this book.
Carl George’s book, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership is
noteworthy. This is very practical book which shows “what do small group leaders have
to do?” Carl George gives us nine keys, i.e. nine principles for small group leader to do
for being effective.
Dave Earley’s two books, 8 Habits of Effective Small Group Leaders and Turning
Members into Leaders match well with this thesis. We can get great insights on making
leaders of church members and on the role of effective small group leaders. His
30



suggestions on small group leadership are very practical and helpful because he has
significant experience on small group ministry on the basis of his 21-year-pastoring at
New Life church in Columbus, OH.
Lead Like Jesus, which is written by Ken Blanchard and Phil Hodges is strongly
recommended to be read. Jesus is the greatest model of Christian leadership forever. We
can get innumerable lessons on spiritual leadership. They suggest to have the heart, the
head, the hands, and the habits of the greatest servant leader, Jesus. Anyone who read this
book will have deep insights on servant leadership.
Aubrey Malphurs’ book, Being Leaders is very useful book for understanding
being an authentic Christian leader. In this book, Malphurs views Christian leadership
from different angles, therefore, his understanding on Christian leadership gives us
valuable insight.
Bill Donahue and Greg Bowman’s book, Coaching Life-Changing Small Group
Leaders, is a book that needs to be read very carefully. This book gives us valuable
knowledge on coach leadership. It applies the concept of coaching to Christian situations
very well. Those who are in positions to lead leaders need to read this book deliberately.

On Leadership Development
First of all, John Maxwell’s books are very useful for understanding leadership
development. As the founder and CEO of INJOY Group which has a worldwide
leadership development ministry, he wrote many books on Christian leadership including
The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork, Developing the Leader Around You, Developing
the Leader Within You, Winning with People, etc. Actually, these books became the
31



legends at Christian leadership area. His books are full of practical and challengeable
principles and suggestions on Christian leadership. His books are to be read carefully
because they contain everything from understanding Christian leadership to developing
leadership.
In connection with small group leadership development in a cell church, Joel
Comiskey gives innumerable insights. He wrote several useful books on cell church.
Especially, his outstanding book, Leadership Explosion is worth reading. In the book, he
presents real stories of some outstanding cell churches’ small group leadership
development and those stories have incalculable value.
Malphurs’ book, Building Leaders which he wrote in connection with Will
Manchini can be recommended to be read carefully. Actually, in many cases the books on
small group leadership development do not give how-tos. But this book gives not only a
theory but also a lot of practical methodology on leadership development. It deserves to
have the subtitle, “Blueprints for Developing Leadership at Every Level of Your Church.”
Scott Boren and Don Tillman’s book, Cell Group Leader Training: Trainer’s
Guide, is a book that needs to be read deliberately. Though this book is about training
leaders, it has meaningful value in the area of leadership development because leadership
development includes necessarily the process of training. This book is full of practical
guidelines on training leaders.
Bruce Avolio’s books, Leadership Development in Balance and Full Leadership
Development which are in the secular realm can be strongly recommended to be read
because they contain science and systematic procedure of leadership development.
32



Generally, Christians are weak at scientific and systematic approach. In this point, these
books can give great help to those who take charge of leadership development in a church.

QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
For this project, the author will use questionnaire to examine Gaeumjung
Church’s past and current strategies of small group leadership development on the small
group leaders of the church. The questionnaire can be found in Appendix A. And the
author would like to interview the pastors of the churches which are the objects of the
case study. The interview questions are in Appendix B.

SUMMARY
Small group leadership development is the kernel of small group based ministry
whatever the type of small group ministry is. Gaeumjung Church, which the author had
served as an associate pastor for one and a half years and will serve as the senior pastor,
is in the very middle of a significant change because it is preparing for the replacement of
the senior pastor. At this time, the most important task which is given to Gaeumjung
Church is to make small group ministry vivid and productive through transitioning into a
cell-based church. For it, the church has to stake its future on small group leadership
development. Without small group leadership development, the church cannot be
successive in transitioning into a cell-based church nor achieve a significant growth. But
it is not an easy task. The church has to pour its all capability into small group leadership
development. The rest of this thesis will try to build the most effective strategy for the
church on small group leadership development.


33






CHAPTER 2

ANANYSIS ON SMALL GROUP MINISTRY AND SMALL GROUP
LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH


INTRODUCTION TO GAEUMJUNG CHURCH
On April 8, 1906, Gaeumjung Church was planted in Changwon, South Korea by
Jae-Hak Kwon and several of his friends. The church had stayed as a small church in a
typical rural district of South Korea for almost eighty years. However, the church has
experienced significant numerical growth since the mid 1980s. In 1984, when Young-Sik
Kang became senior pastor, about 300 adult members averaged attended the Sunday
morning service.
1
In 2007, the average adult attendance was approximately 1,100.
2
There
have been two important factors in this rapid growth of the church.
The first factor of growth was the growth in that particular city. Changwon had
developed as a grand-scale industrial complex since 1974 because of the heavy chemical
industry brought in through the South Korean government. As a result, the population of
Changwon had increased in a geometric progression. The population of Changwon in
1980 was 111,691, but became 528,152 in 2001. In 2006, it had decreased a little to

1 The church doesn’t have a record on this fact. This is a testimony by Young-Sik Kang.
2 Ja-Min Koo in a telephone interview by author, November 6, 2007. Ja-Min Koo is the
Administrative Associate Pastor of Gaeumjung Church.



34
509,535.
3
Nobody would deny that the growth of Gaeumjung Church was closely
connected with the growth of the population in Changwon.
The second factor of Gaeumjung Church’s growth was due to Young-Sik Kang’s
becoming the senior pastor on December 27, 1984. He is presently the senior pastor of
the church. Since Kang became the senior pastor, the church has been able to grow
systematically with Changwon’s urbanization.

SMALL GROUP MINISTRY OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH
Gaeumjung Church has small groups called “Kuyeok.” The majority of the
Korean churches are based on this approach. Nobody knows for certain when the church
developed the Kuyeok system. The Kuyeok system has been used since the development
of this church.
4
As of 2007, the church had 87 Kuyeoks with 820 members. Gaeumjung
Church’s small group ministry has several important characteristics.

Stagnant Small Group Ministry
First of all, the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is not vitalized and
has been stagnant for more than 10 years. This can be proved through two factors. First,
the number of small groups and the number of small group members have not been
increased considerably as we can see on Figure 5. It illustrates the state of Gaeumjung
Church’s small group ministry for the last 10 years. There have been ups and downs on a

3 www.changwon.go.kr, accessed at November 2007.
4 Bong-Gil Kwon in telephone interview by author, November 6, 2007. He is an elder of the
church and a grandson of Jae-Hak Kwon who planted Gaeumjung Church. He is a living witness because
he has been a member of the church for almost 65 years except when he had been living in another city for
several years. And he has been an elder of the church for almost 30 years.



35
small scale. Noticeably, the number of small groups and small group members during
2007 decreased minimally compared to 2002 when both numbers were the highest.
Year Number of SG Number of Families Average
1998 97 740 7.63
1999 112 818 7.30
2000 104 803 7.72
2001 101 825 8.17
2002 104 826 7.94
2003 97 787 8.11
2004 88 767 8.72
2005 84 770 9.17
2006 95 816 8.59
2007 87 820 9.43

Figure 5. The state of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry for the last 10 years


Looking at a different angle, the result, according to a survey conducted with 87
small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church,
5
the number of persons increased in 25 small
groups, was unchanged in 30 small groups, and decreased in 25 small groups in 2007
between January and October (Figure 6). Seven small group leaders did not respond to
the questions, “How many adults did Gaeumjung Church assign to your small group
members at the beginning of this year?” and “How many members do you have in your
small group now?” In the actual number of persons attending, 25 groups had a total
attendance increase of 50 persons, and 25 groups had a total decrease of 52 persons.
There was little change in small group members from January to October. These numbers
prove that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church was stagnant in the year 2007
like the last nine years.

5 This question survey was conducted in October, 2007. Gaeumjung Church had 87 small group
leaders and all of the small group leaders took part in the survey. The questions for the survey are at
Appendix A.




Figure 6. Change of the number of persons at small groups at 2007 (January through
October)
Secondly, Gaeumjung Church was not produc
7 shows the responses of the small group leaders on the
been a member of Gaeumjung
question, “How long have you been a

0
5
10
15
20
25
30



Change of the number of persons at small groups at 2007 (January through


Secondly, Gaeumjung Church was not producing new small group leaders. Figure
7 shows the responses of the small group leaders on the question, “How long have
been a member of Gaeumjung Church?” And Figure 8 shows the responses on the
How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung C

25
30
25
7
36

Change of the number of persons at small groups at 2007 (January through
new small group leaders. Figure
How long have you
And Figure 8 shows the responses on the
Church?”



37

Figure 7. Responses to “How long have you been a member of Gaeumjung Church?”


Figure 8. Responses to “How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung
Church?”


Figure 7 and 8 indicate that 62.07% of small group leaders have been leading the
small groups over six years and 83.1% of leaders have been church members over seven
years. Though the leaders who have been leading less than three years is 29.88%, it does
not prove that the church successfully developed new leaders because the entire number
0
6
14
67
0
10
?0
30
40
50
60
70
80
Undor 3 voars 36 Yoars 710 Yoars Ovor 10 Yoars
8
18
7
14
40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Under 1
Year
1-3 Years 4-5 Years 6-10 Years Over 10
Years



of small groups is all but stationary for the last three years (Figure 5). That means
number of existing leaders

Small Group Ministry for Managing
Small Group ministry of Gaeumjung Church focuses on the management of the
church members rather than on the attributes and characteristic of
group ministry. The church assigns all members to small groups regardless of whether or
not they participate in small groups. Therefore, the number of members of small groups
at figure 5 is not one and the same with the number of small group members who actually
take part in small groups. This fact can be proved
leaders were asked to respond
group meeting on average?
small group meetings was 6.13 (Figure 9). The other eight lea
Figure 9. Average number of members in each case
0
2
4
6
8
10
Assigned
members at
January, 2007
9.76



of small groups is all but stationary for the last three years (Figure 5). That means
existing leaders that quit only equaled the number of new leaders recruited.
Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members
mall Group ministry of Gaeumjung Church focuses on the management of the
church members rather than on the attributes and characteristic of a successful
he church assigns all members to small groups regardless of whether or
they participate in small groups. Therefore, the number of members of small groups
at figure 5 is not one and the same with the number of small group members who actually
take part in small groups. This fact can be proved statistically. Seventy nine small group
leaders were asked to respond to the following question: “How many people attend the
group meeting on average?” The average number of persons who actually took part in
small group meetings was 6.13 (Figure 9). The other eight leaders did not respond.
Average number of members in each case


Assigned
members at
January, 2007
Assigned
members at
October, 2007
Members who
participate in
small group
meetings
9.76
9.47
6.13
38
of small groups is all but stationary for the last three years (Figure 5). That means that the
new leaders recruited.
mall Group ministry of Gaeumjung Church focuses on the management of the
successful small
he church assigns all members to small groups regardless of whether or
they participate in small groups. Therefore, the number of members of small groups
at figure 5 is not one and the same with the number of small group members who actually
. Seventy nine small group
How many people attend the
The average number of persons who actually took part in
ders did not respond.




What does this mean? Each small group has
members administratively, but do not take part in small group meetings. Of course we
have to recognize that the number of persons who never attend the small group meetings
could be less than 3.63 because members are absent
this point into consideration, there is a great difference between the number of
members and the number of
Figure 10 shows how many members
data is in response to 68 small group leaders. Nineteen responses are invalid. According
to statistical data, the perc
only 56.79%. On the other hand, the percentage of members who attend less than 50% of
the meetings is 31.79%. Remarkably
group meetings is 20.52 %.
Figure 10. Percentage of members in each case
Why does this phenomenon
group ministry is for managing church members. Small group leaders do not have the
authority to choose their own small group members. Likewise, small group members do
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Over 90%
311



What does this mean? Each small group has an average of 3.63 persons who are
members administratively, but do not take part in small group meetings. Of course we
that the number of persons who never attend the small group meetings
could be less than 3.63 because members are absent for many reasons. Even if we take
this point into consideration, there is a great difference between the number of
the number of actual participating members in small groups.
Figure 10 shows how many members small group leaders have in each case. This
data is in response to 68 small group leaders. Nineteen responses are invalid. According
to statistical data, the percentage of members who attend at least 70% of the meeting
only 56.79%. On the other hand, the percentage of members who attend less than 50% of
Remarkably, the percentage of members who never attend small
%.
Percentage of members in each case


phenomenon happen? It is because Gaeumjung Church
managing church members. Small group leaders do not have the
authority to choose their own small group members. Likewise, small group members do
Over 90% 70-89% 50-69% Less 50% Never
attend
311
82
79 78
142
39
3.63 persons who are
members administratively, but do not take part in small group meetings. Of course we
that the number of persons who never attend the small group meetings
. Even if we take
this point into consideration, there is a great difference between the number of assigned
participating members in small groups.
group leaders have in each case. This
data is in response to 68 small group leaders. Nineteen responses are invalid. According
entage of members who attend at least 70% of the meetings is
only 56.79%. On the other hand, the percentage of members who attend less than 50% of
, the percentage of members who never attend small

happen? It is because Gaeumjung Church’s small
managing church members. Small group leaders do not have the
authority to choose their own small group members. Likewise, small group members do



40
not have the authority to choose their own small groups or small group leaders, either.
That means, small groups are organized heteronomously, not autonomously. Because of
this characteristic, we cannot expect an effective and productive small group ministry
even though the object of managing church members might be achieved.
Gaeumjung Church has a structure for small group ministry as we can see in
Figure 11. However, it does not have a special team or a designated pastor for small
group ministry. Six full-time ministers, four of them are male associate pastors and the
other two are female evangelists, share the responsibility of small group ministry. From
another angle, each parish has one male associate pastor and one female evangelist. The
structure of a small group ministry in Figure 11 shows that Gaeumjung Church focuses
on managing church members rather than on the attributes and characteristic of a
successful small group ministry.












Figure 11. The structure of Gaeumjung Church for the small group ministry
Parish 1
22
Groups
Parish 2
22
Groups
Parish 3
21
Groups
Parish 4
21
Groups
Ministers’
Small
Group
Pastor
Maeng
Pastor
Kim
Pastor
Koo
Pastor
Park
The Senior
Pastor
Evangelist Lee Evangelist Bae



41
In this structure, we do not see mentors or coaches for small group leaders. The
organizations to encourage small group leaders and to examine their ministries are totally
assigned to the associate pastors and evangelists. The function of the female evangelists
is particularly perceived more important because most small group leaders are women.
Figure 12 shows the responses to the question, “Whom do you call when you
have difficulties as a small group leader?” The total responses were 98 because two
leaders did not response and eleven leaders responded twice. According to this statistical
data, 85.06% of the small group leaders say that they call the minister in charge of
leading them first and foremost when they have difficulties as a small group leader. “The
minister in charge of leading them” mainly denotes the evangelist who takes charge of
leading each parish. However, one of the two female evangelists says that they do not
have expert knowledge on mentoring or coaching because they have not been trained for
the matters of mentoring or coaching.
6



6 Sung-Soon Lee in telephone interview by author, December 14, 2007. She is a female
evangelist of Gaeumjung Church.



Figure 12. Responses to “
leader first of all?”
Geographically Organized Small Groups
Gaeumjung Church
church makes small groups geographically and assigns members according to their
location irrespective of their ages or mat
which consist of members with similar ages because small groups tend to be formed
according to member’s age within some areas. It is evident, however, that an important
basis in the organization of small g
addresses. Each group has a name which indicates a specific region.
proves that the church’s small groups are organized geographically.
A small group which consists of members in the same area
disadvantages than advantages. And
the members do not willingly share their problems within the group. It is because they
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
A B
2
74




“Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group


Geographically Organized Small Groups
Gaeumjung Church’s Kuyeok system is organized geographically. In general, the
church makes small groups geographically and assigns members according to their
location irrespective of their ages or matters of concern. Of course, there are small groups
which consist of members with similar ages because small groups tend to be formed
age within some areas. It is evident, however, that an important
basis in the organization of small groups in Gaeumjung Church is the members
has a name which indicates a specific region. This powerfully
s small groups are organized geographically.
A small group which consists of members in the same area has more
than advantages. And most of the disadvantages are related
the members do not willingly share their problems within the group. It is because they
C D E F G H
1
2
12
3
2 2
Format Legend

A: Senior Pastor
B: A minister in
of leading you.
C: People
your mentor or
coach by
Gaeumjung Church
D: Predecessor
E: Fellow small group
leader
F: No one
G: Others
H: Invalid
42
when you have difficulties as a small group
s Kuyeok system is organized geographically. In general, the
church makes small groups geographically and assigns members according to their
ters of concern. Of course, there are small groups
which consist of members with similar ages because small groups tend to be formed
age within some areas. It is evident, however, that an important
members’ local
his powerfully
has more
are related to the fact that
the members do not willingly share their problems within the group. It is because they
Format Legend
A: Senior Pastor
B: A minister in charge
of leading you.
C: People appointed
your mentor or
coach by
Gaeumjung Church
Predecessor
Fellow small group
leader
No one
Others
H: Invalid



43
cannot sympathize with each other. For example, if you visited a small group meeting,
you could find an 80-year-woman and a 28-year-old newly married woman in the same
group. How could an 80-year-old woman and a 28-year-old woman feel sympathy
towards each other? It is a very important reason why the small group ministry of
Gaeumjung Church has not been vitalized. It is a fatal defect because sharing is the life of
a small group.

Women-centered Small Group Ministry
The small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is women-centered. “Women-
centered” means that small groups of the church are mainly for women. Women even
hardly go together with their kids to the small group meetings except in unavoidable
circumstances.
The small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church being women-centered can be
proven by the fact that the church has very few small groups for men as we see in Figure
13. As of 2007, Gaeumjung Church had developed only four men’s small groups. It is
just 4.60% of the all the small groups. Even though we admit that men can take part in
one of the seven small groups for men and women combined, the number of small groups
for men is no more than eleven. This only represents 12.64% of all the small groups. The
ratio is very low in comparison with the ratio of women’s small groups which is 87.36%.
Gaeumjung Church has 76 women’s small groups.




44
Year
Number of the
Whole SGs
Number of men and
wives’ SGs
Number of men’s
SGs
1998 97 0 0
1999 112 2 6
2000 104 1 2
2001 101 4 2
2002 104 5 2
2003 97 3 2
2004 88 4 2
2005 84 4 2
2006 95 5 15
2007 87 7 4

Figure 13. The number of each type of small group

A review comparing male members in the church to the ratio of the small groups
for males were completed. Figure 14 demonstrates the number of attendants on a Sunday
morning worship service for 10 weeks.
7
During that period, the average male attendance
was 400.9. It was 37.72% of all attendants. The ratio of small groups which men can take
part in is just 12.64% (Figure 13) and this is low compared with the ratio of the male
church members. This shows that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is
leaning towards women.



7 The data of September 23, 2007 were omitted because the day was a Korean holiday equivalent
to Thanksgiving weekend in USA. Usually, many church members do not attend Sunday morning worship
at a holiday.



45
Date Men Women The Total
09-02-07 393 647 1040
09-09-07 378 665 1043
09-16-07 423 672 1095
09-30-07 395 673 1068
10-07-07 390 642 1032
10-14-07 421 665 1086
10-21-07 393 656 1049
10-28-07 404 662 1066
11-04-07 421 675 1096
11-11-07 391 662 1053
Average 400.9 661.9 1062.8

Figure 14. Attendants of Sunday Morning Worship Service for ten weeks


One of the reasons why small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is women-
centered is because men are too busy to take part in weekly small group meetings in
South Korea. In fact, Korean males are very busy. Quoting International Labour
Organization’s (ILO) report, Chosunilbo, which is a representative conservative daily
newspaper, reported that the working time of Korean laborers is the longest among the
nations which were subjects of a study in 2006.
8
It was 2,305 hours per year. The
Hankyoreh, which is a representative progressive daily newspaper, reported that almost
half of Korean laborers (49.5%) work over 48 hours per week.
9
Nevertheless, most of
Korean male workers are busier than what official reports say about them. Many workers
often head for their workplaces before 8:00 AM and return home after 9:00 PM. This
observable fact makes it difficult for men to take part in small group meetings.

8 http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2007/09/04/2007090400038.html, accessed at
November 2007.
9 http://hani.co.kr/arti/society/labor/214505.html, accessed at November 2007.



46
Actually, Gaeumjung Church tried two times to vitalize men’s small groups.
There had been comparatively more men’s small groups during 1999 and 2006 compared
with the other years (Figure 13). It was because Gaeumjung Church organized men’s
small groups administratively during 1999 and 2006 with the desire to vitalize small
groups for men. However, the effectiveness was not good because the life span of men’s
small groups was very short. Just two of the six small groups during 1999 survived in
2000. Of the 15 men’s small groups in 2006, just four groups survived in 2007. If we
consider that there had been two small groups for six years before 2006, we can say that
just two small groups survived among all the groups which were organized intentionally
by the church.
Yet we cannot say that the effort put forth by Gaeumjung Church to revitalize
men’s small groups ended in failure. Because of the effort in 1999, men’s small groups
still exists. Furthermore, the efforts in 2006 added two more men’s small groups.

Teaching-centered Small Group Meetings
Small group meetings are teaching-centered in Gaeumjung Church. Teaching
holds the most important program in a small group meeting in Gaeumjung Church. Small
group leaders teach what they learned from the Senior Pastor. In general, small group
leaders have meetings on Friday and learn what they will teach after the Wednesday
evening service. They call it “Bible Study for Small Group Leaders.” What the small
group leaders teach at meetings are not about a sermon. They use a textbook as their
teaching material. The textbook is provided by the Board of Christian Education of the
denomination which the church belongs to. Though the textbook contain many subjects



47
which are related to actual fields of life of the lay believers (Figure 15), the small group
leaders focus on teaching in the meetings.

2004 2005 2006 2007
Jan. – Feb.
Christian
Personality 1
Personal
Devotional Life
Church’s Offices
Christian
Worship
Mar. – Apr.
Christian
Personality 2
Beginning and
Development of
Church
The Way of a
Disciple
The Sermon on
the Mount 1
May – Jun. Christian Family
Church as a
community
The Ten
Commandments
The Sermon on
the Mount 2
Jul. – Aug.
Christian
Doctrine 1
Social Life of a
Christian
Gospel and
Grace
Biblical Figures
Sep. – Oct. The Lord’s Prayer
The Apostles’
Creed
Christians in a
Church
Christian’s
Economic Life
Nov. – Dec. Human Relationship
Christian and
Culture
Christian Doctrine
2
Heresies

Figure 15. Topics of the textbook by The Board of Christian Education for the last four
years


Statistical data show that the small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church got used
to a teaching-centered small group meeting. Figure 16 indicates the responses to the
question, “What kinds of supports does Gaeumjung Church give you for doing the job of
a small group leader?” Plural responses were permitted. An overwhelming majority of all
the small group leaders say that Bible study for small group leaders was the support
which Gaeumjung Church gave them for doing the job of a small group leader.
“Teaching you what you teach at a small group meeting” was what got accomplished
during the Bible Study for Small Group Leaders.



Figure 16. Opinions of small group leaders about
STRATEGY OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT OF
It is evident that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is stagnant and
unproductive. What is the reason? We could find the reason by examining the reality of
Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of a small group leadership development. It is because the
reality of a small group ministry and the reality of a strategy for small group leadership
development were inseparably related to each other. We can find several important
features of Gaeumjung Church
development on the basis of a question survey of the current small group leaders in the
church.


0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
80
90
SvsLemaLlc
follow-up
Lralnlna
1eachlna
whaL vou
Leach aL a
small aroup
meeLlna
26
82



Opinions of small group leaders about Gaeumjung Church’s supports for them


STRATEGY OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT OF
GAEUMJUNG CHURCH
It is evident that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is stagnant and
unproductive. What is the reason? We could find the reason by examining the reality of
s strategy of a small group leadership development. It is because the
ality of a small group ministry and the reality of a strategy for small group leadership
development were inseparably related to each other. We can find several important
features of Gaeumjung Church’s strategy in regards to a small group leadership
pment on the basis of a question survey of the current small group leaders in the
1eachlna
whaL vou
Leach aL a
small aroup
meeLlna
ConnecLlon
wlLh a
menLor or
coach
AsslsLance
of praver
llnanclal
supporL
CLhers lnvalld
82
5
22
26
2 2
48

s supports for them
STRATEGY OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT OF
It is evident that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is stagnant and
unproductive. What is the reason? We could find the reason by examining the reality of
s strategy of a small group leadership development. It is because the
ality of a small group ministry and the reality of a strategy for small group leadership
development were inseparably related to each other. We can find several important
s strategy in regards to a small group leadership
pment on the basis of a question survey of the current small group leaders in the
lnvalld
2



49
Very Low Degree of Satisfaction of Small Group Leaders on the Strategy
According to the result of the question survey, the degree of satisfaction of
Gaeumjung Church’s small group leaders on the strategy of small group leadership
development is very low. Figure 17 indicates the responses of the small group leaders to
the question, “Do you think the development of small group leadership in Gaeumjung
Church is systematic?” They gave a grade by circling a number with 1 as the lowest and
10 as the highest.

Figure 17. Degree of satisfaction of small group leaders on Gaeumjung Church’s
strategy of small group leadership development


The average of all the valid responses was 5.44. Seventeen small group leaders
served as small group leaders in other churches before being leaders in Gaeumjung
Church. The average of their responses was 5.53. Seventy small group leaders did not
have experience of any sort. The average of responses of small group leaders who have
not served as small group leaders in other churches is 5.42. These numerical values are
shockingly very low. According to the responses of small group leaders, the systematic
degree of small group leadership development of Gaeumjung Church was just 54.4%. It
0
5
10
15
20
25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Invalid
Whole Inexperienced in other churches Experienced in other churches



50
means that the small group leaders were not very satisfied with the reality of Gaeumjung
Church’s strategy of small group leadership development.

A Premodern Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development
According to small group leaders, Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group
leadership development has so far been premodern. It means that the development of
small group leaders has not depended on systematic strategy. The small group leaders of
Gaeumjung Church were asked “What kinds of training or education did you receive to
be a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” They were permitted to give more than
one response. Figure 18 shows the responses to this question. Seventy six responses of
the total are valid because eleven small group leaders did not respond to the question.
Responses Number Ratio(%)
A. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or
a member.
60 78.95
B. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which
consisted of at least 3 classes.
20 26.66
C. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one
or two classes.
12 15.79
D. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of
small group ministry to be a small group leader.
12 15.79
E. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting.
12 15.79
F. Others (None: 2, Disciplines: 2, Meeting of SGLs: 1) 5 6.58
Invalid 11

Figure 18. Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a
small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?”


According to Figure 18, learning through previous predecessors was the most
universal method in small group leadership development in Gaeumjung Church. In



51
Figure 19
10
it says it is the same in other churches. There is no significant difference
between the numerical values of Figure 18 and Figure 19. This phenomenon has two
aspects. First, learning through seeing which in other words is called observational
learning, is a very effective method for small group leadership development. Secondly, it
could be a proof that small group leadership has not been developed systematically and
methodically in Gaeumjung Church up to the present.

Responses Number Ratio(%)
A. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or
a member.
13 76.47
B. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which
consisted of at least 3 classes.
4 23.53
C. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one
or two classes.
0 0
D. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of
small group ministry to be a small group leader.
3 17.65
E. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting.
4 23.53
F. Others (None: 2, Disciplines: 2, Meeting of SGLs: 1) 0 6.58

Figure 19. Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a
small group leader in the church which you have served as a small group leader in?”


Looking at from a different perspective, the small group leaders of Gaeumjung
Church were asked, “From whom (of from what) did you learn the most about jobs and
attitudes of a small group leader?” Originally, to give numerous responses to this
question was not permitted. However, twenty six small group leaders gave more than one
response. Figure 20 shows the responses to the question nullifying the 26 plural responses.
Figure 21 shows the response to the question including 26 plural responses.

10 Figure 19 indicates responses of small group leaders who have served as small group leaders in
other churches to the question, “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group
leader in the church?”



Figure 20. Responses nullifying 26 plural responses

Figure 21. Responses including 26 plural responses
According to Figure 20 and 21,
the case of permitting the
attitudes of a small group leader from a guiding principle
Nevertheless, this did not mean that the senior
vision statement as a guiding principle for small group leade
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
A B
4
25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
A B
9
43




Responses nullifying 26 plural responses

Responses including 26 plural responses


According to Figure 20 and 21, 42.37% of all the small group leaders (49.43 % in
permitting the plural responses) replied that they learned most about jobs and
attitudes of a small group leader from a guiding principle through the senior pastor.
, this did not mean that the senior pastor created a specific document or a
vision statement as a guiding principle for small group leaders to follow. I
B C D E F G H
6
16
1
4
3
28
B C D E F G H
17
35
7
4
3
2
Format Le
A: A systematic small
group leadership
development program
B: A guiding principle of
the senior pastor
C: A minister in charge of
small group ministry
D: Predecessor
E: Fellow small group
leaders
F: No one
G: Others
H: Invalid
Format Legend
A: A systematic small
group leadership
development program
B: A guiding principle of
the senior pastor
C: A minister in charge of
small group ministry
D: Predecessor
E: Fellow small group
leaders
F: No one
G: Others
H: Invalid
52
small group leaders (49.43 % in
most about jobs and
the senior pastor.
d a specific document or a
rs to follow. In fact, small
Format Legend
A systematic small
group leadership
development program
A guiding principle of
the senior pastor
A minister in charge of
small group ministry
Predecessor
Fellow small group
leaders
No one
Others
H: Invalid
Format Legend
A systematic small
group leadership
development program
A guiding principle of
the senior pastor
A minister in charge of
small group ministry
Predecessor
Fellow small group
leaders
No one
Others
H: Invalid



53
group leaders were trained during the Wednesday night Bible Study on what they would
teach in their small groups. A guideline that small group leaders would consider perhaps
would be through the senior pastor’s lecture.
Figure 20 and 21 illustrate that a great part of Gaeumjung Church’s jobs and
attitudes of a small group leader are mainly seen through other persons i.e. a minister in
charge of small group ministry, their predecessors, and/or through fellow small group
leaders. The percentage of the small group leaders who learned from a systematic small
group leadership development program was just 6.78% (If plural responses were
permitted a 10.34% would be incorporated). These data prove that Gaeumjung Church’s
strategy of small group leadership development has been premodern so far.

Low Efficiency of the Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development
According to Figure 18, Gaeumjung Church bears the marks to strive to have a
systematic training course in developing small group leaders. In view of the results
achieved so far, however, its effectiveness was not good. Though Gaeumjung Church
evidently opened systematic training courses that had three class sessions or a one or two
class sessions style course, just 26.66% said they took courses that integrated three
classes and 15.79% said they took courses that had one or two class sessions. It proves
that the efficiency of Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership
development has been very low. Only 15.79% of small group leaders responded to learn
systematically how to lead a small group meeting. In this case, the course was also
clearly open to all future leaders. This meant that the courses had few participators or low



54
effectiveness. In the point of efficiency, the reality of small group leadership
development of Gaeumjung Church till now has had big problems.
According to the author’s experience, the efficiency of Gaeumjung Church’s
strategy of small group leadership development was very low. He took the responsibility
of small group leadership development for the years following 2004. He prepared a
program of three classes for not only the apprentices of all small group leaders who
would be the next small group leader, but also for the current small group leaders. The
targets of the program reached 170. However, the actual participants were less than 20
people for every class, including the three apprentices.

Unsystematic Process of Selection and Examination of New Small Group Leaders
Selection and examination of new small group leaders are very important parts in
the whole process of the strategy of small group leadership development. However, we
can reach a conclusion that selection and examination of new small group leaders have
been unsystematic and ineffective in Gaeumjung Church. According to Figure 18, just
15.79% of small group leaders said that they took counseling with the senior pastor or a
minister in charge of small group ministry in order to become a small group leader.
Figure 22 shows the process in becoming a small group leader in Gaeumjung
Church. The church does not have a team for selection and examination of new small
group leaders. As we can see in Figure 22, a person becomes a small group leader on the
bases of another small group leader’s recommendation and through an evangelist’s
judgment. Moreover, examination of him or her completely depends on just one person’s



55
judgment. We cannot think that selection and examination of new small group leaders are
achieved systematically.













Figure 22. Process of being a small group leader at Gaeumjung Church


Inefficient Follow-up Training
An effective follow-up training for small group leaders is very important because
it can make up for the weak points in the strategy of small group leadership development.
However, Gaeumjung Church’s follow-up trainings for small group leaders have been
found to be ineffective. Figure 23 shows the responses to the question, “After being a
small group leader, have you ever taken any training that helped you to be a more
effective small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?”

Recommendation
A small group leader recommends somebody as a
small group leader. He or she usually recommends
his/her apprentice.

Judgment
A minister who is in charge of small group ministry
judges the person. The judging minister is mainly a
female evangelist.

Appointment
If he/she consents to be a small group leader, the
senior pastor appoints him/her as a small group leader.
Inquiry of intention
If the evangelist thinks that he/she is a competent
person to be a small group leader, she asks his/her
intention.



Figure 23. Responses to take follow
What we have to notice in Figure 23 is that twenty three small group leaders of
the total, which is 26.44%, do not take the follow
group leaders. According to Figure 8,
Nonetheless, they said they have not ever taken any training provided by Gaeumjung
Church.
In contrast, Figure 24 shows the responses to the question,
follow-up training, what kinds o
of the 87 total responses because 23 small group leaders said that they have not taken any
follow-up training and one small group leader did not respond.

0
10
20
30
40
30
60
70
?es



Responses to take follow-up training in Gaeumjung Church


What we have to notice in Figure 23 is that twenty three small group leaders of
the total, which is 26.44%, do not take the follow-up training while they serve as small
group leaders. According to Figure 8, they would serve at least for a couple of years.
Nonetheless, they said they have not ever taken any training provided by Gaeumjung
In contrast, Figure 24 shows the responses to the question, “If you have taken any
up training, what kinds of training did you received?” Valid responses are 63 out
of the 87 total responses because 23 small group leaders said that they have not taken any
up training and one small group leader did not respond.
?es no lnvalld
63
23
1
56

What we have to notice in Figure 23 is that twenty three small group leaders of
up training while they serve as small
they would serve at least for a couple of years.
Nonetheless, they said they have not ever taken any training provided by Gaeumjung
If you have taken any
Valid responses are 63 out
of the 87 total responses because 23 small group leaders said that they have not taken any



Figure 24. Responses to kinds of follow
Most small group leaders responded to take spiritual training through prayer
meetings or retreats. The number of small group leaders to respond this way was 58,
which is 92.06%. Gaeumjung Church holds a prayer meeting for small
apprentices every two months.
on by saying: “spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat.”
small group leaders and apprentices who take part in a prayer meeting does not
half of the total number of small group leaders and apprentices according to the author
experience.
The senior pastor teaches every Wednesday night on the topic:
in a small group meeting.
Figure 16and Figure 24. According to Figure 16, 82 small group leaders said Gaeumjung
Church gave them the support of teaching what they taught at a small group meeting.
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
SplrlLual
1ralnlna
Lhrouah
praver
meeLlna or
reLreaL
Pow Lo lead
small aroup
meeLlnas
efffecLlvelv
58
35



Responses to kinds of follow-up trainings


Most small group leaders responded to take spiritual training through prayer
meetings or retreats. The number of small group leaders to respond this way was 58,
which is 92.06%. Gaeumjung Church holds a prayer meeting for small group
months. It is the thing which many small group leaders comment
“spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat.” But, the number of
small group leaders and apprentices who take part in a prayer meeting does not
half of the total number of small group leaders and apprentices according to the author
The senior pastor teaches every Wednesday night on the topic: “What do I teach
in a small group meeting.” We can find a great difference between numerical values of
Figure 16and Figure 24. According to Figure 16, 82 small group leaders said Gaeumjung
Church gave them the support of teaching what they taught at a small group meeting.
Pow Lo lead
small aroup
meeLlnas
efffecLlvelv
Pow Lo
make an
apprenLlce
Pow Lo bulld
relaLlonshlps
wlLh small
aroup
members
Pow Lo
resolve
confllcLs ln
Lhe small
aroup
WhaL do l
Leach ln a
small aroup
meeLlna
35
12
21
13
39
57

Most small group leaders responded to take spiritual training through prayer
meetings or retreats. The number of small group leaders to respond this way was 58,
group leaders and
all group leaders comment
But, the number of
small group leaders and apprentices who take part in a prayer meeting does not exceed
half of the total number of small group leaders and apprentices according to the author’s
What do I teach
numerical values of
Figure 16and Figure 24. According to Figure 16, 82 small group leaders said Gaeumjung
Church gave them the support of teaching what they taught at a small group meeting.
CLhers
1



58
However, the number of small group leaders who said they had taken trainings about
what they taught in a small group meeting was just 39. This difference may occur
because many small group leaders do not think of this Bible study as a follow-up training.
The provisions of the other follow-up trainings are very low. The ratio of how to
lead small group meetings effectively is 55.56% (35 small group leaders). The ratio of
how to make an apprentice was 19.05 (12 leaders). The ratio of how to build relationships
within small group members was 33.33% (21 leaders). Finally, the ratio of how to resolve
conflicts within the small group was 20.63% (13 leaders). As a result, the efficiency of
Gaeumjung Church’s follow-up training for small group leaders was very low.

SUMMARY
Though the history of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry has progressed
through a long period of time, but the ministry has not been vitalized. The small group
ministry of Gaeumjung Church has been stagnant for a long time though the numbers of
small groups and small group members have increased along with the growth of the
church. One of the reasons in this phenomenon is that the church could not have
developed efficient small group leaders thus far. The reality of small group leadership
development of Gaeumjung Church is unsystematic and inefficient. Therefore, the church
was not able to develop follow-up trainings for small group leaders efficiently and
strategically. The unproductive strategy of small group leadership development till now
has had negative effect on the reality of small group ministry in Gaeumjung Church.


59







CHAPTER 3

CASE STUDY ON SEVERAL KOREAN CHURCHES


TARGETS AND METHODS OF CASE STUDY
Targets Used for This Case Study
The author examined nine churches
1
laying stress on the development of small
group leaders and their strategies and/or philosophies. All nine churches are well known
for their effective small group ministry, whether it is categorized through cells, house
churches, or Kuyeoks. The target churches are shown in Figure 25.











1 Originally, the author surveyed more than nine churches to be a target church for this case study.
However, only these nine churches responded to the request positively.
60



Church Name Senior Pastor Location Form
Seoul Baptist Church of
Houston
Young-Ki Chai Houston, TX House Church
Global Mission Church Dong-Won Lee Youngin, South Korea House Church
Church of Dream Hei-Muk Ahn Gongju, South Korea House Church
Guminam Church Seok-Kil, Cheon Gumi, South Korea House Church
Wonchon Baptist Church Joseph Kim Suwon, South Korea Vineyard
2

Light Global Mission Church Sekyu Chang Vienna, VA Cell Church
Open Dore Presbyterian
Church
Paul Y. Kim Herndon, VA Oikos
Hyangsang Church Ju-Chai Jung Youngin, South Korea
Of-small group
church
Hosanna Church Hong-Joon Choi Pusan, South Korea Kuyeok

Figure 25. Target churches of the case study


Principles Used for Sampling
This case study was conducted for the purpose of comparing the targeted nine
churches to Gaeumjung Church concerning small group leadership development. For this
purpose, the author set several principles that were used to sample this comparison.
3

1. To choose churches with various types of small group ministry like cells,
house churches, Kuyeoks, etc. This principle targets the different types of
small group ministry: four House Churches (Seoul Baptist Church of Houston,
Global Mission Church, Church of Dream, and Guminam Church), Vineyard
(Wonchon Baptist Church), Cell Church (Light Global Mission Church),
Oikos (Open Dore Presbyterian Church), Of-Small Group Church (Hyangsang
Church), and the Kuyeok (Hosanna Church).
2. To add several Presbyterian churches intentionally because Gaeumjung
Church is a Presbyterian church. The churches that are targeted by this
principle are four Presbyterian churches; Guminam Church, Open Door
Presbyterian Church, Hyangsang Church, and Hosanna Church. The other five
churches are all Baptist churches; Seoul Baptist Church of Houston, Global

2 The Vineyard of Wonchon Baptist Church is not related to the Vineyard Movement. In this
thesis, Vineyard is used only as a name of a small group for Wonchon Baptist Church.
3 The concrete reasons why the author sampled these churches will be introduced in the section
titled, “Results of the Case Study.”
61



Mission Church, Church of Dream, Wonchon Baptist Church, and Light
Global Mission Church.
3. To add a few churches which belong to The Presbyterian Church in Korea as
does Gaeumjung Church. The churches that are targeted by this principle are
Guminam Church and Hyangsang Church.
4. To choose Korean churches within America in conjunction to the author’s
time studying in the U.S. and visitation to these churches. The three churches
featured in the U.S. among the nine churches are Seoul Baptist Church of
Houston, Light Global Mission Church, and Open Door Presbyterian Church.

Methods of Case Study
The methods of study, which the author chose, were mainly interviews with the
Senior Pastors or Associate Pastors in charge of small group ministry in the nine churches.
The author interviewed the interviewees face to face, on the phone, or by e-mails. In
some cases, two methods were used. In other cases, the author interviewed more than one
person. The names of the interviewee and method of the interview are shown in Figure 26.

62



Church Name Interviewees Position of Interviewees Method of Interview
Seoul Baptist
Church of Houston
Young-Ki Chai
Kwang-woong Park
Senior pastor
Head official
Telephone
E-mail
Global Mission
Church
Sang-Hun Cho Associated pastor
Face to face and
e-mail
Church of Dream Hei-Muk Ahn Senior pastor
Face to face and
e-mail
Guminam Church Seok-Kil Cheon Senior pastor E-mail
Wonchon Baptist
Church
Soo-Hyun Bang
Young-Cheol Ahn
One of the pastors
One of the pastors
E-mail
Telephone
Light Global Mission
Church
Sekyu Chang
Young-Ho Lee
Senior pastor
Associated pastor
Face to Face
Telephone
Open Dore
Presbyterian Church
Paul Y. Kim Senior pastor
Face to face and
e-mail
Hyangsang Church
Ju-Chai Jung
Dong-Hoon Shin
Senior pastor
Former Associated pastor
E-mail
Face to Face
Hosanna Church
Ki-Tae Won
Hyeon-Woo Park
Associated pastor
Former Associated pastor
E-mail
Face to face

Figure 26. Interviewees and methods of interview


All of the interviewees, except two, said that they certainly knew the difference in
the various types of small groups such as a Cell Church, House Church, G-12 Church,
Of-Small Group Church, and Kuyeok. Soo-Hyun Bang of Wonchon Baptist Church and
Ju-Chai Jung of Hyangsang Church said that they knew the difference to a certain extent.
Therefore, we can trust their responses to the questions about their strategies of small
group leadership development.
4





4 The questions for the interview are at Appendix B.
63



RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY
Seoul Baptist of Houston (http://www.seoulbaptist.org) – House Church
This church is very famous for its House Church ministry. Many Korean pastors,
whether they are in South Korea or in the United States, say that Seoul Baptist Church of
Houston stands as an exemplar of a House Church. Seoul Baptist Church of Houston
transitioned into a House Church in 1993 when Young-Ki Chai became the senior pastor
of the church, making a definite promise to start this kind of small group ministry.
5

Thereafter, the church, on one hand has been trying to identify the ideal House Church
within a church, but on the other hand spread the House Church ministry among other
Korean churches in the world.
Seoul Baptist Church of Houston has the Institute of International House Church
Ministries which takes exclusive charge of the House Church ministry. The church and
the institute, with several other churches which transitioned into House Churches, have
held 42 seminars for pastors, 66 seminars for lay peoples, 29 conferences for pastors,
6

and two conferences for the leaders of House Churches in spreading the House Church
Movement through December 2007. The author attended a seminar for pastors at Seoul
Baptist Church of Houston in February 2007.
One should understand House Church in detail because some of the churches used
as targets for this case study are House Churches. Seoul Baptist Church of Houston has
the department of House Church Ministry with an operational mission statement. The
mission statement says the following:

5 Young-Ki Chai, The laity ministry through House Church, 37.
6 A Conference for pastors was a seminar for pastors who transitioned his or her church into house
church setting.
64



The House Church Ministry Department helps all Chowons and Mokjangs
7

accomplish their ministries to achieve the purpose of Seoul Baptist Church of
Houston, which is to win souls and to make disciples for God’s glory. For this
purpose, the department manages information concerning each Chowon and
Mokjang and sets up and carries out the operation policy and enforcement
regulations according to their needs.

The vision statement of the department of House Church Ministry says that:
The department of House Church Ministry collects each Mokjang and Chowon’s
effective and creative ministry and operational principles and provides them to the
other Mokjangs and Chowons so that Chowon and Mokjang ministry would be
accomplished completely in Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. The department
helps the Institute of International House Church Ministries not only to fulfill its
mission to spread and settle down the House Church ministry, but also plays a
core role as a model church for the purpose to establish 1,000 House Churches by
the year 2010.

Then, what is the House Church? According to the Institute of International
House Church Ministries, the following defines a House Church:
8

1. The purpose of the House church is to recover the vitality of the first century
church’s community.
2. The House Church overcomes the limitations of a passive religious church life
that only focuses on worship formation and Bible study based discipleship.
The House Church is geared towards witnessing to unbelievers and in so
doing, fulfilling the church’s original purpose of “saving the lost and making
disciples of Jesus Christ.” The House Church accomplishes this by helping
unbelievers to accept Jesus as their Lord and savior and by inviting
unbelievers to be true disciples through servanthood.
3. The House Church is led by a layman who acts as a shepherd and carries out
many of the responsibilities of a full time pastor. The House Church is
composed of 6 to 12 members who meet together on a weekly basis at
members’ homes. It is a faith community which engages in the Christian acts
of worship, education, fellowship, witnessing, and mission.

7 “Mokjang,” which is a Korean term meaning pasture, is a unique name for a House Church at
Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. A leader of a Mokjang is called a Mokja, which means shepherd. A
“Chowon” is a type of small group which consists of Mokjas and their spouses of several Mokjangs. In this
thesis, Mokjang and House Church will be used alternatively.
8 http://www.housechurchministries.org/about/html/about1_1_e.html, accessed at December 2007.
65



4. The House Church model divides the tasks of the local church in accordance
with biblical principles (Ephesians 4:11-12). The model ordains a head pastor
as an overseer of the whole faith community. The head pastor focuses on
preaching, praying, and training laymen to carry out the tasks of witnessing,
visitation, and counseling. The laymen carry out these House Church tasks
along with other church ministry activities in the church. The goal is to build
an effective faith community.
5. The layman gains understanding and becomes a partner with the head pastor
by experiencing the pastor’s tasks through the successes and the adversities of
serving the House Church members.
6. By sharing honest prayer requests and by experiencing the grace of answered
prayers, the House Church members experience the living God and live
transformed lives. The House Church calls for and provides an environment to
nurture members as they learn to practice scripturally based living and in so
doing members become true disciples of Christ.

As of 2007, the reality of the church concerning House Church ministry according
to Kwang-Woong Park, head official of Seoul Baptist Church of Houston is as follows
(Figure 27):

Number of adult members 1900
Number of small groups (House Churches) 165
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
100%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
100%

Figure 27. The reality of House Church ministry at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston


At Seoul Baptist Church of Houston, as we can see in Figure 28, small group
leadership development is accomplished naturally in proportion to growth of the small
groups. When the members recognize the necessity of division of a Mokjang, they place a
new Mokja amongst the members. Of course, the new Mokja has been well trained by
observing how the existing Mokja carries out the duty as a Mokja. The members then can
66



choose between the existing Mokja and the new Mokja. The senior pastor approves the
new Mokja chosen by the Mokjang members except in the case that a serious flaw is
found in the new Mokja. As things turn out, the strategy of small group leadership in
Seoul Baptist Church of Houston is bringing up new Mokjas by letting them learn by
seeing their preceding Mokjas in Mokjangs.












Figure 28. An outlook to set up a new Mokja and Mokjang at Seoul Baptist Church of
Houston


Chai, who is the senior pastor of the church, says that the most important strategy
of small group leadership development is made up of common recognition through the
members of the whole church, the senior pastor’s role, and the system of learning by
seeing and learning by doing. First, the members of the whole church recognize that a
House Church is a church and a Mokja is the pastor of a House Church. Second, the
The senior pastor’s approval through an
interview with the new Mokja
Division of Mokjang
(Making two Mokjangs)
Recognizing the necessity of
division of a Mokjang

Members choose between the existing
Mokja and the new Mokja
Setting a new Mokja among the members

67



senior pastor takes the ministry by helping Mokjangs function as a church and the Mokjas
performs the duty of the pastor rather than has his own approach. The leadership of the
senior pastor is highly influenced by lessening his own authority and right, and
acknowledging the works of the Mokjas. Third, Mokjas learn by seeing their
predecessors’ serving. Actually, the Mokjas of this church are those who serve people
very devotedly because their enthusiasm for souls. A member learns how to serve people
by seeing the Mokja serving people and how much they have to have affection for souls.
And after being a Mokja, they could be serving other people with great enthusiasm for
souls.
Chai says that he is helping the small group leaders by presenting direction,
encouraging them, and creating an atmosphere for them to do their ministry. He also says
that he makes them succeed and that all Mokjas know that. He does not think he stands in
the center of the church. However, those who are to be recognized must be the Mokjas.
Chai presents experience of success, sound human relationship, and faithfulness
as three things that are absolutely necessary to small group leaders. Experience of success
means that he or she who is going to be a Mokja has to be successful in his or her field of
life. Chai thinks that anyone who is a successful housewife, an effective workman, or a
recognized resident can be an effective Mokja, i.e., a small group leader. And a Mokja
has to maintain a friendly relationship with people and be faithful in his or her actual life.
Seoul Baptist Church of Houston has held fast to these principles for over 14
years. Chai says that there would be no change in his church for small group leadership
development in the near future. It is because he thinks that the present system is the most
effective strategy for his church.
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Global Mission Church (http://www.jiguchon.org) – House Church
Global Mission Church is the most recognized Baptist church in South Korea with
24,000 members. Dong-Won Lee, who is the senior pastor of Global Mission Church is
winning the respect of Korean Christians as an excellent pastor and preacher. While the
church has grown very quickly since it was planted in January 1994, in 2002, this church
has transitioned into a House Church because they had recognized the present-day need
for small communities in which people could share their lives with one another.
The passion for a House Church ministry is well expressed in the philosophy,
mission statement, and main value statement of this church. The fourth philosophy of the
church says that “the two most important aspects of the worship service are (i) Worship:
where the Gospel is proclaimed and (ii) Nurturing: where teaching and admonishing
takes place.”
9
Nurturing is accomplished through each House Church. The mission
statement of the church is that “all the members in our church are going to be trained as
lay missionaries through the pasture church which they belong to.”
10
“The pasture church”
is the unique name for House Church used in Global Mission Church. And the main
value statement of this church says that a matter of the highest priority of the church is
House Church ministry.
11

As of 2007, according to Sang-Hun Cho, who is an associated pastor in charge of
the small group ministry in Global Mission Church, the reality of the church concerning
House Church ministry is as follows (Figure 29):


9 http://www.jiguchon.org/english/html/philosophy.asp, accessed at January, 2008.
10 http://www.jiguchon.org/english/html/vision.asp, accessed at January, 2008.
11 http://www.jiguchon.org/gmc_intro/intro_vision.asp, accessed at January, 2008.
69



Number of adult members 24,000
Number of small groups (House Churches) 2,000
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
80%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
70%

Figure 29. The reality of Global Mission Church


Global Mission Church thinks that training is the most important strategy of small
group leadership development. In this church, new comers become regular members by
completing the New Members Class. The church members have to complete the course
for preliminary shepherds to be small group leaders. Thereafter they can become small
group leaders. The small group leaders continuously attend lectures with various themes
about heresies, evangelism, counseling, and so forth at shepherds meeting every
Wednesday.
The church, however, regards observation learning just as important as training.
According to Cho, the church thinks that the most effective strategy of small group
leadership development is making preliminary shepherds follow the examples of their
shepherds. That is observation learning and a system of learning by seeing. The church
wants preliminary shepherds to learn the qualities and roles of a shepherd by observing
their leaders though the church gives them qualification as shepherds by training them
through a formal training system.
Cho says that they are not going to adopt any new program or strategy for small
group leadership development, but they are planning to add systematic training program
on the Bible and on leadership for the existing small group leaders in the near future. He
70



thinks that the small group leaders would be exhausted unless they do not get spiritual
and practical nutrients continuously.
A small group leader of Global Mission Church takes threefold supports from the
senior pastor, his or her parish pastor, and his or her Maeuljang.
12
The senior pastor
spiritually supports the small group leaders and empowers them with spiritual authority.
The parish pastors regularly examine the ministry of the small group leaders who they
have to take care of and encourage them at meetings on Friday every other week. The
Maeuljangs do the same with the parish pastors for the small group leaders who they
meet with every Wednesday.
Cho says leadership, serving, and self-management are the most important
qualities of small group leaders. He is doing his best to develop small group leaders to
have these qualities.

Church of Dream(http://www.cod.or.kr) – House Church
Church of Dream was planted by F. W. Steadman, Sadie Ackles, and Arma
Ellmer who belonged to Ella Thing Memorial Mission in 1896. The church with the
history of over 110 years is regarded as the representative of Baptist churches in the
central area of South Korea. Church of Dream has transitioned into a House Church
realizing the essence of a church community and growing as a healthy church since 1997.
This church deserves attention because it has become a successful House Church and has
grown healthy over the period of time though Gongju, in which Church of Dream is
located, is well known as a typical conservative area of South Korea.

12 A Maeuljang in Global Mission Church corresponds to a Chowon caretaker in Seoul Baptist
Church of Houston. A Maeuljang takes care of a Maeul which consists of several pastures.
71



The passion for House Church is well expressed at the 2014 Vision of the church.
2014 Vision has 10 goals and the fourth goal of the vision says “to grow as a House
Church – bringing up 1,000 Mokjas and 1,000 Mokjangs.”
13
Figure 30 indicates the
reality of Church of Dream concerning House Church ministry.

Number of adult members 1600
Number of small groups (House Churches) 156
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
95%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
75%

Figure 30. The reality of Church of Dream

The strategy used by Church of Dream for small group leadership development is
the strategy of nurturing and recommendation. The church has various nurturing program
and those who completed basic nurturing programs and were recommended by his or her
small group leader can become a small group leader. Ahn, who is the current senior
pastor of Church of Dream, gives emphasis to consistency of knowledge (knowing), life
(being), and ministry (doing). Therefore, a small group leader recommends a member
who is in accord with this principle as a preliminary leader in Church of Dream.
Ahn thinks that a healthy ministry’s philosophy, vision, and passion of the senior
pastor and servant leadership of all leaders in a church make the strategy for small group
leadership development most effective. He presents the relationship of knowing and
doing, vision of a healthy church and ministry, passion and commitment to calling and
ministry as the most necessary qualities needed by small group leaders.

13 http://www.cod.or.kr/sub01/joshua.htm, accessed at January, 2008.
72



Ahn helps the small group leaders by exercising his influence over them. He
exerts influences upon them in the following five areas:
1. Spiritual influence to help them experience God through impressive worship
services.
2. Moral influence through servant leadership and coincidence of belief and life.
3. Intellectual influence through training to transform their sense of values.
4. Emotional influence through impressive programs stimulating their passion
and commitment
5. Influence of leadership through emphasizing to live for fulfilling commissions
and purposes of lives

Church of Dream is not planning to adopt a new strategy or program for small
group leadership development because they think the current strategy is very productive.
They are very satisfied with the current strategy.

Guminam Church (http://www.guminam.or.kr) – House Church
Guminam Church is located in Gumi, which is a small town in the middle area of
South Korea. The church faced several limitations that prevented growth as a small
traditional church. When Seok-Kil Cheon, current senior pastor of the church,
transitioned the church into a House Church, a dramatic growth began. Cheon
transitioned his church because he felt limitations about discipleship in his church. He
thought there were some church members who felt the disciple training program to be
very hard and there were other members who did not devote themselves to church
ministries, but rather became arrogant even after completing the program. Cheon decided
to transition the church into a House Church while he was looking for an alternative to
build participation for the whole church to become involved in the church community
73



and devote themselves to church ministries. Lastly, he successfully transitioned the
church after two years of preparing for the transition. As of 2007, Guminam Church has
130 small groups and 85 % of the members regularly attend small group meetings as we
see in Figure 31.

Number of adult members 1050
Number of small groups (House Churches) 130
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
95%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
85%

Figure 31. The reality of Guminam Church


According to Cheon, the strategy of delegation and choice is the most important
strategy for small group leadership development in Guminam Church. Delegation means
that the senior pastor endows small group leaders with spiritual authority, trusts them,
and helps them achieve the ministry God gives them. Choice means to make the church
members choose their own small group leader. Besides delegation and choice, Cheon
takes an important stand of the thought in common with the small group leaders that soul
winning is the most important mission given to an individual Christian and a church.
Because Cheon takes the principle of delegation as important, he helps small group
leaders to be more effective in their ministry by taking them out to eat, showing his
concern for the difficulties that they may face, and by being a prayer supporter for them.
The ministry of the small group leaders delegated by Cheon is very beneficial. Cheon
says that:
74



The small group leaders in my church make me realize what I was not able think
nor perceive about in respect to the lives of the church members and yet help me
resolve these problems. It is no exaggeration to say that they play the role of a
bridge between me and the church members.
14


Cheon considers three qualities important to the small group leaders in his church.
The three qualities are awareness of goal in accordance to the purpose of the church,
getting and maintaining a motive as a small group leader, and the ability to reproduce
other small group leaders through serving and love. According to Cheon, Guminam
Church is not planning to adopt any strategy or program for small group leadership
development in the near future. Instead, they want to emphasize the small group leaders
to share their experience and know-how for more abundant ministry.

Wonchon Baptist Church (http://wonchon.org/) – Vineyard
Wonchon Baptist Church, which was planted in April 30, 1995, is a very unique
church in several respects. The most unique characteristic of the church is that it consists
of seven little churches. Wonchon Baptist Church is professedly for “same vision, same
pastoral philosophy, same campus, but several little churches.” Concerning this, they say
that:
We don’t think that mega churches are not good. Actually, we believe that the
numerical growth of our church is given by God. However, this is not the only
pattern that a mega church holds several worship services. We think a church
which grows in accordance with the philosophy and the vision of the church is a
dynamic and Biblical church. For this, we have to restrict the number of church
members who take part in the worship service. We think it is suitable that a
church holds 10 to 15 vineyards which have 200 members including children. By
shifting the church paradigm from several worship services to several little
churches in a church, we can be a church which:
 Nobody can hide himself or herself
 All members take part in church ministry

14 Song-Woo Lee, “Prepared Lay Ministers Lead the Church” Kidokkyobo, February 2, 2006.
75



 Meaningful relationships among members increase
 Restore family based ministry
 Is a church of vineyards, not with vineyards church
 Secure true rest to members.
15


Wonchon Baptist Church came about calling their small group system a Vineyard
which assumes the form of a House Church to overcome the weaknesses that a Kuyoek
system had since the year 2001. The church thought that a Kuyeok system is limited to
location and cannot hold the many families involved. In relation to the Vineyard system,
the church says that:
We have Vineyards which correspond to Kuyeoks. The most special feature
which makes the distinction between a Vineyard and a Kuyeok is that a Vineyard
consists of families. A Vineyard holds meetings on a weekday or a weekend. All
of the families that belong to the specific Vineyard come together. We limit the
number of families to five families including the Vineyard caretaker’s family.
16


As of 2007, according to Soo-Hyun Bang who is the pastor of the seventh church
in Wonchon Baptist Church, the reality of the church concerning Vineyards is as follows
(Figure 32):

Number of adult members 2400
Number of small groups (House Churches) 150
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
85%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
90%

Figure 32. The reality of Wonchon Baptist Church


15 http://wonchon.org, accessed at January, 2008.
16 http://wonchon.org, accessed at January, 2008.
76



The strategy of Wonchon Baptist Church for small group leadership development
is a strategy of nurturing, learning by seeing, and practical exercising while being
coached. In general, the church makes a Vineyard with five families which lasts for two
years. Each Vineyard has a Vineyard caretaker. The caretaker chooses a vice-caretaker
after leading the Vineyard for a year. The one who completed several nurturing courses
of the church can be a vice-caretaker: strategy of nurturing. Of course, the vice-caretaker
would make observations for one year on how the caretaker had led the Vineyard and
taken care of the members: strategy of learning by seeing. And the caretaker lets the vice-
caretaker carry out the function of a Vineyard caretaker and coaches him or her for one
year: strategy of practical exercising while being coached. After the two years, the
caretaker and the vice-caretaker divide the Vineyard and make two Vineyards.
Bang thinks it is the most effective strategy for small group leadership
development to pick out the next leaders at Vineyards. They are not going to adopt new
strategy or program for small group leadership development in the near future because
they think that up to now, the current system has been the most effective.
The pastors of the little churches in Wonchon Baptist Church hold meetings every
Sunday morning while the general members are attending Sunday school. Vineyard
caretakers and vice-caretakers try to understand the difficulties faced in Vineyards and
find out ways to overcome the difficulties. During this time, the pastors train these
leaders for leading the Vineyards more effectively. Bang thinks commitment, serving,
and leadership are absolutely necessary to the Vineyard caretakers. Therefore, what the
pastors are teaching the caretakers relates to these three areas.

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Light Global Mission Church (http://www.jiguchon.net) – Cell Church
Light Global Mission Church came into the existence when Light Mission Church
and Virginia Global Mission Church became one church on March 1, 2000. Light
Mission Church was planted by Moon-Sub Song in 1977 and Virginia Global Mission
Church was planted by Sekyu Chang on December 1, 1996. Moon-Sub Song retired from
his post and Sekyu Chang became the senior pastor of the integrated church when the two
churches became one church. Sekyu Chang planted Virginia Global Mission Church with
a clear vision of a Cell Church. He formed a Cell Church integrating the two churches,
currently known today as the Light Global Mission Church.
The mission statement of Light Global Mission Church is to make non-Christians
fully-devoted-disciples of Christ. For this mission, the church has five purposes: graceful
worship service, forming communities, training, serving, and fulfillment of calling. This
church concentrates all resources and endeavors solely for these purposes.
17
The passion
for Cell Church of Light Global Mission Church appears in this very vision statement.
The fourth vision among the nine visions of the church says, “it is our dream to be a
church with hundreds of other cell churches in which we can experience the power of the
Holy Spirit, worship, associate with each other, and evangelize.”
18
Light Global Mission
Church is famous for their healthy Cell Church. The church has hosted a Cell Church
Conference three times since 2005 to spread the cell church movement among Korean
churches in the USA.
Light Global Mission Church is a fast growing cell church. As of 2007, the church
has recorded 710 adult church members (Figure 33). However, the average number of

17 http://www.jiguchon.net, accessed at January, 2008.
18 http://www.jiguchon.net, accessed at January, 2008.
78



attendants on Sunday morning worship service is 1,300. It means that approximately 600
non-Christians or at least non-members attend the Sunday morning worship service in
Light Global Mission Church. They are those who have developed an interest in the
church through their involvement in small groups.

Number of adult members 710 (1300)
Number of small groups (House Churches) 100
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
40% (50%)
19

Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
40% (50%)

Figure 33. The reality of Light Global Mission Church


The strategy of Light Global Mission Church for small group leadership
development is a strategy of natural development of small group leaders. Chang says
church members with healthy faith and life are naturally set as the Mokjas. In general, a
healthy marriage involves a man and a woman getting married and having babies.
Likewise, a healthy Christian will naturally grow as a Mokja and shepherd his or her
members. Chang frequently says to the church members “don’t be Mokjas if you need to
be charged for being Mokjas. Those who usually live a healthy Christian life can become
Mokjas.”
How then does a member become a Mokja in this church? A current Mokja seeks
out a potential Mokja in his or her Mokjang. The potential Mokja is encouraged to

19 Light Global Mission Church has 40% of regular church members who belong to small groups.
It corresponds to 284 members. But, actual number of those who belong to small groups is 650. It reaches
50% of the whole Sunday morning worship service. In this church, the percentage of church members who
belong to small groups is the same with the percentage of church members who regularly attend small
group meetings.
79



become a Mokja after being spiritually led. That person is set as a new Mokja when he or
she accepts the Mokja’s exhortation. The existing Mokja becomes the mother Mokja and
the new Mokja becomes the daughter Mokja. The senior pastor always approves the new
Mokja because he is to trust all Mokjas in his church. The existing Mokja and the new
Mokja make two Mokjangs by dividing their group. Chang adheres to this strategy not
because it is the most effective for small group leadership development, but because it is
right. He does not have any thoughts to change this strategy in his church at this time.
To help small group leaders do their ministry effectively, Chang empowers them
totally. He thinks that the senior pastor has to empower the small group leaders and not
delegate to them to do their ministry. Therefore, Mokjas leads their small groups and
serve the members with a weighty responsibility and an awareness of mission. Also, he
helps the small group leaders through reminding the church members of his pastoral
philosophy on a Cell Church by various methods at every opportunity. He casts his vision
by doing this and empowers the small group leaders to do their ministry in accordance
with the church’s vision.
Chang presents three matters as absolutely necessary qualities to the small group
leaders. These three are having the same vision with the senior pastor, willingness to
serve people, and having compassion on the souls of people.

Open Door Presbyterian Church (http://opendoorpc.org) – Oikos
Open Door Presbyterian Church was planted by Chai-Gon Park as the leader on
January 1, 1984. The name of the church when it was planted was Korean Orthodox
Presbyterian Church. The church set Paul Kim as the Senior Pastor on November 29,
80



1992 and was transitioned into a small group based church when changing its name to
Open Door Presbyterian Church on April, 2002. According to Kim, they made a
transition into a small group based church because they thought Kuyoek system was
ineffective for the church members in encouraging one another through the sharing of
their lives. On the other side, a small group based church would achieve real life
discipleship.
The church has a motto which says, “grace encountered, grace exchanged, grace
extended.” The second saying, grace exchanged, is related to the small group ministry of
the church. In reference to this, the church states the following:
We believe that to fully experience life-changing grace, it must not only be
received, but also exchanged among his people. We hold to the following values:

1. Relationships: We believe that loving relationships should flow through
every aspect of church life (1 John 3:11-17).
2. Refuge: We believe in church as a hospital, where broken people can
come as they are and find refuge and healing (Matthew 11:28-30).
3. Household: We believe that church should be a spiritual household where
there are diverse seasons of life, generations, and cultures (Ephesians
2:19).
4. Body: We believe every member should build up the body of Christ with
their God-given gifts (1 Peter 4:10).

Open Door Presbyterian Church has a small group system which is called Oikos.
They explain Oikos like:
Oikos is a Greek word which means a house, a family, or a household. An Oikos
heads a small community, a small family in a big local church, is a place where
the lay believers do their own ministry, and is a place where non-Christians can
come in without feeling rejected.
20



20 http://www.opendoorpc.org/KC/sub3-3.php, accessed at January, 2008.
81



Their effort to be a small group based church can be also found in the policy of
the church. They laid down a policy that only those who receive much recognition as
leaders in the small groups can be selected as church leaders like elders and deacons.
As we can see Figure 34, this church has 1,250 adult members and 80 small
groups. 80% of the church members belong to small groups and 70% of the church
members regularly attend the small group meetings.

Number of adult members 1,250
Number of small groups (House Churches) 80
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
80%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
70%

Figure 34. The reality of Open Door Presbyterian Church


The three strategies which Open Door Presbyterian Church regards as the most
important for small group leadership development are training, verification of fellow
members in a group, and creating an atmosphere for small group ministry. They prepare
small group members as small group leaders by helping them understand the basic
Christian belief and accustom them to a spiritual atmosphere of the church through the
programs created for all the church members. They are set as small group leaders when
other members verify that they are good candidates as leaders. Besides training and
verification, they believe it is a very important strategy for small group leadership
development to create an atmosphere to love and reflect on the people. Paul Kim thinks
that the attitude to serve humbly, a mind to love people, and a sensitivity to feel the needs
of others are the most important qualities needed for small group leaders.
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Open Door Presbyterian Church is taking no action in introducing any new
strategies or programs for the small group leadership development in the near future.
They are satisfied with the current strategy of small group leadership development.
The senior pastor of the church is helping the small group leaders by:
1. Encouraging them and sharing the vision for Oikos ministry through monthly
meeting.
2. Encouraging them through the regular meeting with parish associate pastors.
3. Offering an opportunity to be recharged through an annual retreat for the all
small group leaders.
4. Letting them conquer their own shortcomings in ministry and solidify their
own strong points through fellowship with fellow small group leaders.
5. Giving them opportunities to visit other outstanding small groups of other
churches and learn to lead small groups more effectively.

Hyangsang Church (http://hyangsang.com) – Of-Small Group Church
Hyangsang Church was planted by Jamsiljoongang Church on October 15, 2000.
Since the planting of Hyangsang Church, it has been striving to become a healthy church
through the senior pastor, Joo-Chai Jung. Recognizing that the Kuyeok system is a device
for church administration and management for church members, rather than a small
group community with the attributes of a true church, Jung has been trying to build the
church up as a small group based church since 2003. As of 2007, the reality of
Hyangsang Church concerning small group ministry is as follows (Figure 35):




83



Number of adult members 1800
Number of small groups (House Churches) 138
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
Almost 100%
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
35% (60%)
21


Figure 35. The reality of Hyangsang Church


The strategy for small group leadership development, which Hyangsang Church
adopts and uses, is qualification through training. The church has various programs for
discipleship like Beginners course, Meditation course, Basic doctrine course, Bible
inquiry course, and Disciples course. The ones that complete these courses are
encouraged to apply for Shepherd School. Those who complete Shepherd School can be
small group leaders in Hyangsang Church. Jung was asked what three things were
absolutely necessary to small group leaders. His response was Biblical confession of faith,
mature personality, and serving through sacrifice. These three are the most important
themes taught in Shepherd School.
Hyangsang Church, however, does not rely too much upon the training system.
Jung says that the most important strategy for small group leadership development is
learning by doing their own ministries and by seeing competent small group leaders do
their ministries within the church. As a result, the strategy for small group leadership

21 The small groups generally hold meeting on a weekday in Hyangsang Church. In this case, the
percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings is 35%. However, Hyangsang
Church holds small groups meetings instead of Sunday afternoon worship service once a month. In this
case, the percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings is 60%. Dong-Hoon
Shin, who had been an associated pastor in charge of small group ministry at this church for seven years,
says that Hyangsang Church decided to hold small group meetings every Sunday afternoon since March,
2008.
84



development of Hyangsang Church consists of training, practical exercise, and
observation learning.
Jung says that he does not give consideration to adopt any strategy or program for
small group leadership development in the near future. It might be because they are
gaining satisfactory results in this area.
Jung is helping the small group leaders by letting the associate pastors take charge
of the small group ministry by leading small group leader meetings every Wednesday
morning for women and Wednesday evening for men. Mainly, the associate pastors
formulate the small group leaders to prepare their ministries by training them and
instructing them in what they will teach in their small group meeting.

Hosanna Presbyterian Church (http://www.hosanna21.com) – Darakbang
Hosanna Presbyterian Church was planted by Pastor Jin-Hyeon Noh on December
2, 1945. This church is an exemplary Presbyterian church in Pusan, South Korea.
Hosanna Presbyterian Church calls their small group a Darakbang, which is a Korean
term indicating a garret. However, a Darakbang is not different from a Kuyeok. A
Darakbang is a name given to the small groups of Hosanna Church which corresponds to
Kuyeok of other Korean churches. Darakbang is defined as follows:
At Hosanna Presbyterian Church, a Darakbang is a small group which is
organized regionally. It is a group in which all members learn and share God’s
Word with learning materials which were developed by Hosanna Church. A well-
trained and mature small group leader leads each group. Every member develops
a feeling of belonging to a community, which is essential to the growth of one’s
faith and builds personal relationship with other members in the group. A
Darakbang is a very beautiful group which makes members devote themselves to
each other in Christ by sharing one another’s thoughts and life circumstances.
22


22 http://www.hosanna21.com, accessed at January, 2008.
85



The small group ministry is in superb harmony with the discipleship ministry in
Hosanna Church. The groups find those who are able to partake in the discipleship
training and hence, the discipleship ministry builds well-trained small group leaders. The
small group leaders produced through discipleship ministry are themselves devoted to the
small groups in this church. Hosanna Church has 700 small groups and 99% of the
church members belong to small groups and 55% of church members regularly attend
small group meetings as we see in Figure 36.

Number of adult members 5700
Number of small groups (House Churches) 700
Percentage of church members who belong to small
groups
99 %
Percentage of church members who regularly attend
small group meetings
55 %

Figure 36. The reality of Hosanna Presbyterian Church


The current strategy of Hosanna Presbyterian Church for small group leadership
development is bringing up the leaders through discipleship ministry. Of course they
have to have small group experience. In each group, the leader picks out a preliminary
leader who has been a member in the group for over two years. In general, the
preliminary leader completes a one-year-course of disciples training. The leader then has
to take a one-year-course of ministry training offered by the Discipleship Ministry
department. Only those who have completed the training are eligible to be small group
leaders in this church.
23


23 Sometimes, those who are in the ministry training become small group leaders when that
church needs to set new leaders urgently. But, the case like this is exceptional.
86



The reason why Hosanna Presbyterian Church stresses ministry training is
because the church requires them to do their ministry effectively. Ki-Tae Won, who is an
associate pastor in charge of the small group ministry in Hosanna Church, says
“Pastoring members is the most important ministry of a small group leader. A small
group leader has to teach and nurture the members and make a new small group by
reproducing a new leader.”
This church thinks small group leadership development is most effective when all
the church members have the same vision and mission of the Church. In particular, small
group leaders are taught to understand the principles of small group ministry. Therefore,
their ministry is required to be in accordance with these principles. For this, they
effectively exercise small group leader meetings every Sunday afternoon.
Hong-Joon Choi, who is the senior pastor of Hosanna Presbyterian Church, makes
two approaches to help small group leaders. First, he is trying to encourage them
consistently. He empowers and gives them self-esteem through encouragement. Secondly,
he makes efficient use of small group leader meetings. Since 2007, Hosanna Presbyterian
Church has held meetings after the Sunday evening service. The meeting is held at 4:00
pm through 6:00 pm every Sunday, which eliminated the Sunday evening service. At a
meeting, Choi teaches, encourages and recharges the leaders. Then, the parish pastors
discuss matters about ministries of the leaders. Finally, the leaders share their difficulties
and experiences of success and pray for each other.
They think the current strategy in the development of small group leadership and
follow-up measures is very effective. Therefore, they are not planning to change their
87



strategy. Won suggests compassion for the souls of people, a serving attitude and life,
and earnest prayer are absolutely necessary for small group leaders at this church.

GENERALIZATION OF RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY
We can extract several important principles of small group leadership
development, which are seen commonly at these nine targeted churches. The principles
are:
1. The senior pastor has to have a clear vision towards small group ministry for
his church and create a proper climate in accordance with this vision through
sharing it with all the members of the church.
2. A healthy, new small group leader naturally comes into being in a healthy
small group which a healthy leader leads. A potential leader experiences a
small group gathering and learns by the example of the current leader.
3. The senior pastor has to empower small group leaders. The senior pastor has
to be a leader who develops other leaders that work together rather than
leaders who work alone.
4. The system for small group leadership development has to be in harmony with
the nurturing system of the church. Healthy small groups cannot exist without
effective nurturing system.
5. Durability of the system to develop small group leaders is very important. A
church has to develop an effective strategy well-matched to its vision in order
for the small group ministry to maintain long time efficiency program.
6. To hold regular and frequent meetings of small group leaders is important.
7. A formal training class before beginning to serve as a small group leader is
required by three of the churches

There are two matters that leaders must pay attention to, though not found at all
the targeted churches. First, the right to choose a leader or members can develop good
small group leaders. A small group leader has to have the right to choose his or her own
members. And members have to have the right to choose their own leader. The majority
of Korean churches, which have the Kuyeok system, overlook its importance. Second,
88



there must be consideration for having special training programs to produce competent
small group leaders such as Global Mission Church, Hyangsang Church, and Hosanna
Presbyterian Church.
The importance of effective follow-up measurements for small group leaders is
worthy for notice, although they are not directly related to the development of small
group leadership. Most targeted churches have significant follow-up measures. The
follow-up measures contain:
1. Regular encouragement of the senior pastor (and the parish pastor)
2. Spiritual guidance of a mentor or a coach
3. Sharing the difficulties and experiences of success at a meeting with other
small group leaders
4. Offering opportunities to learn what the small group leaders need for their
groups such as leadership skills, counseling techniques, or Biblical and
theological knowledge.

Figure 37 shows the responses of the nine pastors to the question asking about
qualities absolutely necessary to the small group leaders. As we can see in Figure 13, the
item with the highest frequency is self-sacrificing attitude toward others such as serving
others and having compassion on souls. The next highest priority was personality and
actual life of a small group leader.






89



Rank according
to frequency
Item Frequency Breakdown (Frequency)
1
self-sacrificing
attitude toward
others
11
Serving others (7)
Compassion on the souls (3)
Human Relationship (1)
2
Personality and
actual life
7
Life based on Christian belief (3)
Personality (2)
Leadership (2)
3 Ministry 6
Mission and vision (3)
Commitment to the ministry (3)
4 Etc. 3
Reproduction of new leaders (1)
Confession of faith (1)
Prayer life (1)

Figure 37. Responses of the nine pastors to the question if qualities are absolutely
necessary for small group leaders


SUMMARY
The result of the case study gives very valuable insights on the development of
small group leadership. It says to us that we cannot create an effective small group
ministry without producing competent leaders consistently. It also says that we cannot
produce competent small group leaders without keeping up an effective system well-
matched to the characteristics of a church and its small group ministry. For producing
competent small group leaders consistently through a durable system in the development
of small group leaders, we have to pour all our energy and resources of the church. To
this point, the small group ministry is not a program for the church. It is a matter of life
and death for the church. There is no short way in developing competent leaders in a
church.


90







CHAPTER 4

LESSONS FROM A LITERATURE RESEARCH
ON SMALL GORUP LEADERSIHP DEVELOPMENT

A literature research is absolutely necessary to map out a strategy for small group
leadership development. This is because we can obtain inscrutable values that cannot be
attained through field analysis and case studies. In this chapter, the author suggests 12
helpful lessons related to the subject of this thesis which were collected through the
literature research on small group leadership development.

PERCEIVE THE URGENCY AND IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING LEADERS
Without developing competent small group leaders, the success in transitioning a
traditional church to a cell-based church is nearly impossible. It is because “the issue of
leadership is central to a church’s understanding of small group ministry.”
1
Donahue and
Robinson agree to this view. They insist that “an emerging small group ministry cannot
succeed without a commitment to effective leadership deployment.”
2
Leadership
development is the first and foremost task in transitioning to a cell-based church. We
need to listen carefully to Stetzer and Dodson, who say, “while everything rises and falls

1 Jeffrey Arnold, Starting small groups (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1997), 25.
2 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson, Building a Church Of Small Groups (Grand Rapids, MI:
Zondervan, 2001), 122.
91



on leadership, it could be more accurate to say that everything rises and falls on
leadership that develops other leaders.”
3

It is very dangerous to transition when small group leaders are not ready.
Donahue and Robinson warn us by saying, “when you neglect ongoing leadership
development, you’ll have two chronic problems: way too many unshepherded people and
not nearly enough qualified, prepared leaders.”
4

If we want to successfully transition to a cell-based church and if we want to get
plentiful benefits through effective cell-based ministry, we have to prepare potential
leaders and develop them into competent leaders. It is nonsense that we do not develop
small group leaders and yet expect a successful small group ministry. Comiskey is right
in saying that “if cells are going to multiply rapidly, new leaders must constantly be
sought and released.”
5
If we seriously want to transition a traditional church to a cell-
based church, we have to develop competent small group leaders. It is the first and the
most important task in transitioning.

APPROACH STRATEGICALLY
We need to approach strategically in developing competent small group leaders
for a transitioning cell-based church. Not only is the transitioning process important, but
also the leadership development of a small group requires a well-planned strategy.
Malphurs and Mancini define leadership development as “the intentional process of
helping established and emerging leaders at every level of ministry to assess and develop

3 Ed Stetzer and Mike Dodson, Comeback Churches (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing House,
2007), 155.
4 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson, The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry (Grand
Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002), 101.
5Joel Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion (Houston, TX: Touch Publications, 1988), 56.
92



their Christian character and to acquire, reinforce, and refine their ministry knowledge
and skills.”
6
Through the term “intentional process,” they urge us to approach leadership
development in a church setting very deliberately and intentionally.
John Yarbrough deplores in saying that “many dreams remain little more than
glorified wishes because they are never translated into concrete statements and a
systematic plan is never developed to translate the dreams into reality.”
7
Dave Earley also
says that:
If leadership is the determining factor, why do few small group leaders effectively
multiply themselves by developing effective leaders? I believe it’s because, even
though most small group leaders have a passion to be used of God to raise up
effective leaders, they’re not sure how to do it. They need a practical strategy to
make it happen.
8


As Neil Wiseman says, “hard work without planning produces a blur of activity –
motion without direction.”
9
Then, what kind of advantages can we get through strategic
planning? Peter Wagner says we can obtain six advantages when having a strategy in a
church. The six advantages are:
1. It increases efficiency.
2. It helps measure effectiveness.
3. It permits midcourse corrections.
4. It unites the team.
5. It makes accountability natural.
6. It helps others.
10



6 Malphurs and Mancini, Building Leaders, 23.
7 John Yarbrough, “Visionary Leadership: The Planning Process.” J. Truman Brown Jr.
(Compiler), Visionary Leadership for Church Growth (Nashville, TN: Convention Press, 1991), 69.
8 Dave Earley, Turning Members into Leaders (Houston, TX: Cell Group Resources, 2001), 10.
9 Neil B Wiseman, Leadership (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 1979), 95.
10 C. Peter Wagner, Strategies for Church Growth (Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1987), 32-34.
93



According to Mark Marshall, strategy is defined as follow:
A strategic plan is the description of how to get from where your church is to
where God wants it to be. A strategic plan will describe in terms of action steps
how to turn God-inspired dreams into reality. It answers the question: How do we
get from where we are to where God wants us to be? The gap between where we
are (current reality) and where we want to be (vision and goals) is what we do
(strategic plan).
11


We can put Marshall’s strategy thoughts into a form of a diagram as show in
Figure 39. In sum, we can have a good and an effective strategy by having a precise
diagnosis of ourselves, a clear direction, and a drastic plan.







Figure 38. A diagram on strategic plan


It is never an easy task to map out a practical and an effective strategy. To this
point, Marshall’s advice on common characteristic shown in his model of effective
strategic planning could be a great help to those who are in mapping out a strategy. He
says that:
1. An effective strategic plan is directive not restrictive.
2. An effective strategic plan is continuous process by which a church is kept on
course.

11 Mark Marshall, Mapping Your Church Strategy (Nashville, TN: LifeWay Press, 2003), 9.
Where we want to be?
(Vision and Goals)
What we do?
(Strategic Plan)
Where we are?
(Current Reality)
94



3. An effective strategic plan involves those who must execute the plans.
4. An effective strategic plan is simple.
5. An effective strategic plan leads to immediate action.
12


RECOGNIZE THE SENIOR PASTOR’S ROLE
Responsibility for Developing Leaders in the Church
The senior pastor has the responsibility for developing leaders at every level in
the church. In particular, a senior pastor who wants to transition the church into a cell-
based church has to develop competent small group leaders. Earley says that “the key to
our church’s future would be the ministry we could raise up others to do. I discovered
that leadership development is the determining factor for maximum impact.”
13
Bill
Hybels claims “it is simply that people with the gift of leadership are uniquely equipped
to come up with strategies and structures that provide opportunities for other people to
use their gifts most effectively.”
14

It is exactly the pastor’s job to develop leadership at the church. Greg Ogden
argues “if the church is to be a ministering community, the pastor must be an equipper
who empowers God’s people to fullness of service.”
15
According to Barna, “it is rare to
find a pastor leading a healthy, growing church who is not committed to moving the
spotlight off himself and onto the people who must do the brunt of the ministry: the

12 Ibid., 5-8.
13 Earley, Turning Members into Leaders, 9.
14 Bill Hybels, Courageous Leadership (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002), 26.
15 Greg Ogden, The New Reformation (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1990),
85.
95



laity.”
16
As Maxwell says, “a leader’s success can be defined as the maximum utilization
of the abilities of those under him.”
17


The Senior Pastor as a Point Leader
The senior pastor has to be a point leader both for transitioning his or her church
to a cell-based church and for developing leaders in the church. Malphurs says “strategic
planning requires a strategic point leader, a lead navigator.”
18
And he continues to say “I
am convinced that the point or senior pastor should be the primary leader and person
responsible for the planning process.”
19
Marshall points out “one of the major reasons for
failure in strategic planning in many churches is the lack of leadership and support by the
pastor. If you are the pastor, you must take the lead in this process.”
20

Donahue and Robinson comment that “a point leader is someone who carries the
responsibility for embedding small groups in the church.”
21
Of course, the point leader
who they are referring to is not the senior pastor, but a minister who is in charge of the
small group ministry in the church. In South Korea, however, the senior pastor has to be
the point leader. Paul Yonggi Cho says “it is the pastor’s job to motivate the church
members for revival and growth of the church through home cell groups.”
22


16 George Barna, Turn-around churches (Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1993), 63.
17 John C. Maxwell, Developing the Leaders Around You (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.,
1995), 15.
18 Aubrey Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning 2nd Ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books,
2005), 27.
19 Ibid., 61.
20 Mark Marshall, 15.
21 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson, The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry, 50.
22 Paul Yonggi Cho, 45 Pastoring Years of Hope (Seoul, Korea: Institute for Church Growth,
2006), 153.
96



Trustworthiness of the Senior Pastor
It is accompanied by a risk to transition a traditional church into a cell-based
church. Therefore, it is essential for the success of the transition that all the church
members trust the senior pastor who leads the transitioning process. To get the trust of the
church members is the most important thing that the senior pastor must do. It is because
“trust provides the motivation and energy that makes it possible for organizations to be
successful.”
23
Oswald Sanders says “leadership is influence.”
24
Then, how can we
influence others without their trust? Leaders have to “understand that building trust is
their main objective.”
25

How can the senior pastor earn the trust of his church members? The only one
way to earn the trust of others is by his or her actual life. The senior pastor’s teaching or
vision casting without support of his or her real life is vain. Getz says “in order to
communicate biblical truth in all its fullness, Paul exemplified a twofold teaching
approach in his own life-on-life ministry – modeling Christ’s likeness while verbally
instructing believers.”
26

We can place all factors of the senior pastor’s real life under six categories:
vision,
27
character, attitude, passion and commitment, relationship, and spirituality.
Character is the most important thing. Weems says “when lay persons are asked what
they want most in pastors, the characteristics that rank highest always are those that

23 Warren Bennis, and Joan Goldsmith, Learning to Lead 3
rd
Ed. (New York, NY: Basic Books,
2003), 144.
24 J. Oswald Sanders, Spiritual Leadership (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1994), 27.
25 Bennis and Goldsmith, 31.
26 Gene A. Getz, Elders and leaders (Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2003), 193.
27 Vision is very important to the leaders. The author will explain about vision at the next part.
97



describe the pastor as person.”
28
Le Peau also says “character, however, must always
come before technique and must always rule over it.”
29
Character contains integrity,
accountability, reliability, and so forth.
Attitude is as important as character. Especially, positive outlook on life, morality,
humbleness, loving people, and attitude to take responsibility willingly are very
important to the senior pastor. Maxwell says “if you look at the lives of people in any
profession who achieve lasting success, you will find that they almost always possess a
positive outlook on life.”
30

Passion and commitment to a vision brings incalculable trust to the senior pastor.
According to Maxwell, “Nothing can take the place of passion in a leader’s life.”
31

Relationship is also necessary to the leaders. The church members work in the
relationship with the senior pastor. Douglas Hall says “as relational competencies grow,
the person’s leadership capacities are correspondingly enhanced. That is, these
competencies are part of the leader’s development.”
32

Spirituality is absolutely required to Christian leaders. “Your spiritual life
(spirituality) is foundational to your life as a leader. Too many times leaders attempt to
carry out their responsibilities without the empowering times of fellowship with God.”
33



28 Lovett H. Weems, Jr., Church Leadership (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1993), 125.
29 Andrew T. Le Peau, Paths of Leadership (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1983), 92.
30 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson,
1999), 90.
31 Ibid., 83.
32 Douglas T. Hall, “Self-Awareness, Identity, and Leader Development.” David V. Day, Stephen
J. Zaccaro, and Stanley M. Halpin, Ed., Leader Development for Transforming Organizations (Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004), 166.
33 Jimmy Long, Ann Beyerlein, Sara Keiper, Patty Pell, Nina Thiel, and Doug Whallon, Small
Group Leaders’ Handbook (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995), 164.
98



DEVELOP A VISION AND COMMUNICATE IT EFFECTIVELY
Develop a Vision
Barna says, “vision is to a leader as air is to a human being: Without it, you die.”
34

As this proposition demonstrates, having and developing a vision is critical to leaders.
According to Barna, “vision for ministry is a clear mental image of a preferable future
imparted by God to His chosen servants and is based upon an accurate understanding of
God, self and circumstances.”
35
Black and Gregersen say “the clearer the new vision, the
easier it is for people to see all the specific ways in which they will be incompetent and
look stupid – ways that they will do the right thing and do it horribly.”
36

A vision is needed more when a church is undergoing a serious change like
transitioning into a small group-based church. When the leader has a clear vision for the
future of the church, the church members can know where they are going and what they
have to do. It is because “there is no more powerful engine driving an organization
toward excellence and long-range success than an attractive, worthwhile, and achievable
vision of the future, widely shared.”
37
On the contrary, “without vision, people lose the
vitality that makes them feel alive.”
38

According to Barna, vision:
1. Inspires people by providing them with hope, meaning, and significant
challenges.

34 George Barna, The Power of Team Leadership (Colorado Springs, CO: Waterbrook Press,
2001), 37.
35 George Barna, The Power of Vision (Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 2003), 24.
36 J Stewart Black, and Hal Gregersen, Leading Strategic Change (Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT
Prentice Hall, 2003), 70.
37 Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1992), 3.
38 Hybels, Courageous Leadership, 31.
99



2. Attracts people to a cause by giving them something worth investing in and
something to focus on that transcends the mundane endeavors of daily life.
3. Builds community by providing people with a common purpose and putting
their natural competitiveness and pettiness in perspective.
4. Sustains people by giving them a compelling reason to persevere and to stay
focused on what really matters.
39


What Blanchard, Hybels and Hodges say about vision would give leaders great
help to have and develop a vision in a specific area. They say that:
A clear vision has four aspects: purposes, values, image, and goals. . . . Purpose
tells you what business you’re in. It defines the fundamental reasons why you
exist as an organization. Values determine how people should behave whey
they’re working on the purpose. … Image is really just a picture of what things
would be like if everything were running as planned. And goals focus people’s
energy right now.
40


Communicate the Vision
Hybels is right to say that “after a leader receives and owns a vision, the next
challenge is to communicate it to others.”
41
Nanus is also right in saying that “a vision is
little more than an empty dream until it is widely shared and accepted.”
42
Nanus
introduces an interesting formula about vision and communication:

Vision + Communication = Shared purpose
43




39 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 40.
40 Ken Blanchard, Bill Hybels, and Phil Hodges, Leadership by the book (New York, NY:
William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1999), 122.
41 Hybels, Courageous Leadership, 38.
42 Nanus, 134
43 Ibid., 156.
100



Like John Lincoln’s words, “a visionary leader knows that saying something once
is never enough.”
44
Essentially, “a strategic planning demands effective communication
to the congregation of the process, the team, and the results of the work of your team.”
45

Malphurs says “during the strategic planning process, as well as at any other time, you
must communicate, communicate, and then communicate some more.”
46

Then, how can we communicate the vision? Earley suggests seven ways in
communicating vision:
1. Get with God to receive a definite dream for multiplying your group that ties
directly into the vision of your church.
2. Tell the dream to the key people involved. Let them add to it and own it.
Specify the potential leader’s possible role in the dream.
3. Write a dream statement that will clarify and direct what you’re trying to do.
4. Share the vision.
5. Share the dream all the time.
6. Share the dream in as many mediums as possible.
7. Share the dream in as many ways as possible.
47


WORK AS A TEAM
To make a strategy needs a lot of energy and resources. Therefore, “vital to
strategic planning is the leadership team.”
48
Yarbrough says “the first step in the planning
process is to select a planning group.”
49
Barna argues that “leadership works best when it

44 John R. Lincoln, “Visionary Leadership: The Vision.” J. Truman Brown Jr. (Compiler),
Visionary Leadership for Church Growth (Nashville, TN: Convention Press, 1991), 64.
45 Mark Marshall, 16.
46 Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning, 63.
47 Earley, Turning Members into Leaders, 61-64.
48 Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning, 28.
49 Yarbrough, 70.
101



is provided by teams of gifted leaders serving together in pursuit of a clear and
compelling vision.”
50

Working as a team produces more fruit than to work alone. Maxwell says “one is
too small a number to achieve greatness.”
51
Barna insists “a major advantage of being led
by a team is that the results almost always transcend what any individual from that team
could have produced alone.”
52
Therefore, in general, “great leaders are team players.
Their success depends entirely upon their ability to attract, equip, guide, and retain
talented and gifted people to achieve outcomes that bless other people.”
53

How can we build a team? What do we have to pay attention to when building a
team? We find nine components that entail in building an effective team:
1. We need to have a vision, mission, values, and goals. “Discerning God’s
vision is one of the first tasks a leader or team should address.”
54
“Vision
gives team members direction and confidence.”
55

2. A team consists of an appropriate number of persons. Marshall says “the team
will need to consist of 7 to 12 members.”
56
McBride insists that team size
should be variable according to church size (average adult participants).
57

According to McBride’s suggestion, Gaeumjung Church which has about
1,100 adult participants can have a team of seven to nine.
3. The senior pastor has to be a leading leader. Yarbrough argues “the leader for
the planning group or chairperson of the Church Council should be the
pastor.”
58
According to Barna, a leading leader leads the team:

50 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 8.
51 John C. Maxwell, The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.,
2001), 4.
52 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 11.
53 George Barna, The Second Coming of the Church (Nashville, TN: Word Publishing, 1998), 169.
54 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 45.
55 Maxwell, The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork, 88.
56 Mark Marshall, 16.
57 Neal F. McBride, How to Build a Small Group Ministry (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress,
1995), 13.
58 Yarbrough, 70.
102



 The captain maintains the team’s focus on the vision.
 The captain facilitates positive and productive relationships among team
members.
 The captain identifies opportunities for individual growth.
 The captain prepares the team to move ahead by acquiring resources.
 The captain demonstrates personal leadership productivity.
59


4. Clarify the position and role of each team member. Maxwell says “all players
have a place where they add the most value.”
60
Jim Collins says “if you have
the right people on the bus, the problem of how to motivate and manage
people largely goes away.”
61

5. Maintain team unity through commitment to each other. “In practice, one of
the most important attributes of an effective team leader is the commitment to
serve not only the church but the other leaders as well.”
62

6. Share responsibility. Gangel says “members of a serious leadership team
understand that they corporately manage the progress of the church or
Christian organization and take collective responsibility for the outcome.”
63

7. Communicate effectively. Salas, Burke, and Stagl say “teamwork involves
clear and concise communication.”
64
In a team, “the importance of
communication during meetings seems too obvious even to mention.”
65

8. Manage conflict and keep up teamwork. Conflict is inevitable where people
are interested and involved.
66
Therefore, “teamwork requires team members to
actively manage conflict to create and maintain harmonious interpersonal and
interteam relationships.”
67

9. Be accountable to each other. Barna says “every great team holds itself
accountable to standards of behavior as well as performance goals.”
68



59 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 139-141.
60 Maxwell, The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork, 28.
61 Jim Collins, Good to Great (New York, NY: HarperCollins Books, 2001), 42.
62 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 110.
63 Kenneth O. Gangel, Team Leadership in Christian Ministry (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1997),
310.
64 Eduardo Salas, C. Shawn Burke, and Kevin C. Stagl, “Developing Teams and Team Leaders:
Strategies and Principles.” David V. Day, Stephen J. Zaccaro, and Stanley M. Halpin, Ed., Leader
Development for Transforming Organizations (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004),
334-338.
65 Gangel, 311.
66 Ibid., 188.
67 Salas, Burke, and Stagl, 334-338.
68 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 123.
103



DEVELOP LEADERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH
YOUR SMALL GROUP MINISTRY
As Stetzer and Dodson comment, “small groups are an excellent way to train
leaders and identify new ones.”
69
But, “this process must be built into a systematic,
intentional strategy to develop more groups and train new leaders.”
70
Donahue and
Robinson deplore that “too many churches plunge into small group ministry without an
end in mind.”
71
What Comiskey said after he did a case study on eight outstanding cell-
based churches worldwide is noteworthy. He said that:
Pastors and church leaders all over the world have replicated David Yonggi Cho’s
cell system. Yet, far from simply imitating or copying other cell-based models,
these churches have effectively adapted the model for their own situations and
environments.
72


The development of small group leadership is an activity with a clear direction.
The direction is related to the features of your small groups. Moreover, the features of
small groups come from the type of small group ministry which you want to have.
Therefore, it is a preferential task to make a definite decision on the type of small group
ministry which you desire to have. Then, the type of small group ministry will decide the
features of small groups. Finally, we can map out a strategy for small group leadership
development suitable to the features of the small groups.

69 Stetzer and Dodson, 155-156.
70 Ibid., 156.
71 Donahue and Robinson, The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry, 18.
72 Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion, 26.
104



What kind of small group ministry can we have in the church? Donahue and
Robinson say that there are three types of relations between a church and small group
ministry.
73
They say that:
Visionary leaders such as Ralph Neighbour, Carl George, Lyman Coleman,
Roberta Hestenes, and Gareth Icenogle have provided great ideas for building
transformational community through small groups. Together, their ideas comprise
a continuum of small group models. . . . At one end of the continuum is the
“church with small groups” category. In this model, small groups form a
department, one of many in the church. At the continuum’s other end is the
“church is small groups” category. This model views each cell group as a little
church. The “church of small groups” category views each group as a little
community within the larger church.
74


We can choose one type of small group ministry among the three models. If we
chose a type of small group ministry, we also have to decide the features of small groups
in the church. It would be helpful to examine how small group experts divide their small
groups. According to Carl George, there are four dimensions of ministry that a cell could
accomplish: loving (pastoral care), learning (Bible knowledge), deciding (internal
administration), and doing (duties that serve those outside the group).
75
Arnold suggests
seven types of small group as follows:
1. Discipleship groups – emphasizing deep, intense relationships, these groups
are usually very small in size (two to four members).
2. Covenant groups – the most prominent group type in the church (also called
“K-groups, “caring groups,” Bible studies,” and a host of other names), these
groups typically focus on study, prayer, and community building.

73 We can view from a different angle. Dan Lentz suggests that there are five organizational
models of small group ministry. The five models are (1) meta model (example: Willow Creek Community
Church), (2) free market model (example: New Life Church), (3) mid-sized connection community model
(example: Xenos Christian Fellowship), (4) fractal/ organic/ house church groups (example: New Hope
Christian Fellowship), (5) groups of 12 or G-12 groups (example: Bethany World Prayer Center). Dan
Lentz, “Five Models for Small Groups,” transcript in author’s computer Microsoft Word archive.
74 Donahue and Robinson, The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry, 20.
75 Carl George, Prepare your church for the future, 89.
105



3. Affinity groups – these groups possess any of the emphases in this list, and
involve people of a common race, gender, age, interest, or other
characteristics.
4. House churches – often larger than the classic small group, these groups
emphasize worship, prayer, and teaching ministry.
5. Special needs groups – these groups can involve persons in various types of
crises (such as physical, emotional, or relational), such as a recovery group.
6. Ministry groups – these teams of individuals serve either within the church or
within the community.
7. Evangelistic groups – these groups exist in order to evangelize friends and
acquaintances.
76


If we really want to develop competent small group leaders, we have to choose a
type of small group ministry and determine the type of small group. Then, we can also
decide the type of small group leadership. Finally, we can map out a strategy of small
group leadership development.

CREATE A LEADERSHIP CULTURE
Unless we create a leadership culture in the church, it is impossible to develop
small group leaders. Even if it were possible to develop leaders, the effectiveness would
remarkably decrease. “If the culture isn’t ready, even the best ideas and strategies are
doomed to failure.”
77
A lot of leadership experts who know this fact exhort us to create a
leadership culture at first before developing leaders. Lynne Hybels and Bill Hybels say,
“leaders love to create a leadership culture. . . . One of the best contributions that pastors
can make to their church is to create a leadership culture in which others can lead, cast a

76 Arnold, Starting small groups, 24-25.
77 Rowland Forman, Jeff Jones, and Bruce Miller, The Leadership Baton (Grand Rapids, MI:
Zondervan, 2004), 30.
106



vision, and organize volunteers around different parts of the ministry.”
78
Walter Wright
conclusively says “leadership is a relationship of character that shapes culture.”
79
Hans
Finzel claims “whether you like it or not, if you are anywhere near the top level of
leadership in your organization, you are the keeper and developer of the culture of that
organization.”
80

Then, what is a leadership culture? According to Malphurs and Mancini,
“leadership culture is a unique interrelationship of values, thoughts, attitudes, and actions
within a group of leaders that reproduces patterns of thinking and behaving among them
and their followers.”
81
To use Donahue and Robinson’s words, to create a leadership
culture is to say “we are going to develop new leaders. We are going to equip leaders,”
instead of just saying “I would like to get new leaders” or “I am praying for new
leaders.”
82
Donahue and Robinson also say “are your top people (senior pastor, staff, lay
leaders) investing time and energy to build into groups of men and women who will
represent the next generation of leaders? If so, your church is doing well at creating a
fertile leadership development environment.”
83
Comiskey claims “the crowning principle
of the G-12 model is that it views every member as a potential cell leader.”
84
That is the
very expression about leadership culture shown in the International Charismatic Mission.

78 Lynne and Bill Hybels, Discovering Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House,
1995), 154.
79 Walter C. Wright, Relational Leadership (Waynesboro, GA: Paternoster Publishing, 2004),
127.
80 Hans Finzel, Empowered Leaders (Nashville, TN: W Publishing Group, 1998), 25.
81 Malphurs and Mancini, 213.
82 Donahue and Robinson, The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry, 105.
83 Ibid., 109.
84 Joel Comiskey, Groups of 12. Houston (TX: Touch Publications, 1999), 15.
107



It is more effective to develop leaders within a leadership culture than to develop
leaders without a culture in a church. If we create an appropriate leadership culture in our
church, we can build a momentum for developing leaders. According to Maxwell, “with
momentum, leaders look better than they actually are and followers increase their
performance. Without momentum, leaders look worse than they actually are and
followers decrease their performance.”
85
To create a leadership culture is an essential
way to effectively develop small group leaders. Therefore, it is a wise policy to create a
fertile leadership culture rather than focusing on developing leaders without a culture.

EMPOWER THE SMALL GROUP LEADERS
Christian Schwarz introduces “empowering leadership” as the number one
character in growing churches all over the world. He says “leaders of growing churches
concentrate on empowering other Christians for ministry.”
86
Drucker has learned the
lesson “set high standards, but give people the freedom and responsibility to do their
jobs”
87
from his three mentors. What he says to learn from his mentors is exactly about
empowerment. Empowering leaders can build other leaders. Empowerment is especially
important at transitioning a church to a cell-based church because nobody has gone
through the way in former days. It takes some risks. In this point, empowering leaders is
absolutely necessary.
Empowerment is “the intentional transfer of authority to an emerging leader
within specified boundaries from an established leader who maintains responsibility for

85 Maxwell, Developing the Leaders Around You, 18.
86 Christian A. Schwarz, Natural Church Development (St. Charles, IL: ChurchSmart Resources,
2003), 22.
87 Peter F. Drucker, “My Mentors’ Leadership Lessons.” Frances Hesselbein and Paul M. Cohen,
Ed., Leader to Leader (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1999), 4.
108



the ministry.”
88
Wright says “this is empowering leadership – one person using his or her
position in the marketplace to serve and nurture another; one person seeing in another the
potential to be more than is visible today and committing himself or herself to the
development of that potential.”
89

What can we get through empowerment? Bennis insists empowerment is most
evident in four themes in organizations with effective leaders. The four themes are:
1. People feel significant.
2. Learning and competence matter.
3. People are part of a community.
4. Work is exciting.
90


Empowerment can give great benefits not only to the potential leaders, but also to
the established leader who empower them. Maxwell says “the truth is that empowerment
is powerful – not only for the person being developed but also for the mentor. Enlarging
others makes you larger.”
91
Once you have established a system for developing small
group leaders, you have to empower the potential leaders who have been produced
through the system. Deok-Soo Kim says “empowerment is an essential element of
leadership for effective ministry.”
92

We need to trust potential leaders and empower them. Maxwell says “the main
ingredient for empowering others is a high belief in people. If you believe in others, they

88 Malphurs and Mancini, 40.
89 Wright, 43-44.
90 Warren Bennis, Why Leaders Can’t Lead (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Basss Publishers, 1989),
22-23.
91 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson,
2007), 151.
92 Deok-Soo Kim, The Role of Leadership in Church Renewal toward a Cell-based Ministry
(Seongnam, South Korea: NCD Publishing, 2003), 233.
109



will believe in themselves.”
93
Bennis and Nanus insist “trust is the emotional glue that
binds followers and leaders together.”
94
And we can trust the potential leaders only when
we are in good relationship with them. Earley claims “there’s no discipleship without
relationship! The length and breadth of our influence on others is related to the depth of
our relationships with them.”
95

Therefore, building good relationship with potential leaders makes us trust them,
and trusting them helps us empower them. This is the kind of formula used in developing
competent leaders in a church. Empowerment could be a very effective strategy in
development of small group leaders.

DEVELOP A TRAINING SYSTEM
To develop both established leaders and preliminary leaders it is absolutely
necessary for an effective transition to a cell-based church. Without developing leaders,
we cannot expect successful transitioning. In fact, it is the very reason why so many
traditional churches have failed to transition to a cell church or a house church. The
senior pastor of each failed church experienced failure because they hastily tried to
transition without having prepared leaders. We have to develop and train small group
leaders in order to have a successful transition.
In simple terms, “training means helping someone acquire a skill. It’s different
from development, which includes character growth, increased ministry responsibility,

93 Maxwell, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, 150.
94 Warren Bennis, and Burt Nanus, Leaders (New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1985),
153.
95 Earley, Turning Members into Leaders, 46.
110



and nurture.”
96
McBride insists that “training is a narrowing activity; given whatever a
person’s present abilities are, it attempts to provide specific skills and the necessary
understanding to apply those skills. The focus is on accomplishing a specific task or
job.”
97
That is, training small group leaders means to equip them to be suitable to the new
type of small group ministry in the transitioning church.
We need to understand developmental phases of a leader in order to grasp the
importance and position of training him or her. Clinton suggests five phases
98
of a leader
which are shown in Figure 40.
99

Phase 1.
Sovereign
Foundations

Phase 2.
Inner-life growth

Phase 3.
Ministry maturing

Phase 4.
Life maturing

Phase 5.
Convergence


Figure 39. Clinton’s five phases of development in a leader


Clinton explains about each phase:
1. Phase 1: In phase 1, God providentially works foundational items into the life
of the leader-to-be.
2. Phase 2: Emerging leader usually receives some kind of training.
3. Phase 3: The emerging leader gets into ministry as a prime focus of life. He or
she will get further training, informally through self-study growth projects or
formally through functional oriented workshops, etc.
100

4. Phase 4: The leader identifies and uses his or her gift-mix with power.
5. Phase 5: Convergence occurs. The leader is moved by God into a role that
matches gift-mix, experience, temperament, etc.
101


96 Donahue and Robinson, Building a Church of Small Groups, 135.
97 McBride, How to Build a Small Group Ministry, 128.
98 According to Clinton, “sometimes, there is a sixth phase called ‘Aftergrow’ or ‘Celebration.’”
But that is rare. J. Robert Clinton, The Making of a Leader (Colorado Springs, CO: Navpress, 1988), 30.
99 Ibid.
100 Clinton says “in real life, the development of Phases III, IV, and V often overlap, through I
show them here in a sequential pattern.” Ibid.
101 Ibid., 30-33.
111



Among these five phases, the phase which is related to training is Phase 2.
102

Then, what kinds of arenas do we have to train small group leaders? It depends on two
important things: one is the goal of small groups which we are pursuing, the other is the
small group leadership style. In general, however, we can present four specific arenas
which we can find commonly from the literatures. The four arenas are:
1. Personality and attitude
2. Vision and goal
3. Knowledge and skills for ministry
4. Relationship with God

How can we train small group leaders? Like the axiom “methods are many,
principles are few. Methods always change, principles never do,” we can decide a
training system suitable to our church’s vision and situation. However, it would be
helpful to review the methods which small group experts present. Donahue and Robinson
introduce three methods which Willow Creek Community Church is using: classroom
training, apprentice training, and on-the-job training.
103
Salas, Burke, and Stagl insist that
“the training and development system typically consists of (a) formal institutional
education, (b) operational assignments, and (c) self-development.”
104
Clinton suggests
three ways: informal apprenticeship, nonformal workshops, and formal training.
105

Seong-Hoon Myeong introduces three programs: weekly training, on-the-job training,

102 Phase 1 is related to “Atmosphere” and phase 3 is related to “provide follow-up programs” in
this chapter. We will examine about the two themes after this.
103 Donahue and Robinson, Building a Church of Small Groups, 136-137.
104 Salas, Burke, and Stagl, 344-345.
105 Clinton, 90.
112



and continual training.
106
And Earley indicates seven resources of development: on-the-
job training, personal mentoring and coaching, classroom training, group leadership
training, training events, wasting time together, and various kinds of books, tapes, and
magazines.
107


PROVIDE FOLLOW-UP PROGRAMS
Effective follow-up programs increase the productivity of small group leaders. As
a result, providing good quality follow-up programs can render great services to the
whole process of small group leadership development in the church. Then, what kind of
follow-up programs can we provide leaders?

A Coaching System
Wright says “whether taking up new responsibilities of leadership or continuing
in service, we all need mentors and friends to guide and inspire, to challenge and support
us as we live and work.”
108
That explains why small group leaders have to be coached.
Don Neff, an associate pastor of The Worship Center in Lancaster, Pennsylvania said,
“Building a coaching structure is one of the biggest challenges of small group
ministry.”
109
According to Peters and Austin, “to coach is largely to facilitate, which

106 Seong-Hoon Myeong, Small Group Mind (Seoul, South Korea: Institute for Church Growth,
2002), 120-121.
107 Earley, Turning Members into Leaders, 81-82.
108 Wright, 27.
109 Donahue and Robinson, Building a Church of Small Groups, 148.
113



literally means ‘to make easy’ – not less demanding, less interesting or less intense, but
less discouraging, less bound up with excessive controls and complications.”
110

Nevertheless, not everyone can be a coached of small group leaders. On this point,
Peters and Austin say “there is no magic: only people who find and nurture champions,
dramatize company goals and direction, build skills and teams, spread irresistible
enthusiasm.” That is, those who not only understand the vision of the church but also
have enthusiasm towards the vision as well as have experience of being a small group
leader can be effective coaches. By being coached, small group leaders does well doing
their job and effectively develop themselves in their actual fields.

Meeting with Fellow Leaders
We have to provide small group leaders opportunities to learn through mutual
interaction with fellow leaders. Through meeting with fellow leaders, “they can share
about their undertakings and problems of their small group. They can also give careful
considerations to solve problems. As a result, they can objectively think about their small
groups and get more information and ideas on leading a group.”
111
It would be good to
make them have weekly or monthly meetings. We can consider organizing a closed small
group of several small group leaders with the availability of coaches. In the small group,
they can not only be coached by the coach, but also get synergy effect through mutual
interaction between the members, who are other small group leaders.


110 Tom Peters, and Nancy Austin, A Passion for Excellence (New York, NY: Warner Books,
1986), 384.
111 Myeong, 145.
114



Follow-up Training
Many leadership gurus emphasize the importance of training leaders even after
they have already become leaders through a training system. Those like Donahue and
Robinson
112
and Earley
113
call this kind of follow-up training “on-the-job training.” Some
use the term “operational assignment.”
114
It means developing and training leaders
through their work experience. What Clinton calls “nonformal workshops”
115
can be the
same with follow-up training.
Barna says “in spite of their busy lives, a majority of lay leaders we interviewed
said that they wanted more training in leadership competencies.”
116
This reveals that
leaders think they have to be trained continually in order to solve problems which they
find in their ministry. We have to, therefore, provide them good quality follow-up
training to train them for better effective ministry. We have to scratch their itchy spots.

Encouragement
People need encouragement. Even small group leaders want to be encouraged.
According to Crabb and Allender, “generally we all feel most relaxed when we can let
our guard down and be completely ourselves with someone who we believe will in no
way reject us.”
117
Therefore, we have to seriously consider providing small group leaders
encouragement in various ways. “Encouragement is one of the strongest weapons we

112 Donahue and Robinson, Building a Church of Small Groups, 136-137.
113 Earley, Turning Members into Leaders, 81.
114 Salas, Burke, and Stagl, 344-345.
115 Clinton, 90.
116 Barna, The Power of Team Leadership, 133-134.
117 Lawrence J. Crabb Jr., and Dan B. Allender, Encouragement (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan
Publishing House, 1984), 39.
115



have in our arsenals of influence.”
118
The five ways to encourage followers which Crabb
and Allender introduce are noteworthy. The five ways are:
1. Encourage with attention
2. Encourage when crisis comes
3. Encourage when a job is well done
4. Encourage when they do poorly
5. Encourage whenever there is opportunity
119


IMPLEMENT AND EVALUATE
Every now and then, the importance of implementation and evaluation in a
transitioning process is neglected in spite of its incalculable value. We have to bear in
mind that without effective implementation, we cannot expect to succeed in the process
of transitioning to a cell-based church and developing small group leaders. Furthermore,
without appropriate evaluation, we cannot expect consistent development and growth.

Implementation
To transition a traditional church to a cell-based church and to develop small
group leaders are never simple processes. Each of them requires a clear vision, effective
communication methods of the vision, building a team, mapping a strategy, and many
other important matters. Though these are all prepared, however, we never succeed
unless we effectively implement the vision. Tichy reminds us saying “implementation of
a massive organizational change is the hardest part, because it requires selling the new
response – including the case for change – and weeding out the resisters and the

118 Finzel, 54.
119 Crabb and Allender, 25.
116



superfluous work. Implementation of an idea requires values, emotional energy and the
edge, or guts, to see it through to the end.”
120
Finzel persuades the leaders by saying that
“your job as leader is to make the vision happen in real life in your organization, driving
it forward beyond the paper.”
121

Malphurs insists about the importance of implementation as follows:
1. Implementation accomplishes the strategic plan.
2. Implementation maintains ministry momentum.
3. Implementation wards off complacency.
4. Implementation addresses the problem of time.
5. Implementation keeps the team on track.
6. Implementation nourishes faith in the process.
7. Implementation heightens optimism.
122



Evaluation
Regular evaluations performed at proper time in appropriate ways make us
estimate how much effective is the leader developing system which we created. Malphurs
says “every leader should ask, am I evaluating my ministry effectiveness, and do we
evaluate the effectiveness of the church?”
123
Stanley, Joiner, and Jones claim that “no
matter how good the system, a consistent time of evaluation can produce tremendous
benefits.”
124
Malphurs presents seven purposes of evaluation as follows:
1. Evaluation prompts ministry alignment.

120 Noel M. Tichy with Eli Cohen, The Leadership Engine (New York, NY: HarperCollins
Publishers, 2002), 42.
121 Finzel, 95.
122 Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning, 282-284.
123 Ibid., 298.
124 Andy Stanley, Reggie Joiner, and Lane Jones, 7 Practices of Effective Ministry (Sisters, OR:
Multnomah Publishers, 2004), 174.
117



2. Evaluation prioritizes ministry accomplishment.
3. Evaluation encourages ministry appraisal.
4. Evaluation coaxes ministry affirmation.
5. Evaluation emboldens ministry correction.
6. Evaluation elicits ministry improvement.
7. Evaluation promotes change.
125


DEVELOP A SPIRITUAL ATMOSPHERE
The development of small group leadership in a church is not an independent task.
It is related with various ministry of the church. Many scholars firmly believe that an
effective small group ministry is able to render great services to church growth. The
author believes, however, that the reverse is also true. That is, the more healthy a church,
the more effective the small group ministry in the church. We have to pay attention to
both of them, building an effective small group ministry and making a spiritually healthy
church. On the basis of these two matters, we can expect to develop competent small
group leaders suitable in transitioning to a cell-based church. Comiskey, who is well
acquainted with ICM (International Charismatic Mission) which is one of the most
noticeable cell churches in the world with its G-12 principle, deplores that:
ICM talks much more about spiritual power, spiritual victories, and spiritual
liberation and relatively little about the model. Visitors become enamored with
the model. You’ll never get the same results as Bogota by simply copying a
model without taking with you the values of the church.
126


As Comiskey says, we have to recognize that we cannot build an effective small
group ministry nor an effective system of small group leadership development without

125 Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning, 297-301.
126 Comiskey, Groups of 12, 44.
118



spiritual atmosphere in our church. We need to confess that “the mind of man plans his
way, But the LORD directs his steps,” (Prov. 16:9).
The most important thing is that we need the Holy Spirit to give us the divine
power to make leadership development effective. Comiskey says “sometimes we in the
cell church movement forget that the cell is primarily a channel through which the Holy
Spirit moves. Apart from His work, cells have little value.”
127
Neighbour warns us in a
different perspective, saying “there is grave danger present when a cell is unplugged from
the work of the Holy Spirit and the use of spiritual gifts.”
128
According to Myeong, “all of
the churches which are growing with the effective small group ministry are the churches
open to the work of the Holy Spirit.”
129
That is, the churches where the Holy Spirit is
actively working are growing. In other words, churches without the power of the Holy
Spirit cannot grow even though they have a well-designed small group system.
Therefore, prayer is absolutely necessary both to building up effective small
group ministry and designing a systematic strategy of small group leadership
development. As Comiskey urges, “instead of relying on our own expertise, education
and experience, we must trust God to work through others as we equip and release them
to lead.”
130
Paul Y. Cho says “Prayer is the key to the revival of church and cell
groups.”
131
Never try to transition a traditional church to a cell-based church without
having a healthy spiritual atmosphere. Developing spiritual atmosphere is the highest

127 Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion, 43.
128 Ralph W. Neighbour, Jr. with Lorna Jenkins, Where Do We Go From Here (Houston, TX:
Touch Publications, Inc., 1990), 161.
129 Myeong, 122.
130 Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion, 56.
131 Cho, 45 Pastoring Years of Hope, 174.
119



priority in transitioning to a cell-based church and developing competent small group
leaders.

SUMMARY
This literature research gave the author precious and incalculable lessons on small
group leadership development for transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church.
In this point, the literature research has another value which the author can’t get through
diagnosis investigation of Gaeumjung Church and a case study on nine churches with
outstanding small group ministry. To sum up, we conclude with 12 lessons which follow
from this literature research:
1. Perceive the urgency and importance of developing leaders.
2. Approach strategically.
3. Recognize the senior pastor’s role
4. Develop a vision and communicate it effectively.
5. Work as a team.
6. Develop leaders according to your small group ministry.
7. Create a leadership culture
8. Empower the small group leaders
9. Develop a training system
10. Provide follow-up programs
11. Implement and evaluate
12. Develop spiritual atmosphere.

These 12 lessons taught the author that small group leadership development in
transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church is never easy task. At the same
time, however, they could be a great help to make success in the transitioning process.


120







CHAPTER 5

A STRAGEGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUP
LEADERSHIP IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH

Gaeumjung Church has a history of more than one hundred years and the Kuyeok
system also has a long history in the church. Nevertheless, it does not seem that the
Kuyeok system in Gaeumjung church had high productivity as we can see in chapter two
of this thesis. Up to this point, the author, who had been an associate pastor for one and
half years at Gaeumjung Church and will be the senior pastor of the church in a few years,
thinks there is no way to revitalize the small groups in the church except transitioning the
church to a cell-based church.
1

It is evident, however, that to transition the church is not only for revitalizing the
small groups but also for restoring a Biblical model of small groups in the church.
Neighbour says “there is a more effective pattern in our world today than planting
traditional churches. The Holy Spirit is the author of this pattern, and it has sprouted up

1 The author uses “cell-based church” instead of “cell church,” “house church,” or “home church”
for two reasons.. The first reason is because some church leaders have a feeling of refusal to use cell
church or house church in the denomination of Kosin which Gaeumjung Church belongs to. For example,
the presbytery of Pusan which belongs to Kosin, ordered Chojangdong Church to stop doing a house
church on April 10, 2007 (http://www.kscoramdeo.com, Accessed by March, 2008). The church has been
tried to transition as a house church for a few years. The second reason is that the author firmly believes
Gaeumjung Church could be a church with authentic communities without using the expression of cell
church or house church.
121



like mushrooms all over the globe.”
2
And he says a cell group church is the “more
effective pattern.” It seems to be unavoidable to transition Gaeumjung Church to a cell-
based church.
However, transitioning is a very difficult process. It is a life-and-death matter for
a church. We have to make an approach to this process very carefully. In particular, we
have to develop small group leaders if we really want to transition and lead the transition
process into being successful. Conger and Fulmer say that “succession planning and
leadership development ought to be two sides of the same coin. . . . By marrying
succession planning and leadership development, you get the best of both.”
3
According to
Donahue and Robinson, the future of small group ministry rests on the small group
leaders’ shoulders in a church.
4
That shows why development of small group leadership
is important in transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church. Whallon is right
when he says that “without adequate leadership a small group is doomed.”
5

We have to keep it in mind that leadership development is never an easy task.
Avolio says “I believe that leadership development is by far one of the most complex
human processes in that it involves leaders, followers, dynamic contexts, timing,
resources, technology, history, luck, and a few things we have not thought of yet.”
6


2 Ralph W. Neighbour Jr. with Lorna Jenkins, Where Do We Go From Here (Houston, TX: Touch
Publications, Inc., 1990), 20.
3 Jay A. Conger, and Robert M. Fulmer, “Developing Your Leadership Pipeline.” Harvard
Business Review, vol. 81.12 (December 2003), 76-78.
4 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson, Building a Church Of Small Group (Grand Rapids, MI:
Zondervan, 2001), 123.
5 Doug Whallon, “Leadership – The Critical Factor.” Steve Barker, Judy Johnson, Rob Malone,
Ron Nicholas, and Doug Whallon, Good Things Come in Small Groups (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity
Press, 1985), 38.
6 Bruce J. Avolio, Leadership Development in Balance (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Inc., 2005), 4.
122



According to Avolio, there is no one best way to develop leaders.
7
This explains why we
have to approach this matter very creatively and strategically.

THE WHOLE TRANSITIONING PROCESS AND POSITION
OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROCESS
Before mapping out a strategy in the development of small group leadership, we
need to roughly look around the whole transition process of Gaeumjung Church. It would
give us a clearer cognitive foundation in the development of small group leadership
though it is not the goal of this thesis to discuss the process of transitioning in detail. It is
because the development of small group leadership is not an isolated stage of the
transitioning process. It is deeply related to other stages in the process. Figure 40 shows
the whole process of Gaeumjung Church transitioning to a cell-based church.
1. Establishing a Sense of Urgency: Kotter presents the eight-stage process of
successful change. The first stage of the process is establishing a sense of
urgency.
8
It means to produce a holy dissatisfaction on the present state and to
desire something better in the church.
2. Vision Sharing: The senior pastor has to share the God-given vision on being
a cell-based church. Not only church leaders including the senior pastor, but
also all the church members should clearly know the vision. Stanley counsels
us to answer the questions, Why must we do this? And why must we do it
now?”
9
Vision sharing is a critical stage in the whole transitioning process.
3. Spiritual Support (Prayer): It is not too much to say that spiritual support
through prayer decides success or failure of the transitioning process. We need
powerful spiritual support through strategic prayer throughout the whole
transition process.



7 Ibid., 8.
8 John P. Kotter, Leading Change (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), 35.
9 Andy Stanley, “Vision Leaks.” Leadership, vol. 25.1 (Winter 2004), 70.
123



































Figure 40. The whole process of transitioning in Gaeumjung Church
Spiritual Support
(Prayer)
Building
Consensus
Establishing a
sense of Urgency
Vision
Sharing
Team Building
Mapping out a
Strategy
Recruiting and
developing leaders
Launching Cells
Follow-up Training/
Coaching System
Decision
Making
Proclamation/
Organization
Evaluation/
Modification
F
e
e
d
b
a
c
k
124



4. Building Consensus: Building a wide consensus on being a cell-based church
church is as important as vision sharing. Actually, building consensus is a goal
of vision sharing. Like Southerland’s suggestion, “it is wise to take the time to
plant the vision with key leaders before sharing vision with the entire
church.”
10

5. Decision Making: After all the church members come to understand the vision
on a cell-based church and reach a consensus on transition to a cell-based
church, only then can we make a decision. Nevertheless, we still have several
stages to overcome before becoming a cell-based church and launching brand-
new small groups. Therefore, it would be best to have the church members
pray earnestly for successful transitioning.
6. Team Building: We need to build a team which takes the lead in the
transitioning process. The team, which will be called a Vision Team, consists
of nine persons including the senior pastor. From the time to begin building a
team, the transitioning process is accomplished by a team, not the senior
pastor.
7. Mapping out a Strategy: The most important task of the team is mapping out a
strategy for successful transitioning. The strategy will be about actual affairs
related to transitioning like How to recruit leaders? How to develop them?
How to organize small groups? How to launch small groups? How to build up
a coaching system? How to develop a follow-up training program? How to
evaluate the result of the transition? How to modify programs based on the
result of evaluation?
8. Recruiting and Developing Leaders: It is no exaggeration to say that the stage
of recruiting and developing leaders is the most important step throughout the
whole transitioning process. Without preparation of competent small group
leaders, we can’t expect a successful transitioning.
9. Proclamation/ Organization: When small group leaders are prepared, the
senior pastor announces to the whole of church that Gaeumjung Church is a
cell-based church. The vision team surely has to have time to give an
explanation to all the church members about the concept of a cell group. Then,
we have to organize the cells. It is carried out by letting all the church
members choose their own leader. This helps the member to follow their
leader spontaneously.
10. Launching Cells: Now, it is the time to launch cells. Launching cells should
be accomplished in a festive mood. After launching cells, the vision team has
to examine minutely whether cells and cell leaders progress as they should.
11. Follow-up Training/ Coaching System: Cell leaders will have to face various
problems in their fields of ministry. The follow-up training system deals with
specific problems effectively. And we have to set up a coaching system to
support the cell leaders.

10 Dan Southerland, Transitioning (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1999), 68.
125



12. Evaluation: Even in general situation, regular evaluation is very important for
lasting success. The importance of evaluation in the transitioning process is
much more significant. We have to evaluate thoroughly the transitioning
process, especially the developing system and follow-up training system of
leaders.
13. Feedback/ Modification: If we do not get the expected results from the
evaluation, we have to reexamine elaborately each stage in the transitioning
process. And we have to modify both systems on the basis of the evaluation
results if necessary.

SMALL GROUPS IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH AS A CELL-BASED CHURCH
A Cell-based Church
We cannot map out a strategy of small group leadership in Gaeumjung Church
without considering the features of small groups we propose to have. To understand
features of the small groups in Gaeumjung Church, we have to answer the question, What
is a cell-based church? Answer to this question provide the features of small groups
which we want to have in Gaeumjung Church.
Prior to answering this question, it would be better to understand the differences
between an of-small group church and a cell church. The reason is because a cell-based
church will assume the form of an of-small group church and pursue the dynamic and the
vitality of a cell church at the same time. Donahue and Robinson’s views are helpful to us.
Donahue and Robinson introduce the differences between church with groups, church of
groups, and church is groups
11
(Figure 41).
12




11 A cell church belongs to the category of “Church is groups.”
12 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson, The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry (Grand
Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002), 22.
126




Church with groups Church of groups Church is groups
Purpose
Help people find a
place in the church
A means of building
the church as
community
The primary
expression of the
church
Organizing principles
Someone wants to
start a group
Strategy using affinity
with geography
considered
Strategy using
geography with
affinity considered
Getting in a group
Placement system
(Centralized)
Group invitation or
assimilation event
(decentralized)
Assigned by
geography (Group
responsible)
Group membership
Optional for growth
Nor required for
church membership
Essential for growth
Required for church
membership
Essential for growth
Required for church
membership
Role of group leaders Mostly reactive leader
Proactive shepherd-
leader
Pastoral shepherd-
leader
Use of curriculum Chosen by leader
Recommended by
staff or chose by
leader
Designated by staff
Group meeting format
Designed by leader or
curriculum
Designed by leader +
Ministry strategy
Designed by leader +
Ministry pattern
Church authority over
group
Low Low High
Church monitoring of
groups
Low High High
Group-based
evangelistic activity
Possible Encouraged Expected

Figure 41. Comparison between Church with groups, Church of groups, and Church is
groups

According to the writings of Donahue and Robinson, Gaeumjung Church has
been a Church with small groups until now. And the most reasonable direction for
Gaeumjung Church is, in the author’s opinion, to be a cell-based church. It is because of

127



two reasons. First, according to the Presbyterian tradition, a small group is not a church.
13

Small groups have to be part of the church. Therefore, to take the form of church is
groups could cause many problems in a Presbyterian church.
14
It is the reason why the
author does not give consideration to take church is groups. The second reason is because
a cell church has dynamic and vitality in spite of some problems. The author believes that
Gaeumjung Church can get dynamic and vitality of a cell church without taking the form
of church is groups. In conclusion, a cell-based church has the advantages of an of-small
group church and a cell church simultaneously.

Small Groups in Gaeumjung Church
McBride is right to say “having a definition is critical, because it identifies the
characteristics of the activity you have agreed to lead.”
15
We need to define a small group
for mapping out an effective strategy in the development of small group leadership. There
are many terms which designate a small group. There are so many definitions of these
terms. We can introduce representative definitions like:

13 For instance, an academic forum with the title “How do we have to see House Church
movement” was held at Korea Theological Seminary, which the denomination of Kosin governs, on
November, 1, 2007. At the forum, four speakers spoke on the subject. The four speakers were Jong-Kil
Byun (from a standpoint of Biblical theology), Hae-Moo Yoo (from a view of systematic theology), Sang-
Kyu Lee (from a position of historical theology), and Soon-Seong Kim (from a standpoint of practical
theology). It was danger of ecclesiola in ecclesia that all of the four speakers gave warning of even though
they had a positive view on the House Church Movement overall. (www.kscoramdeo.com, accessed at
March 2008.)
14 Seoung-Cheol Hong says “we have to know that some churches, especially some Presbyterian
churches have practical difficulties to accept the principles of a house church.” Tae-Hoon Bae, “Special
Conversation on House Church.” Ministry and Theology, November 2007, 72.
15 Neal F. McBride, How to Lead Small Groups (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 1990), 23.
128



A small group is an intentional gathering of a varied number of people who
commit themselves to regular meetings for the purpose of becoming better
disciples of Jesus Christ.
16

A cell is a place where people have enough social reference points to find
themselves sustained emotionally and spiritually.
17

A small group within the church is a voluntary, intentional gathering of three to
twelve people regularly meeting together with the shared goal of mutual Christian
edification and fellowship.
18

A small group is a face-to-face meeting that is a sub-unit of the overall
fellowship.
19

A small group is a place of loyalty and compassion, commitment and caring,
prayer and mutual sacrifice.
20

In all the worldwide cell churches I studied, the cell could be defined as a group
of 4-15 people that meets weekly outside the church building for the purpose of
evangelism and discipleship with the goal of multiplication.
21


It would be better for us to develop a model of a cell and make our own definition
of the cell in Gaeumjung Church although these definitions are really good. Deok-Soo
Kim says, “It is more important to develop our own model of small group ministry than
to try to find out a type of small group ministry suitable to Korean churches.”
22
Sang-
Hwa Lee also claims, “Each type of small group has its own strengths and weaknesses.
Therefore, nobody can say there is only one type of small group in churches.
23


16 Jeffrey Arnold, Starting small groups (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1997), 21.
17 Carl F. George with Warren Bird, The Coming Church Revolution (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming
H. Revell, 1994), 69.
18 McBride, How to lead Small Groups, 24.
19 Carl F. George, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership (Mansfield, PA: Kingdom
Publishing, 1997), 10-11.
20 Lynne Hybels and Bill Hybels, Discovering Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing
House, 1995), 177.
21 Joel Comiskey, From 12 To 3 (Houston, TX: Touch Publications, 2002), 37
22 Deok-Soo Kim, "Discerning Korean Style Small Group Ministry." Ministry and Theology,
February 2003, 83.
23 Sang-Hwa Lee, "A Look Around Small Group Ministry For Understanding 'Cell.'" Ministry
and Theology, February 2003, 115.



Then, what is a cell in Gaeumjung Church as a cell
in Figure 42, the cell in Gaeumjung Church is
members share their life on the basis of the Scriptures, get recovered, ev
grow into a cell leader. It consists of 3
the house of each member.
detail.


Figure 42. Features of a cell in Gaeumjung Church
1. A small community: First of all, it is a small authentic community which
consists of three to twelve people. To build an authentic community is very
important in a local church. Andy Stanley
God’s biggest dreams for us is authentic community.
also claim “intentionally connecting people in community is not an option for

24 Andy Stanley and Bill Willits,
(Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publ
Birth of
New Group


Then, what is a cell in Gaeumjung Church as a cell-based church? As we can see
in Figure 42, the cell in Gaeumjung Church is “a discipling small community in which its
members share their life on the basis of the Scriptures, get recovered, evangelize, and
into a cell leader. It consists of 3-12 people and holds a regular weekly meeting at
the house of each member.” Let’s examine the features of a cell of Gaeumjung Church in
Features of a cell in Gaeumjung Church


A small community: First of all, it is a small authentic community which
consists of three to twelve people. To build an authentic community is very
important in a local church. Andy Stanley and Bill Willits believe
s biggest dreams for us is authentic community.”
24
Stetzer
intentionally connecting people in community is not an option for

and Bill Willits, Creating Community: 5 Keys to Building a Small Group Culture
Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 2004), 40.
8ulldlna
AuLhenLlc
8elaLlonshlp
Sharlna llves
based on
8lble
8ecoverv
CrowLh
Lhrouah
ouLreach
Leadershlp
uevelopmenL
8eproducLlon
Birth of
New Group
Making
Disciples
129
based church? As we can see
a discipling small community in which its
angelize, and
12 people and holds a regular weekly meeting at
s examine the features of a cell of Gaeumjung Church in

A small community: First of all, it is a small authentic community which
consists of three to twelve people. To build an authentic community is very
believe “one of
Stetzer and Dodson
intentionally connecting people in community is not an option for
Creating Community: 5 Keys to Building a Small Group Culture
Sharlna llves
based on
130



the church. It’s a biblical mandate – the essence of what it means to be the
body of Jesus Christ.”
25
In Gaeumjung Church, cells have to be small
authentic communities in which all members build authentic relationship with
each other.
2. Discipling community: As Bill Hull says, “disciple making is the heart of the
church, because it is the heart of the Great Commission.”
26
Carl George says
“the most effective strategy for fulfilling many commands of Scripture is for a
church to place priority on making disciplemakers.”
27
Therefore, the most
important purpose of a cell is to make disciples. To use Hull’s words, a cell
has to be the best discipling tool.
28
It is because “disciple making is most
effective when based on and permeated with love and caring.”
29
Essentially,
“discipleship is not a class but a lifestyle in community.”30
3. Sharing life on the basis of the Scriptures: “Community is sharing together.”
31

Sharing life is the essence of a community. It has to be based upon the Word
of God and principally preached on God’s word. Once the word of God is
heard, all the members have to try to apply the Word in their life. Like Jimmy
Long and his friends say, “If we are wise builders once we have heard God’s
words, we will put them into practice.”
32
In Galloway’s words, “The Bible is
our authority and guidebook”
33
in a cell. Donahue and Robinson argue
“authentic relationships form the foundation of any quality small group. Once
that relational framework is laid we can pour the transforming truth of God’s
Word.”
34
Ron Nicholas claims, “The outcome of life in community is that we
are knit together in love and built up as a whole (Eph. 4:12-16). This happens
as we share needs, confess sins and faults, bear each other’s burdens,
encourage each other, listen with care and intercede in prayer.”
35
A cell is a
community in which its members share their life on the basis of the Bible.

25 Ed Stetzer, and Mike Dodson, Comeback Churches (Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing House,
2007), 151.
26 Bill Hull, The disciple-making pastor (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell, 2004), 53.
27 Carl George, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership, 7.
28 Bill Hull, The disciple-making church (Grand Rapids, MI: Fleming H. Revell, 1990), 25.
29 Win and Charles Arn, The Master’s Plan for Making Disciples 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI:
Baker Books, 1998), 59.
30 Elmer Towns, Ed Stetzer, and Warren Bird, 11 Innovations in the Local Church (Ventura, CA:
Regal Books, 2007), 45-46.
31 Jimmy Long, Ann Beyerlein, Sara Keiper, Patty Pell, Nina Thiel, and Doug Whallon, Small
Group Leaders’ Handbook (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995), 33.
32 Ibid., 56.
33 Dale E. Galloway, 2020 Vision (Portland, OR: Scott Publishing Company, 1986), 115.
34 Bill Donahue, and Russ Robinson, Building a Church Of Small Group, 73-74.
35 Ron Nicholas, “The Four Ingredients of Good Group Life.” Steve Barker, Judy Johnson, Rob
Malone, Ron Nicholas, and Doug Whallon, Good Things Come in Small Groups (Downers Grove, IL:
InterVarsity Press, 1985), 25.
131



4. Community for recovery: People can recover through intercessory prayer, care,
and support with other members of a cell. When someone shares his or her life
on the basis of God’s Word, his or her sins, pains, and problems are exposed.
At that time, other members have to care and support him or her emotionally
and spiritually, and have to do intercessory prayer for him or her. Cloud and
Townsend say “when a person is hurt, the first thing a group does is to help
bring comfort, care, and soothing.”
36
As a result, he or she can be recovered.
Stockstill insists that “a spiritual family, or cell group, provides a safe place
for people to be open and transparent at the first hint of temptation: this is
‘preventive maintenance,’ not ‘damage control.’”
37
Pastoral care in a cell is
“part of developing people toward maturity in Christ, so we must consider it
discipling.”
38

5. Evangelizing community: Yonggi Cho says that a home cell group is “a key to
evangelism.”
39
Comiskey argues “clearly, evangelism that results in the
proliferation of cell groups is the most distinguishing feature of the cell church
worldwide. My case study reveals that more than 60 percent of the 700 cell
leaders surveyed had multiplied their group at least once, and that it took
about nine months to do so.”
40
A cell has to be open to all people. “Jesus
modeled this kingdom openness for us by inviting tax collectors and sinners,
rich and poor, follower and Pharisee, to the table of community. This is the
way the church ought to be. And it is how most groups ought to function.”
41

Members of a cell can evangelize by serving others and telling their story to
others. A cell member who recovered can confidently tell his or her story to
others who have urgent needs. Nicholas says “Christian groups exist to reach
out and share the good news of Christ’s love to people in need.”
42
As a result,
a cell can grow.
6. Leaders growing community: To small group leaders, Carl George urges
“view yourself as a leader maker – and your group as a leader-making
laboratory.”
43
That a cell has to be cell-leader-factory could be understood in
two ways. First, a cell leader has to develop his or her apprentice as another
cell leader. Second, all members of a cell have to consider themselves as

36 Henry Cloud, and John Townsend, Making Small Group Work (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan,
2003), 98.
37Larry Stockstill, The Cell Church (Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1998), 41.
38 Hull, The Disciple-making Church, 48.
39 Paul Yonggi Cho with Harold Hostetler. Successful Home Cell Groups (Plainfield, NJ: Logos
International, 1981), 57.
40 Joel Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion (Houston, TX: Touch Publications, 1988), 22.
41 Bill Donahue, and Russ Robinson, Walking the Small Group Tightrope (Grand Rapids, MI:
Zondervan, 2003), 141.
42 Nicholas, 25.
43 Carl George, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership, 45.
132



preliminary cell leaders. That is, all members including an apprentice have to
be cell leaders someday.
7. Reproducing community: Deok-Soo Kim claims “reproduction is the most
remarkable feature of a cell church.”
44
Schwarz also says, “Continuous
multiplication of small groups is a universal church growth principle.”
45

Comiskey insists that “the ultimate goal of each cell is to multiply itself as the
group grows through evangelism and then conversions.”
46
When a cell has
grown to the numeral limit and another cell leader is prepared, the cell has to
be multiplied. It is like a birth. Carl George says, “Growing groups will tend
to birth, some in 6 months, but most will take longer. The norm is a year of
two. More often than not, it’s the leader who moves out to start a new group,
leaving the apprentice behind.”
47
Every cell in Gaeumjung Church points to
reproduce another cell.


SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP REQUIRED IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH
The features of a cell require a unique style of leadership suitable to the features.
Earley recommends “You have to model the type of leadership you want to develop in
others.”
48
A strategy of small group leadership has to be based upon the unique
leadership. Then, what kind of leadership has to be developed for cells in Gaeumjung
Church? The answer to this question should be explained in Figure 43.

Overarching Nature: Transformational leadership
The overarching nature of cell leadership in Gaeumjung Church is
transformational. That is, Gaeumjung Church wants to lead every member of the cell to
the point of transformation. Being disciples, getting recovered, evangelizing, and growing

44 Deok-Soo Kim, The Role of Leadership in Church Renewal toward a Cell-based Ministry
(Seongnam, South Korea: NCD Publishing, 2003), 171.
45 Christian A. Schwarz, Natural Church Development (St. Charles, IL: ChurchSmart Resources,
2003), 32.
46 Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion , 17.
47 Carl George, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership, 67.
48 Dave Earley, Turning members into leaders (Houston, TX: Cell Group Resources, 2001), 25.
133



into cell leaders are all related with the transformation of life. The leadership for a cell
leader in Gaeumjung Church is transformational
49
leadership. Transformation is what
Jesus wanted to do on the earth as Ford says: “Jesus planned to build a new world
through transformed sinners, so at his baptism he chose to be one with sinners and to
offer them forgiveness and sonship with the Father.”
50














Figure 43. Small Group Leadership in Gaeumjung Church


What is transformational leadership? Lewis gives very helpful insight on
transformational leadership, saying “God is calling people to step into a new role:

49 The term of “transformative leadership” or “transforming” is also available. The author will use
the three terms, transformational, transformative, and transforming in the same meaning.
50 Leighton Ford, Transforming Leadership (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1991), 32.
Transformational
Leadership
Shepherd
Leadership
Servant
Leadership
Coach
Leadership
Prospective
Cell Members
Cell
Members
Apprentice &
other Leaders
134



transformational leadership. His call goes beyond the point-of-mind, spiritual, or
organizational renewal. His call is for a total revitalization and transformation of thinking
and acting, for men and women to be leaders of change in his kingdom.”
51
The basic
meaning of transformational leadership is to transform followers. Bennis and Nanus
introduce the meaning of transformative leadership to us, saying “the new leader. . . is
one who commits people to action, who converts followers into leaders, and who may
convert leaders into agents of change. We refer to this as “transformative leadership.”
52

Essentially, however, to transform followers comes after the transformation of the
leader. That is, the leader must be transformed in the Word of God first, and then he or
she can transform the followers. Malphurs claims “the biblical term for change is not
conformation (which is the enemy of change) but transformation (Rom. 12:2; 2 Cor.
3:18). . . . The goal for every Christian is to be transformed by the power of the Spirit (2
Cor. 3:18) into Christ’s likeness (Gal. 4:19) as evidenced by the fruit of the Spirit (Gal.
5:22-23).”
53
Blanchard and Hodges say that leading like Jesus is a transformational cycle
that begins with personal leadership.”
54
Avolio says “to transform means to transcend
oneself to another self.”
55
In principle, biblically and practically, being transformed takes
precedence over transforming. In conclusion, transformational leadership is transforming
followers by the leader transformed.

51 Philip V. Lewis, Transformational Leadership (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman
Publishers, 1996), 1.
52 Warren Bennis, and Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge (New York, NY:
Harper & Row, Publishers, 1985), 3.
53 Aubrey Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning 2nd Ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books,
2005), 70.
54 Ken Blanchard, and Phil Hodges, Lead Like Jesus (Nashville, TN: W Publishing Group, 2005),
19.
55 Avolio, Leadership Development in Balance, 61.
135



Transformational leadership can be expressed in three ways in a cell as we can see
in Figure 43. The three ways are servant leadership, shepherd leadership, and coach
leadership.

Servant leadership
One aspect of transformational leadership is servant leadership. True leadership
emerges from those whose primary motivation is a deep desire to help others.
56

According to Spears, “the idea of the servant as leader came partly out of Greenleaf’s
half-century of experience in working to shape large institutions. However, the event that
crystallized Greenleaf’s thinking came in the 1960s, when he read Hermann Hesse’s
short novel, Journey to the East.”
57
A direct excerpt from Greenleaf is as follows:
The idea of The Servant as Leader came out of reading Hermann Hesse’s Journey
to the East. In this story we see a band of men on a mythical journey, probably
also Hesse’s own journey. The central figure of the story is Leo who accompanies
the party as the servant who does their menial chores, but who also sustains them
with his spirit and his song. He is a person of extraordinary presence. All goes
well until Leo disappears. Then the group falls into disarray and the journey is
abandoned. They cannot make it without the servant Leo. The narrator, one of the
party, after some years of wandering finds Leo and is taken into the Order that
had sponsored the journey. There he discovers that Leo, whom he had known first
as servant, was in fact that titular head of the Order, its guiding spirit, a great and
noble leader.
58



56 Larry C. Spears, “Tracing the past, present, and future of Servant Leadership.” Larry C Spears,
and Michele Lawrence Ed., Focus on Leadership (New York, NY: The Greenleaf Center for Servant-
Leadership, 2002), 3.
57 Ibid.
58 Robert K. Greenleaf, Servant leadership (New York, NY: Paulist Presss, 1977), 7.
136



Greenleaf makes an additional remark: “who is the servant-leader? The servant-
leader is servant first – as Leo was portrayed. It begins with the natural feeling that one
wants to serve, to serve first.”
59

However, the idea of servant leadership is found in the Bible even before
Greenleaf introduced the concept of servant leadership. Actually, “a biblical image that is
the most common and dominant for leaders is that of a servant. . . . Christian leaders are
servants with credibility and capabilities, who are able to influence people in a particular
context to pursue their God-given direction.”
60
In other words, servant leadership is a
precise biblical concept on leadership.
We find many examples of servants that showed servant leadership in the Bible.
Malphurs presents biblical characters who are called or referred to as servants as shown
in Figure 44.
61

Abraham
Joseph
Moses
Joshua
Nehemiah
David
Daniel
Christ
Paul
Peter.
Gen. 26:24
Gen. 39:17-19; 41:12
Exo. 4:10; Deut. 34:5
Josh. 24:29
Neh. 1:6, 11; 2:5
1 Sam. 17:32, 34, 36; 2 Sam. 7:5
Dan. 1:12
Isa. 42:1; Matt. 20:28; Phil. 2:7
Rom. 1:1; 1 Cor. 9:19; Gal. 1:10; Phil. 1:1
2 Pet. 1:1

Figure 44. Biblical characters who were servants


59 Ibid., 13.
60 Aubrey Malphurs, Being Leaders (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003), 33.
61 Ibid.
137



As Malphurs says, however, “the greatest example of a servant-leader is the
Savior.”
62
Jesus said, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve,
and to give His life a ransom for many” (Mark 10:45). He gave the disciples such
precious words: “Whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant, and
whoever wishes to be first among you shall be your slave” (Matt. 20:26-27).
63
And, after
washing the disciples’ feet, He said that, “If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, washed
your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I gave you an example that you
also should do as I did to you” (John 13:14-15).
All Christian leaders, especially cell leaders, have to be servant leaders in
Gaeumjung Church. For followers of Jesus, servant leadership is not an option; it is a
mandate.
64
Just as Jesus did, cell leaders have to serve others wholeheartedly. To serve
others with servant leadership is a way of obeying Jesus’ teachings. Through serving
others, we can transform their life. As seen in Figure 43, servant leadership reaches not
only his or her members, but also prospective members, i.e. objects of evangelism and his
or her apprentice and other leaders who have become leaders through the leader’s
ministry.

Shepherd leadership
Another leadership aspect which a small group has to have is shepherd leadership.
Malphurs notes: “another often used image for a leader is a shepherd. . . . Scripture uses

62 Aubrey Malphurs, Planting Growing Churches for the 21st Century (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker
Books, 2004), 113.
63 On this passages, Blanchard and Hodges say that “this call by Jesus to servant leadership is
clear and unequivocal; His words leave no room for plan B.” Blanchard, and Hodges, 12.
64 Blanchard, and Hodges, 12.
138



the shepherd metaphor primarily of a leader – shepherds were leaders.”
65
Jefferson says
that “of all the titles which have been minted for the envoys of the Son of God, that of
‘shepherd’ is the most popular, the most beautiful, and the most ample.”
66

We can find the most beautiful image of shepherd in Psalm 23. “As great poetry,
it gives us the powerful image of a vulnerable sheep protected by a strong, loving
shepherd.”
67
In Psalm 23, David confessed that “the Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want”
(Ps. 23:1).
We can find other beautiful image of shepherd in John 10 where Jesus said that
He is the good shepherd. Jesus who is the good shepherd “came that they may have life,
and have it abundantly,” (John 10:10).
Then, who is a shepherd? Brumfield notes: “the word ‘shepherd’ may be
translated, ‘my goer-forth.’ Yes, He goes before us. . . . It is the duty of the shepherd to
feed, protect and guard the sheep, even with his own life, if necessary; and when night
comes, to count the sheep safely into the fold.”
68
Jefferson says that a shepherd has six
functions. They are as follow:
1. The Eastern shepherd was, first of all, a watchman.
2. A shepherd in the East was also a guard.
3. The shepherd is a guide.
4. A shepherd in the East was a physician to the sheep.
5. The shepherd is a savior. He saves sheep that are lost. A critical part of the
shepherd’s task is rescue work. All rescue work is strictly pastoral work.

65 Malphurs, Being Leaders, 34.
66 Charles Edward Jefferson, The Minister as Shepherd (New York, NY: Thomas Y. Crowell
Company, 1912), 1.
67 Blaine McCormick, and David Davenport, Shepherd Leadership (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-
Bass, 2003), 2.
68 J. C. Brumfield, The Potter and the Shepherd (Wheaton, IL: Van Kampen Press, 1951), 76.
139



6. That the feeding of the sheep is an essential duty of the shepherd calling is
known even to those who are least familiar with shepherds and their work.
69


Not only servant leadership but also shepherd leadership is required to a small
group leader. A leader as a shepherd has to have concern and acceptance as Hiltner says
that “the first operating principle of shepherding that will be noted involves concern and
acceptance.”
70
And he or she has to give a spiritual guide and satisfy the needs of the
sheep. In real meaning, shepherd leadership is related to servant leadership. Walter
Wright claims “shepherds are there for the sheep. Shepherds by definition are servants
entrusted with the care of the flock. It is a position of responsibility and service, not status
and power. The sheep do not exist for the shepherd. The shepherd was hired because of
the sheep.”
71
Therefore, a shepherd is a servant, too. Briner and Pritchard argue “serving
all, in the way Jesus teaches, is not only about washing feet; it is also about leading
followers into commitment, into dedication, into discipline, and into excellence.”
72
What
Briner and Pritchard write about is exactly the job of a shepherd. In conclusion, we can
be transformed and transform others with servant leadership and shepherd leadership.
Returning to Figure 43, through shepherd leadership, a cell leader can reach his or
her cell members, apprentice, and other leaders who have become through the leader’s
ministry. Shepherd leadership cannot reach prospective members because they are not the
leader’s sheep yet.

69 Jefferson, 46-73.
70 Seward Hiltner, The Christian Shepherd: Some Aspects of Pastoral Care (Nashville, TN:
Abingdon Press), 28.
71 Walter C. Wright, Relational Leadership (Waynesboro, GA: Paternoster Publishing, 2004), 24.
72 Bob Briner, and Ray Pritchard, Leadership Lessons of Jesus (New York, NY: Random House,
1998), 295.
140



Coach leadership
That a small group leader has coach leadership sets forth the fact that he or she
has to reproduce other leaders as a premise. Just like Maxwell’s words, “great leaders
produce other leaders.”
73
Essentially, it is certain that potential leaders gather around a
good leader. Then, “leaders create and inspire new leaders by instilling faith in their
leadership abilities and helping them develop and hone leadership skills they don’t know
they possess.”
74

When a small group leader reproduces other leaders, the leader comes to be their
coach. It is the same when a leader has an apprentice in his or her cell. The leader has to
be the coach to the apprentice.
Peterson says that “coaching is the process of equipping people with the tools,
knowledge, and opportunities they need to develop themselves and become more
effective.”
75
As we can discern, coach is not a Christian term. Like Collins says,
“coaching might have stayed in the realm of sports and entertainment if it hadn’t burst
into the corporate world a few years ago.”
76
However, coach came to use in the realm of
the business world. Collins says “in companies large and small, people at all levels had to
learn how to deal with change, develop new management styles, make wise decisions,
and become more effective, all the while they coped with their hyperactive lifestyles and

73 John Maxwell, Developing the Leader Around You (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.,
1995), 3.
74 Ibid., 11.
75 David B. Peterson, and Mary Dee Hicks, Leader as Coach (Minneapolis, MN: Personnel
Decisions International, 1996), 14.
76 Gray R. Collins, Christian Coaching (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001), 15.
141



increasing stress.”
77
This statement shows exactly what coach means in the business
domain. And then, “coaching is getting the attention of church leaders, too.”
78

What does a coach do? Collins says that “at its core, coaching is the art and
practice of guiding a person or group from where they are toward the greater competence
and fulfillment that they desire.”
79
Huseman says it a little bit differently. He says “as a
coach, you can help your team get from where they are to where they want to be – not
where you want them to be.”
80
In any case, the idea of coach involves “help and guidance
for better results.” Another job of a coach is “to help small group leaders identify
potential apprentices from that “secretly warehoused talent pool.”
81

In Figure 43, it explains that a leader as a coach can influence only apprentice or
other leaders who have been developed through his or her ministry. This is because the
concept of coach is related with a specific office or function. The leader as a coach has to
help and guide the apprentice or other leaders to do their job better. Through the jobs, a
cell leader as a coach can transform others, that is, the apprentice and other leaders.

A STRATEGY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUP
LEADERSHIP IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH
For mapping a strategy of small group leadership development in Gaeumjung
Church, we have to reexamine the results of field analysis (chapter 2), case study (chapter
3), and literature research (chapter 4) as we can see in Figure 45.

77 Ibid.
78 Laurie Beth Jones, Jesus, Life Coach (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2004), xiii.
79 Gary Collins, 16.
80 Richard C. Huseman, The Leader as Coach (CA: Equity Press, 2003), 19.
81 Carl George, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership, 56.
142



Results from field analysis Results from case study
Results from literature
research
Features of small group
ministry in Gaeumjung Church

1. Stagnant Small Group
Ministry
2. Small Group Ministry for
Managing the Church
Members
3. Geographically Organized
Small Groups
4. Women-centered small
group ministry
5. Teaching-centered small
group meetings

Features of leadership
development in Gaeumjung
Church up to now

1. Very low degree of
satisfaction of small group
leaders on the strategy
2. A premodern strategy of
small group leadership
development
3. Low efficiency of the
strategy of small group
leadership development
4. Unsystematic process of
selection and examination
of new small group
leaders
5. Inefficient follow-up
training
1. The senior pastor has to
have a clear vision
towards small group
ministry and create a
proper climate.
2. A healthy, new small
group leader naturally
comes into being in a
healthy small group which
a healthy leader leads.
3. The senior pastor has to
empower small group
leaders.
4. The system for small
group leadership
development has to be in
harmony with the nurturing
system of the church.
5. Durability of the system to
develop small group
leaders is very important.
6. To hold regular and
frequent meetings of small
group leaders is very
important.
7. A formal training class
before beginning to serve
as a small group leader is
required by several of the
churches.
1. Perceive the urgency and
importance of developing
leaders.
2. Approach strategically.
3. Recognize the senior
pastor’s role
4. Develop a vision and
communicate it effectively.
5. Work as a team.
6. Develop leaders according
with your small group
ministry.
7. Create a leadership
culture
8. Empower the small group
leaders
9. Develop a training system.
10. Provide follow-up
programs.
11. Implement and evaluate.
12. Develop spiritual
atmosphere.



Figure 45. The results from each research method
143



On the basis of the information given in Figure 45, we can map out a strategy of
cell leadership development in Gaeumjung Church (Figure 46). Figure 46 shows a long-
term strategy in the development of cell leadership in Gaeumjung Church. After the
explanation of the long-term strategy, the author will suggest a temporary strategy which
will last just during transitioning period. A temporary strategy for the transitioning period
has to be different from a long-term strategy because the transitioning period will be four
years. This means that the temporary strategy will last for four years in Gaeumjung
Church, and then, the long-term strategy will be operational.

Long-term Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership
Goal
Doubling the whole cells every three years by recruiting new leaders equivalent to
30% of the whole cell leaders of the last year and developing them
82


Principles of cell leadership development
Figure 46 is a diagram of cell leadership training system at Gaeumjung Church.
The diagram is based upon seven principles of leadership development which can
be applied to Gaeumjung Church effectively.
1. Sharing of vision: All church members hold the same vision on cell ministry
and cell leadership development through continuous and effective
communication of vision.
2. Nurturing system: Recruit preliminary cell leaders of good quality through
high quality nurturing system, i.e. discipleship ministry.
3. Systematic leadership training: Train the new leaders for one year through the
leadership training system which consists of formal training and on-the-job
training.

82 If we develop new cell leaders equivalent to 30% of the whole cell leaders of the last year for
three years, we can a growth rate of 219.7% at the end of the third year. Therefore we can double the whole
cells every three years though we could lose about 20% cell leaders for the period.
144



4. Empowering and trust: Empower the new leaders and trust them even though
they can’t obtain good results for a while.
5. Follow-up system: Help the cell leaders with effective follow-up system.
Follow-up system consists of regular leader meeting and follow-up training
program.
6. Leader-developing culture: All church members recognize that they have to
belong to cells, be a cell leader someday, and help others to be effective cell
leaders. Make a culture that competent cell leaders come into being in a good
quality cells.
7. Persistency with modification: Persist in the leader training system with
regular evaluation and proper modification on the basis of the results from the
regular evaluation.





















Figure 46. A diagram of cell leadership training system in Gaeumjung Church


Leader-developlna
CulLure
ConslsLencv wlLh
modlflcaLlon
Lmpowerlna
and 1rusL
lollow-up
SvsLem
Sharlna of
vlslon
nurLurlna
SvsLem
SvsLemaLlc
Leadershlp 1ralnlna
145



Goals of Temporary Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership during the
Transitioning Period
To set goals for the development of cell leadership is very important. Generally,
we can set goals according to SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and
Time-bounded or Timely). We have five goals of in the development of cell leadership
during the four years. The five goals are:
1. To make the all current small group leaders and apprentices experience new
type of small group, i.e. a cell and new type of leadership, i.e.
transformational leadership
2. To train the current 87 small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church to have the
transformational leadership
3. To train the current 87 apprentices to be cell leaders with transformational
leadership
4. To launch 140 cells at the fourth year
83

5. To have 80% of the members attend a small group meeting regularly after
transitioning period

Strategy to Achieve the Goals during Four-year-transitioning Period
A synopsis
The whole structure on the strategy of developing cell leadership can be expressed
as s fourfold training strategy and a fourfold support strategy (Figure 47). The fourfold
training strategy consists of experience-based strategy, observation learning strategy,
formal training strategy, and on-the-job training strategy. The fourfold support strategy is
made up of spiritual support strategy (prayer strategy), encouragement strategy, coaching
strategy, and empowerment strategy.

83 If we succeed in training the current 87 small group leaders and 87 apprentices for four years,
we can get 174 cell leaders at the fourth year. But, we can’t expect the all current small group leaders and
apprentices could be cell leaders with new leadership style. If we lose 20% of them, we could launch about
140 cells after the transitioning period.
146














Figure 47. A synopsis of temporary strategy of cell leadership development in
Gaeumjung Church


Fourfold training strategy
The first factor of the fourfold training strategy is “Experience-based strategy.”
The accomplishment of this strategy will take three years (Figure 48). The members of
Gaeumjung Church have been familiar with the traditional Kuyeok system for scores of
years. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to make them experience cells regardless of
their position in the church. For this goal, we will set a prototype cell
84
which the senior
pastor will lead. During the first year, the senior pastor will lead two prototype cells.
Each of the prototype cells consists of six elders and their wife. During the second year,
the senior pastor will lead another prototype cell which is made up of six fulltime

84 A prototype cell has two purposes. One is for the senior pastor to examine what problems the
new-type cell has by experiencing it before transitioning the church to a cell church. The other is to settle
the problems in advance if necessary.
SplrlLual SupporL
(Þraver)
Lncouraaement
LmpowermenL
Coachlna
Lxperlence CbservaLlon
lormal
1ralnlna
C!1 ueplovmenL
147



ministers and their spouses. During that same year, each of the elders and his wife will
lead a cell which consists of six small group leaders and their spouses. If this happens, all
of the current small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church can experience a new type of
small group, i.e. a cell.














Figure 49
An outline of experience-based strategy





Figure 48. An outline of experience-based strategy

llrsL ?ear
Second
?ear
1hlrd ?ear
A Format Legend

Senior Pastor
Elder group
Minister group
Small group leader
group

Apprentice group
148



During the third year, each of the six fulltime ministers and twelve elders leads
his or her own cell which consists of four to five apprentices and their spouses. In this
case, all of the current apprentices can gain experience about the cell.
The second factor of the fourfold strategy is observational learning. It is deeply
related to the first strategy. Ministers and their spouse, elders and their wives, the current
small group leaders and their spouses, and the apprentices and their spouses will learn
what a cell is, what the cell points to, what the job of a cell leader is, and how the cell
leader does his or her job by observing other cell leaders very carefully for one year.
The third factor is formal training strategy. To complete the formal training
system will take 25 weeks.
85
Figure 49 shows the curriculum of the formal training and
appendix C is the material of the formal training. Basically, those who experienced cells
can be trained through this training system. The current small group leaders experience
the cell during their second year. They can be trained in the formal training system during
third year. The current apprentices experience the cell during the third year. Therefore,
they can be trained later during the fourth year.
The fourth factor of the fourfold training strategy is OJT (on-the-job training).
OJT will take six months. Small group leaders who have experienced the cell and
completed the formal training can lead their own small group with new cell leadership.
Of course, they already have led their own small group. However, at the OJT stage, the
elders and fulltime ministers become their guides. Each of the trainees can be guided and
instructed by the guides for better practicing cell leadership. The guides will have a

85 The formal training is held at the first half year and on-the-job training is held at the latter half
of the year. South Korea has two major holidays. We have to pause the training at the two holidays. One of
the two holidays is at January to February and another is at September to October. Therefore, both of the
trainings will take 25 weeks.
149



weekly meeting with those who he or she had served at a cell for a year. At that meeting,
the trainee can talk about the new type of small group and small group leadership with his
or her guider.

Week Category Subject
1 Introduction Introduction: self-introduction and fellowship with others
2
Vision Sharing
Vision/ Purpose of a cell-based church
Building an authentic community
Importance of leaders
3
4
5
Understanding cells
and
transformational
leadership
Cells which we desire to have
6 Transformational leadership
7 Servant leadership
8 Shepherd leadership
9 Coach leadership
10 Personality and
attitude
Personality of transformational leaders
11 Attitude of transformational leaders
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Practical skills
How to communicate?
How to facilitate sharing?
How to listen to others?
Caring & Spiritual Supporting
How to contact cell members?
How to lead prayer meeting?
How to handle the difficult members?
19
Reproduction
Be a Reproducer
20 How to find and develop an apprentice?
21 How to invite the unchurched to the cell? (Evangelism)
22
Relationship with
God
Importance of God’s grace
23 How to pray?
24 How to meditate the Word of God?
25 Conclusion Evaluation and telling about impressions


Figure 49. The curriculum of the formal training

150



During the second year of the four-year-training period, the senior pastor will
have a regular meeting with the elders and equip them to be competent guider. At the
third year, the senior pastor will do the same thing to the fulltime ministers.


Fourfold support strategy
The first factor in the fourfold support system is the spiritual support strategy. We
cannot overemphasize the importance of prayer. We will give the threefold prayer
support to each of the small group leaders and apprentices during the four-year-training
period (Figure 50).

Figure 50. The threefold prayer support strategy

Small aroup
leader or
apprenLlce
lnLercessorv
Leam
1hree
praver
supporLers
1he aulder
151



Prayer through the intercessory prayer team is the first prayer support. Gaeumjung
Church has a very powerful intercessory team. The members of the team pray 24 hours a
day throughout the year. They can be incalculable spiritual supporters for the small group
leaders and apprentices who are trained.
The second spiritual support strategy is the “1+3” strategy. It is to recruit three
prayer supporters for each of the trainees and make them pray for three minutes a day.
The prayer supporters would not be the families of each of the trainees. His or her small
group members would be the proper prayer supporter.
The third spiritual supporter is the guider. The guider who has led the trainee at a
cell will be the best prayer supporter. As we can see in Figure 47, the spiritual prayer
support must be offered throughout the whole training process.
The fourth factor in the fourfold support system is the encouragement strategy.
The encouragement strategy would be fourfold (Figure 51). The senior pastor, the guider,
and the fellow trainees can encourage each trainee very effectively. Basically, it is very
important to make all the church members encourage the trainee whenever and wherever
by cultivating leadership culture. That means we have to produce an encouragement
culture. With leadership culture, the church member respects the cell leaders and
encourages them. Encouragement is absolutely needed during formal training, OJT, and
when the trainees are deployed to their ministry field as we can see in Figure 47.


152















Figure 51. The fourfold encouragement strategy


The third factor of the support system is the coaching strategy. Guidance through
the guide at the period of OJT is a type of coaching. However, coaching has to be
continuous after deployment of the cell leaders (Figure 47). At first, the fulltime ministers
and elders will be the coaches of the cell leaders. When a cell leader reproduces other cell
leaders and multiplies the cell, he or she will be a coach. Each of the coaches will hold a
weekly meeting with those who he or she leads and serves.
The fourth factor of the fourfold support strategy is empowerment strategy. When
the senior pastor deploys the cell leaders, he has to empower them (Figure 47). Without
empowerment, we cannot expect to produce good results. On the other hand, empowered
leaders can be competent cell leaders.
Small aroup leader
or apprenLlce

1he senlor pasLor
1he aulder 1he fellow Lralnees
LncouraaemenL
LncouraaemenL LncouraaemenL
LncouraaemenL
of all Lhe church
members
LncouraaemenL
CulLure
153



SUMMARY
The author suggests a strategy of small group leadership development in
Gaeumjung Church on the basis of the results from the field analysis, case study, and
literature research. The strategy consists of fourfold training strategy (experience,
observation, formal training, and OJT) and fourfold support strategy (prayer,
encouragement, coaching, and empowerment). Gaeumjung Church has the powers latent
though its small group ministry and strategy of small group leadership development have
several problems. The author believes firmly that he can develop the powers latent within
the church through transitioning the church to a cell-based church and developing
transformational leaders.



154






CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR KOREAN CHURCHES
CONSIDERING TRANSITIONING TO A SMALL GROUP BASED CHURCH

Developing competent small group leaders is the key to a successful small group
ministry. One of the reasons small group ministry is unproductive in Gaeumjung Church
is because the failure of developing efficient small group leaders. In a sense, the failure is
a natural result because the small group ministry in Gaeumjung Church has been tied-up
for a long time. Gaeumjung Church failed in developing competent small group leaders
and this caused a stagnant small group ministry, which eventually became bad influences
on each other. Therefore, there is no way to revitalize the small group ministry in
Gaeumjung Church except by transitioning to a cell-based church. However, we cannot
expect a success in the transition without developing capable small group leaders.
Developing competent small group leaders is the most important point in the transitioning
process.
In these days, there are many churches in South Korea which have tried or are
trying to plan in transitioning to a cell-based church. However, many of those churches
have failed in the transition. Other churches are undergoing many difficulties. The author
believes firmly that one of the important reasons of the problem is the failure in
developing small group leaders. Therefore, the author suggests ten recommendations on
155



the basis of the result from this research for successfully transitioning into a cell-based
church or a productive small group ministry within the Korean churches. The ten
recommendations follow the acrostic “L.E.A.D.E.R.S.H.I.P.”

Lead the Transition Strategically
Yeong-Cheol Park says “transitioning to a cell church supposes a paradigm shift
of the pastor and the church members on the essences of Christian life, ministry and the
church.”
1
Because the transition is so important and requires fundamental change of the
whole church, we have to approach the transition very carefully and strategically.
Migliore, Stevens, and Loudon say, “The word strategic, when used in the context of
planning, provides a perspective to planning which is long run in nature and deals with
achieving specified results.”
2

We have to pay attention to Marshall’s counsel. He says, “The greatest value of
strategic planning is not the document, though it is important, but the process the church
works through to establish the plan. Strategic planning is a journey; the vision God gives
you becomes your church’s future destination.”
3
To plan strategically in a transition
means that we have to try to transition on the basis of a thorough analysis on the current
situation of the church, including personnel, set up a clear goal to achieve a vision, and
have a blueprint to reach the goal. The more strategic we are, the more plentiful results
we can gain.

1 Yeong-Cheol Park, “Everything About a Cell at a Glance,” Ministry and Theology, February
2003, 78.
2 R. Henry Migliore, Robert E. Stevens, and David L. Loudon, Church and Ministry Strategic
Planning (Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc., 1994), 19.
3 Mark Marshall, Mapping Your Church Strategy (Nashville, TN: LifeWay Press, 2003), 5.
156



Expect There Would Be Resistance and Overcome the Resistance
In-Ho Kim claims, “The cell church paradigm requires the churches to make
innovative change in Korean situation though it is very biblical. All kinds of innovation
call for some kinds of price.”
4
Therefore, we have to expect that there would be
resistance to the transition. Any kind of change goes with some difficulties. Kotter says,
“Ask almost anyone over thirty about the difficulty of creating major change in an
organization and the answer will probably include the equivalent of ‘very, very tough.’”
5

To expect that there would be resistance and to be prepared for possible resistance
is a very important way not to suffer from the difficulty. On the contrary, if we are not
prepared to confront resistance, we would be in a quandary. Southerland claims, “The
greatest difficulty with opposition is that it will discourage you and cause you to doubt
your vision. If you are expecting it – you will be prepared.
6


Achieve the Goal in Persistence
Trying to transition in a certain area requires persistence. It is because to achieve
a purpose takes a long time. It is the same with transitioning to a cell-based church and
developing capable small group leaders. We have to be persistent with the whole
transitioning process. Bennis claims, “The leader has a clear idea of what he or she wants
to do – professionally and personally – and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks,

4 In-Ho Kim, “Cell Ministry Does Not Be Formed As It Is.” Ministry and Theology, February
2003, 117.
5 John. P. Kotter, Leading Change (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996), 35.
6 Dan Southerland, Transitioning (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1999), 113.
157



even failures.”
7
William Bridges presents “Be consistent” as the first rule of rules to
reinforce the new beginning.
8

As we can see in Chapter two of this thesis, one of the most important problems
encountered in Gaeumjung Church’s current strategy of the development in small group
leadership is that it has not been persistent. The ministers of Gaeumjung Church have
tried various methods to develop small group leaders up to now. However, all of those
methods did not continue long in existence. It was because they were not persistent with
the methods.
We have to have a clear vision or goal and also a clear-cut blueprint in getting the
vision or goal. Then, we have to be persistent with the blueprint. To be persistent does
not mean we do not have any changes in our blueprint. On the contrary, the blueprint has
to be continuously changed. That we are persistent means that we have to modify the
blueprint on the basis of results from regular and reasonable evaluation within the limit of
holding fast to the original vision or goal.

Develop Small Group Leaders Systematically
What Conger and Fulmer say about the relationship between succession planning
and leadership development is noteworthy. They insist, “Succession planning and
leadership development are natural allies because they share a vital and fundamental goal:
getting the right skills in the right place.”
9
Comiskey also claims that “leadership

7 Warren G. Bennis, On Becoming A Leader (New York, NY: Basic Books, 2003), 31.
8 William Bridges, Managing Transitions (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1991), 61.
9 Jay A. Conger, and Robert M. Fulmer, “Developing Your Leadership Pipeline.” Harvard
Business Review, vol. 81.12 (December 2003), 79.
158



development and deployment is first and foremost a divine task.”
10
It is illogical that we
do not develop capable small group leaders though we want to transition a church into a
cell-based church.
We have to develop current and preliminary small group leaders “systematically.”
That means we have to intentionally develop small group leaders according to clear
principles and a thorough plan. We can use various methods including formal instruction
and informal instruction. Figure 52 shows the various ways to develop leaders which
Malphurs and Mancini introduce.
11


Process Oriented Event Oriented
Classroom
Small Group
Turbo Group
Apprenticing
One-on-One
Coaching
Consulting
Self-led
Huddle
Seminar
Conference
Getaway
Retreat
Workshop
Rally
Benchmarking

Figure 52. Various ways to develop small group leaders


Empower and Encourage the Small Group Leaders
It is absolutely necessary to empower small group leaders for successful transition
to a cell-based church. The reason why we have to empower small group leaders is
because “leadership is largely about authority – acquiring it, using it, and investing it in

10 Joel Comiskey, Home Cell Group Explosion (Houston, TX: Touch Publications, 1988), 60.
11 Aubrey Malphurs and Will Mancini, Building Leaders (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2004),
160.
159



others.”
12
Small group leaders cannot fulfill their functions if the senior pastor does not
empower them in a church. Carl George insists “we must empower a new class of
Christian worker (which is really a return to the New Testament model). This person is
called a lay minister, volunteer leader, Sunday school class care coordinator, small group
leader, and the like.”
13
James O’Toole says, “Inclusive leaders enable others to lead by
sharing information, by fostering a sense of community, and by creating a consistent
system of rewards, structure, process, and communication.”
14
This is exactly what it
means to have empowerment.
We not only have to empower the small group leaders, but also have to encourage
them. Earley claims, “We all need someone who believes in us. Everyone needs
encouragement.”
15
Coaching is a very good way to encourage small group leaders
regularly and effectively. Gary Collins says, “Coaching is the key element in producing
good leaders. To be a good leader you must be a good coach. And to be a good coach you
must recognize that coaching is a significant form of leadership.”
16







12 Bob Briner, and Ray Pritchard, Leadership Lessons of Jesus (New York, NY: Random House,
1998), 76.
13 Carl F. George, Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership (Mansfield, PA: Kingdom
Publishing, 1997), 190.
14 James O’Toole, Leading Change (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995), 70.
15 Dave Earley, Turning Members Into Leaders (Houston, TX: Cell Group Resources, 2001), 48.
16 Gray R. Collins, Christian Coaching (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001), 30.
160



Recognize the Importance of a Team
We have to learn to work as a team. A group can do more than what an individual
does. Maxwell says, “The belief that one person can do something great is a myth.”
17

Generally, most Korean pastors are not familiar with the notion of a team because Korea
is a society that has a vertical structure. Nevertheless, we have to work as a team to be
successful in transitioning though we recognize the senior pastor as the point leader.
Malphurs claims, “Excellent leaders understand that they can accomplish far more
through the wisdom of a gifted and committed strategic team of staff and lay leaders.”
18

Finzel argues, “There is no substitute for having all the right people on your ministry
team. They will make or break your effectiveness as a leader.”
19

McBride suggests the number of persons to build up a team according to church
size (Figure 53).
20
Figure 53 would be a great help to those who want to build up a team
for transitioning to a cell-based church.






17 John C. Maxwell, The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.,
2001), 3.
18 Aubrey Malphurs, Advanced Strategic Planning 2nd Ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books,
2005), 28.
19 Hans Finzel, Empowered Leaders (Nashville, TN: W Publishing Group, 1998), 121.
20 Neal F. McBride, How to Build a Small Group Ministry (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress,
1995), 13.
161



Church size
(Average Adult Participants)
Team size
(Number of members)
50 to 150
151 to500
501 to 1000
1001 to 1500
1501 to 2000
2,000 or more
3
3 to 5
5 to 7
7 to 9
9 to 11
11 to 13

Figure 53. Number of persons of a team according to church size


Share the Vision Effectively
It is not too much to say that setting a clear vision is the most important factor in
the whole transitioning process. Bennis and Goldsmith claims, “Although leaders come
in every size, shape, and disposition, there is at least one ingredient that every leader
shares: passion for a guiding purpose, dedication to an overarching vision.”
21
People
follow a leader who has a clear vision. Lynne and Bill Hybels say, “God has created
human beings to respond to a worthy vision when it’s passionately presented by a gifted
leader.”
22
There is nobody who has fear or hesitation to a fundamental change like
transitioning to a cell-based church. Therefore, the leader of a church has to show the
church members a clear destination and the way to the destination with a clear-cut vision.
To share the vision through effective communication is as important as having a
vision. It is very important for the senior pastor to share the vision with the whole church

21 Warren Bennis, and Joan Goldsmith, Learning to Lead 3rd Ed. (New York, NY: Basic Books,
2003), 119.
22 Lynne and Bill Hybels, Discovering Church (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House,
1995), 151.
162



by spreading it effectively. William Bridges explains the relationship between a vision
(or a purpose) and communication very well. He says:
Purposes are critical to beginnings, but they are rather abstract. They are ideas,
and most people are not ready to throw themselves into a difficult and risky
undertaking simply on the basis of an idea. They need something they can see, at
least in their imaginations. They need a picture of how the outcome will look, and
they need to be able to imagine how it will feel to be a participant in it.
23


How can we communicate a vision? Bill Hybels suggests three ways to
communicate a vision like:
1. Communicate vision by embodying it.
2. Communicate vision one-on-one.
3. Communicate vision by going public.
24


Have a Good Relation with the Church Members, Especially, the Lay Leaders
Walter Wright claims that “leadership is a relationship – a relationship in which
one person seeks to influence the thoughts, behaviors, beliefs or values of another
person.”
25
Earley says, “The length and breadth of our influence on others is related to
the depth of our relationships to with them.”
26
Therefore, “leaders fail when they have an
inappropriate attitude and philosophy about the relationship between themselves and their
followers.”
27
Leaders who lead the transitioning process have to be in good relationship
with all the church members.
Trust is the kernel of relationship between the leaders and all the members in a
church. MacDonald says that trust is “almost indescribable quality of relationship in

23 Bridges, 55.
24 Bill Hybels, Courageous Leadership (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002), 38-42.
25 Walter C. Wright, Relational Leadership (Waynesboro, GA: Paternoster Publishing, 2004), 2.
26 Earley, Turning Members Into Leaders, 46.
27 O’Toole, 37.
163



which a leader builds and then enjoys the confidence of the people.”
28
People form deep
relationships with those who they can trust. If church members can trust their leaders on
the basis of relationship, they can follow the leaders even though they may have a certain
kind of fear and hesitation in the fundamental change.
It is absolutely necessary for church leaders to form good relationships with all
the church members, especially, the lay leaders. Do not try to transition until getting all
the church members to agree from the bottom of the heart. The only way of getting their
heart is forming good relationship with them. Without good relationships, we cannot
expect that they would follow us from their heart.

Illuminated by the Holy Spirit
How important is it to be illuminated and guided by the Holy Spirit? The Holy
Spirit is our guider and leader at every moment of our lives. The leaders who lead the
transitioning process must seek the power and guidance of the Holy Spirit continuously
in order to succeed.
At first, the leaders must be in good relationship with the Holy Spirit. Galloway
says, “When it comes to tapping into the power of God there are three key words that
have opened the door for me personally into living in the power of the Spirit. These
words are filled, fellowship, and flow.”
29


28 Gordon MacDonald, “The Root of Leadership.” Leadership, 24.1 (Winter 2003), 57.
29 Dale E. Galloway, 2020 Vision (Portland, OR: Scott Publishing Company, 1986), 48.
164



And then, the leaders must “make prayer a top priority.”
30
Yonggi Cho says,
“Prayer is the key to the revival of church and home cell groups.”
31
The more we pray,
the more abundant results we can get.

Produce Leadership Culture
To produce leadership culture is an effective way to raise the productivity in the
development of small group leadership. Many leadership gurus urge us to produce fertile
leadership culture. Kotter suggests that “anchoring new approaches in the culture” as the
final stage in his eight-stage process of change.
32
Comiskey also says that tight-knit
culture is one of the core values of Groups of 12.
33

With productive leadership culture, we can get incalculable results from our small
group ministry and development in leadership. Without rich leadership culture, all our
efforts to build up a small group ministry and develop small group leaders will end in
failure. Therefore, the leaders have to produce fertile leadership culture with an eye of the
future.

30 Ibid., 60.
31 Paul Yonggi Cho, 45 Pastoring Years of Hope (Seoul, Korea: Institute for Church Growth,
2006), 174.
32 Kotter, 145-158.
33 Joel Comiskey, Groups of 12 (Houston, TX: Touch Publications, 1999), 35-36.
165



APPENDIX A
QUESTIONAIRE ON THE SMALL GROUP LEADERS OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH

I. Personal Affairs

1. How long have you been a member of Gaeumjung Church?
A. Under 3 years
B. 3-6 years
C. 7-10 years
D. Over 10 years

2. How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?
A. Under 1 year
B. 1-3 years
C. 4-5 years
D. 6-10 years
E. Over 10 years

II. Small Group Leadership Development

3. Have you served as a small group leader in other church before being a small group
leader in Gaeumjung Church?
A. Yes
B. No
(If yes, go to question 5 via question 4. If no, go to question 5 directly.)

4. What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in
the church? Put marks on every point applicable to you.
A. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or a member.
B. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which consisted of
at least 3 classes.
C. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one or two
classes.
D. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group
ministry to be a small group leader.
E. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting.
F. Others: (write down any training or education which you received.)



5. What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in
Gaeumjung Church? Put marks on every point applicable to you.
A. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or a member.
B. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which consisted of
at least 3 classes.
166



C. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one or two
classes.
D. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group
ministry to be a small group leader.
E. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting.
F. Others: (write down any training or education which you received.)
______________________________________________

6. From whom (of from what) did you learn the most about jobs and attitudes of a
small group leader?
A. A systematic small group leadership development program
B. A guiding principle of the senior pastor
C. A minister in charge of small group ministry
D. The small group leader when I was a small group member or an apprentice
E. Fellow small group leaders
F. I really have not learned anything about jobs and attitudes of small group
leaders
G. Others: ______________________________________________

7. Do you think the development of small group leadership in Gaeumjung Church is
systematic? Give grade by circling number with 1 being the lowest and 10 as the
highest.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

8. (About the previous question) Why do you think so? Give just one reason.
__________________________________________________________

III. Follow-up training

9. What kinds of supports does Gaeumjung Church give you for doing job of a small
group leader? Put marks on every point applicable to you.
A. Systematic follow-up training
B. Teaching you what you teach at a small group meeting
C. Connection with a mentor or coach
D. Assistance of prayer
E. Financial support
F. Others: ______________________________________________

10. After becoming a small group leader, have you ever taken any training that helped
you to be a more effective small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?
A. Yes
B. No
(If yes, go to question 11. If no, go to question 12 directly.)

11. If yes, what kinds of training did you receive? Put marks on every point
applicable to you.
167



A Spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat
B. How to lead small group meetings effectively
C. How to make apprentice
D. How to build relationships with small group members
E. How to resolve conflicts in the small group
F. What do I teach in a small group meeting
G. Others: ______________________________________________

12. Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group leader first of all?
A. The senior pastor
B. A minister in charge of leading you.
C. People appointed your mentor or coach by the church
D. Predecessor
E. Fellow small group leader
F. No one
G. Others: ______________________________________________

13. What do you want Gaeumjung Church to give you as an effective small group
leader? Choose two.
A. Systematic follow-up training
B Spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat
C. Practical techniques for leading a small group
D. Connection with a mentor or coach
E. Assistance of prayer
F. Financial support
G. Others: ______________________________________________

IV. Small group or small group meeting

14. How many adults did the church assign as your small group members at the
beginning of this year?

15. How many people attend your small group meeting on annual average?

16. How many members do you have that:
A. Attend over 90% of the whole meetings: _________
B. Attend 70-89% of the whole meetings: _________
C. Attend 50-69% of the whole meetings: _________
D. Attend less than 50% of the whole meetings: _________
E. Never attend: _________

17. Why do the members attend small group meetings?
A. They are impressed by the small group meeting.
B. The meetings are official gatherings of the church.
C. Because of the relationship with the leader of other members
168



D. The leader or members encourage them through visiting or calling if they
don’t attend.
E. Others: ______________________________________________

18. Why the members do not attend small group meetings?
A. They are not impressed.
B. They are busy.
C. Because of resistance of family
D. They don’t feel they belong to the small group.
E. Others: ______________________________________________

19. Do you think you need more training to lead the small group meetings more
effectively?
A. Yes
B. No
(If yes, go to question 20. If no, do not answer question 20.)

20. In what five areas do you need more training? Prioritize them by placing numbers
one through five in the blanks next to the area. One is most important and five is
the least important.
____ A. Prayer
____ B. Teaching ability
____ C. Counseling
____ D. Visiting and calling
____ E. Building relationships
____ F. Leading small group meetings
____ G. Administration
____ H. Loving and serving the members
____ I. Personality
____ J. Building the relationship with God
____ K. Other _______________________
169


APPENDIX B
INTERVIEW WITH THE SENIOR PASTORS OF THE CHURCHES
WITH OUTSTANDING SMALL GROUP MINISTRY

I. A Synopsis on small group ministry

1. How many adult members does your church have?

2. How many small groups does your church have?

3. What percentage of church members belong to small groups?

4. What percentage of church members regularly attend small group meetings?

5. What kind of small groups do you have? Do you know the difference in these types
of small groups?
A. Cell
B. House church
C. G-12 church
D. Of-small group church
E. Traditional Kuyeok system
F. Others:

6. If you had other small group system except Kuyeok, why have you transitioned
into the system?

7. When did you transition your church into the small group system?

II. Small Group Leadership Development

8. What is the strategy for small group leadership development which you regard the
most important?

9. What do you think makes it the most effective?

10. Which program or strategy are you going to change in your church for small
group leadership development in the near future?

11. Why are you going to change the program or strategy?

12. How do you help the small group leaders of your church to make them do their
ministry more effectively?

13. What are the three things that are absolutely necessary to small group leaders?




170
APPENDIX C
Gaeum[ung Church's Ce|| Leadersh|p 1ra|n|ng Manua|




8e a 1ransformaLlonal Leader






















NAME:______________________________




GAEUMJUNG CHURCH
12-3 Caeumdona, Chanawon,
SouLh korea 670-800
1el. 033-283-1181~3
Crow Lo a LransformaLlonal
leader who Cod ls seeklna
for!
Make vour cell a
LransformaLlonal
facLorv!



171
CU1LINL CI 1kAINING CCUk5L
 Course: Cell Leadership Training
 Title: Be a Transformational Leader
 When: 7:30pm ~ 10:00pm on every Monday (25 Weeks)
 Where: Conference Room (of Gaeumjung Church)
 Purposes
1. To understand and to be able explain the “cell-based church” which Gaeumjung
Church is going to be
2. To understand and to be able to explain the cell and its features in Gaeumjung
Church
3. To be equipped with transformational leadership
4. To acquire practical skills to lead a cell
5. To start my own cell after complete the courses of Cell Leadership Training and
On-the-job Training

 Education Methods
1. Lecture
2. Group discussion
3. Presentation
4. Reading several required books and writing down impressions of the books
5. Memorizing a Bible passage per week
6. Test

 Rules for trainees
1. You have to attend all lectures sincerely.
2. You have to join the group discussion.
3. You don’t have to be absent from more than three lectures. You have to make up
for missing lectures when you are absent from more than four lectures.
4. You have to be at the conference room at the appointed time.
5. You have to do the task assigned to you every week.
6. You have to make a good record on the final test (more than 70%)
7. You have to pray throughout the training period
8. You have to recruit at least three prayer supporter for the training

 Time Schedule
1. 7:30~7:40 Sing along
2. 7:40~7:50 Calling the roll and check the assignment
3. 7:50~8:00 Ice breaking
4. 8:00~9:00 Lecture (including group discussion)
5. 9:00~9:15 Break
6. 9:15~10:10 Lecture (including group discussion)
7. 10:10~10:25 Sharing for practice
8. Closing prayer



172
CUkkICULUM CI 1nL CCUk5L

Week Category Subject Learning objective
1 Introduction Introduction
Make him/herself effectively
to fellow trainees and know
them
2
Vision Sharing
Vision/ Purpose of a cell-
based church
To understand and explain the
cell-based church
3
Building an authentic
community
To understand and explain
why and how we build an
authentic community
4 Importance of leaders
To understand the importance
of leaders and believe that we
are called to be the leaders
5
Understanding
cells and
transformational
leadership
Cells which we desire to
have
To understand and explain the
cell and its features
6 Transformational leadership
To understand and explain the
transformational leadership
and try to have it
7 Servant leadership
To understand and explain the
servant leadership and try to
have it
8 Shepherd leadership
To understand and explain the
shepherd leadership and try to
have it
9 Coach leadership
To understand and explain the
coach leadership and try to
have it
10
Personality and
attitude
Personality of
transformational leaders
To be able to explain the
personality of
transformational leadership
11
Attitude of transformational
leaders
To be able to explain the
personality of
transformational leadership





173
Week Category Subject Learning objective
12
Practical skills
How to communicate?
To acquire effective
communication skills to raise
the cell’s vitality
13
How to facilitate sharing?
To acquire the skill to
facilitate the cell members to
share their life
14
How to listen to others? To acquire listening skills
15
Caring & Spiritual
Supporting
To acquire the skills to care
and support spiritually and
emotionally
16
How to contact cell
members?
To acquire the skills to
contact cell members
regularly and irregularly
17
How to lead prayer
meeting?
To acquire the skills to lead
prayer meeting
18
How to handle the difficult
members?
To acquire the skills to handle
the difficult members in the
cell
19
Reproduction
Be a Reproducer
To recognize and explain that
the leader has to be a
reproducer and the cell has to
be reproduced within three
years
20
How to find and develop an
apprentice?
To understand and explain
how to find and develop an
apprentice
21
How to invite the
unchurched to the cell?
(Evangelism)
To understand and explain the
importance and ways to invite
the unchurched to the cell
22
Relationship
with God
Importance of God’s grace
To understand the importance
of God’s grace for the cell and
cell leadership
23
How to pray?
To deepen and enlarge the
inner prayer world of the cell
leader
24
How to meditate the Word
of God?
To understand and practice
the meditating the Word of
God on the daily basis
25
Conclusion
Evaluation and telling about
impressions
Test, evaluation, and telling
each one’s impressions



174
CCN1LN15

Outline of training course ............................................................................................. 171

Curriculum of the course .............................................................................................. 172

Contents ....................................................................................................................... 174

Introduction ................................................................................................................... 176
1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………….. 177

Vision Sharing .............................................................................................................. 178
2. Vision/ Purpose of a cell-based church …………………………………......... 179
3. Building an authentic community ……………………………………………. 180
4. Importance of leaders …………………………………...…………………. …. 181

Understanding cells and transformational leadership .................................................... 182
5. Cells which we desire to have …………………………………........................ 183
6. Transformational leadership ………………………………….......................... 184
7. Servant leadership …………………………………………………………….. 185
8. Shepherd leadership …………………………………...……………………… 186
9. Coach leadership ……………………………………………………………… 187

Personality and attitude ................................................................................................. 188
10. Personality of transformational leaders …………………………………........ 189
11. Attitude of transformational leaders …………………………………............. 190

Practical skills ............................................................................................................... 191
12. How to communicate? ………………………………….................................. 192
13. How to facilitate sharing? …………………………………............................. 193
14. How to listen to others? …………………………………................................ 194
15. Caring & Spiritual Supporting …………………………………...................... 195
16. How to contact cell members? …………………………………...................... 196
17. How to lead prayer meeting? …………………………………........................ 197
18. How to handle the difficult members? ………………………………….......... 198

Reproduction ................................................................................................................. 199
19. Be a Reproducer ………………………………………………………………. 200
20. How to find and develop an apprentice? ……………………………………… 201
21. How to invite the unchurched to the cell? ……………………………………. 202



175
Relationship with God .................................................................................................. 203
22. Importance of God’s grace …………………………………........................... 204
23. How to pray? …………………………………………………………………. 205
24. How to meditate the Word of God? ………………………………….............. 206

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 207
25. Evaluation and telling about impressions …………………………………….. 208




176

















177
IN1kCDUC1ICN
5e|f-|ntroduct|on and fe||owsh|p w|th others


I. A1 1nL WnCLL MLL1ING
Introduce yourself for a minute to carving a seal of your image to others effectively.
 Mv lnLroducLlon:

 CLhers
name Maln leaLure name Maln leaLure





II. A1 A GkCUÞ MLL1ING
Form a friendship with your fellow trainees through an Ice-breaking question given by
the trainer.





178

















179
VI5ICN/ ÞUkÞC5L CI A CLLL-8A5LD
CnUkCn

I. UN5nIkkA8LL CnALLLNGL CN 8LING A CLLL CnUkCn
1here ls a more effecLlve paLLern ln our world Lodav Lhan planLlna LradlLlonal churches.
1he Polv SplrlL ls Lhe auLhor of Lhls paLLern, and lL has sprouLed up llke mushrooms all
over Lhe alobe. 1he more effecLlve paLLern ls a cell church.
- 8alph W. nelahbour !r. wlLh Lorna !enklns, wbete uo we Co ltom nete

II. 1nL LIMI1A1IN5 CI kU¥LCk IN GALUMIUNG CnUkCn
1. Stagnant Small Group Ministry
2. Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members
3. Geographically Organized Small Groups
4. Women-centered small group ministry
5. Teaching-centered small group meetings
We can'L accompllsh Cod's vlslon Lhrouah our kuveok svsLem!

III. CLLL-8A5LD CnUkCn: 1nL WA¥ WL nAVL 1C nLAD ICk
A cell-based church prefers advantages of an of-small group church and a cell church
simultaneously.

IV. 1nkCUGn 8LING A CLLL-8A5LD CnUkCn
1. We can fulfill the Great
Commission (Matt. 28:19-20)
2. We can be equipped for the
work of service, to the
building up of the body of
Christ (Eph. 4:11-12).
3. We can hand over the
precious Christian heritage to
others (2 Tim. 2:2).
4. We can build an authentic
community.
5. We can make a cell as a
leader-factory.


Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
ÞasLor or
predecessor
5ma|| group |eader
Small aroup members
who wlll be leaders
CLhers



180
8UILDING AN AU1nLN1IC CCMMUNI1¥

I. AU1nLN1IC CCMMUNI1¥ - GCD'5 VI5ICN
1. God Himself is the Triune God.
2. God created human beings as relational beings.
Lven Lhouah Lhls man was ln a sLaLe of slnless perfecLlon, he was alone. And lL was noL
aood. - !ohn CrLbera, £vetvboJv´s Notmol 1lll )oo Cet to koow 1bem

Accordlna Lo Lhe ScrlpLures, lL ls splrlLuallv lmposslble Lo have fellowshlp wlLh Cod and,
aL Lhe same Llme, be ouL of fellowshlp wlLh Cod's people (1 !ohn 1:7).
- Penrv & Melvln 8lackabv, £xpetleocloo CoJ 1ooetbet
3. Church is essentially a community.

II. CnUkCn - 1nL 5AIL51 ÞLACL CN 1nL LAk1n
1he church communlLv ls supposed Lo provlde more Lhan [usL fellowshlp, as lmporLanL
as LhaL ls. 1he church fulfllls oLher lmporLanL funcLlons as well: As a communlLv we
aaLher for communlon and lnLercessorv praver and Lo Lake advanLaae of opporLunlLles
for confesslon and foralveness. We supporL one anoLher ln Lhe falLh, provldlna
encouraaemenL Lhrouah Lhe bearlna of one anoLher's burdens, pracLlclna muLual
splrlLual accounLablllLv, and sharlna ln Lhe [ovs and hardshlps of Lhe splrlLual llfe. lndeed,
one of Lhe mosL compelllna reasons for Lhe assembllna of Lhe salnLs ls Lo reap Lhe
promlse of !esus LhaL when Lwo or more are aaLhered ln Pls name Pe wlll be presenL
amona Lhem.
- Ceorae 8arna, 1be 5ecooJ comloo of tbe cbotcb

III. CLLL - 1nL 8L51 ÞLACL 1C 8UILD AN AU1nLN1IC CCMMUNI1¥
What is an authentic community? It is a place of:
1. Presence of God
2. Trust
3. Loyalty and commitment to each other
4. Sharing together
5. Forgiveness, caring, and spiritual support
6. Intercessory prayer
7. Practice the Christian life together.
8. Spiritual growth (to a true disciple)

Characteristics of fellowship in a cell (bv 8lll Pull, Iesos cbtlst ulsclplemoket)
1. Effective fellowship is characterized by total acceptance.
2. Effective fellowship is based on a person’s fellowship with God.
3. Effective fellowship includes the basic dynamics of spiritual life.
4. Effective fellowship meets not only general needs also specific needs.



181
IMÞCk1ANCL CI LLADLk5

I. GCD'5 CALLING
1. God called all of you as leaders.
Cne ls Loo small a number Lo achleve areaLness.
- !ohn C. Maxwell, 1be 17 loJlspotoble lows of 1eomwotk
2. Every Christian is a leader.
3. God wants all of us to strive for doing God’s great work.
4. The relationship between the senior pastor and the cell leaders
The senior pastor is the one who helps the cell leaders be successful.
The cell leaders are collaborators of the senior pastor.
Therefore, the senior pastor can’t lead the small group ministry without cell
leaders’ help.
II. 8I8LICAL LkAMÞLL CN WCkkING 1CGL1nLk (8UILDING LLADLk5)
1. Jethro’s recommendation to build leaders (Ex. 18)
2. Jesus’ 12 disciples (Lk. 6:12-16)
3. Paul’s evangelism team

III. 1nL CLLL AND 1nL LLADLk
1. A cell needs a leader.
2. A cell is a place where leaders grow into a leader.

IV. WnC I5 A CLLL LLADLk
1. A cell leader is not a Bible teacher.
2. A cell leader is not satisfied his or her position. He/she wants to have an influence
on the followers.
3. A cell leader is like a pastor to the cell.
4. A cell leader is a reproducer of other cell leaders.

Cell leaders and lnLerns are noL 8lble Leachers. 1helr [ob descrlpLlon ls pasLoral. lnsLead
of Leachlna a 8lble lesson, cell leaders aulde Lhe communlcaLlon process, prav for Lhe
aroup, vlslL cell members, and reach losL people for ChrlsL.
- !oel Comlskev, nome cell Ctoop £xplosloo

V. IMÞCk1ANCL CI LLADLk5
LvervLhlna resLs on Lhe shoulders of leaders ln a cell-based church!




182















CLLL5 WnICn WL DL5IkL 1C nAVL

I. A CLLL IN GALUMIUNG CnUkCn
A discipling small community in which its members share their life on the basis of the
Scriptures, get recovered, evangelize, and
people and holds a regular weekly meeting at the house of each member.




II. ILA1UkL5 CI 1nL CLLL
1. A small community
2. Discipling community
3. Sharing life on the basis of the Scriptures
4. Community in which getting recovered
5. Evangelizing community
6. Leaders growing community
7. Reproducing community

Leadershlp
uevelopmenL
8eproducLlon
8lrLh of
new Croup

CLLL5 WnICn WL DL5IkL 1C nAVL
A CLLL IN GALUMIUNG CnUkCn
A discipling small community in which its members share their life on the basis of the
Scriptures, get recovered, evangelize, and grow into a cell leader. It consists of 3
people and holds a regular weekly meeting at the house of each member.
II. ILA1UkL5 CI 1nL CLLL
A small community
Discipling community
Sharing life on the basis of the Scriptures
Community in which getting recovered
Evangelizing community
Leaders growing community
community

8ulldlna
AuLhenLlc
8elaLlonshlp
Sharlna llves
based on
8lble
8ecoverv
CrowLh
Lhrouah
ouLreach
Leadershlp
uevelopmenL
8eproducLlon
Maklna
ulsclples
183
CLLL5 WnICn WL DL5IkL 1C nAVL
A discipling small community in which its members share their life on the basis of the
into a cell leader. It consists of 3-12
people and holds a regular weekly meeting at the house of each member.




184
1kAN5ICkMA1ICNAL LLADLk5nIÞ

I. LLADLk5nIÞ 51¥LL CI A CLLL IN GALUMIUNG CnUkCn
What is transformational leadership?
Cod ls calllna people Lo sLep lnLo a new role: LransformaLlonal leadershlp. Pls call aoes
bevond Lhe polnL-of-mlnd, splrlLual, or oraanlzaLlonal renewal. Pls call ls for a LoLal
revlLallzaLlon and LransformaLlon of Lhlnklna and acLlna, for men and women Lo be
leaders of chanae ln hls klnadom.
- Þhlllp v. Lewls, 1toosfotmotloool leoJetsblp

II. LCGICAL 5LCULNCL
1. Be transformed.
2. And then, transform the followers.

III. 51kUC1UkL CI 1kAN5ICkMA1ICNAL LLADLk5nIÞ IN GALUMIUNG
CnUkCn























1ransformaLlonal
Leadershlp
Shepherd
Leadershlp
ServanL
Leadershlp
Coach
Leadershlp
ÞrospecLlve
Cell Members
Cell
Members
ApprenLlce &
oLher Leaders



185
5LkVAN1 LLADLk5nIÞ

I. CkIGIN CI 5LkVAN1 LLADLk5nIÞ
1. Robert Greenleaf: from Hermann Hesse’s short novel Journey to the East
2. Biblical idea – servant leadership is a precise biblical concept on leadership.

A blbllcal lmaae LhaL ls Lhe mosL common and domlnanL for leaders ls LhaL of a
servanL. . . . ChrlsLlan leaders are servanLs wlLh credlblllLv and capablllLles, who are able
Lo lnfluence people ln a parLlcular conLexL Lo pursue Lhelr Cod-alven dlrecLlon.
- Aubrev Malphurs, 8eloo leoJets

II. GkLA1 LkAMÞLL CI 5LkVAN1 LLADLk5nIÞ - IL5U5 CnkI51
1. Biblical characters which have servant leadership (Aubrey Malphurs, Being
Leaders): Abraham (Gen. 26:24), Joseph (Gen. 39:17-19; 41:12), Moses (Ex. 4:10;
Deut. 34:5), Joshua (Josh. 24:29), Nehemiah (Neh. 1:6, 11; 2:5), David (1 Sam.
17:32, 34, 36; 2 Sam. 7:5), Daniel (Dan. 1:12), Paul (Rom. 1:1; 1 Cor. 9:19; Gal.
1:10; Phil. 1:1), Peter (2 Pet. 1:1)
2. The greatest example – Jesus Christ
1he areaLesL example of a servanL-leader ls Lhe Savlor.
- Aubrev Malphurs, ÞlanLlna Crowlna Churches for Lhe 21sL CenLurv

ºlor even Lhe Son of Man dld noL come Lo be served, buL Lo serve, and Lo alve Pls llfe a
ransom for manv." (Mark 10:43)
ºWhoever wlshes Lo become areaL amona vou shall be vour servanL, and whoever
wlshes Lo be flrsL amona vou shall be vour slave." (MaLL. 20:26-27)
ºlf l Lhen, Lhe Lord and Lhe 1eacher, washed vour feeL, vou also ouahL Lo wash one
anoLher's feeL. lor l aave vou an example LhaL vou also should do as l dld Lo vou." (!ohn
13:14-13)
lor followers of !esus, servanL leadershlp ls noL an opLlon, lL ls a mandaLe.
- ken 8lanchard and Þhll Podaes, leoJ llke Iesos
III. A5 A 5LkVAN1 LLADLk
1. Have the Heart of a Servant Leader.
2. Have the Head of a Servant Leader.
3. Have the Hands of a Servant Leader.
4. Have the Habits of a Servant Leader. (ken 8lanchard and Þhll Podaes, leoJ llke Iesos)

IV. 5LkVAN1 LLADLk5nIÞ IN A CLLL
See the figure of page 12.



186
5nLÞnLkD LLADLk5nIÞ

I. 5nLÞnLkD LLADLk5nIÞ
Another important leadership aspect necessary in a cell is shepherd leadership.
AnoLher ofLen used lmaae for a leader ls a shepherd. . . . ScrlpLure uses Lhe
shepherd meLaphor prlmarllv of a leader - shepherds were leaders.
- Aubrev Malphurs, 8eloo leoJets

Cf all Lhe LlLles whlch have been mlnLed for Lhe envovs of Lhe Son of Cod, LhaL of
'shepherd' ls Lhe mosL popular, Lhe mosL beauLlful, and Lhe mosL ample."
- Charles Ldward !efferson, 1be Mlolstet os 5bepbetJ

II. 1nL MC51 8LAU1IIUL IMAGL CI 5nLÞnLkD
º1he Lord ls mv shepherd, l shall noL wanL." (Þs. 23:1)
Jesus who is the good shepherd came that they may have life, and have it
abundantly. (John 10:10)

III. WnC I5 A 5nLÞnLkD
The six functions of a shepherd (Charles Ldward !efferson, 1be Mlolstet os 5bepbetJ):
1. The Eastern shepherd was, first of all, a watchman.
2. A shepherd in the East was also a guard.
3. The shepherd is a guide.
4. A shepherd in the East was a physician to the sheep.
5. The shepherd is a savior. He saves sheep that are lost. A critical part of the
shepherd’s task is rescue work . . . . All rescue work is strictly pastoral work.
6. That the feeding of the sheep is an essential duty of the shepherd calling is known
even to those who are least familiar with shepherds and their work.

IV. 5nLÞnLkD LLADLk5nIÞ IN A CLLL
With shepherd leadership a cell leader:
1. Can reach his or her cell members, apprentice, and other leaders who have
become through the leader’s ministry.
2. Cannot reach prospective members because they are not the leader’s sheep yet.





187
CCACn LLADLk5nIÞ

I. A ÞkLMI5L CI CCACn LLADLk5nIÞ
1. A cell leader has to reproduce other leaders.
CreaL leaders produce oLher leaders. . . . Leaders creaLe and lnsplre new leaders bv
lnsLllllna falLh ln Lhelr leadershlp ablllLles and helplna Lhem develop and hone leadershlp
skllls Lhev don'L know Lhev possess.
- !ohn Maxwell, ueveloploo tbe leoJet AtoooJ )oo
2. When a small group leader reproduces other leaders, the leader comes to be their
coach.
3. The leader has to be the coach to the apprentice.

II. WnA1 I5 CCACnING?
1. The art of guiding a person or group
AL lLs core, coachlna ls Lhe arL and pracLlce of auldlna a person or aroup from where
Lhev are Loward Lhe areaLer compeLence and fulflllmenL LhaL Lhev deslre.
- Crav 8. Colllns, cbtlstloo coocbloo
2. The process of equipping people
Coachlna ls Lhe process of equlpplna people wlLh Lhe Lools, knowledae, and
opporLunlLles Lhev need Lo develop Lhemselves and become more effecLlve."
- uavld 8. ÞeLerson, leoJet os coocb

III. nCW 1C CCACn? - kL¥ ÞkAC1ICL5 ICk CCACnL5
(8lll uonahue and Crea 8owman, coocbloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoop leoJets)










IV. CCACn LLADLk5nIÞ IN A CLLL
See the figure of page 12.
Mode||ng: Þursue Chr|st-||keness
Crow ln Lhe llfe of full devoLlon vou're lnvlLlna oLhers Lo lead.
Gu|d|ng: 5hepherd Intent|ona||y
Pelp vour leaders ldenLlfv and Lake Lhelr nexL sLep ln splrlLual arowLh.
Lnv|s|on|ng: Dream together
lmaalne wlLh vour leaders how Lhelr aroup could lmpacL aroup members,
Lhe church, and Lhe communlLv.
Lqu|pp|ng: Deve|op sk|||s
Þrovlde Lralnlna ln kev skllls so LhaL leaders become more effecLlve ln
meeLlna Lhe real needs of aroup members.



188






























1kAN5ICkMA1ICNAL LLADLk5

Personality is the most important factor in the leadership arenas.

I. IN1LGkI1¥
1. Perfect triangle: Balance between knowing,
being, and doing
2. Priority: being

º1he aood man ouL of Lhe aood Lreasure of hls
hearL brlnas forLh whaL ls aood, and Lhe
man ouL of Lhe evll
ls evll, for hls mouLh
fllls hls hearL." (Lk. 6:43)

II. ACCCUN1A8ILI1¥
1. Leaders have to bear for the responsibility for their words and
2. As a result, they can gain the trust of their followers
ºLeL noL manv of vou become Leachers, mv breLhren, knowlna LhaL as such we wlll lncur
a sLrlcLer [udamenL
whaL he savs, he ls a perfecL man, able Lo

III. 1kAN5ÞAkLNC¥
1. Transparency is bigger idea than honesty though it contains honesty.
2. Word and deeds without a foreshadowing
3. Objective life

ºC LC8u, who mav ablde ln ?our
wlLh lnLearlLv, and works

IV. nUMILI1¥
1. Humility starts from admit objective facts.
2. Humility is to receive others inclusively.
3. People follow humble leaders more than competent leaders.
º1herefore humble
Lhe proper Llme." (1 Þe. 3:6)

knowlna
8elna
ÞLk5CNALI1¥ CI
1kAN5ICkMA1ICNAL LLADLk5
Personality is the most important factor in the leadership arenas.
Perfect triangle: Balance between knowing,

doing knowing
º1he aood man ouL of Lhe aood Lreasure of hls
hearL brlnas forLh whaL ls aood, and Lhe evll
evll Lreasure brlnas forLh whaL
mouLh speaks from LhaL whlch
fllls hls hearL." (Lk. 6:43)
Leaders have to bear for the responsibility for their words and deed
As a result, they can gain the trust of their followers.
ºLeL noL manv of vou become Leachers, mv breLhren, knowlna LhaL as such we wlll lncur
[udamenL. lor we all sLumble ln manv wavs lf anvone does noL
whaL he savs, he ls a perfecL man, able Lo brldle Lhe whole bodv as well." (!as. 3:1
Transparency is bigger idea than honesty though it contains honesty.
Word and deeds without a foreshadowing
ºC LC8u, who mav ablde ln ?our LenL? Who mav dwell on ?our holv hlll? Pe who walks
wlLh lnLearlLv, and works rlahLeousness, And speaks LruLh ln hls hearL." (Þs. 13:1
Humility starts from admit objective facts.
Humility is to receive others inclusively.
People follow humble leaders more than competent leaders.
le vourselves under Lhe mlahLv hand of Cod, LhaL Pe mav
." (1 Þe. 3:6)

189
knowlna
uolna
1kAN5ICkMA1ICNAL LLADLk5
deeds.
ºLeL noL manv of vou become Leachers, mv breLhren, knowlna LhaL as such we wlll lncur
ln manv wavs lf anvone does noL sLumble ln
as well." (!as. 3:1-2)
Transparency is bigger idea than honesty though it contains honesty.
hlll? Pe who walks
aks LruLh ln hls hearL." (Þs. 13:1-2)
vourselves under Lhe mlahLv hand of Cod, LhaL Pe mav exalL vou aL



190
A11I1UDL CI
1kAN5ICkMA1ICNAL LLADLk5

I. ÞC5I1IVL 1nINkING (8A5LD UÞCN IAI1n)
1. Positive thinking is more productive than negative thinking.
2. “Grasshoppers” Vs. “Prey” (Nu. 13~14) – The 12 spies were all leaders!

Lves LhaL look are common, eves LhaL see are rare.
- Cswald Sanders, 5pltltool leoJetsblp

II. IkANkNL55
1. Leaders have to expose their vulnerability like shortcomings and mistakes.

III. IAIkNL55
1. Leaders have to treat all followers fairly.
2. Antonym: Being biased/ Analogous but different idea: Equity

IV. 8LING A nLLÞLk
1. Leaders help followers be successful.
2. All Christians have the responsibility to encourage and help others.

V. CCMÞA55ICN
Lndurlna leadershlp, Lhe klnd LhaL makes a poslLlve, lona-ranae dlfference, ls alwavs
characLerlzed bv compasslon. A compasslonaLe leader cares abouL people, boLh as
lndlvldual and as a aroup.
- 8ob 8rlner and 8av ÞrlLchard, leoJetsblp lessoos of Iesos

VI. ÞkCAC1IVL 1C CnANGL
1. Leaders cope with changes proactively.
2. Leaders have to be proactive to self-transformation.
Chanae ls comlna on so manv fronLs and so qulcklv LhaL we reallv onlv have Lhree
alLernaLlves: be swepL alona wlLh chanae unLll we are forced Lo adapL, learn how Lo
work wlLh chanae lnnovaLlvelv, or make chanae happen.
- Carv 8. Colllns, cbtlstloo coocbloo

VII. IkLL IkCM 1nL ÞA51 WCUND5




191






























192
nCW 1C CCMMUNICA1L?

I. 1nL IMÞCk1ANCL CI CCMMUNICA1ICN
1. People make interactions continuously in a cell. Therefore, it is very important for
a cell to convey what he/she thinks.
2. To convey the thoughts effectively is the goal of communication.

II. CCMMUNCA1ICN 1nLCk¥ - 5nANNCN & 5CnkAMM'5 CCMMUNICA1ICN
MCDLL (Suna-Po kwon, A 5toJv of £Jocotloool 1ecbooloov)








III. nCW 1C CCMMUNCA1L LIILC1IVLL¥
1. Enlarge the common field of experience.
2. Improve the sender’s ability to encode
3. Raise the quality and efficiency of signals.
4. Improve the receiver’s ability to decode.
5. Minimize the noises which prevent the communication.
6. Recognize the importance of nonverbal message.
7. Respond to the feedback sensitively.
8. Maintain good relationships with others.
9. Try to do mutual communication, not one-side communication.
10. Develop a culture to facilitate mutual communication.


nolse
Sender/
Lncodlna
8ecelver/
uecodlna
Slanal
leedback
lleld of
experlenc
e
lleld of
experlence



193
nCW 1C IACILI1A1L 5nAkING?

I. 1LN ÞkINCIÞLL5 CI 5nAkING IN A CLLL
1. The goal of sharing is spiritual growth.
2. All members have to sharing on the basis of the Word of God, especially the
sermon of the last Sunday.
3. Sharing has to be deepen (from sharing the response to the Word of God to the
whole life of the members)
4. All members have to share their lives voluntarily.
5. All members have to share frankly.
6. All members have to share their own story.
7. All members have to share.
8. Maintain the acceptance as a response to sharing.
9. Sharing has to be connected with intercessory prayer.
10. Sharing has to be beneficial to all members. The leader can restrain those who
speak what could make big problems.

II. 1LN ÞkINCIÞLL5 CI 1nL IACILI1A1Ck
1. Don’t try to give an answer to the problems. And don’t try to teach the followers.
2. Give the opportunities to all members equally.
3. Encourage the members to share their life on the basis of the Word of God.
4. After summarizing the sermon of the last Sunday, encourage all members to share
their response to the sermon.
5. When a member shares his/her life regardless of the Word, don’t interrupt him/her.
6. When a member confess his/her sins or mistakes or faults, don’t allow the other
members criticize or condemn him/her.
7. Encourage those who do not share, but don’t impose a burden on them too much.
8. Control those who are too talkative, but don’t hurt them.
9. Response to the sharing positively and actively.
10. Lead all members to intercessory prayer after sharing.

III. ICUk IACILI1A1Ck AC1ICN5 - AC15
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Acknowledging everyone who speaks during a discussion
2. Clarifying what is being said and left
3. Turning it back to the group as a means of generating discussion
4. Summarizing what has been said

IV. IMÞCk1AN1 CUL51ICN5 1C IACILI1A1L 5nAkING
1. With what kind of contents God challenged you at the last Sunday?
2. Why did you think so?
3. How do you think to response to the Word?



194
nCW 1C LI51LN 1C C1nLk5?

I. WnA1 ¥CU 5A¥
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Invite comments from the group.
2. Emphasize with people’s emotions.
3. Explore their statements, seeking more information.
4. Clarify what has been said.

II. WnA1 ¥CU nLAk
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Verbal: the content of what is said.
2. Nonverbal: how the content is expressed.
Facial expressions
Tone of voice
Body movements and posture

III. LI51LNING 5kILL5 - ÞA55IVL V5. AC1IVL LI51LNING
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
Þass|ve L|sten|ng Act|ve L|sten|ng
Att|tude
8e[ecLlna, crlLlcal
´l´m teollv oot lotetesteJ.´
8ecepLlve, accepLlna
´l teollv woot to beot.´
Iocus
Me - whaL l wanL Lo sav
´wbot Jo l tblok?´
CLher person - vou Lhlnk abouL whaL
oLhers are savlna: ´wbot Joes be meoo?´
kesponse
1hls ls whaL l've been Lhlnklna
´l tblok voo sboolJ.´
Clarlfvlna flrsL whaL vou have heard Lhe
oLher person sav
´)oo tblok.´ ´uo voo feel?´
Message
WhaL vou sald lsn'L lmporLanL
´l JlJo´t teollv beot wbot voo solJ.´
?ou heard boLh Lhe feellna and Lhe need
ln Lhe messaae
´l beotJ wbot voo solJ.´
kesu|ts
Speaker experlences frusLraLlon, anaer
llsteoet commoolcotes ´l Joo´t cote.´
Speaker ls wllllna Lo compromlse or Lell
more
llsteoet sovs. ´l cote oboot wbot voo
solJ.´

IV. GUIDLLINL5 ICk LIILC1IVL LI51LNING (Carv 8. Colllns, now to 8e o leople nelpet)
Prepare to listen. / Check your listening attitudes. / Be aware of both content and
delivery. / Be aware of your own emotions. / Resist distractions. / Encourage further
sharing. / Remember, you can think faster than the other person can talk. / Ask questions
sparingly – especially at the beginning. / Try not to interrupt. / Avoid preaching, lecturing,
giving advice, or arguing. / Listen for themes. / Don’t get carried away by your own
curiosity.



195
CAkING & 5ÞIkI1UAL 5UÞÞCk1ING

I. kLA5CN AND GCAL CI CAkING AND 5UÞÞCk1ING
1. Reason: We should help the member who exposes problems through sharing.
2. Goal: Personal growth of the members

II. ÞkCCL55 AND ÞkINCIÞLL5 CI CAkING & 5UÞÞCk1ING


1. Never try to give an alternative awkwardly.
2. Put yourself in his/her shoes.
3. Explore alternatives together.
4. Plan to practice alternatives definitely.
5. Let him/her practice to change his/her life and encourage him/her.
6. If he/she needs a help, let all members help him/her as possible.
7. Evaluate the process regularly.
8. Pray together at a meeting, and pray privately.

III. ÞkINCIÞLL5 CI ÞLCÞLL nLLÞLk (Carv 8. Colllns, now to 8e o leople nelpet)
1. The helper: In any helping relationship, the personality, values, attitudes, and
beliefs of the helper are of primary importance.
2. The helpee: The helpee’s attitudes, motivation, expectations, and desire for help
are also important.
3. The relationship: The helping relationship between the helper and the helpee is of
great importance.
4. Feelings, Thoughts, and Actions: Helping must focus on the helpee’s emotions,
thoughts, and behavior – all three.
5. Skills: Helping involves a variety of skills that need to be learned.
6. Disciple making: The ultimate goal of helping is to make disciples and disciplers
of the people whom we help.
Clarlfvlna Lhe
lssues
Lxplorlna
alLernaLlves
ÞracLlclna Lhe
alLernaLlves
LvaluaLlna
resulLs
Lxposure of
problems
Þersonal
arowLh



196
nCW 1C CCN1AC1 CLLL MLM8Lk5?

I. kLA5CN5 ICk CCN1AC1ING CLLL MLM8Lk5 kLGULAkL¥
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. Contacting helps your group grow.
2. Contacting increases your average weekly attendance.
3. Contacting helps a shepherd know the state of his/her flock.
4. Contacting communicates care.

II. 5UGGL51ICN5 1nA1 MAkL CCN1AC1ING ÞCWLkIUL
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. Ask them, “How may I pray for you?”
2. Ask them, “What do you want God to do about this?”
3. Say, “Let’s pray right now.” Then pray for them right then, aloud.
4. Ask, “Do you want to pray?”

III. 1nL MC51 IMÞCk1AN1 1IML 1C MAkL A CCN1AC1
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. Soon after a first visit to your cell group
2. Weekly for the first few weeks
3. After an absence
4. After they have shared in the group that they are going through a trial
5. After a tense moment in the group

IV. 1nL 5LCkL15 U5LD 8¥ nIGnL¥ LIILC1IVL CCN1AC1Ck5
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
 View the time you spend contacting as prime ministry time.
 Pray for Spirit-led direction as to what to say.
 Don’t miss the key times mentioned above (III. The most…)
 Pray about who God wants you to contact that week.
 Be positive about God, your church, and your cell group.
 Be considerate of their time and schedule. If they are busy, be brief.
 Be sensitive to their mood. If they are willing to talk, take the time to listen. If not,
don’t push them.
 Have a place to record your contacts.
 Keep things that are shared in confidence, confidential.
 Be consistent. Try to see that everyone is contacted regularly.
 If they have shared a need with you, close the contact by praying for them.
 Use your apprentices and small group members to share the contacting load.
 Have a regular time scheduled each week to do your contacting. Build an hour or two
of contacting into your weekly schedule and see what a difference it makes.



197
nCW 1C LLAD A ÞkA¥Lk MLL1ING?

I. WnA1 nAÞÞLN5 WnLN GkCUÞ5 CCMMI1 1C ÞkA¥ ICk CNL ANC1nLk?
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Your relationship with Christ and each other will deepen. You will experience
spiritual growth.
2. There is less chance of burnout as you put problems in God’s hands and trust
members to His care.
3. You allow the Holy Spirit to work in your group so your time together is filling
and refreshing.
4. He will answer your prayers in amazing ways, and your faith will increase.

II. WnLN LLAD A ÞkA¥Lk MLL1ING (GkCUÞ ÞkA¥Lk)
1. When you find a member to have a need
2. When you find a member to have problems
3. When you know there is a conflict between members
4. When you need to pray for those who are going to be invited to the cell
5. When you close the meeting
6. Regularly (for vision of the cell, each members, and yourself)

III. kIND5 CI ÞkA¥Lk
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
Cpenlna ºPear our praver . . ." (neh. 1:11, Þs. 3:1-3)
AdoraLlon ºPallowed be vour name . . ." (ueuL. 20:21, 1 Chron. 29:10-13,
Þs. 34:8-9)
AfflrmaLlon º?our wlll be done . . ." (Þs. 27:1, lsa. 26:3, 8om. 8:38-39)
Croup needs ºClve us Lhls dav . . ." (Þs. 7:1, neh. 1:11, MaLL. 7:7-8)
Confesslon ºloralve us our debLs . . ." (Þs. 31, MaLL. 18:21-22, 1 !ohn 1:9)
8enewal (proLecLlon) ºLead us noL lnLo LempLaLlon . . ." (Þs. 137:7, !ohn 13:7-11)
1hanksalvlna ºClve Lhanks Lo Lhe Lord . . ." (1 Chron. 16:34, Þs. 73:1, 8ev. 11:17)
8lesslna ºLhe Lord bless vou and keep . . ." (num. 6:22-27, Þs. 1:1)
Commlsslonlna ºCo Lherefore and make dlsclples . . ." (MaLL. 28:18-20, AcLs 1:8)
Peallna º1he praver of falLh wlll make well . . ." (!ames 3:13-16, Þs. 6:2, 41:4)
Warfare ºCeL Lhee behlnd me, SaLan . . ." (MaLL. 4:10, 16:23)
8enedlcLlon/ Closlna ºMav Lhe arace of Lhe Lord . . ." (2 Cor. 13:14, Lph. 3:20-21)

IV. GUIDLLINL5 ICk CCNVLk5A1ICNAL ÞkA¥Lk
(nAvÞ8LSS, now to leoJ 5moll Ctoop 8lble 5toJles)
1. As the leader, pray first.
2. Don’t spend too much time sharing prayer requests before actually praying.
3. Pray about one point at a time.
4. Listen.
5. Pray briefly.
6. Pray spontaneously, rather than in sequence.
7. Pray audibly so everyone can hear you.



198
nCW 1C nANDLL
1nL DIIIICUL1 MLM8Lk5?

I. 1nL IMÞCk1ANCL CI nANDLING 1nL DIIIICUL1 MLM8Lk5 LIILC1IVLL¥
1. There must be difficult members in a cell. Actually, we have to think that all
members are difficult members.
2. If we handle those difficult members effectively, we can not only nurture them,
but also get great momentum for the cell.
3. If we fail to handle those effectively, we will be in a quandary.

II. GkCUÞ kCLL5 - 5UÞÞCk1IVL kCLL5
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Information seeker
2. Opinion seeker
3. Initiator
4. Elaborator
5. Tension-reliever
6. Reviewer
7. Consensus seeker
8. Encourager
9. Standard-bearer

III. GkCUÞ kCLL5 - DL51kUC1IVL kCLL5
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Aggressor
2. Rabbit chaser
3. Recognition seeker
4. Dominator
5. Special-interest advocate
6. Negativist
7. Quibbler
8. Practical joker

IV. ÞkINCIÞLL5 1C nANDLL DIIIICUL1 MLM8Lk5 LIILC1IVLL¥
1. Never shirk the responsibility to handle difficult members.
2. Bear the mind of a shepherd for those difficult members.
3. Understand temperament and characters of difficult members.
4. Keep the receptive mode in the cell.
5. Make a good cell covenant.
6. Balance between the goal of the cell and unique characters of each member.
7. Meet a difficult member privately and talk about what you think about him/her
frankly.
8. Pray for his/her change.



199
























200
8L A kLÞkCDUCLk

I. Wn¥ AkL WL 8L kLÞkCDUCLk5
1. “A cell” has a life. A living organism grows and multiplies (reproduces).

MulLlplvlna leaders and aroups ls Lhe mosL rewardlna parL of small aroup leadershlp.
- uave Larlev and 8od uempsev, 1be locket ColJe to leoJloo o 5moll Ctoop

II. ÞkINCIÞLL5 CI kLÞkCDUCING IN GALUMIUNG CnUkCn
1. Every cell has to reproduce every three years.
2. A leader who has reproduced more than once become a coach of those who he/she
reproduced.
3. A leader who fails to reproduce has to break up his/her cell and restart new cell.

III. 1LN 51LÞ5 1C IULIILLING 1nL VI5ICN 1C kLÞkCDUCL
1. Have a vision to reproduce yourself and your cell.
2. Write it down and picture it.
3. Refer to it frequently to yourself, your apprentice, and your members.
4. Believe that God can and will do it.
5. Ask God to do it His way and in His timing.
6. Train your apprentice to multiply your group at any time.
7. Be the first to invite the unchurched to your cell.
8. Encourage cell members to invite the unchurched.
9. Ask advices of reproducers.
10. Never give up.

IV. 8Ik1nING NLW GkCUÞ5
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
Cr|g|na| group New group
Leader
blrLhs ouL
ApprenLlce becomes leader
llnds new apprenLlce
Same members
Crlalnal leaders leaves
llnds new apprenLlce
llnds new members
ApprenLlce
blrLhs ouL
Leader sLavs
llnds new apprenLlce
Same members
ApprenLlce leaves, becomes new leader
llnds new apprenLlce
llnds new members
Core aroup
8lrLhs ouL
Leader sLavs
llnds new apprenLlce
Some members sLav
Some new members added
ApprenLlce leaves, becomes new leader
llnds new apprenLlce
Some members follow
llnds addlLlonal new members
º1urbo"
All members
blrLh ouL
All members are apprenLlces who
sLarL new aroup lndlvlduallv or ln
palrs
Leader sLarLs new aroup
ApprenLlce becomes new leader
llnds new apprenLlce
llnds new members



201
nCW 1C IIND AND DLVLLCÞ
AN AÞÞkLN1ICL?

I. 5LVLN 51LÞ5 ICk kAI5ING UÞ AÞÞkLN1ICL 1C A LLADLk
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. Demonstrate what you hope to reproduce.
2. Discover potential leaders.
3. Deepen your relationship with potential leaders.
4. Describe the vision. 5. Determine the commitment to be made.
6. Develop them. 7. Deploy them.

II. nCW DC ¥CU IIND AN AÞÞkLN1ICL?
(Carl l. Ceorae wlLh Warren 8lrd, 1be comloo cbotcb kevolotloo)
1. There must be present a compelling vision that says “we need more leaders.”
2. You will want a clearly identified process by which apprentice leaders can be
commissioned into ministry.
3. Be aware of the early identifying symptoms of an apprentice.
4. Offer supervision, coaching, and encouragement to your rising leaders.
5. You can go forward only as fast as you can travel on your knees.

III. 1nL ICUk kL5ÞCN5I8ILI1IL5 CI AN AÞÞkLN1ICL LLADLk
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
Love / Learn / Lead / Look

IV. DLVLLCÞING AN AÞÞkLN1ICL LLADLk
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Work through a good quality material with your apprentice.
2. Continue to model small group leadership to your apprentice.
3. Allow your apprentice to lead.
4. Take turns with your apprentice regularly evaluating one another.
5. Pray regularly with your apprentice for his/her personal needs and ministry
development.
6. Help your apprentice determine what types of skill training would best fit in this
stage of development.
7. Bring your apprentice with you whenever you are involved in ministry.
8. Help your apprentice find a new apprentice.
9. Consider using the “Apprentice Planner” that follows:
(1) The apprentice’s involvement in meetings
(2) Their work with members
(3) Personal development
(4) Long-term planning and goals.
10. Walk them through the process of becoming a participating member of the church.



202
nCW 1C INVI1L 1nL UNCnUkCnLD
1C 1nL CLLL?

I. Wn¥ INVI1ING I5 L55LN1IAL?
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. People must connect with you before they can connect with God.
2. If your group has no guests, it will experience no growth.
3. If you invite them, they will come.
4. Inviting stops declining numbers.
5. Numerical growth builds excitement and morale.
6. Inviting builds spiritual ownership of the group.

ChrlsLlan aroups exlsL Lo reach ouL and share Lhe aood news of ChrlsL's love Lo people ln
need.
- 8arker, SLeve, !udv !ohnson, 8ob Malone, 8on nlcholas, and uoua Whallon, CooJ
1bloos come lo 5moll Ctoops

II. WA¥5 1C kLACn 1nL UNCnUkCnLD
1. Empty chair strategy
2. Relational evangelism – Extended Family strategy
3. Serving evangelism
4. Finding the needed with love
5. Telling my story to others

III. AI1Lk ¥CUk GkCUÞ nA5 DLCIDLD nCW I1 WILL kLACn CU1 1C C1nLk5
(Clndv 8unch (Ld.), 5moll Ctoop lJeo 8ook)
1. Identifying the people
2. Praying for the people
3. Involving ourselves with them

IV. INVI1ING 5LLkLk5 1C 5MALL GkCUÞ5
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Focus on the needs of the seeker, not your personal agenda.
2. If you discuss a Bible passage, use a version of the Scripture that is seeker
friendly.
3. Focus on relevancy.
4. Allow seekers to make comments that might appear strong or opinionated.
5. Keep prayers simple.
6. Don’t shy away from hard issues or places where even some believers have
doubts.



203



























204
IMÞCk1ANCL CI GCD'5 GkACL

I. WnA1 I5 GkACL CI GCD?
Crace ls Cod's free and unmerlLed favor shown Lo aullLv slnners who deserve onlv
[udamenL. - !errv 8rldaes, 1ransformlna Crace

º8uL bv Lhe arace of Cod l am whaL l am, and Pls arace Loward me dld noL prove valn,
buL l labored even more Lhan all of Lhem, veL noL l, buL Lhe arace of Cod wlLh me." (1
Cor. 13:10)

II. IMÞCk1ANCL CI GCD 5 GkACL IN A CLLL
1. Basically, transformation is possible only by the grace of God.
2. It is God who achieves something valuable.

º1he mlnd of man plans hls wav, 8uL Lhe LC8u dlrecLs hls sLeps." (Þrov. 16:9)

III. GkACL I5 5IGNIIICAN1 1C.
1. Cell leader:
(1) He/She does not get a burnout.
(2) He/She can be transformed.
(3) He/She works more effectively.
(4) He/She entrusts his/her all works to God
2. Cell members:
(1) Each of them can experience personal growth.
(2) They can be cell leaders effectively.
3. Cell:
(1) It can be reproduced more powerfully.
(2) It can be harmonious.

IV. GAkMLN15 CI GkACL
1. Gratitude
2. Contentment
3. Humility
4. Forbearance
5. Forgiveness

IV. nCW CAN WL A5k GCD'5 GkACL
1. Long for God’s grace always.
2. Ask the guidance and help of the Spirit.
3. Pray (pray alone and pray together).
4. Tell to the members why we have to long for God’s grace.



205
nCW 1C ÞkA¥?

I. ICUk ÞkINCIÞLL5 CI ÞkA¥Lk (kCM. 8:26-29)
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. The Holy Spirit helps us to know what and how to pray (v. 26).
2. The Holy Spirit intercedes on our behalf (v. 26).
3. God hears our hearts more than the words in prayer (v. 27).
4. Prayer is always answered (vs. 28-29), though not always according to our agenda.

II. AN CU1LINL ICk ÞkA¥Lk - AC15
(8lll uonahue and Lhe Wlllow Creek Small Croups 1eam, leoJloo llfe-cboooloo 5moll Ctoops)
1. Adoration (Ps. 100)
2. Confession (1 John 1:9)
3. Thanksgiving (Lk. 17:11-19; 1 Thess. 5:16-18)
4. Supplication (Phil. 4:6-7; 1 John 5:14-15)

III. 1IÞ5 ICk nIGnL¥ LIILC1IVL ÞkA¥Lk
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. Have a set time and amount of time for prayer.
2. Have a usual place for prayer.
3. Have a plan for prayer.
4. Have a place for recording requests and answers.
5. Ask God direct you to appropriate Scriptures.
6. Season your intercession with thanksgiving for each member.
7. Mix fasting with prayer for greater effectiveness.
8. Pray through all possible elements of the small grouop meeting prior to the
meeting time.
9. Pray for your apprentice(s) and the future groups to grow out of your current
group.
10. Pray for God’s grace to help you live all characters of an effective leader.

III. kLA5CN5 LIILC1IVL CLLL LLADLk5 ÞkA¥ ICk 1nLIk MLM8Lk DAIL¥
(uave Larlev, 8 noblts of £ffectlve 5moll Ctoop leoJets)
1. Prayer is the most important task of a leader
2. Prayer saves time.
3. Prayer is omnipresent and omnipotent.
4. Prayer makes everything better.
5. Prayer gives needed insight.
6. Prayer is our greatest spiritual weapon.
7. God blesses us when we pray for others.



206
nCW 1C MLDI1A1L 1nL WCkD CI GCD?

I. GLNLkAL kLA5CN5 1C MLDI1A1L 1nL WCkD CI GCD
ºPow blessed ls Lhe man who does noL walk ln Lhe counsel of Lhe wlcked, nor sLand ln
Lhe paLh of slnners, nor slL ln Lhe seaL of scoffers! 8uL hls dellahL ls ln Lhe law of Lhe
LC8u, And ln Pls law he medlLaLes dav and nlahL." (Þs. 1:1-2)
º1hls book of Lhe law shall noL deparL from vour mouLh, buL vou shall medlLaLe on lL dav
and nlahL, so LhaL vou mav be careful Lo do accordlna Lo all LhaL ls wrlLLen ln lL, for Lhen
vou wlll make vour wav prosperous, and Lhen vou wlll have success." (!oshua 1:8)

II. 5ÞLCIIIC kLA5CN5 CI A CLLL LLADLk
1. Cell meetings have to be based on the Word of God.
2. Fellowship between the members has to be based on the Word of God.
3. He/She has to care and support the members through the Word of God.
4. He/She has to be supplied with spiritual nutrients through meditation of the Word.

III. 5LCULNCL CI MLDI1A1ICN



IV. 1WC WA¥5 CI MLDI1A1ICN
1. Meditation by the verses
2. Meditation according to structural questions
(1) Questions about God
a. Who is God?
b. Who is Jesus?
c. Who is the Spirit?
(2) Questions about myself
a. What is the sin that I have to confess?
b. What is the example that I have to follow?
c. What is the promise that I have to seize?
d. What is the commandment that I have to obey?

V. 1IÞ5 ICk LIILC1IVL MLDI1A1ICN
1. Set a time and place to meditate.
2. Use a useful material to help meditation.
3. Write down what you meditate.
4. Share with someone what you meditate.
5. Review what you meditate evening.
6. Start and end with prayer.

Observation Interpretation Application



207


























208
LVALUA1ICN AND
1LLLING A8CU1 IMÞkL55ICN5

I. LVALUA1ICN - MAIN ÞCIN15 1C 8L CnLCkLD
1. On vision and purpose of being a cell-based church
2. On building an authentic community
3. On the features of the cell in Gaeumjung Church
4. On transformational leadership
5. On servant leadership
6. On shepherd leadership
7. On coach leadership
8. On personality of transformational leaders
9. On attitudes of transformational leaders
10. On several practical skills required to cell leaders
11. On becoming a reproducer
12. On relationship with God

II. 1LLL A8CU1 ¥CUk IMÞkL55ICN5





III. WkI1L DCWN ¥CUk ÞkA¥Lk CN kL5CLU1ICN 1C 8L A CLLL LLADLk





IV. ÞkA¥Lk MLL1ING





209







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223



VITA


In Ho Jei



PERSONAL
Born: December 20, 1968
Married: Young Hye Jang, October 3, 1995.
Children: Surin Jei, born December 26, 1997.
Suah Jei, born September 1, 2001.


EDUCATIONAL
B.A., Seoul National University, 1992.
M.Div., Korea Theological Seminary, 1996.
M.Ed., Hanyang University, 2003.
Th.M., Liberty Theological Seminary, 2006.


MINISTERIAL
License: February, 1996, Korea Theological Seminary.
Ordination: October 13, 1998, Seoul Nam-Bu Presbyterian Church.

PROFESSIONAL
Staff, The Board of Christian Education in Korea Presbyterian Church,
1997 – 2001
Proxy of the representative, The Board of Christian Education in Korea
Presbyterian Church, 2002 – 2003
Associate Pastor, Anyangilsim Church, 1997 – 1999.
Associate Pastor, Jamsiljoongang Church, 1999 – 2000.
Associate Pastor, Hyangsang Church, 2001 – 2003.
Associate Pastor, Gaeumjung Church, 2003 – present.
(Studying in Liberty Theological Seminary, 2005 – present)
Senior Pastor, Richmond Samil Church, 2007.

MILITARIAL
Enlisted and discharged from the service (Korean Army), 1989-1990.

LIBERTY THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

THESIS PROJECT APPROVAL SHEET

A
GRADE

A+

B

Frank J. Schmitt
MENTOR

Rod Dempsey
READER ii

ABSTRACT

A STRATEGY ON SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT FOR TRANSITIONING OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH INTO A CELL-BASED CHURCH In Ho Jei Liberty Theological Seminary, 2008 Mentor: Dr. Frank Schmitt

The purpose of this project is to invent a strategy of small group leadership development to transition Gaeumjung Church to a cell-based church. This project was performed on the basis of field analysis, case study, and literature research. The case study was performed on nine churches with outstanding small group ministry. The author had been an associate pastor of Gaeumjung Church for one and half years and will be the senior pastor of the church in a few years. Therefore, this thesis is a result of his experience and expectation on the small group ministry of the church.

Abstract length: 98 words

iii

ACKNOWLDEGEMENT

First of all, I would like to give thanks and glory to my Lord for the opportunity of this thesis project. My research mentor, Frank Schmitt, Ed. D., is acknowledged and deeply appreciated. He has led me to perform this research project with deep concern and thoughtful consideration. The researcher also wants to give thanks to my reader, Rodney Dempsey, D.Min., not only because he read this thesis carefully but also because he exerted an effect on the researcher in connection with the subject of this thesis. I can never give thanks to all the members of Gaeumjung Church enough. Especially, I would like appreciate Young-Sik Kang, the senior pastor of Gaeumjung Church, the elders, and my fellow ministers. Gaeumjung Church had appointed me as the senior pastor of the next term and has supported me spiritually, emotionally, and financially. I would like to be thankful to all the staff of Liberty Theological Seminary, the three co-pastors, Daniel C. Kim, David H. Chung, and Timothy Chong, and all my friends who I have met in Lynchburg, VA. Young Hye Jang, who is my wife, has been a great source of motivation with prayer, patience, encouragement, and emotional and spiritual support. My lovable children, Surin and Suah have endured till the completion of this thesis. All of thanks and glory to God! I. H. J.

iv

1 4 5 5 6 6 9 2 Tim. 30 Questionnaire and Interview Questions ……………………………………….. 13 Theological Basis ……………………………………………………. 16 Theology of Community ……………………………………… 16 The Triune God ……………………………………….... 22 Theory on Small Group Leadership Development ……………………. 4:11-12 …………………………………………………. The Theoretical Bases ………………………………………………………… Biblical Basis …………………………………………………………. 2:2 ……………………………………………………. 25 The Review of the Literature ………………………………………………….. x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………… The Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………… The Statement of Limitations …………………………………………………. Eph... 32 Summary ……………………………………………………………………….... 24 The Statement of Methodology ………………………………………………. 29 On Leadership Development …………………………………………... 16 Principle of Creation …………………………………. 19 Church as a Community ………………………………. 20 Priesthood of All Believers …………………………………….. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………….. 32 v ..... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………… v LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………...TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………. 27 On Building Small Group Based Church ……………………………… 27 On Small Group Leadership …………………………………………. 17 Biblical Examples ……………………………………. The Great Commission ………………………………………...

59 Principles Used for Sampling …………………………………………. 63 Global Mission Church (http://www... 49 A Premodern Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development …….. 48 Very Low Degree of Satisfaction of Small Group Leaders on the Strategy ………………………………………………. 54 Inefficient Follow-up Training ………………………………………..jiguchon. 50 Low Efficiency of the Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development …………………………………………………. 68 vi ..... 34 Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members …………… 38 Geographically Organized Small Groups ……………………………… 42 Women-centered Small Group Ministry ……………………………….. 53 Unsystematic Process of Selection and Examination of New Small Group Leaders …………………………………………... 59 Targets Used for This Case Study ……………………………………. 59 Targets and Methods of Case Study ………………………………………….org) – House Church ………………………………………………...... 43 Teaching-centered Small Group Meetings ……………………………. 61 Results of the Case Study ……………………………………………………... 55 Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 58 CHAPTER THREE: CASE STUDY ON SEVERAL KOREAN CHURCHES ……... 63 Seoul Baptist of Houston (http://www. 60 Methods of Case Study ……………………………………………….seoulbaptist.. 46 Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development of Gaeumjung Church …. 34 Stagnant Small Group Ministry ……………………………………….org) – House Church ……………………………………………….CHAPTER TWO: ANANYSIS ON SMALL GROUP MINISTRY AND SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH ………………………………………… 33 Introduction to Gaeumjung Church …………………………………………… 33 Small Group Ministry of Gaeumjung Church ………………………………..

95 Trustworthiness of the Senior Pastor …………………………………. 91 Recognize the Senior Pastor’s Role …………………………………………… 94 Responsibility for Developing Leaders in the Church ………………… 94 The Senior Pastor as a Point Leader ………………………………….. 99 Work as a Team ……………………………………………………………… 100 Develop Leaders in Accordance with Your Small Group Ministry …………...com) – Darakbang …………………………………………………… 84 Generalization of Results of the Case Study ………………………………….. 89 CHAPTER FOUR: LESSONS FROM A LITERATURE RESEARCH ON SMALL GORUP LEADERSIHP DEVELOPMENT …………… 90 Perceive the Urgency and Importance of Developing Leaders ……………….hosanna21.com) – Of-Small Group Church ……………………………………..jiguchon.. 74 Light Global Mission Church (http://www. 70 Guminam Church (http://www.org) – Oikos ………………………………………………………… 79 Hyangsang Church (http://hyangsang.guminam. 90 Approach Strategically ……………………………………………………….. 103 Create a Leadership Culture ………………………………………………….Church of Dream(http://www... 82 Hosanna Presbyterian Church (http://www.. 77 Open Door Presbyterian Church (http://opendoorpc.or.. 72 Wonchon Baptist Church (http://wonchon. 87 Summary ………………………………………………………………………..kr) – House Church ……………………………………………….. 107 Develop a Training System …………………………………………………… 109 vii .net) – Cell Church ………………………………………………….....kr) – House Church ……………. 96 Develop a Vision and Communicate It Effectively …………………………… 98 Develop a Vision ……………………………………………………….. 98 Communicate the Vision ………………………………………………..org/) – Vineyard …………. 105 Empower the Small Group Leaders ………………………………………….cod.or.

145 Strategy to Achieve the Goals during Four-year-transitioning Period ……………………………….. 145 A synopsis ……………………………………………..Provide Follow-up Programs …………………………………………………. 115 Evaluation ……………………………………………………………. 137 Coach leadership ……………………………………………………... 125 Small Groups in Gaeumjung Church ………………………………… 127 Small Group Leadership Required in Gaeumjung Church ………………….... 116 Develop a Spiritual Atmosphere ……………………………………………… 117 Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 119 CHAPTER FIVE: A STRAGEGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH …………………. 120 The Whole Transitioning Process and Position of Leadership Development in the Process ………………………………………………………… 122 Small Groups in Gaeumjung Church as a Cell-based Church ……………….. 113 Follow-up Training …………………………………………………… 114 Encouragement ………………………………………………………... 114 Implement and Evaluate ……………………………………………………… 115 Implementation ………………………………………………………. 125 A cell-based church …………………………………………………....... 140 A Strategy in the Development of Small Group Leadership in Gaeumjung Church …………………………………………………… 141 Long-term Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership ………….. 112 A Coaching System …………………………………………………… 112 Meeting with Fellow Leaders ………………………………………. 132 Overarching Nature: Transformational leadership …………………… 132 Servant leadership ……………………………………………………. 143 Goals of Temporary Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership during the Transitioning Period ………………….. 135 Shepherd leadership ………………………………………………….. 145 viii .

. 165 APPENDIX B ………………………………………………………………………. 164 APPENDIX A ………………………………………………………………………. 163 Produce Leadership Culture …………………………………………………. 161 Have a Good Relation with the Church Members. Especially. 162 Illuminated by the Holy Spirit ………………………………………………. 158 Recognize the Importance of a Team ………………………………………… 160 Share the Vision Effectively ………………………………………………….Fourfold training strategy …………………………….. 170 BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………………… 209 VITA …………………………………………………………………………………. 155 Expect There Would Be Resistance and Overcome the Resistance ………….. the Lay Leaders ………………………………………….. 169 APPENDIX C ………………………………………………………………………. 223 ix . 146 Fourfold support strategy ……………………………. 157 Empower and Encourage the Small Group Leaders …………………………. 150 Summary ……………………………………………………………………… 153 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR KOREAN CHURCHES CONSIDERING TRANSITIONING TO A SMALL GROUP BASED CHURCH …………………………… 154 Lead the Transition Strategically ……………………………………………...... 156 Achieve the Goal in Persistence ……………………………………………… 156 Develop Small Group Leaders Systematically ………………………………..

. Responses to “Which public gatherings did you attend last week?” …………… 1 2. 47 16. 48 17. 44 14. Opinions of small group leaders about Gaeumjung Church’s supports for them…………………………………………………………………………. Responses to “Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group leader first of all?” ……………………………………………………………. Topics of the textbook by The Board of Christian Education for the last four years …………………………………………………………. 49 18. 37 9. Responses to “How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” ………………………………………………………………………...LIST OF FIGURES 1. Succession of Christian belief in a small group setting ………………………. Responses to “How long have you been a member of Gaeumjung Church?” ….. Percentage of members in each case …………………………………………… 39 11.. Succession of apostolic teaching ………………………………………………. 38 10. Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” …………………………… 50 19.. Three approaches of this thesis ………………………………………………… 26 5.. 40 12.. 42 13. 15 3. The structure of Gaeumjung Church for the small group ministry …………….. Degree of satisfaction of small group leaders on Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development ………………………………. 37 8. 36 7. 15 4. The state of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry for the last 10 years … 35 6. Attendants of Sunday Morning Worship Service for ten weeks ………………. Responses nullifying 26 plural responses ……………………………………… 52 x . Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in the church which you have served as a small group leader in?” ……………………………………………………… 51 20. Change of the number of persons at small groups at 2007 (January through October) ……………………………………………………. The number of each type of small group ……………………………………….. 45 15. Average number of members in each case …………………………………….

123 41. 75 33. 110 40. 55 23... Clinton’s five phases of development in a leader ……………………………. and Church is groups ……………………………………. An outlook to set up a new Mokja and Mokjang at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston ……………………………………………………... The reality of Global Mission Church ………………………………………… 69 30. Comparison between Church with groups.. Interviewees and methods of interview ……………………………………….. Responses of the nine pastors to the question if qualities are absolutely necessary for small group leaders ……………………………………………… 89 38. 73 32. The reality of Hyangsang Church ……………………………………………… 83 36. 136 45.. 71 31.. Features of a cell in Gaeumjung Church ……………………………………… 129 43. 66 29. Church of groups. 62 27. 56 24. The whole process of transitioning in Gaeumjung Church …………………. Responses to take follow-up training in Gaeumjung Church …………………. 85 37.. Responses including 26 plural responses ……………………………………… 52 22. 57 25. The reality of Guminam Church ………………………………………………... The reality of Open Door Presbyterian Church ………………………………. Target churches of the case study ……………………………………………… 60 26.... The reality of House Church ministry at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston …. A diagram on strategic plan ……………………………………………………. The reality of Light Global Mission Church …………………………………..21.. 65 28. 93 39. Small Group Leadership in Gaeumjung Church ……………………………… 133 44. 78 34. Biblical characters who were servants ……………………………………….…………………… 126 42. A diagram of cell leadership training system in Gaeumjung Church ………… 144 47.………………….. A synopsis of temporary strategy of cell leadership development in Gaeumjung Church ………………………………………………………… 146 xi . The reality of Wonchon Baptist Church ………………………………………. The results from each research method ………………………………………. The reality of Church of Dream ………………………………………………. 81 35. The reality of Hosanna Presbyterian Church …………………………………. Process of being a small group leader at Gaeumjung Church …………………. Responses to kinds of follow-up trainings ……………………………………. 142 46.

. An outline of experience-based strategy ……………………………………… 147 49. 161 xii . The curriculum of the formal training ……………………………………….48. The fourfold encouragement strategy ………………………………………… 152 52. 149 50. Various ways to develop small group leaders ………………………………… 158 53.. The threefold prayer support strategy ………………………………………… 150 51. Number of persons of a team according to church size ……………………….

3 N=1000 (Permission of duplicate responses) Sunday Morning Service 81. it has been shrinking in recent times in Korea. the importance of small group ministry is more embossed in the modern church.3% No attendance 16. This institution is well known and far-reaching as an institution with public trust in South Korea. Responses to “Which public gatherings did you attend last week?” Just 15.3% Wednesday Evening Service 20. Small group ministry is very important in a church. In an interview with 1 This census was carried out on 1.8% The others 2. “Which public gatherings did you attend last week?” merely 15.000 Christians all over the country in South Korea in 2005.4% Early Morning Prayer Meetings 12. South Korea: Hanmijun. 2 Hanmijun stands for “the institution preparing the future of Korean Church” established in 1997.4% Sunday Evening (or Afternoon) Service 29. In spite of the importance of small group ministry in the past. 146.1% respondents said that they attended small group meeting (Figure 1). 1 .1% Friday Midnight Prayer Meeting 13. A Report for the Future of the Korean Church (Seoul.1%! This result frankly shows the present state of the small group ministry in the Korean church. 3 Hanmijun and Korea Gallup. we can find some interesting data concerning the question.4% Figure 1. 2005). Especially.8% Kuyeok meeting (Small group meeting) 15.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In a report from a joint census1 of Hanmijun2 and Gallup Korea.

Korea has been known as the typical model of a cell church. take care of each other. 6 Kuyeok is a small group system of the Korean church which is organized geographically. respect each other. the Kuyeok system has not been vitalized as an animated small group system.”6 But. Sang-Hwa Lee says “the Korean church’s Kuyeok system. Cho’s model.” Ministry and Theology. the Korean church has had small groups named “Kuyeok. which is known as Dr. 62. February 2003. according to Sang-Hwa Lee who is the General Director of Institute of Korea Small Group Ministry. most Korean churches have small groups like the church and the name of the small group is Kuyeok.. the small group ministry is absolutely necessary in all churches. To the Western world. Cho’s model. the church had a Kuyeok system like other Korean churches. . found that the Kuyeok system of the church was not productive though it had 4 Ministry and Theology is a monthly magazine of South Korea dealing with acute issues related to the field of ministry. 5 Bill Donahue. serve each other. Traditionally. the Kuyeok system of the Korean church has been known as Dr.”Ministry and Theology. 112. could be called an integrated model.2 Ministry and Theology. February 2003. 7 Sang-Hwa Lee. however. It has had great effects on Korean Church since it started to be published in 1988.4 Bill Donahue said that “considering how the early church practiced the more than 25 “each other” commands like love each other. etc. I want to ask how we can form a community in which the each other commands are performed without small groups. The author. An integrated model is a small group system that the small group leaders connect directly between the pastor’s teaching and the members’ lives by reproducing what they learned from the pastor every week in their small group meetings. “A Look Around Small Group Ministry For Understanding ‘Cell’.”5 As Donahue said.”7 When the author started the ministry at Gaeumjung church as an associate pastor taking charge of small group ministry and the designated senior pastor for the next term in 2003. “It Has To Be a Ministry Which Builds up a Community: An Interview with Ministry and Theology. Though Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul.

Most small groups had stayed in the line of merely managing the members. a house church. That is a failure of developing small group leaders. dividing them into geographically organized small groups. . The author is going to be the senior pastor of the church. Many churches failed at transitioning into a small group based church because they failed at developing small group leaders. many churches are trying to transition into a small group based church8 in Korea. It 8 “A small group based church” could be a cell church. many churches have experienced a failure in transitioning. he will try hard to build a cell-based church and develop small group leaders for it. A program or system which is verified in a foreign country could not be applied to the Korean church because Koreans’ feeling and emotion are different from the foreigners’ those. February 2003. a kind of risk is still in existence for trying a change. But. That is. In these days. 9 In-Ho Kim. recognizing the necessity of change. In other words. who is the representative of KISA (Korean Institute of Seminarians’ Association) and the professor of cell ministry at Seoul Theological University. “Cell Ministry Does Not Be Formed As It Is. we came to have a kind of problem. the church was using the Kuyeok system to manage the church members.3 almost 100 small groups. says that: Because the books on examples and theories of cell ministry of foreign countries’ churches have been published in large numbers and so many pastors have applied without filtration what they had seen and experienced through visiting the fields of cell ministry in foreign countries. In-Ho Kim.9 This is a reasonable comment. But. trying to transition too hastily. From that time. 117. it also gave a challenge to him because he had a vision for building up the church as a biblical community. there is another significant reason for the failure which Korean churches have experienced.” Ministry and Theology. This fact gave the author a kind of sorrow. a G12 type church of small group churches or anything else which is based on any kind of small group ministry. At the same time. however.

small group leadership development is a strategic affair. It has to be realized under a thorough preparation and a concrete plan. and a case study of several churches which have transitioned successfully into a small group based church. for its transitioning into a cell-based church. It will make several meaningful suggestions to Korean churches which are in transitioning or preparing transitioning into a small group based church.4 tells its own tale that a church trying a transition without developing leaders has a good chance of being unsuccessful. THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The overarching purpose of this thesis is small group leadership development in a local church. mind. . Gaeumjung Church. and ultimately for its effective and productive small group ministry. a theoretical approach to small group leadership development. Gaeumjung church is in need of a transition into a cell-based church and its success or failure depends on developing competent small group leaders. This thesis has a secondary purpose. So to speak. This thesis will cover the analysis of the current situation of the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church. The key of the success of transitioning is put on the development of competent small group leaders who have the same vision. The development of small group leaders is exactly the very core for its transition. Facing a very important moment of changing the senior pastor. and attitude with the senior pastor. It is never achieved easily.

Therefore. this thesis will be limited in the following ways. Though. If we think of the current situation of Korean churches. THE THEORETICAL BASES What are the theoretical bases for small group leadership development? It can be studied in three realms: biblical. theoretical foundations and the object of research will be concentrated on the restricted issue. First. fundamentally it is about one church’s strategy. to make general suggestions on the issue is outside of the interest of this thesis. The strategy will be applied in the specific field. A strategy for small group leadership development is formulated keeping a specific field in mind. Therefore. Second. we easily reach the conclusion that it would be better not to study examples of many churches. this project will not deal with all aspects of the small group ministry. the objects of the research of this project will be limited to several churches. and theoretical small group leadership development. Third. the thesis would have valuable implications on the subject. it will not cover the whole process of Gaeumjung Church’s transition into a cell-based church. It will just focus on devising a strategy for developing small group leaders. but to just study the examples of several outstanding churches. Fourth. . It will be concerned about just small group leadership development.5 THE STATEMENT OF LIMITATIONS As the statement of the problem implies. this thesis will not suggest general principles on development of small group leadership to all Korean churches. theological.

1995). the most important and the only used verb is “make disciples. Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations. . Ascending to heaven after completing the earthly life of ministry for three and a half years. baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. 12 R. . Jesus gave His disciples the Great Commission (Matt. 13 Gene A. .’”11 “Baptizing and teaching (v.”12 “Make disciples” is exactly what Jesus did while he was on the earth. 56. 414. ‘Having gone. France. New Testament Commentary: Exposition of the Gospel According to Matthew (Grand Rapids. Sharpening the Focus of the Church (Wheaton. not in a formal educational setting. Eerdmans Publishing Company. . He went everywhere preaching the kingdom of God to the multitudes. 28:19-20). teaching people who He was and demonstrating His deity by working miracles (John 20:30-31). therefore. Jesus indeed commanded the disciples to do what He did.10 In this Great Commission. even to the end of the age.” And make disciples is the kernel of the Great Commission. teaching them to observe all that I commanded you.” “literally the original says. MI: William B. . IL: Victor Books.” real-life learning situation. 1984). The Gospel According to Matthew (Grand Rapids. they further specify what is involved in discipleship. 1982). MI: Baker Book House. Getz. Scripture quotations are taken from the New American Standard Bible (LaHabra. But He also spent much of His time with twelve men He had carefully selected and then trained. Getz says that: Jesus Christ spent three and a half years ministering on this earth. . make disciples. but in a “field-type. 1985). CA: The Lockman Foundation. 999. I am with you always. Concerning this point.13 10 Unless otherwise noted. T. . 20) are participles dependent on the main verb. Though NASB says “go therefore and make disciples . make disciples. 11 William Hendriksen. and lo.6 BIBLICAL BASIS The Great Commission The first biblical foundation for small group leadership development is the Great Commission.

. 15 Hendriksen. 1002. 2001).18 Make disciples is none other than the way for a church to be a true church. 1990). 18 Bill Hull.7 It is worthy of notice that the Great Commission is given not only to the eleven disciples. as often. “it’s our marching order from God.”16 This is true in the point that the targets of the Great Commission are universal and the accomplishing subjects of the Commission are universal. 19 Getz. all churches have to be disciple-making churches and all Christians have to be disciple-making Christians. “wherever believers made disciples. 18-20 applied only to them. The Disciple-Making Church (Grand Rapids. Hull says about this point that: I believe the discipling church is the normal church and that disciple making is for everyone and every church because: 1) Christ instructed the church to take part in it. 57. 3) The New Testament disciples applied it. the church 14 France. obeying the Great Commission. 16 France.”17 Therefore. local churches came into being. 2) Christ modeled it. 412. 413.”14 Hendriksen also says that the order is “first of all for the eleven and for all ordained teachers. 17 George Barna. of course. require us to believe that the commission and the promise of vv. but also to all Christians. According to Getz. Growing True Disciples (Colorado Springs. CO: Waterbrook Press. 10. but certainly in a sense also for the entire church. In Barna’s words. 7. here.”19 When a church makes disciples. “Jesus’ universal Lordship now demands a universal mission. the whole membership. MI: Fleming H. they represent the whole body of Jesus’ brethren. Revell.”15 According to France. France says that “to accept that only the eleven were present does not.

Today’s English Version translated it as “Go.” This is as it is. must be won for God. MI: William B. 749.”22 And it is not the same as make church members. 24 Morris. what does make disciples mean? The King James Version translated it as “Go ye therefore. . The Gospel According to Matthew (Grand Rapids. make disciples is “not exactly the same as make converts. as well as the heart and the will. “Jesus is not speaking about education for education’s sake. a learner. 1992). Make disciples means that we have to make Jesus’ disciples. baptizing them .”21 Teach all nations can never be make disciples. 999.”23 It is accurate for Morris to say that “He (Jesus) speaks of the taught as ‘observing’ what Jesus has commanded. Jesus is concerned with a way of life. . A disciple is a pupil. 21 Leon Morris. As Hendriksen says. In other words. “the term make disciples places somewhat more stress on the fact that the mind. the world becomes evangelized God’s way. 749.” But this is not a precise translation.”24 Why can the Great Commission be a biblical foundation for small group leadership development? It is because “today’s disciples have discovered that a small 20 Hull. and as they multiply. and teach all nations. 9. to all peoples everywhere and make them my disciples. 23 Ibid. though the latter is surely implied.”20 Then. 22 Hendriksen. . Besides. Hull says that “when the church makes disciples at home two good things happen: Christians become healthy and reproduce. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Like Morris’ words.8 could render great services to the kingdom of God. then.

for the equipping of the saints for the work of service. and some as pastors and teachers. The primary way a disciple is developed is to enable and help them to “observe all that I commanded you. a shared discipling among several people. . i. 18. 25. 20.” (Eph.. On that occasion. diss. The process of making disciples has to be realized continuously in a small group. Son and Holy Spirit”.25 Dempsey’s comment is noticeable. He says that: This command is surrounded by three modal participles: (1) “in your going”. In this point. “the charge to a churchocentric discipling model required a community relationship. to the building up of the body of Christ.9 group remains the best discipling tools” as Hull says.” This has particular import in regard to Small Group methodology. (2) “baptizing them in the name of the Father. (3) “teaching them to observe all that I commanded you. 27 Hull. and some as prophets. 26 Rodney Dempsey. Liberty Theological Seminary. Min.e.”27 It is obvious that make disciples can get accomplished the most effectively in a small group setting.26 Like Hull’s saying.” The only way to do this is in the context of a smaller sized group or one-on-one.” But. 4:11-12 The apostle Paul said to the Ephesians “And He gave some as apostles. “A Strategy to Transition a Traditional Church Educational System to a Small Group System” (D. the Great Commission can get accomplished more effectively. Eph. this can be realized best in a small group setting. Jesus said “teaching them to observe all that I commanded you. 4:11- 25 Hull. for achieving the Great Commission. and some as evangelists. January 2004). the small group leadership development is the one of the most important factors for make disciples.

10 12). Simpson and Bruce say that “a spiritual house must grow, not by astuteness of tactics, but by spiritual agencies and methods.”28 Evidently, the offices of which Paul made mention were given to the Lord’s church for her growing. Scholars have diverse opinions concerning whether pastors are different from teachers or not. But the most part insists that they can’t be separated from each other. Simpson and Bruce say that “some follow Calvin and Owen in differentiating pastors from teachers; but the omission of the Greek article between the two substantives militates against this duplication of functions.”29 Lloyd-Jones also says that “this group (pastors and teachers) is much simpler to understand, although there has been much dispute as to whether pastors and teachers are two different offices. I agree with those who say that they are one.”30 Concerning this issue, Bruce says “the two terms pastors (shepherds) and teachers denote one and the same class of men.”31 After all, pastors are teachers. Namely, the apostle Paul said about pastors-teachers in this passage. A pastor-teacher is very significant office to the modern church as Foulkes says that “it is possible that this phrase (Eph. 4:11) describes the ministers of the local church, whereas the first three categories are regarded as belonging to the universal church. . . . Pastors and teachers were gifted to be responsible for the day-to-day building up of the church. There is no hard and fast line to be drawn between the two.”32 Lloyd-Jones also

28 E. K. Simpson, and F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians (Grand Rapids, MI: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1975), 94. 29 Ibid., 95-96. 30 Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Christian Unity: An Exposition of Ephesians 4:1-16 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1982), 192-193. 31 F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Ephesians (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1974), 85. 32 Francis Foulkes, Ephesians: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989), 127.

11 says that “here, then, are three offices (which are apostles, prophets, and evangelists) which were extraordinary and temporary. The permanent offices are described as those of pastors and teachers.”33 In conclusion, the command of equipping of the saints for the work of service, to the building up of the body of Christ has been given to the pastor-teacher. Considering that a pastor can represent a church, this command has been given to a local church. Then, we have to examine closely the connection between “to equip the saints” and “for the work of service” and “for the building up of the body of Christ.” The heart of the question is the problem whether the first, to equip the saints, is in apposition to the others or not. KJV puts the three in apposition, using same proposition for: “And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.” Re-translated Korean Bible which has been accepted as an authoritative Bible to most Korean Christians for almost fifty years since it has been published also arranges the three in a same row. But, correctly speaking, the first cannot be placed in appositional position with the others. Lloyd-Jones says that: The same word is used three times in the Authorized Version, but if we go back to the original we find that in the Greek the first for is a different word from that employed in the second and third cases. The first for is more general than the others. I entirely agree with those who say that the difference is that the first for has reference to the ultimate purpose, whereas the second and third refer to a more immediate purpose.34

33 Lloyd-Jones, 192. 34 Ibid., 197.

12 Foulkes also says that “the difference of the prepositions in the Greek is against this,35 and at least implies that the later two are dependent on the first.”36 As Foulkes points out well, “the ministry of the church is given to it to equip the saints. . . . Their being brought to this condition is not an end in itself, but for a purpose, that they may be fitted for the work of ministry.”37 Why is this problem so important? If we understand the connection between the first and the others as appositional, all tasks which are for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, and for the edifying of the body of Christ belong to a pastorteacher. But, if we understand the first, to equip (or perfect) the saints, is pastor-teacher’s job and the others are dependent on it, the others, i.e. for the work of the ministry and to build up the body of Christ (or for the edifying of the body of Christ) are jobs of all Christians as a necessary consequence. Being affected by Re-translated Korean Bible, most Korean Christians have been thinking that all of the three jobs are pastor’s. Young-Ki Chai, who is the senior pastor of Seoul Baptist Church of Houston, says that: Many pastors think that the three jobs are given to pastors. They consider that to equip Christians, to do ministries, and to revive the church are all pastor’s jobs. If we read Re-translated Korean Bible, we might think like that. Because it translated the original text into “for equipping of the saints, for doing ministries, and for building up of the body of Christ.”38 A thought of this sort leads the pastors to do excessive works and the church members to be inactive to take part in the ministries in a local church. The fact that “do
35 “This” means that the first and the others can stand in same line. 36 Foulkes, 128. 37 Ibid. 38 Young-Ki Chai, The Laity Ministry Through House Church (Seoul, South Korea: Durano, 2006), 57.

13 work of service” and “build up the body of Christ” are dependent on “equip the saints” supports the importance of small group leadership development in a local church. The job of a pastor is to equip the saints, i.e. to develop small group leaders, and the jobs of a small group leader are to do work of service and to build up the body of Christ.

2 Tim. 2:2 The apostle Paul encouraged Timothy “The things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, entrust these to faithful men who will be able to teach others also,” (1 Tim. 2:2). According to Towner, the things which you have heard from me “identifies the commodity Timothy is to pass on to others. That commodity, the things, refers to the Pauline expression of the gospel.”39 Knight points out that “Paul uses akouo to refer to his apostolic message because that message was so often given in oral preaching and teaching.”40 All of these two opinions are much the same in their meanings. It could be expressed as apostolic teaching. Timothy received an admonishment from Paul to entrust the apostolic message to faithful men. And the faithful men have to teach others without distorting or weakening the apostolic teaching. As things turned out, Paul wanted two qualifications of the persons to whom Timothy could entrust the apostolic teaching: faithfulness and desire and ability to teach others.41 The faithful men have to teach others what they get handed

39 Philip H. Towner, The Letters to Timothy and Titus: The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2006), 489. 40 George W. Knight III, The Pastoral Epistles: The New International Greek Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999), 389. 41 To use Guthrie’s words, “a loyalty to the truth, i.e. a loyalty which has been proved, and an aptitude to teach are required.” Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles: Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989), 138.

From this view point. Step 2. . 43 I. In 1 Tim.. they could be appropriate to transmit what they received from their leader. Timothy heard (apostolic teaching) from Paul.”44 Succession or to be transmitted is the kernel of the passage. Step 1. we can find at least three steps of a succession of the apostolic teaching. And those steps can be shown at Figure 2.”42 What Paul wanted to give emphasis to through this passage is that the apostolic teaching has to be taken over. 491.14 down from Timothy. Timothy entrusts what he heard from Paul to faithful men. And he/she has to help each of the members be a leader of a small group. Step 3. The Pastoral Epistles: The International Critical Commentary (New York. 2003). Marshall says that “some commentators find here the beginnings of a doctrine of apostolic succession. “the ‘others’ are distinguished from the reliable ones who teach them the apostolic gospel. Why is this passage so important to developing small group leadership in a church? The principle of succession of apostolic teaching or Christian belief can be realized in a small group setting. 137. for Timothy had heard them from Paul’s own lips. 2:2. which anticipates the outward growth and movement of the ministry. Howard Marshall. 44 Guthrie. In this case. And then. A small group leader has to pass on what he/she received from pastors or his/her predecessors to the members.”43 Guthrie also says “no doubt exists as to the precise nature of the tradition and doctrine to be transmitted. 42 Towner. NY: T&T Clark Ltd. 727. Figure 2 can be modified as Figure 3. The faithful men teach others. or. more precisely Pauline succession.

Paul Step 1 Timothy Step 2 Faithful men Step 3 Others Figure 2.15 Step 1. Step 2. Succession of Christian belief in a small group setting . Small group members can be leaders of other small groups and teach others. Step 3. Succession of apostolic teaching Pastor or predecessor Step 1 Small group leader Step 2 Small group members who will be leaders Step 3 Others Figure 3. Small group leader heard from the pastor or his/her predecessor. Small group leader entrusts what he heard to small group members.

The Triune God That God has a vision of a community sets off the fact that God Himself is the Triune God. 40. 46 Millard J. One of those evidences is elohim as God’s name. 48 Ibid. 2nd Ed.”45 “Among the religions of the world. “many believe that the doctrine of the Trinity is implicit in the use of the word elohim. it is also beyond human comprehension and has no parallel in human experience. conceived by the Holy Spirit and yet Son of God the Father. MI: Baker Books.”46 In accordance with Chafer’s words. Chafer says about the scene that: Here in the Person of Jesus Christ is God incarnate. . Like Chafer’s words. God has wanted to realize a holy community among His people. At the baptism of Jesus.16 THEOLOGICAL BASIS Theology of community God has had a vision of a community. 347. God the Son. God the Holy Spirit. 39. 47 Chafer. Erikson. Christian Theology. 39. the distinctions in the 45 Lewis Sperry Chafer. MI: Academic Books. 1998). (Grand Rapids.. to make divine community is the way to achieve God’s vision.”47 The biblical evidences that support God exists as a Trinity are very clear. Major Bible Themes (Grand Rapids. “God exists as a Trinity – God the Father.”48 We can see other evidence at the scene of Christ’s being baptized. as a name for God which is in a plural from and seems to refer to the triune God. Therefore. 1974). “while the doctrine of the Trinity is a central fact of the Christina faith. the Christian faith is unique in making the claim that God is one and yet there are three who are God.

Biblical Foundations for Small Group Ministry (Downers Grove. 1994). Ericksen says that “creation is the work of the Triune God. creation was the result of cowork of Triune God.. 52 Ibid. According to Erickson.17 Trinity are evident with God the Father speaking from heaven. The nature of community is one of the kernels of human nature. 510. . 3:16-17). 40. There is no stronger statement than this truth that supports God has had a vision on a community. 21.. 1:27). As a result.”52 On the basis of the fact that God created male and female (Gen. in dialogue with other members of the Godself. an intra-communicating group who also created humanity to exist in group intracommunication. God created man in His own image. humans 49 Ibid. 51 Erickson. and Jesus Himself being baptized (Matt. Human nature becomes clearer in a community. Therefore.”51 That is. Icenogle says that “God is described as existing in divine community. man can not cast away the nature of community.49 It is an obvious truth that God exists as a Trinity.”50 Principle of Creation We can find God’s vision of a community in His creation work. 50 Gareth Weldon Icenogle. God who exists as a community wanted to see a true community in His people. “that humans are created means that they have no independent existence. we come to know that humans are dependent on other people. That man was created by Triune God teaches us that humans are dependent on God. 398. IL: InterVarsity Press. the Holy Spirit descending like a dove and lighting upon Him. Especially.

“It is not good. That is not good made intentionally.” It is noticeable that “even though this man was in a state of sinless perfection. 2004).. 32.”55 Stanley says that “when our human-shaped-void is not filled. And at seventh time.. But. We are one with them (all human beings) in the most basic sense – our origin. . 54 Ibid. 2003). 31. MI: Zondervan. and behold. a Christian and biblical humanism that is concerned to bring others into proper relationship with God. And it was not good.” (Gen. He says that: There is a brotherhood among humans. 53 Ibid. 55 John Ortberg. 512-513. Why is it not good? “For the man to be alone. OR: Multnomah Publishers. In this point. . we can find an unexpected passage at Genesis 2.” (Gen. 56 Andy Stanley and Bill Willits.”56 This not good is never because God made a mistake in His creation work. . Everybody’s Normal Till You Get to Know Them (Grand Rapids. it says “God saw all that He had made. . Human beings were created to be in a community. 2: 18). Adam realize the importance of being together with somebody. then. . it is not good. 535. when we live life alone in isolation. we have to form relationships with other people in relationship with God.”54 In other words. 1:31). he was alone. . it was very good. that is.53 Erickson says again that “there is room. Erickson’s statement is noteworthy. The Bible says “God saw that it was good” six times in Genesis 1. God wanted to make the first man. Creating Community: 5 Keys to Building a Small Group Culture (Sisters. . The doctrine of creation and of the descent of the entire human race from one original pair means that we are all related to one another. There is an episode in the account of creation. in our theology for humanism.18 are dependent on both God and other people.

that is. and prepared a small group of men in depth to enter into His labors and bring in the harvest (John 4:35-38). Jethro. 57 Aubrey Malphurs and Will Mancini. Jesus had basically accomplished two major goals in terms of strategy: He had saturated the minds of the multitudes with His teachings. especially a small group. 2004). a community which was composed of twelve disciples.”57 Actually. Building Leaders (Grand Rapids. We come to know that all of the Israelites numbering more than 1. In that chapter. In the Gospels. 10. and the gates of Hades will not overpower it. this suggestion has been understood as on leadership development. Jesus wanted to build a holy community with divine authority which is named as church.5 million were organized into groups large and small. That is. Jesus said to Peter that “you are Peter. Moses’ father-in-law suggested Moses to “find capable men within the community to whom he can delegate responsibility for decision making. Jesus formed a group. and upon this rock I will build My church. 56. 16:18). 58 Getz. MI: Baker Books.” (Matt. Getz notes “at the end of these three and a half years. Jesus prepared God’s laborers who will do what Jesus did on this earth succeeding Him. Jesus’ pattern can be a good example of forming a community. in the Bible.”58 After hearing Peter’s confession. But. . It is never the same community as a secular community. it is also on small group because leadership cannot be separated from a group in which leadership has a meaning. The first example in the Old Testament on a small group as a community is in Exodus 18.19 Biblical Examples We can find some examples of forming a community.

2).”61 The New Testament Church is a holy community church as Packer says “we notice. Towns.’” Elmer Towns. 34. Ed Stetzer. to call. derived from ek. 61 Elmer Towns. out of. that fellowship features in the first description of the young church: “they devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to the fellowship. this megachurch couldn’t possibly meet in one house but assembled in many different households. Yet the common and special word is ekklesia. Early Christian communities met in homes for centuries. and kaleo. 11 Innovations in the Local Church (Ventura.”59 The representative examples are Jerusalem church (Acts 2:42-47). I. and Warren Bird.” (Acts 2:42). 201).000 in the Jerusalem church! Obviously. Hence the basic significance of ‘called out’ is 59 Elmer Towns.000 men counted in Acts 4:4 represented 5. “There are many words and figures of speech for Christ’s church in the New Testament. 34. and Bird say that “the New Testament church was primarily a house-church movement.000 households and included women and children in the total number of converts.62 Church as a Community Church is essentially a community. Vol.. CA: Regal Books. and Warren Bird. and Philemon’s house church (Phm. 2 (London. 34-35. Great Britain: Caledonian International Book Manufacturing Ltd. 60 “If the 5.D. Honouring the People of God: The collected Shorter Writings of J. 62 James I. Ed Stetzer. Packer. not just the first few decades (the first known church building was not built until A. According to Towns. 12. 2007). “house churches have existed since the day of the early church. Thus. and Warren Bird. Stetzer. 1998). there could be easily have been up to 25. it would be considered a house church – the first ‘mega-house church. and Bird. as we read the New Testament.60 the church in Prisca and Aquila’s house (Rom. Packer. Stetzer. 16:3-5). . Ed Stetzer.20 The New Testament church consisted of small community churches which mainly assembled in houses.

64 John F. 15:52) was united together and united to Christ by the baptism of the Spirit. 65 Erickson. Campbell. Walvoord.”63 Church is an assembly of the called out. Christ is the head of the body (Eph. 1908). . One of the most important natures of church is that church is an assembly. in this large sense. Segler says 63 Robert Duncan Culver. Systematic Theology: Biblical and Historical (Fearn. Radmacher. IL: Victor Books. that is. Great Britain: Christian Focus Publications. 1988). 66 Augustus Hopkins Strong. and all who will live and be part of his body. is nothing less than the body of Christ – the organism to which he gives spiritual life. . . 237. When the Bible says that the church is Christ’s body. 1978).”64 On this issue. “most significant of the teachings inherent in this metaphor is the relation of the Head to the body” 67 as Radmacher says. 816. 234. According to Chafer. In view of this inclusiveness we may offer a tentative theological definition of the church as the whole body of those who through Christ’s death have been savingly reconciled to God and have received new life.21 derived. Donald K. 2 (Wheaton.. Outlines of Systematic Theology (Philadelphia. 234. IL: Moody Press. . we can not overlook the importance of the implication which the metaphor has. 67 Earl D. Lewis Sperry Chafer Systematic Theology Vol. and through which he manifests the fullness of his power and grace. Ltd. a community.”66 Of course. PA: The Griffith & Rowland Press. Zuck Ed. 1044. Strong says “the church.. What the Church is All About (Chicago. “in the New Testament the church including all regenerated persons from Pentecost to the Rapture (1 Cor. Erickson says that: Obviously the church includes all persons anywhere in the world who are savingly related to Christ. the church is a community of all Christians.65 It is noteworthy that the Bible says figuratively that the church is Christ’s body. But. 2005). It also includes all who have lived and been part of his body. and Roy B. 1:22-23).

1960). where fellowship or koinonia signifies a common participation. 70 Packer.”69 In a community as Christ’s body. a community life. through the small group leaders. Theology of the Reformers (Nashville. however.22 “individuals who have experienced fellowship with Jesus Christ actually become a community of persons. or fellowship of the Holy Ghost. 9. 71 Timothy George.”71 Actually. 10. 69 Ibid. It is because a small group is a community and a church is a community. This is the primary meaning of the ‘body of Christ. in which genuine fellowship with Christ and other Christians can be experienced. a togetherness. “Fellowship is one of the great words of the New Testament. A Theology of Church and Ministry (Nashville.”70 Small group ministry can expose the nature of community of a church. Wycliff and Lollards who followed him insisted on the 68 Franklin M. 1988). the most important thing is fellowship. TN: Broadman Press. The direction of small group leadership development has to turn toward making divine communities. TN: Broadman Press. 12. Segler. It denotes something that is vital for our spiritual health and central to the church’s true life. Priesthood of All Believers Generally. We have to take part in the fellowship with Christ as the head of the body and the other Christians as the members of the body in a church. the thought that the doctrine of “Priesthood of all believers” was brought up by Luther has spread broadly like George says that “Luther’s greatest contribution to Protestant ecclesiology was his doctrine of the priesthood of all believers. . 95..’”68 The church is the “fellowship of Jesus Christ.

. or rediscoveries.”). A royal PRIESTHOOD . . Understanding Theology.”76 This was the most important meaning at the age of the Reformation.”74 Insisting on priesthood of all believers. and we are all priests to one another. 232. the Lollards set out with the primary task of studying and declaring the Word of God.23 doctrine before Luther. it is right that Kendall says “the subject of ‘the priesthood of all believers’ is one of the contributions. 2002). 76 Kendall. . 96. What does priesthood of all believers imply? At first. 74 Timothy George.”75 We can find the biblical foundations of this doctrine in 1 Pet. . . 1:6 (“He has made us to be . clergy and laity. On this subject. 73 R. 1 (Fearn. . priests to His God and Father. But. we can have “immediate and direct influence and communion with God without an earthly mediator. all believers come to share the fellowship with Jesus Christ without any other’s mediation.”72 Therefore. Great Britain: Christian Focus Publications. T. 75 Ibid.”) and Rev. there is other important implication in the doctrine. Radmacher notes: “repudiating the authoritarian position of the church and believing in the priesthood of all believers. Kendall. Vol. . In Kendall’s words. 2:9 (“But you are .”73 What does priesthood of all believers mean? Timothy George notes that “the essence of this doctrine can be put in one sentence: Every Christian is someone else’s priest. “Luther broke decisively with the traditional division of the church into two classes. 233. Timothy George says that “the priesthood of all 72 Radmacher. 57. of the Great Reformation of the sixteenth century. That is all believers have to serve God and people as holy priests.

IL: InterVarsity Press. Inc. a service as well as a status.. many churches have been negligent of developing leaders. 80 Malphurs and Mancini. New Testament Theology (Downers Grove.”77 Marshall also emphasizes this point. 11. 654.”79 A leader is not born but developed as a leader. Howard Marshall. Nevertheless. TN: Thomas Nelson.”78 The doctrine of priesthood of all believers can give us the conviction that all believers. not only pastors but also the lay believers. few are doing anything about it. 1993). Malphurs and Mancini note “though many churches have awakened to the need to develop godly. saying that “the Christian congregation is declared to be both temple and priesthood with the task of offering the spiritual counterpart of sacrifices to God. 2004). have to take part in ministries for service. competent leadership and are talking about it. .24 believers is a responsibility as well as a privilege. Developing the Leader Within You (Nashville. 78 I. 96. This truth strongly supports the importance of small group leadership development in all churches. 3. 79 John C.”80 77 Timothy George. not discovered. We can develop leader or leadership. THEORY ON SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT The question which we have to ask first of all is “can we develop leaders?” or “can we develop leadership?” The answer to this question is obvious. Maxwell says that “leadership is developed. A church can grow and be healthy because of the lay believers’ effective ministries. Maxwell.

” And it can be shaped up by servant leadership. Especially. . shepherd leadership.25 Christian leadership has to be developed in all churches. and coach leadership. Third. it will do a case study on several churches with outstanding small group ministry and find some instructions from the case study. And this thesis will make a strategy of small group leadership development by analyzing the three results of examining the church’s current situation. it will find useful suggestions on small group leadership development through a profound literature research which can be applied to Gaeumjung church’s situation. Second. this thesis will examine the church’s past and current strategies of small group leadership development and its relevancy with the church’s current small group ministry. of the case study 81 The author will give a full explanation on this subject at chapter 5 of this thesis. Then. First. It is no exaggeration to say that the level of small group leadership development determines in a church the level of the church’s growth and maturity.81 THE STATEMENT OF METHODOLOGY This thesis will take three approaches to make a strategy of small group leadership development for transitioning Gaeumjung church to a cell-based church (Figure 4). how can we develop small group leadership? What kind of leadership has to be developed for small groups? The overarching nature of Christian leadership in a setting of small group is “transformational leadership. it is not too much to emphasize the importance of small group leadership development.

theological basis. and of the suggestions from literature research on the basis of the church’s reality. In chapter 3.. biblical basis. Chapter 2 examines strategies on small group leadership development which the church has used until now and how the strategies have had an effect on the church’s small group ministry. Chapter 1 discusses the theoretical bases. Three Approaches of this Thesis For this: 1. i.e. and theoretical basis on small group leadership development. A Strategy of Gaeumjung church The Reality of Gaeumjung church Examination of the church’s actual condition Case Study Literature Research Figure 4.26 on other outstanding churches. the results of a case study on several Korean churches with small group ministry are presented. 2. 3. .

He wants to emphasize “a change of mind about how ministry is to 82 Ralph W. a review of the literatures is divided into three categories: on building small group based church. Ralph Neighbour Jr.’s book. In this book. 5. In chapter 5. Neighbour. To see abundant examples of cell churches across the globe in this book is a precious value of this book. Chapter 6 makes some useful suggestions to Korean churches on the small group leadership development. Chapter 4 suggests some instructions from literature research on the small group leadership development. TX: Touch Publications. George suggests to develop the meta-church model. learning and experiencing about cell churches all over the world for 25 years. Prescribing “the primary assignment in a cell group church is to develop Basic Christian Community. 6. 94. on small group leadership and on leadership development.27 4. THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE From the viewpoint of the peculiarity of this thesis. a strategy which would be the most effective and the most proper to the church is established.”82 he suggests that all churches become cell ministry churches. He wrote this book on the basis of what he had acquired through seeing. Where Do We Go From Here? is noteworthy. 1990). . On Building Small Group Based Church Concerning building small group based church. with Lorna Jenkins. The reason why this book is remarkable is that it plays the role of textbook on the cell church. Carl George wrote Prepare Your Church for the Future and this book has become a classic on the cell church movement.. Jr. Where Do We Go From Here (Houston. Inc.

They take a different position from Ralph Neighbour and Carl George in the point that they want to build an of-small group church. Chai is trying to spread the principle of house churches to Korean churches which are dispersed worldwide. This book is about a house church. we can get important 83 Carl F. Therefore. We can hear vivid sounds from the field about the church’s struggle and process for being an ofsmall group church. He has transitioned his church successfully into a house church since he became the senior pastor of the church in 1993 with the hope of returning to the early church. The Laity Ministry Through House Church. . MI: Fleming H. conference for pastors. Revell.84 In his book.28 be done and a change of form in the infrastructure of the church. 57. the book is a story of an actual occurrence in Willow Creek Community Church. This book guides us to understand how to apply G-12 principles in our church.org about the house church ministry including the news on seminars and conferences. Chai introduces how he started the house church and what are the principles and theological bases of the house church. 2000). and conference for the leaders of house churches.housechurchministries. Prepare Your Church For the Future (Grand Rapids. Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson’s book. hosting seminar for pastors. seminar for lay leaders. Young-Ki Chai wrote a significant book. George. Actually. This book can be a good guide book for any Korean Christians who are interested in the house church. Building A Church Of Small Group can be recommended to be read. 84 Refer to http://www.”83 And these are the very things which we can learn from the book. He is the senior pastor of Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. Joel Comiskey’s From 12 to 3 is a valuable book.

Dave Earley’s two books.Min. 8 Habits of Effective Small Group Leaders and Turning Members into Leaders match well with this thesis. i. On Small Group Leadership Oswald Sanders’ book. actually it is his D. thesis at Fuller Theological Seminary.e. Spiritual Leadership which is a classic about spiritual or Christian leadership is very valuable. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership is noteworthy. and of small group church. It explores many aspects of spiritual leadership on the basis of sound biblical foundations. Carl George’s book. The book. is published in Korean. The Role of Leadership in Church Renewal Toward a Cell-Based Ministry. nine principles for small group leader to do for being effective. Deok-Soo Kim’s book. is very meaningful and can be recommended to be read. He suggests theoretical bases for a cell-based ministry and the reasonable procedure for transition into a cell-based church in the book. The church has been transitioned successfully into a cell-based church indebted for Deok-Soo Kim’s theoretical support and this book is about the very story. South Korea.29 principles on G-12 style small group church which is different from cell church. His . This is very practical book which shows “what do small group leaders have to do?” Carl George gives us nine keys. We can get great insights on making leaders of church members and on the role of effective small group leaders. Anyone who wants to learn about spiritual leadership has to read this book. It is a story of Global Mission Church which is in Yong-In. he emphasizes the role of leadership for transition. Also. house church.

the hands. Lead Like Jesus. Aubrey Malphurs’ book. which is written by Ken Blanchard and Phil Hodges is strongly recommended to be read. Anyone who read this book will have deep insights on servant leadership. On Leadership Development First of all. Jesus. They suggest to have the heart. Those who are in positions to lead leaders need to read this book deliberately. Being Leaders is very useful book for understanding being an authentic Christian leader. Coaching Life-Changing Small Group Leaders. Actually. his understanding on Christian leadership gives us valuable insight. these books became the . Malphurs views Christian leadership from different angles. etc. Bill Donahue and Greg Bowman’s book. Developing the Leader Within You. We can get innumerable lessons on spiritual leadership.30 suggestions on small group leadership are very practical and helpful because he has significant experience on small group ministry on the basis of his 21-year-pastoring at New Life church in Columbus. It applies the concept of coaching to Christian situations very well. Developing the Leader Around You. therefore. As the founder and CEO of INJOY Group which has a worldwide leadership development ministry. In this book. OH. Jesus is the greatest model of Christian leadership forever. is a book that needs to be read very carefully. the head. and the habits of the greatest servant leader. John Maxwell’s books are very useful for understanding leadership development. he wrote many books on Christian leadership including The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork. This book gives us valuable knowledge on coach leadership. Winning with People.

31 legends at Christian leadership area. This book is full of practical guidelines on training leaders. “Blueprints for Developing Leadership at Every Level of Your Church. Actually. But this book gives not only a theory but also a lot of practical methodology on leadership development. Leadership Development in Balance and Full Leadership Development which are in the secular realm can be strongly recommended to be read because they contain science and systematic procedure of leadership development. . Building Leaders which he wrote in connection with Will Manchini can be recommended to be read carefully. He wrote several useful books on cell church. Joel Comiskey gives innumerable insights. Though this book is about training leaders. His books are full of practical and challengeable principles and suggestions on Christian leadership. Cell Group Leader Training: Trainer’s Guide. Malphurs’ book. In the book. Bruce Avolio’s books. in many cases the books on small group leadership development do not give how-tos. it has meaningful value in the area of leadership development because leadership development includes necessarily the process of training. His books are to be read carefully because they contain everything from understanding Christian leadership to developing leadership.” Scott Boren and Don Tillman’s book. Leadership Explosion is worth reading. In connection with small group leadership development in a cell church. he presents real stories of some outstanding cell churches’ small group leadership development and those stories have incalculable value. It deserves to have the subtitle. is a book that needs to be read deliberately. Especially. his outstanding book.

the most important task which is given to Gaeumjung Church is to make small group ministry vivid and productive through transitioning into a cell-based church. And the author would like to interview the pastors of the churches which are the objects of the case study. Christians are weak at scientific and systematic approach. For it. At this time. In this point. the church cannot be successive in transitioning into a cell-based church nor achieve a significant growth. SUMMARY Small group leadership development is the kernel of small group based ministry whatever the type of small group ministry is. . But it is not an easy task. the author will use questionnaire to examine Gaeumjung Church’s past and current strategies of small group leadership development on the small group leaders of the church. which the author had served as an associate pastor for one and a half years and will serve as the senior pastor. Gaeumjung Church. QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS For this project. The church has to pour its all capability into small group leadership development. The interview questions are in Appendix B. The questionnaire can be found in Appendix A.32 Generally. Without small group leadership development. the church has to stake its future on small group leadership development. is in the very middle of a significant change because it is preparing for the replacement of the senior pastor. The rest of this thesis will try to build the most effective strategy for the church on small group leadership development. these books can give great help to those who take charge of leadership development in a church.

the average adult attendance was approximately 1. However. when Young-Sik Kang became senior pastor. but became 528. In 2006. it had decreased a little to 1 The church doesn’t have a record on this fact.CHAPTER 2 ANANYSIS ON SMALL GROUP MINISTRY AND SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH INTRODUCTION TO GAEUMJUNG CHURCH On April 8. Ja-Min Koo is the Administrative Associate Pastor of Gaeumjung Church. South Korea by Jae-Hak Kwon and several of his friends.1 In 2007.2 There have been two important factors in this rapid growth of the church. 2 Ja-Min Koo in a telephone interview by author. about 300 adult members averaged attended the Sunday morning service. 1906. This is a testimony by Young-Sik Kang.691. 2007. the population of Changwon had increased in a geometric progression. The population of Changwon in 1980 was 111. Gaeumjung Church was planted in Changwon. 33 . As a result.100. the church has experienced significant numerical growth since the mid 1980s. In 1984. The first factor of growth was the growth in that particular city. The church had stayed as a small church in a typical rural district of South Korea for almost eighty years.152 in 2001. Changwon had developed as a grand-scale industrial complex since 1974 because of the heavy chemical industry brought in through the South Korean government. November 6.

accessed at November 2007. 4 Bong-Gil Kwon in telephone interview by author. SMALL GROUP MINISTRY OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH Gaeumjung Church has small groups called “Kuyeok.” The majority of the Korean churches are based on this approach.go. the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is not vitalized and has been stagnant for more than 10 years. It illustrates the state of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry for the last 10 years.535.34 509. The Kuyeok system has been used since the development of this church.4 As of 2007. 1984. Nobody knows for certain when the church developed the Kuyeok system. He is an elder of the church and a grandson of Jae-Hak Kwon who planted Gaeumjung Church.3 Nobody would deny that the growth of Gaeumjung Church was closely connected with the growth of the population in Changwon. . The second factor of Gaeumjung Church’s growth was due to Young-Sik Kang’s becoming the senior pastor on December 27. Stagnant Small Group Ministry First of all. Since Kang became the senior pastor. This can be proved through two factors. November 6. He is a living witness because he has been a member of the church for almost 65 years except when he had been living in another city for several years.changwon. Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry has several important characteristics. And he has been an elder of the church for almost 30 years. First. There have been ups and downs on a 3 www. He is presently the senior pastor of the church. the church had 87 Kuyeoks with 820 members. the church has been able to grow systematically with Changwon’s urbanization. the number of small groups and the number of small group members have not been increased considerably as we can see on Figure 5. 2007.kr.

94 8.72 9. The state of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry for the last 10 years Looking at a different angle. the number of small groups and small group members during 2007 decreased minimally compared to 2002 when both numbers were the highest. There was little change in small group members from January to October. .35 small scale. was unchanged in 30 small groups. Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Number of SG 97 112 104 101 104 97 88 84 95 87 Number of Families 740 818 803 825 826 787 767 770 816 820 Average 7. These numbers prove that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church was stagnant in the year 2007 like the last nine years. “How many adults did Gaeumjung Church assign to your small group members at the beginning of this year?” and “How many members do you have in your small group now?” In the actual number of persons attending. and 25 groups had a total decrease of 52 persons.63 7. Seven small group leaders did not respond to the questions.17 7. the result.30 7.5 the number of persons increased in 25 small groups.72 8. Noticeably.11 8.43 Figure 5. 25 groups had a total attendance increase of 50 persons.59 9.17 8. The questions for the survey are at Appendix A. according to a survey conducted with 87 small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church. and decreased in 25 small groups in 2007 between January and October (Figure 6). 2007. Gaeumjung Church had 87 small group leaders and all of the small group leaders took part in the survey. 5 This question survey was conducted in October.

“How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” How C . Figure 7 shows the responses of the small group leaders on the question. Change of the number of persons at small groups at 2007 (January through October) Secondly. Gaeumjung Church was not produc producing new small group leaders. “How long have you How been a member of Gaeumjung Church?” And Figure 8 shows the responses on the question.36 30 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 25 25 7 Figure 6.

1% of leaders have been church members over seven years.88%.07% of small group leaders have been leading the small groups over six years and 83.37 67 14 6 0 Figure 7. Responses to “How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” Figure 7 and 8 indicate that 62. Though the leaders who have been leading less than three years is 29. it does not prove that the church successfully developed new leaders because the entire number . Responses to “How long have you been a member of Gaeumjung Church?” 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 40 18 14 8 7 Under 1 Year 1-3 Years 4-5 Years 6-10 Years Over 10 Years Figure 8.

38 of small groups is all but stationary for the last three years (Figure 5). 2007 Assigned members at October. Average number of members in each case .13 6 4 2 0 Assigned members at January. Seventy nine small group .47 Figure 9. leaders were asked to respond to the following question: “How many people attend the How group meeting on average? The average number of persons who actually took part in average?” small group meetings was 6. That means that the number of existing leaders that quit only equaled the number of new leaders recruited.13 (Figure 9). This fact can be proved statistically. The other eight leaders did not respond. 2007 Members who participate in small group meetings 9. The church assigns all members to small groups regardless of whether or he not they participate in small groups. the number of members of small groups at figure 5 is not one and the same with the number of small group members who actually take part in small groups.76 9. leaders 10 8 6. Therefore. Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members Small Group ministry of Gaeumjung Church focuses on the management of the mall church members rather than on the attributes and characteristic of a successful small group ministry.

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Over 90% 70-89% 50-69% Less 50% Never attend 82 79 78 142 311 Figure 10.79%. the percentage of members who attend less than 50% of the meetings is 31. According to statistical data. small group members do . group meetings is 20. Figure 10 shows how many members small group leaders have in each case. Of course we have to recognize that the number of persons who never attend the small group meetings could be less than 3. Even if we take . there is a great difference between the number of assigned members and the number of actual participating members in small groups. Small group leaders do not have the authority to choose their own small group members.52 %. This data is in response to 68 small group leaders.63 because members are absent for many reasons. On the other hand. Remarkably.39 What does this mean? Each small group has an average of 3. this point into consideration. the percentage of members who attend at least 70% of the meetings is percentage meeting only 56. Likewise. the percentage of members who never attend small Remarkably. Nineteen responses are invalid. Percentage of members in each case Why does this phenomenon happen? It is because Gaeumjung Church’s small Church group ministry is for managing church members. but do not take part in small group meetings.79%.63 persons who are members administratively.

we cannot expect an effective and productive small group ministry even though the object of managing church members might be achieved. Six full-time ministers. From another angle. share the responsibility of small group ministry. either. small groups are organized heteronomously. Because of this characteristic. The Senior Pastor Pastor Maeng Pastor Kim Pastor Koo Pastor Park Ministers’ Small Group Parish 1 22 Groups Parish 2 22 Groups Parish 3 21 Groups Parish 4 21 Groups Evangelist Lee Evangelist Bae Figure 11. The structure of a small group ministry in Figure 11 shows that Gaeumjung Church focuses on managing church members rather than on the attributes and characteristic of a successful small group ministry.40 not have the authority to choose their own small groups or small group leaders. That means. each parish has one male associate pastor and one female evangelist. The structure of Gaeumjung Church for the small group ministry . However. not autonomously. it does not have a special team or a designated pastor for small group ministry. Gaeumjung Church has a structure for small group ministry as we can see in Figure 11. four of them are male associate pastors and the other two are female evangelists.

However.6 6 Sung-Soon Lee in telephone interview by author.41 In this structure.06% of the small group leaders say that they call the minister in charge of leading them first and foremost when they have difficulties as a small group leader. “The minister in charge of leading them” mainly denotes the evangelist who takes charge of leading each parish. The function of the female evangelists is particularly perceived more important because most small group leaders are women. 85. Figure 12 shows the responses to the question. . 2007. we do not see mentors or coaches for small group leaders. She is a female evangelist of Gaeumjung Church. According to this statistical data. The organizations to encourage small group leaders and to examine their ministries are totally assigned to the associate pastors and evangelists. one of the two female evangelists says that they do not have expert knowledge on mentoring or coaching because they have not been trained for the matters of mentoring or coaching. “Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group leader?” The total responses were 98 because two leaders did not response and eleven leaders responded twice. December 14.

Each group has a name which indicates a specific region. the Church’s church makes small groups geographically and assigns members according to their location irrespective of their ages or matters of concern. It is evident. And most of the disadvantages are related to the fact that the members do not willingly share their problems within the group. however. s A small group which consists of members in the same area has more disadvantages than advantages. that an important basis in the organization of small g groups in Gaeumjung Church is the members’ local members addresses. In general. there are small groups matters which consist of members with similar ages because small groups tend to be formed according to member’s age within some areas. Responses to “ “Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group leader first of all?” Geographically Organized Small Groups Gaeumjung Church s Kuyeok system is organized geographically. Of course. It is because they . This powerfully his proves that the church’s small groups are organized geographically. C: People appointed your mentor or coach by Gaeumjung Church D: Predecessor E: Fellow small group leader F: No one G: Others H: Invalid 12 1 B C 2 D E 3 F 2 G 2 H Figure 12.42 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A 2 74 Format Legend A: Senior Pastor B: A minister in charge of leading you.

This only represents 12. Gaeumjung Church has 76 women’s small groups.64% of all the small groups.43 cannot sympathize with each other. Women even hardly go together with their kids to the small group meetings except in unavoidable circumstances. Even though we admit that men can take part in one of the seven small groups for men and women combined. The small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church being women-centered can be proven by the fact that the church has very few small groups for men as we see in Figure 13. you could find an 80-year-woman and a 28-year-old newly married woman in the same group.36%. Gaeumjung Church had developed only four men’s small groups. . As of 2007. if you visited a small group meeting. It is a fatal defect because sharing is the life of a small group. the number of small groups for men is no more than eleven. It is just 4. “Womencentered” means that small groups of the church are mainly for women. The ratio is very low in comparison with the ratio of women’s small groups which is 87. How could an 80-year-old woman and a 28-year-old woman feel sympathy towards each other? It is a very important reason why the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church has not been vitalized. For example. Women-centered Small Group Ministry The small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is women-centered.60% of the all the small groups.

44 Number of the Whole SGs 97 112 104 101 104 97 88 84 95 87 Number of men and wives’ SGs 0 2 1 4 5 3 4 4 5 7 Number of men’s SGs 0 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 15 4 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Figure 13. Usually. This shows that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is leaning towards women.64% (Figure 13) and this is low compared with the ratio of the male church members.7 During that period. 2007 were omitted because the day was a Korean holiday equivalent to Thanksgiving weekend in USA. the average male attendance was 400. It was 37. The number of each type of small group A review comparing male members in the church to the ratio of the small groups for males were completed.9. Figure 14 demonstrates the number of attendants on a Sunday morning worship service for 10 weeks. . many church members do not attend Sunday morning worship at a holiday. 7 The data of September 23.72% of all attendants. The ratio of small groups which men can take part in is just 12.

html. which is a representative progressive daily newspaper.9 The Total 1040 1043 1095 1068 1032 1086 1049 1066 1096 1053 1062.305 hours per year.kr/arti/society/labor/214505. reported that the working time of Korean laborers is the longest among the nations which were subjects of a study in 2006. Korean males are very busy. reported that almost half of Korean laborers (49. Chosunilbo. . In fact. most of Korean male workers are busier than what official reports say about them.45 Date 09-02-07 09-09-07 09-16-07 09-30-07 10-07-07 10-14-07 10-21-07 10-28-07 11-04-07 11-11-07 Average Men 393 378 423 395 390 421 393 404 421 391 400.9 Nevertheless.com/site/data/html_dir/2007/09/04/2007090400038. The Hankyoreh.chosun. Attendants of Sunday Morning Worship Service for ten weeks One of the reasons why small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is womencentered is because men are too busy to take part in weekly small group meetings in South Korea.5%) work over 48 hours per week. accessed at November 2007. 8 http://news. which is a representative conservative daily newspaper.html. Quoting International Labour Organization’s (ILO) report. Many workers often head for their workplaces before 8:00 AM and return home after 9:00 PM.9 Women 647 665 672 673 642 665 656 662 675 662 661.8 Figure 14.co. accessed at November 2007. This observable fact makes it difficult for men to take part in small group meetings.8 It was 2. 9 http://hani.

The textbook is provided by the Board of Christian Education of the denomination which the church belongs to. Gaeumjung Church tried two times to vitalize men’s small groups. If we consider that there had been two small groups for six years before 2006.” What the small group leaders teach at meetings are not about a sermon.46 Actually. In general. the efforts in 2006 added two more men’s small groups. we can say that just two small groups survived among all the groups which were organized intentionally by the church. Because of the effort in 1999. However. There had been comparatively more men’s small groups during 1999 and 2006 compared with the other years (Figure 13). It was because Gaeumjung Church organized men’s small groups administratively during 1999 and 2006 with the desire to vitalize small groups for men. the effectiveness was not good because the life span of men’s small groups was very short. They call it “Bible Study for Small Group Leaders. Yet we cannot say that the effort put forth by Gaeumjung Church to revitalize men’s small groups ended in failure. just four groups survived in 2007. Teaching-centered Small Group Meetings Small group meetings are teaching-centered in Gaeumjung Church. men’s small groups still exists. Of the 15 men’s small groups in 2006. Small group leaders teach what they learned from the Senior Pastor. They use a textbook as their teaching material. Though the textbook contain many subjects . Teaching holds the most important program in a small group meeting in Gaeumjung Church. small group leaders have meetings on Friday and learn what they will teach after the Wednesday evening service. Just two of the six small groups during 1999 survived in 2000. Furthermore.

– Dec. “What kinds of supports does Gaeumjung Church give you for doing the job of a small group leader?” Plural responses were permitted. – Oct. An overwhelming majority of all the small group leaders say that Bible study for small group leaders was the support which Gaeumjung Church gave them for doing the job of a small group leader. – Feb. 2004 Jan. – Apr. – Aug. Nov.47 which are related to actual fields of life of the lay believers (Figure 15). Sep. Christian Personality 1 Christian Personality 2 2005 Personal Devotional Life Beginning and Development of Church Church as a community Social Life of a Christian The Apostles’ Creed Christian and Culture 2006 Church’s Offices 2007 Christian Worship The Sermon on the Mount 1 The Sermon on the Mount 2 Biblical Figures Christian’s Economic Life Heresies Mar. . “Teaching you what you teach at a small group meeting” was what got accomplished during the Bible Study for Small Group Leaders. Figure 16 indicates the responses to the question. Christian Family Christian Doctrine 1 The Lord’s Prayer Jul. Topics of the textbook by The Board of Christian Education for the last four years Statistical data show that the small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church got used to a teaching-centered small group meeting. The Way of a Disciple The Ten Commandments Gospel and Grace Christians in a Church Christian Doctrine 2 May – Jun. Human Relationship Figure 15. the small group leaders focus on teaching in the meetings.

It is because the s reality of a small group ministry and the reality of a strategy for small group leadership ality development were inseparably related to each other. Opinions of small group leaders about Gaeumjung Church’s supports for them s STRATEGY OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH It is evident that the small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church is stagnant and unproductive. We can find several important features of Gaeumjung Church s strategy in regards to a small group leadership Church’s development on the basis of a question survey of the current small group leaders in the pment church. What is the reason? We could find the reason by examining the reality of Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of a small group leadership development.48           26 82 22 5 26 2 2                   Figure 16. .

44.42. Degree of satisfaction of small group leaders on Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development The average of all the valid responses was 5. Whole Inexperienced in other churches Experienced in other churches 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Invalid Figure 17. Seventeen small group leaders served as small group leaders in other churches before being leaders in Gaeumjung Church.4%. The average of responses of small group leaders who have not served as small group leaders in other churches is 5. According to the responses of small group leaders. “Do you think the development of small group leadership in Gaeumjung Church is systematic?” They gave a grade by circling a number with 1 as the lowest and 10 as the highest.49 Very Low Degree of Satisfaction of Small Group Leaders on the Strategy According to the result of the question survey. the systematic degree of small group leadership development of Gaeumjung Church was just 54. These numerical values are shockingly very low.53. The average of their responses was 5. Figure 17 indicates the responses of the small group leaders to the question. the degree of satisfaction of Gaeumjung Church’s small group leaders on the strategy of small group leadership development is very low. Seventy small group leaders did not have experience of any sort. It .

Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” According to Figure 18. A Premodern Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development According to small group leaders. The small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church were asked “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” They were permitted to give more than one response.79 15. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or a member. Seventy six responses of the total are valid because eleven small group leaders did not respond to the question.79 6. Figure 18 shows the responses to this question. Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development has so far been premodern. Meeting of SGLs: 1) Invalid Number 60 20 12 12 12 5 11 Ratio(%) 78. E. F. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting. learning through previous predecessors was the most universal method in small group leadership development in Gaeumjung Church. Others (None: 2.50 means that the small group leaders were not very satisfied with the reality of Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development. C. It means that the development of small group leaders has not depended on systematic strategy.58 Figure 18.66 15. In . I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group ministry to be a small group leader.79 15. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which consisted of at least 3 classes. D. Responses A.95 26. B. Disciplines: 2. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one or two classes.

C.53 0 17. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or a member. it could be a proof that small group leadership has not been developed systematically and methodically in Gaeumjung Church up to the present. Responses to “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in the church which you have served as a small group leader in?” Looking at from a different perspective. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting. “What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in the church?” . E. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group ministry to be a small group leader. This phenomenon has two aspects. the small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church were asked. Figure 21 shows the response to the question including 26 plural responses.51 Figure 1910 it says it is the same in other churches. Responses A. twenty six small group leaders gave more than one response. Disciplines: 2. F. Others (None: 2. 10 Figure 19 indicates responses of small group leaders who have served as small group leaders in other churches to the question. “From whom (of from what) did you learn the most about jobs and attitudes of a small group leader?” Originally. learning through seeing which in other words is called observational learning. Secondly. However.65 23.47 23. is a very effective method for small group leadership development. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one or two classes. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which consisted of at least 3 classes. There is no significant difference between the numerical values of Figure 18 and Figure 19. B. First. Meeting of SGLs: 1) Number 13 4 0 3 4 0 Ratio(%) 76. Figure 20 shows the responses to the question nullifying the 26 plural responses. to give numerous responses to this question was not permitted.58 Figure 19.53 6. D.

42. Nevertheless.37% of all the small group leaders (49.43 % in the case of permitting the plural responses) replied that they learned most about jobs and attitudes of a small group leader from a guiding principle through the senior pastor.52 30 25 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E F G 4 6 1 16 28 Format Legend Le A: A systematic small group leadership development program B: A guiding principle of the senior pastor C: A minister in charge of small group ministry D: Predecessor E: Fellow small group leaders F: No one G: Others H: Invalid 4 3 H Figure 20. this did not mean that the senior pastor created a specific document or a . d vision statement as a guiding principle for small group leaders to follow. small leaders I . Responses including 26 plural responses According to Figure 20 and 21. Responses nullifying 26 plural responses 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A 9 43 Format Legend 35 A: A systematic small group leadership development program B: A guiding principle of the senior pastor C: A minister in charge of small group ministry D: Predecessor E: Fellow small group leaders F: No one G: Others H: Invalid 17 7 4 3 2 H B C D E F G Figure 21. In fact.

and/or through fellow small group leaders. In this case.53 group leaders were trained during the Wednesday night Bible Study on what they would teach in their small groups. Low Efficiency of the Strategy of Small Group Leadership Development According to Figure 18. Only 15.79% said they took courses that had one or two class sessions. This meant that the courses had few participators or low . In view of the results achieved so far.e.34% would be incorporated). just 26. their predecessors. the course was also clearly open to all future leaders. a minister in charge of small group ministry. Figure 20 and 21 illustrate that a great part of Gaeumjung Church’s jobs and attitudes of a small group leader are mainly seen through other persons i. These data prove that Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development has been premodern so far. its effectiveness was not good. It proves that the efficiency of Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development has been very low.78% (If plural responses were permitted a 10. Though Gaeumjung Church evidently opened systematic training courses that had three class sessions or a one or two class sessions style course. A guideline that small group leaders would consider perhaps would be through the senior pastor’s lecture.79% of small group leaders responded to learn systematically how to lead a small group meeting. Gaeumjung Church bears the marks to strive to have a systematic training course in developing small group leaders. however.66% said they took courses that integrated three classes and 15. The percentage of the small group leaders who learned from a systematic small group leadership development program was just 6.

The church does not have a team for selection and examination of new small group leaders. we can reach a conclusion that selection and examination of new small group leaders have been unsystematic and ineffective in Gaeumjung Church. The targets of the program reached 170. examination of him or her completely depends on just one person’s . Unsystematic Process of Selection and Examination of New Small Group Leaders Selection and examination of new small group leaders are very important parts in the whole process of the strategy of small group leadership development. However. However. According to Figure 18. including the three apprentices. As we can see in Figure 22. According to the author’s experience. just 15. the actual participants were less than 20 people for every class. In the point of efficiency. He prepared a program of three classes for not only the apprentices of all small group leaders who would be the next small group leader. Figure 22 shows the process in becoming a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church. Moreover. the reality of small group leadership development of Gaeumjung Church till now has had big problems. but also for the current small group leaders. a person becomes a small group leader on the bases of another small group leader’s recommendation and through an evangelist’s judgment. He took the responsibility of small group leadership development for the years following 2004.79% of small group leaders said that they took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group ministry in order to become a small group leader. the efficiency of Gaeumjung Church’s strategy of small group leadership development was very low.54 effectiveness.

Process of being a small group leader at Gaeumjung Church Inefficient Follow-up Training An effective follow-up training for small group leaders is very important because it can make up for the weak points in the strategy of small group leadership development. Recommendation A small group leader recommends somebody as a small group leader. have you ever taken any training that helped you to be a more effective small group leader in Gaeumjung Church?” . the senior pastor appoints him/her as a small group leader. she asks his/her intention. Appointment If he/she consents to be a small group leader. Inquiry of intention If the evangelist thinks that he/she is a competent person to be a small group leader. The judging minister is mainly a female evangelist. Gaeumjung Church’s follow-up trainings for small group leaders have been found to be ineffective. He or she usually recommends his/her apprentice. We cannot think that selection and examination of new small group leaders are achieved systematically. Figure 22. Judgment A minister who is in charge of small group ministry judges the person. However.55 judgment. “After being a small group leader. Figure 23 shows the responses to the question.

According to Figure 8. Nonetheless. they would serve at least for a couple of years.56               Figure 23. what kinds o training did you received?” Valid responses are 63 out up of of the 87 total responses because 23 small group leaders said that they have not taken any follow-up training and one small group leader did not respond.44%. In contrast. Responses to take follow follow-up training in Gaeumjung Church What we have to notice in Figure 23 is that twenty three small group leaders of the total. which is 26. do not take the follow up training while they serve as small follow-up group leaders. Figure 24 shows the responses to the question. they said they have not ever taken any training provided by Gaeumjung Church. “If you have taken any If follow-up training. up .

” Figure 16and Figure 24. The senior pastor teaches every Wednesday night on the topic: “What do I teach What in a small group meeting. Gaeumjung Church holds a prayer meeting for small group leaders and apprentices every two months. It is the thing which many small group leaders comment all on by saying: “spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat. 82 small group leaders said Gaeumjung Church gave them the support of teaching what they taught at a small group meeting. Responses to kinds of follow follow-up trainings Most small group leaders responded to take spiritual training through prayer meetings or retreats.06%.” But.57                                           Figure 24. the number of small group leaders and apprentices who take part in a prayer meeting does not exceed half of the total number of small group leaders and apprentices according to the author author’s experience. . which is 92. According to Figure 16. The number of small group leaders to respond this way was 58. We can find a great difference between numerical values of meeting.

the efficiency of Gaeumjung Church’s follow-up training for small group leaders was very low. the number of small group leaders who said they had taken trainings about what they taught in a small group meeting was just 39. The ratio of how to build relationships within small group members was 33. The reality of small group leadership development of Gaeumjung Church is unsystematic and inefficient.33% (21 leaders). .58 However. the ratio of how to resolve conflicts within the small group was 20. The ratio of how to lead small group meetings effectively is 55. Finally. the church was not able to develop follow-up trainings for small group leaders efficiently and strategically. The provisions of the other follow-up trainings are very low. SUMMARY Though the history of Gaeumjung Church’s small group ministry has progressed through a long period of time.63% (13 leaders). The small group ministry of Gaeumjung Church has been stagnant for a long time though the numbers of small groups and small group members have increased along with the growth of the church. The ratio of how to make an apprentice was 19. but the ministry has not been vitalized. As a result.05 (12 leaders). This difference may occur because many small group leaders do not think of this Bible study as a follow-up training.56% (35 small group leaders). The unproductive strategy of small group leadership development till now has had negative effect on the reality of small group ministry in Gaeumjung Church. Therefore. One of the reasons in this phenomenon is that the church could not have developed efficient small group leaders thus far.

59 .CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY ON SEVERAL KOREAN CHURCHES TARGETS AND METHODS OF CASE STUDY Targets Used for This Case Study The author examined nine churches1 laying stress on the development of small group leaders and their strategies and/or philosophies. the author surveyed more than nine churches to be a target church for this case study. 1 Originally. All nine churches are well known for their effective small group ministry. The target churches are shown in Figure 25. only these nine churches responded to the request positively. whether it is categorized through cells. house churches. or Kuyeoks. However.

“Results of the Case Study. To add several Presbyterian churches intentionally because Gaeumjung Church is a Presbyterian church. Church of Dream. Vineyard is used only as a name of a small group for Wonchon Baptist Church. VA Herndon. and Hosanna Church. To choose churches with various types of small group ministry like cells. Target churches of the case study Principles Used for Sampling This case study was conducted for the purpose of comparing the targeted nine churches to Gaeumjung Church concerning small group leadership development. South Korea Suwon. South Korea Form House Church House Church House Church House Church Vineyard 2 Cell Church Oikos Of-small group church Kuyeok Figure 25. 2. Hyangsang Church. Kuyeoks.3 1. the author set several principles that were used to sample this comparison. Global Mission Church. Oikos (Open Dore Presbyterian Church).60 Church Name Seoul Baptist Church of Houston Global Mission Church Church of Dream Guminam Church Wonchon Baptist Church Light Global Mission Church Open Dore Presbyterian Church Hyangsang Church Hosanna Church Senior Pastor Young-Ki Chai Dong-Won Lee Hei-Muk Ahn Seok-Kil. Open Door Presbyterian Church. 3 The concrete reasons why the author sampled these churches will be introduced in the section titled.” . South Korea Vienna. For this purpose. South Korea Gongju. Guminam Church. Of-Small Group Church (Hyangsang Church). In this thesis. The other five churches are all Baptist churches. Cheon Joseph Kim Sekyu Chang Paul Y. This principle targets the different types of small group ministry: four House Churches (Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. and Guminam Church). Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. Kim Ju-Chai Jung Hong-Joon Choi Location Houston. and the Kuyeok (Hosanna Church). The churches that are targeted by this principle are four Presbyterian churches. South Korea Pusan. etc. Cell Church (Light Global Mission Church). VA Youngin. Global 2 The Vineyard of Wonchon Baptist Church is not related to the Vineyard Movement. Vineyard (Wonchon Baptist Church). house churches. South Korea Gumi. TX Youngin.

and visitation to these churches. the author interviewed more than one person. The three churches featured in the U. which the author chose. or by e-mails. and Open Door Presbyterian Church. The names of the interviewee and method of the interview are shown in Figure 26. In other cases. Light Global Mission Church. among the nine churches are Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. In some cases. . To choose Korean churches within America in conjunction to the author’s time studying in the U. 4.S. Wonchon Baptist Church. and Light Global Mission Church. two methods were used. Church of Dream. The churches that are targeted by this principle are Guminam Church and Hyangsang Church. Methods of Case Study The methods of study. To add a few churches which belong to The Presbyterian Church in Korea as does Gaeumjung Church. were mainly interviews with the Senior Pastors or Associate Pastors in charge of small group ministry in the nine churches.S. The author interviewed the interviewees face to face.61 Mission Church. on the phone. 3.

said that they certainly knew the difference in the various types of small groups such as a Cell Church.62 Church Name Seoul Baptist Church of Houston Global Mission Church Church of Dream Guminam Church Wonchon Baptist Church Light Global Mission Church Open Dore Presbyterian Church Hyangsang Church Hosanna Church Interviewees Young-Ki Chai Kwang-woong Park Sang-Hun Cho Hei-Muk Ahn Seok-Kil Cheon Soo-Hyun Bang Young-Cheol Ahn Sekyu Chang Young-Ho Lee Paul Y. Therefore. and Kuyeok. except two. Kim Ju-Chai Jung Dong-Hoon Shin Ki-Tae Won Hyeon-Woo Park Position of Interviewees Senior pastor Head official Associated pastor Senior pastor Senior pastor One of the pastors One of the pastors Senior pastor Associated pastor Senior pastor Senior pastor Former Associated pastor Associated pastor Former Associated pastor Method of Interview Telephone E-mail Face to face and e-mail Face to face and e-mail E-mail E-mail Telephone Face to Face Telephone Face to face and e-mail E-mail Face to Face E-mail Face to face Figure 26. Of-Small Group Church. . House Church. we can trust their responses to the questions about their strategies of small group leadership development. Interviewees and methods of interview All of the interviewees. Soo-Hyun Bang of Wonchon Baptist Church and Ju-Chai Jung of Hyangsang Church said that they knew the difference to a certain extent.4 4 The questions for the interview are at Appendix B. G-12 Church.

5 Thereafter. Seoul Baptist Church of Houston has the department of House Church Ministry with an operational mission statement.org) – House Church This church is very famous for its House Church ministry. 37. . The laity ministry through House Church. Seoul Baptist Church of Houston transitioned into a House Church in 1993 when Young-Ki Chai became the senior pastor of the church. making a definite promise to start this kind of small group ministry. The mission statement says the following: 5 Young-Ki Chai. Many Korean pastors. 66 seminars for lay peoples. have held 42 seminars for pastors. on one hand has been trying to identify the ideal House Church within a church. Seoul Baptist Church of Houston has the Institute of International House Church Ministries which takes exclusive charge of the House Church ministry.seoulbaptist.63 RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY Seoul Baptist of Houston (http://www. 6 A Conference for pastors was a seminar for pastors who transitioned his or her church into house church setting. but on the other hand spread the House Church ministry among other Korean churches in the world. whether they are in South Korea or in the United States. 29 conferences for pastors. The author attended a seminar for pastors at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston in February 2007. One should understand House Church in detail because some of the churches used as targets for this case study are House Churches. the church. The church and the institute.6 and two conferences for the leaders of House Churches in spreading the House Church Movement through December 2007. with several other churches which transitioned into House Churches. say that Seoul Baptist Church of Houston stands as an exemplar of a House Church.

but also plays a core role as a model church for the purpose to establish 1. . education. what is the House Church? According to the Institute of International House Church Ministries. The purpose of the House church is to recover the vitality of the first century church’s community. The House Church is geared towards witnessing to unbelievers and in so doing. witnessing. accessed at December 2007. and mission.housechurchministries.000 House Churches by the year 2010. the following defines a House Church:8 1. It is a faith community which engages in the Christian acts of worship.” which is a Korean term meaning pasture. The department helps the Institute of International House Church Ministries not only to fulfill its mission to spread and settle down the House Church ministry.64 The House Church Ministry Department helps all Chowons and Mokjangs7 accomplish their ministries to achieve the purpose of Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. which is to win souls and to make disciples for God’s glory. 8 http://www. Then. A leader of a Mokjang is called a Mokja. 7 “Mokjang. fulfilling the church’s original purpose of “saving the lost and making disciples of Jesus Christ. 2. The House Church is led by a layman who acts as a shepherd and carries out many of the responsibilities of a full time pastor. The House Church is composed of 6 to 12 members who meet together on a weekly basis at members’ homes. Mokjang and House Church will be used alternatively. 3.html. The House Church overcomes the limitations of a passive religious church life that only focuses on worship formation and Bible study based discipleship.” The House Church accomplishes this by helping unbelievers to accept Jesus as their Lord and savior and by inviting unbelievers to be true disciples through servanthood. For this purpose. In this thesis.org/about/html/about1_1_e. which means shepherd. is a unique name for a House Church at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. the department manages information concerning each Chowon and Mokjang and sets up and carries out the operation policy and enforcement regulations according to their needs. A “Chowon” is a type of small group which consists of Mokjas and their spouses of several Mokjangs. fellowship. The vision statement of the department of House Church Ministry says that: The department of House Church Ministry collects each Mokjang and Chowon’s effective and creative ministry and operational principles and provides them to the other Mokjangs and Chowons so that Chowon and Mokjang ministry would be accomplished completely in Seoul Baptist Church of Houston.

the House Church members experience the living God and live transformed lives. The House Church model divides the tasks of the local church in accordance with biblical principles (Ephesians 4:11-12). Of course. and training laymen to carry out the tasks of witnessing. The reality of House Church ministry at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston At Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. By sharing honest prayer requests and by experiencing the grace of answered prayers. head official of Seoul Baptist Church of Houston is as follows (Figure 27): Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 1900 165 100% 100% Figure 27. The head pastor focuses on preaching. The model ordains a head pastor as an overseer of the whole faith community. as we can see in Figure 28.65 4. The laymen carry out these House Church tasks along with other church ministry activities in the church. The goal is to build an effective faith community. The members then can . visitation. 5. When the members recognize the necessity of division of a Mokjang. The layman gains understanding and becomes a partner with the head pastor by experiencing the pastor’s tasks through the successes and the adversities of serving the House Church members. the reality of the church concerning House Church ministry according to Kwang-Woong Park. The House Church calls for and provides an environment to nurture members as they learn to practice scripturally based living and in so doing members become true disciples of Christ. 6. small group leadership development is accomplished naturally in proportion to growth of the small groups. the new Mokja has been well trained by observing how the existing Mokja carries out the duty as a Mokja. they place a new Mokja amongst the members. praying. and counseling. As of 2007.

As things turn out. Second. The senior pastor approves the new Mokja chosen by the Mokjang members except in the case that a serious flaw is found in the new Mokja. Recognizing the necessity of division of a Mokjang Setting a new Mokja among the members Members choose between the existing Mokja and the new Mokja Division of Mokjang (Making two Mokjangs) The senior pastor’s approval through an interview with the new Mokja Figure 28. says that the most important strategy of small group leadership development is made up of common recognition through the members of the whole church. and the system of learning by seeing and learning by doing. the senior pastor’s role. the . First. who is the senior pastor of the church.66 choose between the existing Mokja and the new Mokja. An outlook to set up a new Mokja and Mokjang at Seoul Baptist Church of Houston Chai. the members of the whole church recognize that a House Church is a church and a Mokja is the pastor of a House Church. the strategy of small group leadership in Seoul Baptist Church of Houston is bringing up new Mokjas by letting them learn by seeing their preceding Mokjas in Mokjangs.

A member learns how to serve people by seeing the Mokja serving people and how much they have to have affection for souls. He does not think he stands in the center of the church.e. Chai presents experience of success. However.67 senior pastor takes the ministry by helping Mokjangs function as a church and the Mokjas performs the duty of the pastor rather than has his own approach. . an effective workman. encouraging them. the Mokjas of this church are those who serve people very devotedly because their enthusiasm for souls. and faithfulness as three things that are absolutely necessary to small group leaders. And a Mokja has to maintain a friendly relationship with people and be faithful in his or her actual life. It is because he thinks that the present system is the most effective strategy for his church.. Actually. Mokjas learn by seeing their predecessors’ serving. i. Third. and acknowledging the works of the Mokjas. a small group leader. sound human relationship. Chai thinks that anyone who is a successful housewife. Chai says that he is helping the small group leaders by presenting direction. And after being a Mokja. Seoul Baptist Church of Houston has held fast to these principles for over 14 years. and creating an atmosphere for them to do their ministry. The leadership of the senior pastor is highly influenced by lessening his own authority and right. those who are to be recognized must be the Mokjas. Chai says that there would be no change in his church for small group leadership development in the near future. Experience of success means that he or she who is going to be a Mokja has to be successful in his or her field of life. or a recognized resident can be an effective Mokja. they could be serving other people with great enthusiasm for souls. He also says that he makes them succeed and that all Mokjas know that.

in 2002. . according to Sang-Hun Cho. this church has transitioned into a House Church because they had recognized the present-day need for small communities in which people could share their lives with one another.jiguchon.11 As of 2007.asp. 2008.jiguchon.”10 “The pasture church” is the unique name for House Church used in Global Mission Church. Dong-Won Lee.org/english/html/vision.jiguchon. While the church has grown very quickly since it was planted in January 1994.org) – House Church Global Mission Church is the most recognized Baptist church in South Korea with 24. mission statement. accessed at January. The fourth philosophy of the church says that “the two most important aspects of the worship service are (i) Worship: where the Gospel is proclaimed and (ii) Nurturing: where teaching and admonishing takes place.org/english/html/philosophy.jiguchon. and main value statement of this church. The passion for a House Church ministry is well expressed in the philosophy.asp. 2008. accessed at January. accessed at January. the reality of the church concerning House Church ministry is as follows (Figure 29): 9 http://www.”9 Nurturing is accomplished through each House Church.68 Global Mission Church (http://www. 10 http://www. who is an associated pastor in charge of the small group ministry in Global Mission Church.org/gmc_intro/intro_vision. 11 http://www. And the main value statement of this church says that a matter of the highest priority of the church is House Church ministry. The mission statement of the church is that “all the members in our church are going to be trained as lay missionaries through the pasture church which they belong to.000 members. who is the senior pastor of Global Mission Church is winning the respect of Korean Christians as an excellent pastor and preacher.asp. 2008.

evangelism. The small group leaders continuously attend lectures with various themes about heresies. and so forth at shepherds meeting every Wednesday. He . new comers become regular members by completing the New Members Class. The church wants preliminary shepherds to learn the qualities and roles of a shepherd by observing their leaders though the church gives them qualification as shepherds by training them through a formal training system. counseling. however. The church. In this church. The church members have to complete the course for preliminary shepherds to be small group leaders.000 2. Cho says that they are not going to adopt any new program or strategy for small group leadership development. Thereafter they can become small group leaders. According to Cho. but they are planning to add systematic training program on the Bible and on leadership for the existing small group leaders in the near future. regards observation learning just as important as training. the church thinks that the most effective strategy of small group leadership development is making preliminary shepherds follow the examples of their shepherds.69 Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 24. That is observation learning and a system of learning by seeing.000 80% 70% Figure 29. The reality of Global Mission Church Global Mission Church thinks that training is the most important strategy of small group leadership development.

Church of Dream has transitioned into a House Church realizing the essence of a church community and growing as a healthy church since 1997. The Maeuljangs do the same with the parish pastors for the small group leaders who they meet with every Wednesday. and self-management are the most important qualities of small group leaders. This church deserves attention because it has become a successful House Church and has grown healthy over the period of time though Gongju. W. . serving.kr) – House Church Church of Dream was planted by F. Cho says leadership. The parish pastors regularly examine the ministry of the small group leaders who they have to take care of and encourage them at meetings on Friday every other week. is well known as a typical conservative area of South Korea. The church with the history of over 110 years is regarded as the representative of Baptist churches in the central area of South Korea. and his or her Maeuljang.70 thinks that the small group leaders would be exhausted unless they do not get spiritual and practical nutrients continuously.cod. Church of Dream(http://www. He is doing his best to develop small group leaders to have these qualities. A small group leader of Global Mission Church takes threefold supports from the senior pastor.12 The senior pastor spiritually supports the small group leaders and empowers them with spiritual authority. A Maeuljang takes care of a Maeul which consists of several pastures. Steadman. in which Church of Dream is located. his or her parish pastor. 12 A Maeuljang in Global Mission Church corresponds to a Chowon caretaker in Seoul Baptist Church of Houston. and Arma Ellmer who belonged to Ella Thing Memorial Mission in 1896.or. Sadie Ackles.

cod.”13 Figure 30 indicates the reality of Church of Dream concerning House Church ministry. 2008. The reality of Church of Dream The strategy used by Church of Dream for small group leadership development is the strategy of nurturing and recommendation.or.htm. He presents the relationship of knowing and doing.000 Mokjangs. passion and commitment to calling and ministry as the most necessary qualities needed by small group leaders.71 The passion for House Church is well expressed at the 2014 Vision of the church.000 Mokjas and 1. The church has various nurturing program and those who completed basic nurturing programs and were recommended by his or her small group leader can become a small group leader. gives emphasis to consistency of knowledge (knowing). life (being). accessed at January. and passion of the senior pastor and servant leadership of all leaders in a church make the strategy for small group leadership development most effective. and ministry (doing). Ahn thinks that a healthy ministry’s philosophy. vision. Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 1600 156 95% 75% Figure 30. vision of a healthy church and ministry. .kr/sub01/joshua. Ahn. a small group leader recommends a member who is in accord with this principle as a preliminary leader in Church of Dream. 2014 Vision has 10 goals and the fourth goal of the vision says “to grow as a House Church – bringing up 1. 13 http://www. who is the current senior pastor of Church of Dream. Therefore.

3. They are very satisfied with the current strategy. Cheon transitioned his church because he felt limitations about discipleship in his church. Intellectual influence through training to transform their sense of values.guminam. He exerts influences upon them in the following five areas: 1. 2. When Seok-Kil Cheon. He thought there were some church members who felt the disciple training program to be very hard and there were other members who did not devote themselves to church ministries. Influence of leadership through emphasizing to live for fulfilling commissions and purposes of lives Church of Dream is not planning to adopt a new strategy or program for small group leadership development because they think the current strategy is very productive. a dramatic growth began. Spiritual influence to help them experience God through impressive worship services. Cheon decided to transition the church into a House Church while he was looking for an alternative to build participation for the whole church to become involved in the church community . but rather became arrogant even after completing the program. The church faced several limitations that prevented growth as a small traditional church.72 Ahn helps the small group leaders by exercising his influence over them. current senior pastor of the church. which is a small town in the middle area of South Korea.kr) – House Church Guminam Church is located in Gumi. 4. Moral influence through servant leadership and coincidence of belief and life. transitioned the church into a House Church. Guminam Church (http://www.or. Emotional influence through impressive programs stimulating their passion and commitment 5.

Besides delegation and choice.73 and devote themselves to church ministries. As of 2007. trusts them. Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 1050 130 95% 85% Figure 31. Cheon takes an important stand of the thought in common with the small group leaders that soul winning is the most important mission given to an individual Christian and a church. and by being a prayer supporter for them. Guminam Church has 130 small groups and 85 % of the members regularly attend small group meetings as we see in Figure 31. Cheon says that: . Choice means to make the church members choose their own small group leader. Lastly. and helps them achieve the ministry God gives them. Delegation means that the senior pastor endows small group leaders with spiritual authority. he successfully transitioned the church after two years of preparing for the transition. he helps small group leaders to be more effective in their ministry by taking them out to eat. Because Cheon takes the principle of delegation as important. The reality of Guminam Church According to Cheon. The ministry of the small group leaders delegated by Cheon is very beneficial. showing his concern for the difficulties that they may face. the strategy of delegation and choice is the most important strategy for small group leadership development in Guminam Church.

Wonchon Baptist Church (http://wonchon. we can be a church which:  Nobody can hide himself or herself  All members take part in church ministry 14 Song-Woo Lee. However.74 The small group leaders in my church make me realize what I was not able think nor perceive about in respect to the lives of the church members and yet help me resolve these problems. same pastoral philosophy. For this. Guminam Church is not planning to adopt any strategy or program for small group leadership development in the near future. The three qualities are awareness of goal in accordance to the purpose of the church. It is no exaggeration to say that they play the role of a bridge between me and the church members. we believe that the numerical growth of our church is given by God. which was planted in April 30. 1995. . is a very unique church in several respects. 2006. Instead. they want to emphasize the small group leaders to share their experience and know-how for more abundant ministry. Actually. “Prepared Lay Ministers Lead the Church” Kidokkyobo.” Concerning this. We think a church which grows in accordance with the philosophy and the vision of the church is a dynamic and Biblical church. and the ability to reproduce other small group leaders through serving and love. By shifting the church paradigm from several worship services to several little churches in a church. they say that: We don’t think that mega churches are not good. same campus.org/) – Vineyard Wonchon Baptist Church. but several little churches. February 2. this is not the only pattern that a mega church holds several worship services. Wonchon Baptist Church is professedly for “same vision. According to Cheon. getting and maintaining a motive as a small group leader.14 Cheon considers three qualities important to the small group leaders in his church. we have to restrict the number of church members who take part in the worship service. The most unique characteristic of the church is that it consists of seven little churches. We think it is suitable that a church holds 10 to 15 vineyards which have 200 members including children.

The most special feature which makes the distinction between a Vineyard and a Kuyeok is that a Vineyard consists of families. accessed at January. accessed at January. All of the families that belong to the specific Vineyard come together. We limit the number of families to five families including the Vineyard caretaker’s family. A Vineyard holds meetings on a weekday or a weekend. 2008. .org.org. not with vineyards church Secure true rest to members.75     Meaningful relationships among members increase Restore family based ministry Is a church of vineyards. 16 http://wonchon. The reality of Wonchon Baptist Church 15 http://wonchon.15 Wonchon Baptist Church came about calling their small group system a Vineyard which assumes the form of a House Church to overcome the weaknesses that a Kuyoek system had since the year 2001. In relation to the Vineyard system. 2008. the reality of the church concerning Vineyards is as follows (Figure 32): Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 2400 150 85% 90% Figure 32. the church says that: We have Vineyards which correspond to Kuyeoks. The church thought that a Kuyeok system is limited to location and cannot hold the many families involved. according to Soo-Hyun Bang who is the pastor of the seventh church in Wonchon Baptist Church.16 As of 2007.

and practical exercising while being coached.76 The strategy of Wonchon Baptist Church for small group leadership development is a strategy of nurturing. the pastors train these leaders for leading the Vineyards more effectively. And the caretaker lets the vicecaretaker carry out the function of a Vineyard caretaker and coaches him or her for one year: strategy of practical exercising while being coached. During this time. The caretaker chooses a vice-caretaker after leading the Vineyard for a year. Therefore. . the church makes a Vineyard with five families which lasts for two years. After the two years. what the pastors are teaching the caretakers relates to these three areas. learning by seeing. serving. They are not going to adopt new strategy or program for small group leadership development in the near future because they think that up to now. Bang thinks commitment. Vineyard caretakers and vice-caretakers try to understand the difficulties faced in Vineyards and find out ways to overcome the difficulties. Each Vineyard has a Vineyard caretaker. Of course. and leadership are absolutely necessary to the Vineyard caretakers. Bang thinks it is the most effective strategy for small group leadership development to pick out the next leaders at Vineyards. the current system has been the most effective. In general. The pastors of the little churches in Wonchon Baptist Church hold meetings every Sunday morning while the general members are attending Sunday school. the vice-caretaker would make observations for one year on how the caretaker had led the Vineyard and taken care of the members: strategy of learning by seeing. The one who completed several nurturing courses of the church can be a vice-caretaker: strategy of nurturing. the caretaker and the vice-caretaker divide the Vineyard and make two Vineyards.

jiguchon.77 Light Global Mission Church (http://www. As of 2007. Light Mission Church was planted by Moon-Sub Song in 1977 and Virginia Global Mission Church was planted by Sekyu Chang on December 1. 2008. currently known today as the Light Global Mission Church. This church concentrates all resources and endeavors solely for these purposes. the church has recorded 710 adult church members (Figure 33). serving. 2000. accessed at January. worship. The fourth vision among the nine visions of the church says. He formed a Cell Church integrating the two churches. Light Global Mission Church is a fast growing cell church. the church has five purposes: graceful worship service. Sekyu Chang planted Virginia Global Mission Church with a clear vision of a Cell Church. Moon-Sub Song retired from his post and Sekyu Chang became the senior pastor of the integrated church when the two churches became one church. 18 http://www.17 The passion for Cell Church of Light Global Mission Church appears in this very vision statement. .net. and evangelize. accessed at January. training.”18 Light Global Mission Church is famous for their healthy Cell Church. However.jiguchon. associate with each other. forming communities. the average number of 17 http://www. The mission statement of Light Global Mission Church is to make non-Christians fully-devoted-disciples of Christ. The church has hosted a Cell Church Conference three times since 2005 to spread the cell church movement among Korean churches in the USA.net) – Cell Church Light Global Mission Church came into the existence when Light Mission Church and Virginia Global Mission Church became one church on March 1. and fulfillment of calling. “it is our dream to be a church with hundreds of other cell churches in which we can experience the power of the Holy Spirit.net.jiguchon. 2008. For this mission. 1996.

a healthy marriage involves a man and a woman getting married and having babies. It means that approximately 600 non-Christians or at least non-members attend the Sunday morning worship service in Light Global Mission Church. The reality of Light Global Mission Church The strategy of Light Global Mission Church for small group leadership development is a strategy of natural development of small group leaders. The potential Mokja is encouraged to 19 Light Global Mission Church has 40% of regular church members who belong to small groups.” How then does a member become a Mokja in this church? A current Mokja seeks out a potential Mokja in his or her Mokjang. a healthy Christian will naturally grow as a Mokja and shepherd his or her members. Those who usually live a healthy Christian life can become Mokjas.300. Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 710 (1300) 100 40% (50%) 40% (50%) 19 Figure 33.78 attendants on Sunday morning worship service is 1. In general. It reaches 50% of the whole Sunday morning worship service. Chang frequently says to the church members “don’t be Mokjas if you need to be charged for being Mokjas. In this church. the percentage of church members who belong to small groups is the same with the percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings. Likewise. But. Chang says church members with healthy faith and life are naturally set as the Mokjas. It corresponds to 284 members. They are those who have developed an interest in the church through their involvement in small groups. actual number of those who belong to small groups is 650. .

Chang empowers them totally. Therefore. The existing Mokja and the new Mokja make two Mokjangs by dividing their group. but because it is right. Open Door Presbyterian Church (http://opendoorpc. he helps the small group leaders through reminding the church members of his pastoral philosophy on a Cell Church by various methods at every opportunity. He casts his vision by doing this and empowers the small group leaders to do their ministry in accordance with the church’s vision. 1984. The senior pastor always approves the new Mokja because he is to trust all Mokjas in his church. He thinks that the senior pastor has to empower the small group leaders and not delegate to them to do their ministry. That person is set as a new Mokja when he or she accepts the Mokja’s exhortation. Mokjas leads their small groups and serve the members with a weighty responsibility and an awareness of mission.79 become a Mokja after being spiritually led. Chang adheres to this strategy not because it is the most effective for small group leadership development. The name of the church when it was planted was Korean Orthodox Presbyterian Church. and having compassion on the souls of people.org) – Oikos Open Door Presbyterian Church was planted by Chai-Gon Park as the leader on January 1. These three are having the same vision with the senior pastor. . To help small group leaders do their ministry effectively. The church set Paul Kim as the Senior Pastor on November 29. The existing Mokja becomes the mother Mokja and the new Mokja becomes the daughter Mokja. willingness to serve people. Chang presents three matters as absolutely necessary qualities to the small group leaders. Also. He does not have any thoughts to change this strategy in his church at this time.

a family. 2002. An Oikos heads a small community. they made a transition into a small group based church because they thought Kuyoek system was ineffective for the church members in encouraging one another through the sharing of their lives. 3. generations. and is a place where non-Christians can come in without feeling rejected.org/KC/sub3-3. Refuge: We believe in church as a hospital. 2008. Body: We believe every member should build up the body of Christ with their God-given gifts (1 Peter 4:10). a small group based church would achieve real life discipleship. but also exchanged among his people.20 20 http://www.php.” The second saying. On the other side. . The church has a motto which says. 2. grace extended. Open Door Presbyterian Church has a small group system which is called Oikos.80 1992 and was transitioned into a small group based church when changing its name to Open Door Presbyterian Church on April. is related to the small group ministry of the church. and cultures (Ephesians 2:19). grace exchanged. where broken people can come as they are and find refuge and healing (Matthew 11:28-30). the church states the following: We believe that to fully experience life-changing grace. Household: We believe that church should be a spiritual household where there are diverse seasons of life. According to Kim. grace exchanged. a small family in a big local church. it must not only be received. In reference to this. or a household. They explain Oikos like: Oikos is a Greek word which means a house. accessed at January. 4. is a place where the lay believers do their own ministry.opendoorpc. Relationships: We believe that loving relationships should flow through every aspect of church life (1 John 3:11-17). We hold to the following values: 1. “grace encountered.

.81 Their effort to be a small group based church can be also found in the policy of the church. and a sensitivity to feel the needs of others are the most important qualities needed for small group leaders.250 adult members and 80 small groups. Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 1. and creating an atmosphere for small group ministry. this church has 1. They laid down a policy that only those who receive much recognition as leaders in the small groups can be selected as church leaders like elders and deacons. Besides training and verification. Paul Kim thinks that the attitude to serve humbly. they believe it is a very important strategy for small group leadership development to create an atmosphere to love and reflect on the people. a mind to love people. As we can see Figure 34. verification of fellow members in a group. They prepare small group members as small group leaders by helping them understand the basic Christian belief and accustom them to a spiritual atmosphere of the church through the programs created for all the church members.250 80 80% 70% Figure 34. The reality of Open Door Presbyterian Church The three strategies which Open Door Presbyterian Church regards as the most important for small group leadership development are training. They are set as small group leaders when other members verify that they are good candidates as leaders. 80% of the church members belong to small groups and 70% of the church members regularly attend the small group meetings.

3.com) – Of-Small Group Church Hyangsang Church was planted by Jamsiljoongang Church on October 15. Joo-Chai Jung. Since the planting of Hyangsang Church. 2. The senior pastor of the church is helping the small group leaders by: 1. Hyangsang Church (http://hyangsang. rather than a small group community with the attributes of a true church. They are satisfied with the current strategy of small group leadership development. it has been striving to become a healthy church through the senior pastor. 4. Letting them conquer their own shortcomings in ministry and solidify their own strong points through fellowship with fellow small group leaders. As of 2007. Offering an opportunity to be recharged through an annual retreat for the all small group leaders.82 Open Door Presbyterian Church is taking no action in introducing any new strategies or programs for the small group leadership development in the near future. 5. 2000. Encouraging them through the regular meeting with parish associate pastors. Giving them opportunities to visit other outstanding small groups of other churches and learn to lead small groups more effectively. Recognizing that the Kuyeok system is a device for church administration and management for church members. Encouraging them and sharing the vision for Oikos ministry through monthly meeting. the reality of Hyangsang Church concerning small group ministry is as follows (Figure 35): . Jung has been trying to build the church up as a small group based church since 2003.

Jung says that the most important strategy for small group leadership development is learning by doing their own ministries and by seeing competent small group leaders do their ministries within the church.83 Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 1800 138 Almost 100% 35% (60%) 21 Figure 35. however. says that Hyangsang Church decided to hold small group meetings every Sunday afternoon since March. Those who complete Shepherd School can be small group leaders in Hyangsang Church. Basic doctrine course. The church has various programs for discipleship like Beginners course. However. which Hyangsang Church adopts and uses. and Disciples course. In this case. His response was Biblical confession of faith. who had been an associated pastor in charge of small group ministry at this church for seven years. Hyangsang Church holds small groups meetings instead of Sunday afternoon worship service once a month. 2008. and serving through sacrifice. mature personality. Bible inquiry course. These three are the most important themes taught in Shepherd School. the strategy for small group leadership 21 The small groups generally hold meeting on a weekday in Hyangsang Church. Dong-Hoon Shin. In this case. As a result. Meditation course. Jung was asked what three things were absolutely necessary to small group leaders. is qualification through training. the percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings is 35%. does not rely too much upon the training system. Hyangsang Church. . the percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings is 60%. The ones that complete these courses are encouraged to apply for Shepherd School. The reality of Hyangsang Church The strategy for small group leadership development.

which is a Korean term indicating a garret. Hosanna Presbyterian Church calls their small group a Darakbang. practical exercise. South Korea. Hosanna Presbyterian Church (http://www.hosanna21. This church is an exemplary Presbyterian church in Pusan. a Darakbang is not different from a Kuyeok. the associate pastors formulate the small group leaders to prepare their ministries by training them and instructing them in what they will teach in their small group meeting. A Darakbang is a very beautiful group which makes members devote themselves to each other in Christ by sharing one another’s thoughts and life circumstances. Every member develops a feeling of belonging to a community. It is a group in which all members learn and share God’s Word with learning materials which were developed by Hosanna Church. and observation learning. 2008. 1945. Mainly. A welltrained and mature small group leader leads each group.22 22 http://www.com) – Darakbang Hosanna Presbyterian Church was planted by Pastor Jin-Hyeon Noh on December 2. which is essential to the growth of one’s faith and builds personal relationship with other members in the group. It might be because they are gaining satisfactory results in this area. Jung is helping the small group leaders by letting the associate pastors take charge of the small group ministry by leading small group leader meetings every Wednesday morning for women and Wednesday evening for men. a Darakbang is a small group which is organized regionally. Darakbang is defined as follows: At Hosanna Presbyterian Church.84 development of Hyangsang Church consists of training. . However. accessed at January.hosanna21.com. A Darakbang is a name given to the small groups of Hosanna Church which corresponds to Kuyeok of other Korean churches. Jung says that he does not give consideration to adopt any strategy or program for small group leadership development in the near future.

In general. But.85 The small group ministry is in superb harmony with the discipleship ministry in Hosanna Church. those who are in the ministry training become small group leaders when that church needs to set new leaders urgently. Of course they have to have small group experience. The leader then has to take a one-year-course of ministry training offered by the Discipleship Ministry department.23 23 Sometimes. Hosanna Church has 700 small groups and 99% of the church members belong to small groups and 55% of church members regularly attend small group meetings as we see in Figure 36. the leader picks out a preliminary leader who has been a member in the group for over two years. . the discipleship ministry builds well-trained small group leaders. the case like this is exceptional. Number of adult members Number of small groups (House Churches) Percentage of church members who belong to small groups Percentage of church members who regularly attend small group meetings 5700 700 99 % 55 % Figure 36. The groups find those who are able to partake in the discipleship training and hence. Only those who have completed the training are eligible to be small group leaders in this church. The reality of Hosanna Presbyterian Church The current strategy of Hosanna Presbyterian Church for small group leadership development is bringing up the leaders through discipleship ministry. the preliminary leader completes a one-year-course of disciples training. In each group. The small group leaders produced through discipleship ministry are themselves devoted to the small groups in this church.

Therefore. Therefore. Since 2007. A small group leader has to teach and nurture the members and make a new small group by reproducing a new leader. Hong-Joon Choi. They think the current strategy in the development of small group leadership and follow-up measures is very effective. the leaders share their difficulties and experiences of success and pray for each other. who is an associate pastor in charge of the small group ministry in Hosanna Church. In particular. First. Finally. small group leaders are taught to understand the principles of small group ministry. At a meeting. says “Pastoring members is the most important ministry of a small group leader. he is trying to encourage them consistently. which eliminated the Sunday evening service. Then.” This church thinks small group leadership development is most effective when all the church members have the same vision and mission of the Church. For this. he makes efficient use of small group leader meetings. they are not planning to change their . Ki-Tae Won. who is the senior pastor of Hosanna Presbyterian Church. The meeting is held at 4:00 pm through 6:00 pm every Sunday.86 The reason why Hosanna Presbyterian Church stresses ministry training is because the church requires them to do their ministry effectively. Secondly. the parish pastors discuss matters about ministries of the leaders. their ministry is required to be in accordance with these principles. Hosanna Presbyterian Church has held meetings after the Sunday evening service. they effectively exercise small group leader meetings every Sunday afternoon. He empowers and gives them self-esteem through encouragement. makes two approaches to help small group leaders. encourages and recharges the leaders. Choi teaches.

87 strategy. Won suggests compassion for the souls of people, a serving attitude and life, and earnest prayer are absolutely necessary for small group leaders at this church.

GENERALIZATION OF RESULTS OF THE CASE STUDY We can extract several important principles of small group leadership development, which are seen commonly at these nine targeted churches. The principles are: 1. The senior pastor has to have a clear vision towards small group ministry for his church and create a proper climate in accordance with this vision through sharing it with all the members of the church. 2. A healthy, new small group leader naturally comes into being in a healthy small group which a healthy leader leads. A potential leader experiences a small group gathering and learns by the example of the current leader. 3. The senior pastor has to empower small group leaders. The senior pastor has to be a leader who develops other leaders that work together rather than leaders who work alone. 4. The system for small group leadership development has to be in harmony with the nurturing system of the church. Healthy small groups cannot exist without effective nurturing system. 5. Durability of the system to develop small group leaders is very important. A church has to develop an effective strategy well-matched to its vision in order for the small group ministry to maintain long time efficiency program. 6. To hold regular and frequent meetings of small group leaders is important. 7. A formal training class before beginning to serve as a small group leader is required by three of the churches

There are two matters that leaders must pay attention to, though not found at all the targeted churches. First, the right to choose a leader or members can develop good small group leaders. A small group leader has to have the right to choose his or her own members. And members have to have the right to choose their own leader. The majority of Korean churches, which have the Kuyeok system, overlook its importance. Second,

88 there must be consideration for having special training programs to produce competent small group leaders such as Global Mission Church, Hyangsang Church, and Hosanna Presbyterian Church. The importance of effective follow-up measurements for small group leaders is worthy for notice, although they are not directly related to the development of small group leadership. Most targeted churches have significant follow-up measures. The follow-up measures contain: 1. Regular encouragement of the senior pastor (and the parish pastor) 2. Spiritual guidance of a mentor or a coach 3. Sharing the difficulties and experiences of success at a meeting with other small group leaders 4. Offering opportunities to learn what the small group leaders need for their groups such as leadership skills, counseling techniques, or Biblical and theological knowledge.

Figure 37 shows the responses of the nine pastors to the question asking about qualities absolutely necessary to the small group leaders. As we can see in Figure 13, the item with the highest frequency is self-sacrificing attitude toward others such as serving others and having compassion on souls. The next highest priority was personality and actual life of a small group leader.

89
Rank according to frequency 1

Item self-sacrificing attitude toward others Personality and actual life

Frequency

Breakdown (Frequency) Serving others (7) Compassion on the souls (3) Human Relationship (1) Life based on Christian belief (3) Personality (2) Leadership (2) Mission and vision (3) Commitment to the ministry (3) Reproduction of new leaders (1) Confession of faith (1) Prayer life (1)

11

2

7

3

Ministry

6

4

Etc.

3

Figure 37. Responses of the nine pastors to the question if qualities are absolutely necessary for small group leaders SUMMARY The result of the case study gives very valuable insights on the development of small group leadership. It says to us that we cannot create an effective small group ministry without producing competent leaders consistently. It also says that we cannot produce competent small group leaders without keeping up an effective system wellmatched to the characteristics of a church and its small group ministry. For producing competent small group leaders consistently through a durable system in the development of small group leaders, we have to pour all our energy and resources of the church. To this point, the small group ministry is not a program for the church. It is a matter of life and death for the church. There is no short way in developing competent leaders in a church.

CHAPTER 4 LESSONS FROM A LITERATURE RESEARCH ON SMALL GORUP LEADERSIHP DEVELOPMENT

A literature research is absolutely necessary to map out a strategy for small group leadership development. This is because we can obtain inscrutable values that cannot be attained through field analysis and case studies. In this chapter, the author suggests 12 helpful lessons related to the subject of this thesis which were collected through the literature research on small group leadership development.

PERCEIVE THE URGENCY AND IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING LEADERS Without developing competent small group leaders, the success in transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church is nearly impossible. It is because “the issue of leadership is central to a church’s understanding of small group ministry.”1 Donahue and Robinson agree to this view. They insist that “an emerging small group ministry cannot succeed without a commitment to effective leadership deployment.”2 Leadership development is the first and foremost task in transitioning to a cell-based church. We need to listen carefully to Stetzer and Dodson, who say, “while everything rises and falls

1 Jeffrey Arnold, Starting small groups (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1997), 25. 2 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson, Building a Church Of Small Groups (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001), 122.

90

155.”5 If we seriously want to transition a traditional church to a cellbased church. 101.91 on leadership. Home Cell Group Explosion (Houston. 56. TN: B & H Publishing House. . but also the leadership development of a small group requires a well-planned strategy.”4 If we want to successfully transition to a cell-based church and if we want to get plentiful benefits through effective cell-based ministry. Donahue and Robinson warn us by saying. we have to develop competent small group leaders. it could be more accurate to say that everything rises and falls on leadership that develops other leaders. Not only is the transitioning process important. 4 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson. 2002). It is nonsense that we do not develop small group leaders and yet expect a successful small group ministry. new leaders must constantly be sought and released. prepared leaders. you’ll have two chronic problems: way too many unshepherded people and not nearly enough qualified. APPROACH STRATEGICALLY We need to approach strategically in developing competent small group leaders for a transitioning cell-based church. MI: Zondervan. “when you neglect ongoing leadership development. 5Joel Comiskey. It is the first and the most important task in transitioning.”3 It is very dangerous to transition when small group leaders are not ready. Malphurs and Mancini define leadership development as “the intentional process of helping established and emerging leaders at every level of ministry to assess and develop 3 Ed Stetzer and Mike Dodson. we have to prepare potential leaders and develop them into competent leaders. The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry (Grand Rapids. Comeback Churches (Nashville. Comiskey is right in saying that “if cells are going to multiply rapidly. 2007). TX: Touch Publications. 1988).

” J. Leadership (Kansas City. 10 C. Peter Wagner. It increases efficiency. It helps measure effectiveness. 8 Dave Earley. 95. It helps others. . John Yarbrough deplores in saying that “many dreams remain little more than glorified wishes because they are never translated into concrete statements and a systematic plan is never developed to translate the dreams into reality.” they urge us to approach leadership development in a church setting very deliberately and intentionally. 1987). 69. 5. what kind of advantages can we get through strategic planning? Peter Wagner says we can obtain six advantages when having a strategy in a church. TX: Cell Group Resources. reinforce.”6 Through the term “intentional process.8 As Neil Wiseman says. 23.”9 Then. TN: Convention Press. The six advantages are: 1. 32-34. It unites the team. they’re not sure how to do it.”7 Dave Earley also says that: If leadership is the determining factor. They need a practical strategy to make it happen. 1979). 9 Neil B Wiseman. 3. 7 John Yarbrough. Visionary Leadership for Church Growth (Nashville. why do few small group leaders effectively multiply themselves by developing effective leaders? I believe it’s because. (Compiler). 6. MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City. “Visionary Leadership: The Planning Process. “hard work without planning produces a blur of activity – motion without direction. 10. 2. 2001). Strategies for Church Growth (Ventura. and refine their ministry knowledge and skills.92 their Christian character and to acquire. 1991). It permits midcourse corrections. 4. even though most small group leaders have a passion to be used of God to raise up effective leaders. Turning Members into Leaders (Houston. Building Leaders.10 6 Malphurs and Mancini. Truman Brown Jr. It makes accountability natural. CA: Regal Books.

An effective strategic plan is continuous process by which a church is kept on course. we can have a good and an effective strategy by having a precise diagnosis of ourselves. 2003). In sum. 2. Marshall’s advice on common characteristic shown in his model of effective strategic planning could be a great help to those who are in mapping out a strategy. Where we want to be? (Vision and Goals) What we do? (Strategic Plan) Where we are? (Current Reality) Figure 38. He says that: 1. . To this point.11 We can put Marshall’s strategy thoughts into a form of a diagram as show in Figure 39. Mapping Your Church Strategy (Nashville. It answers the question: How do we get from where we are to where God wants us to be? The gap between where we are (current reality) and where we want to be (vision and goals) is what we do (strategic plan). a clear direction. 9. An effective strategic plan is directive not restrictive. A strategic plan will describe in terms of action steps how to turn God-inspired dreams into reality. and a drastic plan. A diagram on strategic plan It is never an easy task to map out a practical and an effective strategy. TN: LifeWay Press. 11 Mark Marshall. strategy is defined as follow: A strategic plan is the description of how to get from where your church is to where God wants it to be.93 According to Mark Marshall.

5-8. 9. An effective strategic plan is simple. 85. The New Reformation (Grand Rapids. Greg Ogden argues “if the church is to be a ministering community. 15 Greg Ogden. 1990).12 RECOGNIZE THE SENIOR PASTOR’S ROLE Responsibility for Developing Leaders in the Church The senior pastor has the responsibility for developing leaders at every level in the church. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. Courageous Leadership (Grand Rapids.”15 According to Barna. 5. An effective strategic plan leads to immediate action. growing church who is not committed to moving the spotlight off himself and onto the people who must do the brunt of the ministry: the 12 Ibid. Earley says that “the key to our church’s future would be the ministry we could raise up others to do. I discovered that leadership development is the determining factor for maximum impact. 2002). Turning Members into Leaders. 13 Earley.”14 It is exactly the pastor’s job to develop leadership at the church. the pastor must be an equipper who empowers God’s people to fullness of service.. 14 Bill Hybels. 4.”13 Bill Hybels claims “it is simply that people with the gift of leadership are uniquely equipped to come up with strategies and structures that provide opportunities for other people to use their gifts most effectively. An effective strategic plan involves those who must execute the plans. In particular. “it is rare to find a pastor leading a healthy. . MI: Zondervan.94 3. 26. a senior pastor who wants to transition the church into a cellbased church has to develop competent small group leaders.

however. 17 John C. 1993). TN: Thomas Nelson. a lead navigator. 22 Paul Yonggi Cho. 50.95 laity. 61. Turn-around churches (Ventura. 2005). CA: Regal Books. 45 Pastoring Years of Hope (Seoul. 20 Mark Marshall.”18 And he continues to say “I am convinced that the point or senior pastor should be the primary leader and person responsible for the planning process.”17 The Senior Pastor as a Point Leader The senior pastor has to be a point leader both for transitioning his or her church to a cell-based church and for developing leaders in the church. 153. 18 Aubrey Malphurs. 27.”21 Of course. The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry. Advanced Strategic Planning 2nd Ed. Malphurs says “strategic planning requires a strategic point leader.”20 Donahue and Robinson comment that “a point leader is someone who carries the responsibility for embedding small groups in the church. . Developing the Leaders Around You (Nashville. “a leader’s success can be defined as the maximum utilization of the abilities of those under him. 1995). Inc. 15. If you are the pastor. 2006). you must take the lead in this process.. Maxwell. Paul Yonggi Cho says “it is the pastor’s job to motivate the church members for revival and growth of the church through home cell groups.”22 16 George Barna. 63. In South Korea. 15. Korea: Institute for Church Growth. the senior pastor has to be the point leader.. but a minister who is in charge of the small group ministry in the church. (Grand Rapids.”19 Marshall points out “one of the major reasons for failure in strategic planning in many churches is the lack of leadership and support by the pastor. 21 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson. the point leader who they are referring to is not the senior pastor.”16 As Maxwell says. MI: Baker Books. 19 Ibid.

Therefore. Learning to Lead 3rd Ed.”23 Oswald Sanders says “leadership is influence. NY: Basic Books. 193. Elders and leaders (Chicago. Getz says “in order to communicate biblical truth in all its fullness. how can we influence others without their trust? Leaders have to “understand that building trust is their main objective. IL: Moody Publishers. 24 J. Paul exemplified a twofold teaching approach in his own life-on-life ministry – modeling Christ’s likeness while verbally instructing believers. 31. (New York. relationship. It is because “trust provides the motivation and energy that makes it possible for organizations to be successful. Character is the most important thing. and Joan Goldsmith. it is essential for the success of the transition that all the church members trust the senior pastor who leads the transitioning process. To get the trust of the church members is the most important thing that the senior pastor must do. 2003). 27. 1994). Weems says “when lay persons are asked what they want most in pastors. . passion and commitment. Oswald Sanders. 144. and spirituality.27 character. 2003).”24 Then.”25 How can the senior pastor earn the trust of his church members? The only one way to earn the trust of others is by his or her actual life.96 Trustworthiness of the Senior Pastor It is accompanied by a risk to transition a traditional church into a cell-based church. Getz. IL: Moody Press.”26 We can place all factors of the senior pastor’s real life under six categories: vision. 25 Bennis and Goldsmith. attitude. Spiritual Leadership (Chicago. The author will explain about vision at the next part. the characteristics that rank highest always are those that 23 Warren Bennis. The senior pastor’s teaching or vision casting without support of his or her real life is vain. 26 Gene A. 27 Vision is very important to the leaders.

33 Jimmy Long. Hall. and so forth. Weems. you will find that they almost always possess a positive outlook on life. Stephen J.”32 Spirituality is absolutely required to Christian leaders. 90. 166. 30 John C. “Nothing can take the place of passion in a leader’s life. Patty Pell. 31 Ibid. accountability. Inc. these competencies are part of the leader’s development. 164. IL: InterVarsity Press.97 describe the pastor as person. however..”28 Le Peau also says “character. Maxwell says “if you look at the lives of people in any profession who achieve lasting success. morality. Paths of Leadership (Downers Grove. Jr. Halpin. Especially. 29 Andrew T. humbleness. 1999). 1983). Leader Development for Transforming Organizations (Mahwah. Le Peau. Too many times leaders attempt to carry out their responsibilities without the empowering times of fellowship with God. 1995). 1993). Sara Keiper. Identity. Attitude is as important as character. That is. “Your spiritual life (spirituality) is foundational to your life as a leader. Nina Thiel. According to Maxwell. Zaccaro. and Leader Development. Douglas Hall says “as relational competencies grow. 2004). 125. Day. and Stanley M.. The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader (Nashville. . positive outlook on life. and attitude to take responsibility willingly are very important to the senior pastor. Small Group Leaders’ Handbook (Downers Grove. Church Leadership (Nashville. the person’s leadership capacities are correspondingly enhanced. must always come before technique and must always rule over it. TN: Abingdon Press. and Doug Whallon. Ed. 92.. reliability. loving people. The church members work in the relationship with the senior pastor. Ann Beyerlein.”29 Character contains integrity. TN: Thomas Nelson. “Self-Awareness. 32 Douglas T. Maxwell.” David V. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. IL: InterVarsity Press.”31 Relationship is also necessary to the leaders..”33 28 Lovett H. 83.”30 Passion and commitment to a vision brings incalculable trust to the senior pastor.

“without vision. NJ: FT Prentice Hall. . 2003). 2001). 31.”34 As this proposition demonstrates. 37 Burt Nanus. CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. It is because “there is no more powerful engine driving an organization toward excellence and long-range success than an attractive. 35 George Barna.98 DEVELOP A VISION AND COMMUNICATE IT EFFECTIVELY Develop a Vision Barna says. The Power of Vision (Ventura. CA: Regal Books. and achievable vision of the future. worthwhile.”35 Black and Gregersen say “the clearer the new vision. 1992). and significant challenges. “vision is to a leader as air is to a human being: Without it. According to Barna. and Hal Gregersen. self and circumstances. Leading Strategic Change (Upper Saddle River.”38 According to Barna. 24. 3. meaning. The Power of Team Leadership (Colorado Springs. Courageous Leadership. “vision for ministry is a clear mental image of a preferable future imparted by God to His chosen servants and is based upon an accurate understanding of God. people lose the vitality that makes them feel alive. you die. the church members can know where they are going and what they have to do. Inspires people by providing them with hope. 2003). 37. 36 J Stewart Black. 70. 34 George Barna. Visionary Leadership (San Francisco.”36 A vision is needed more when a church is undergoing a serious change like transitioning into a small group-based church. CO: Waterbrook Press.”37 On the contrary. the easier it is for people to see all the specific ways in which they will be incompetent and look stupid – ways that they will do the right thing and do it horribly. 38 Hybels. widely shared. having and developing a vision is critical to leaders. When the leader has a clear vision for the future of the church. vision: 1.

the next challenge is to communicate it to others. NY: William Morrow and Company. Sustains people by giving them a compelling reason to persevere and to stay focused on what really matters. and Phil Hodges. 4. . Attracts people to a cause by giving them something worth investing in and something to focus on that transcends the mundane endeavors of daily life. values. They say that: A clear vision has four aspects: purposes. 40. . Courageous Leadership. Hybels and Hodges say about vision would give leaders great help to have and develop a vision in a specific area. and goals. 156. 134 43 Ibid.40 Communicate the Vision Hybels is right to say that “after a leader receives and owns a vision. 40 Ken Blanchard. image. The Power of Team Leadership. And goals focus people’s energy right now. . Purpose tells you what business you’re in. Values determine how people should behave whey they’re working on the purpose. It defines the fundamental reasons why you exist as an organization. Bill Hybels. 42 Nanus.”41 Nanus is also right in saying that “a vision is little more than an empty dream until it is widely shared and accepted. Inc.99 2. Builds community by providing people with a common purpose and putting their natural competitiveness and pettiness in perspective. 122. 3.”42 Nanus introduces an interesting formula about vision and communication: Vision + Communication = Shared purpose43 39 Barna.39 What Blanchard.. 41 Hybels.. . Leadership by the book (New York. 1999). 38. … Image is really just a picture of what things would be like if everything were running as planned.

47 Earley. Share the dream in as many mediums as possible. Share the vision.47 WORK AS A TEAM To make a strategy needs a lot of energy and resources. 49 Yarbrough. Write a dream statement that will clarify and direct what you’re trying to do. as well as at any other time. Visionary Leadership for Church Growth (Nashville. Share the dream in as many ways as possible. 5.”45 Malphurs says “during the strategic planning process. . 6. “a strategic planning demands effective communication to the congregation of the process. 1991). (Compiler). Turning Members into Leaders. 2. 7. and then communicate some more. 48 Malphurs. communicate.” J. how can we communicate the vision? Earley suggests seven ways in communicating vision: 1. Therefore. “a visionary leader knows that saying something once is never enough. 4. Specify the potential leader’s possible role in the dream. Tell the dream to the key people involved. 46 Malphurs. 63. “Visionary Leadership: The Vision. Truman Brown Jr. 64. 61-64. 28. Advanced Strategic Planning. and the results of the work of your team. the team. 16. “vital to strategic planning is the leadership team. 3. TN: Convention Press. Lincoln. 70.”46 Then. Get with God to receive a definite dream for multiplying your group that ties directly into the vision of your church.”49 Barna argues that “leadership works best when it 44 John R. you must communicate. Share the dream all the time.100 Like John Lincoln’s words.”44 Essentially.”48 Yarbrough says “the first step in the planning process is to select a planning group. 45 Mark Marshall. Let them add to it and own it. Advanced Strategic Planning.

70. Maxwell. The Second Coming of the Church (Nashville. a leading leader leads the team: 50 Barna.”50 Working as a team produces more fruit than to work alone. mission. 2001). 52 Barna.”53 How can we build a team? What do we have to pay attention to when building a team? We find nine components that entail in building an effective team: 1. 57 Neal F. 11. The senior pastor has to be a leading leader. 53 George Barna. The Power of Team Leadership. The Power of Team Leadership. Maxwell says “one is too small a number to achieve greatness.”56 McBride insists that team size should be variable according to church size (average adult participants). 56 Mark Marshall. 169. Gaeumjung Church which has about 1. 4. McBride. TN: Thomas Nelson.”54 “Vision gives team members direction and confidence. equip. Yarbrough argues “the leader for the planning group or chairperson of the Church Council should be the pastor. 55 Maxwell. Marshall says “the team will need to consist of 7 to 12 members. The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork (Nashville. 13. Inc. Their success depends entirely upon their ability to attract. CO: NavPress. 88. The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork.100 adult participants can have a team of seven to nine. “Discerning God’s vision is one of the first tasks a leader or team should address.”58 According to Barna. “great leaders are team players.101 is provided by teams of gifted leaders serving together in pursuit of a clear and compelling vision. 1995). and retain talented and gifted people to achieve outcomes that bless other people. 8..”52 Therefore. The Power of Team Leadership. 16. guide. 51 John C. .”51 Barna insists “a major advantage of being led by a team is that the results almost always transcend what any individual from that team could have produced alone. 1998). We need to have a vision. values. 45. TN: Word Publishing. 54 Barna. 58 Yarbrough. and goals. A team consists of an appropriate number of persons. How to Build a Small Group Ministry (Colorado Springs.57 According to McBride’s suggestion.”55 2. in general. 3.

. 68 Barna. 42. Stagl. Good to Great (New York. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. the problem of how to motivate and manage people largely goes away. Stephen J. Communicate effectively. Day.”61 5. 1997). 61 Jim Collins. The Power of Team Leadership. 139-141. 28. The Power of Team Leadership. and Stagl. Salas. Gangel says “members of a serious leadership team understand that they corporately manage the progress of the church or Christian organization and take collective responsibility for the outcome. 110.66 Therefore. Gangel. 310. 311. 123. “the importance of communication during meetings seems too obvious even to mention. Share responsibility. 67 Salas. The captain identifies opportunities for individual growth. Team Leadership in Christian Ministry (Chicago. 188. The captain facilitates positive and productive relationships among team members. Halpin.59 4. Burke. 334-338. and Kevin C. NY: HarperCollins Books.”68 59 Barna. Conflict is inevitable where people are interested and involved.102      The captain maintains the team’s focus on the vision.”62 6. Shawn Burke. Zaccaro. C. and Stagl say “teamwork involves clear and concise communication. Clarify the position and role of each team member. 2001). “teamwork requires team members to actively manage conflict to create and maintain harmonious interpersonal and interteam relationships. 62 Barna. The captain prepares the team to move ahead by acquiring resources. 66 Ibid. Manage conflict and keep up teamwork. IL: Moody Press.. and Stanley M. The captain demonstrates personal leadership productivity.”60 Jim Collins says “if you have the right people on the bus. 63 Kenneth O. Be accountable to each other. 60 Maxwell.”64 In a team. The Power of Team Leadership. “In practice. 65 Gangel. one of the most important attributes of an effective team leader is the commitment to serve not only the church but the other leaders as well. . Ed. “Developing Teams and Team Leaders: Strategies and Principles. 64 Eduardo Salas.” David V. Burke. Inc. Maintain team unity through commitment to each other.. 2004). Barna says “every great team holds itself accountable to standards of behavior as well as performance goals.”65 8.”63 7. The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork. Leader Development for Transforming Organizations (Mahwah. Maxwell says “all players have a place where they add the most value.”67 9. 334-338.

these churches have effectively adapted the model for their own situations and environments. 72 Comiskey. Yet. intentional strategy to develop more groups and train new leaders. the features of small groups come from the type of small group ministry which you want to have. 71 Donahue and Robinson. far from simply imitating or copying other cell-based models.103 DEVELOP LEADERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH YOUR SMALL GROUP MINISTRY As Stetzer and Dodson comment. 70 Ibid. 69 Stetzer and Dodson. 156.”71 What Comiskey said after he did a case study on eight outstanding cellbased churches worldwide is noteworthy. Home Cell Group Explosion. 26. the type of small group ministry will decide the features of small groups. 18. The direction is related to the features of your small groups. . Moreover. “small groups are an excellent way to train leaders and identify new ones.” 69 But. He said that: Pastors and church leaders all over the world have replicated David Yonggi Cho’s cell system. Then. we can map out a strategy for small group leadership development suitable to the features of the small groups. Therefore. 155-156. Finally. “this process must be built into a systematic.72 The development of small group leadership is an activity with a clear direction.. it is a preferential task to make a definite decision on the type of small group ministry which you desire to have.”70 Donahue and Robinson deplore that “too many churches plunge into small group ministry without an end in mind. The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry.

. According to Carl George. . these groups are usually very small in size (two to four members). prayer. 74 Donahue and Robinson. small groups form a department.75 Arnold suggests seven types of small group as follows: 1. Prepare your church for the future. In this model. their ideas comprise a continuum of small group models. one of many in the church. Covenant groups – the most prominent group type in the church (also called “K-groups. At the continuum’s other end is the “church is small groups” category. and community building. This model views each cell group as a little church. At one end of the continuum is the “church with small groups” category. and Gareth Icenogle have provided great ideas for building transformational community through small groups. Together.73 They say that: Visionary leaders such as Ralph Neighbour. these groups typically focus on study. (4) fractal/ organic/ house church groups (example: New Hope Christian Fellowship). “Five Models for Small Groups. deciding (internal administration). Lyman Coleman. intense relationships. learning (Bible knowledge). . Dan Lentz suggests that there are five organizational models of small group ministry. It would be helpful to examine how small group experts divide their small groups. (3) mid-sized connection community model (example: Xenos Christian Fellowship). 2. 89. Discipleship groups – emphasizing deep. there are four dimensions of ministry that a cell could accomplish: loving (pastoral care). Carl George. 75 Carl George. we also have to decide the features of small groups in the church.74 We can choose one type of small group ministry among the three models. “caring groups. Dan Lentz. and doing (duties that serve those outside the group). The five models are (1) meta model (example: Willow Creek Community Church). If we chose a type of small group ministry.” Bible studies. 20. The “church of small groups” category views each group as a little community within the larger church.” and a host of other names). . Roberta Hestenes. (5) groups of 12 or G-12 groups (example: Bethany World Prayer Center). The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry.” transcript in author’s computer Microsoft Word archive. 73 We can view from a different angle.104 What kind of small group ministry can we have in the church? Donahue and Robinson say that there are three types of relations between a church and small group ministry. (2) free market model (example: New Life Church).

emotional. 77 Rowland Forman. Lynne Hybels and Bill Hybels say. Ministry groups – these teams of individuals serve either within the church or within the community. Special needs groups – these groups can involve persons in various types of crises (such as physical. 2004). gender. 24-25. we have to choose a type of small group ministry and determine the type of small group. Affinity groups – these groups possess any of the emphases in this list.76 If we really want to develop competent small group leaders. these groups emphasize worship. One of the best contributions that pastors can make to their church is to create a leadership culture in which others can lead. . Starting small groups. 7. Jeff Jones. and involve people of a common race. and teaching ministry. or relational). Finally. CREATE A LEADERSHIP CULTURE Unless we create a leadership culture in the church. even the best ideas and strategies are doomed to failure. such as a recovery group. Evangelistic groups – these groups exist in order to evangelize friends and acquaintances. 30. The Leadership Baton (Grand Rapids. we can also decide the type of small group leadership. . 4. Then.105 3. 6. we can map out a strategy of small group leadership development. “If the culture isn’t ready. MI: Zondervan. age. cast a 76 Arnold. . 5. . and Bruce Miller. interest. House churches – often larger than the classic small group. or other characteristics. prayer.”77 A lot of leadership experts who know this fact exhort us to create a leadership culture at first before developing leaders. the effectiveness would remarkably decrease. “leaders love to create a leadership culture. Even if it were possible to develop leaders. it is impossible to develop small group leaders.

127. We are going to equip leaders.”80 Then. 105. . TN: W Publishing Group. Wright.” instead of just saying “I would like to get new leaders” or “I am praying for new leaders.”78 Walter Wright conclusively says “leadership is a relationship of character that shapes culture.106 vision. your church is doing well at creating a fertile leadership development environment. 15. 81 Malphurs and Mancini. 1995). Discovering Church (Grand Rapids.”82 Donahue and Robinson also say “are your top people (senior pastor. 83 Ibid. Empowered Leaders (Nashville. Houston (TX: Touch Publications. and organize volunteers around different parts of the ministry. 80 Hans Finzel. staff. 154. you are the keeper and developer of the culture of that organization. attitudes. 1998). 79 Walter C.”81 To use Donahue and Robinson’s words. Groups of 12. GA: Paternoster Publishing.”83 Comiskey claims “the crowning principle of the G-12 model is that it views every member as a potential cell leader.. Relational Leadership (Waynesboro. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. 213. 84 Joel Comiskey. 109. 82 Donahue and Robinson. lay leaders) investing time and energy to build into groups of men and women who will represent the next generation of leaders? If so. 1999). and actions within a group of leaders that reproduces patterns of thinking and behaving among them and their followers. 25. 2004).”84 That is the very expression about leadership culture shown in the International Charismatic Mission. “leadership culture is a unique interrelationship of values.”79 Hans Finzel claims “whether you like it or not. to create a leadership culture is to say “we are going to develop new leaders. if you are anywhere near the top level of leadership in your organization. 78 Lynne and Bill Hybels. what is a leadership culture? According to Malphurs and Mancini. thoughts. The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry.

1999). Developing the Leaders Around You.”85 To create a leadership culture is an essential way to effectively develop small group leaders. 22. Ed. but give people the freedom and responsibility to do their jobs”87 from his three mentors. . leaders look better than they actually are and followers increase their performance. we can build a momentum for developing leaders. It takes some risks. it is a wise policy to create a fertile leadership culture rather than focusing on developing leaders without a culture. Drucker. “My Mentors’ Leadership Lessons. IL: ChurchSmart Resources. Leader to Leader (San Francisco. Empowerment is “the intentional transfer of authority to an emerging leader within specified boundaries from an established leader who maintains responsibility for 85 Maxwell. “with momentum. 86 Christian A. According to Maxwell. Natural Church Development (St. 4. 18. In this point. What he says to learn from his mentors is exactly about empowerment. 2003). EMPOWER THE SMALL GROUP LEADERS Christian Schwarz introduces “empowering leadership” as the number one character in growing churches all over the world. Charles.107 It is more effective to develop leaders within a leadership culture than to develop leaders without a culture in a church. Schwarz.” Frances Hesselbein and Paul M. empowering leaders is absolutely necessary. Without momentum. leaders look worse than they actually are and followers decrease their performance.”86 Drucker has learned the lesson “set high standards. Therefore. He says “leaders of growing churches concentrate on empowering other Christians for ministry. 87 Peter F. Empowering leaders can build other leaders. If we create an appropriate leadership culture in our church.. CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Empowerment is especially important at transitioning a church to a cell-based church because nobody has gone through the way in former days. Cohen.

. 2003). Deok-Soo Kim says “empowerment is an essential element of leadership for effective ministry. Maxwell.90 Empowerment can give great benefits not only to the potential leaders. 2. The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership (Nashville. People are part of a community. Maxwell says “the truth is that empowerment is powerful – not only for the person being developed but also for the mentor. If you believe in others. 22-23. you have to empower the potential leaders who have been produced through the system. Enlarging others makes you larger. The four themes are: 1. 43-44. Learning and competence matter. Why Leaders Can’t Lead (San Francisco.”91 Once you have established a system for developing small group leaders. Maxwell says “the main ingredient for empowering others is a high belief in people. South Korea: NCD Publishing. 4.”88 Wright says “this is empowering leadership – one person using his or her position in the marketplace to serve and nurture another. CA: Jossey-Basss Publishers. 233. 90 Warren Bennis. People feel significant. they 88 Malphurs and Mancini. 2007). 92 Deok-Soo Kim. The Role of Leadership in Church Renewal toward a Cell-based Ministry (Seongnam. 1989).108 the ministry. but also to the established leader who empower them. 89 Wright. 151.”89 What can we get through empowerment? Bennis insists empowerment is most evident in four themes in organizations with effective leaders. 40. TN: Thomas Nelson.”92 We need to trust potential leaders and empower them. 91 John C. 3. one person seeing in another the potential to be more than is visible today and committing himself or herself to the development of that potential. Work is exciting.

. DEVELOP A TRAINING SYSTEM To develop both established leaders and preliminary leaders it is absolutely necessary for an effective transition to a cell-based church. and trusting them helps us empower them. Empowerment could be a very effective strategy in development of small group leaders. 150. 1985). Turning Members into Leaders.”95 Therefore. and Burt Nanus. NY: Harper & Row. The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership. We have to develop and train small group leaders in order to have a successful transition. Leaders (New York. This is the kind of formula used in developing competent leaders in a church. The senior pastor of each failed church experienced failure because they hastily tried to transition without having prepared leaders. Without developing leaders. “training means helping someone acquire a skill. increased ministry responsibility. In fact. In simple terms. we cannot expect successful transitioning. 95 Earley. 94 Warren Bennis.”94 And we can trust the potential leaders only when we are in good relationship with them.109 will believe in themselves. building good relationship with potential leaders makes us trust them. Publishers. 46. it is the very reason why so many traditional churches have failed to transition to a cell church or a house church. 93 Maxwell. It’s different from development. 153.”93 Bennis and Nanus insist “trust is the emotional glue that binds followers and leaders together. Earley claims “there’s no discipleship without relationship! The length and breadth of our influence on others is related to the depth of our relationships with them. which includes character growth.

30-33. etc. given whatever a person’s present abilities are.” Ibid. temperament. 97 McBride. The Making of a Leader (Colorado Springs. etc.101 96 Donahue and Robinson. there is a sixth phase called ‘Aftergrow’ or ‘Celebration.110 and nurture. Phase 5: Convergence occurs. Robert Clinton. it attempts to provide specific skills and the necessary understanding to apply those skills.”97 That is. J. Ministry maturing Phase 4. Convergence Figure 39. and V often overlap. Phase 4: The leader identifies and uses his or her gift-mix with power. Phase 2: Emerging leader usually receives some kind of training. training small group leaders means to equip them to be suitable to the new type of small group ministry in the transitioning church. Building a Church of Small Groups.. God providentially works foundational items into the life of the leader-to-be. Phase 1: In phase 1.”96 McBride insists that “training is a narrowing activity. Life maturing Phase 5. 2. informally through self-study growth projects or formally through functional oriented workshops. Clinton’s five phases of development in a leader Clinton explains about each phase: 1. CO: Navpress. Sovereign Foundations Phase 2. 99 Ibid. The focus is on accomplishing a specific task or job.99 Phase 1. 5.’” But that is rare. . 135. 1988). 101 Ibid. Phase 3: The emerging leader gets into ministry as a prime focus of life. How to Build a Small Group Ministry. 98 According to Clinton.100 4. We need to understand developmental phases of a leader in order to grasp the importance and position of training him or her. The leader is moved by God into a role that matches gift-mix. 100 Clinton says “in real life. He or she will get further training. Clinton suggests five phases98 of a leader which are shown in Figure 40. 3. 30. the development of Phases III. IV. “sometimes. Inner-life growth Phase 3. through I show them here in a sequential pattern. 128. experience.

(b) operational assignments. Vision and goal 3. the phase which is related to training is Phase 2. Burke.111 Among these five phases. we can present four specific arenas which we can find commonly from the literatures.105 Seong-Hoon Myeong introduces three programs: weekly training. Methods always change. 136-137. nonformal workshops. Relationship with God How can we train small group leaders? Like the axiom “methods are many. principles are few. on-the-job training. it would be helpful to review the methods which small group experts present. . 102 Phase 1 is related to “Atmosphere” and phase 3 is related to “provide follow-up programs” in this chapter. 105 Clinton. 103 Donahue and Robinson. however.102 Then. apprentice training.” we can decide a training system suitable to our church’s vision and situation. 344-345.”104 Clinton suggests three ways: informal apprenticeship.103 Salas. Donahue and Robinson introduce three methods which Willow Creek Community Church is using: classroom training. principles never do. Knowledge and skills for ministry 4. the other is the small group leadership style. and Stagl insist that “the training and development system typically consists of (a) formal institutional education. We will examine about the two themes after this. However. and Stagl. and (c) self-development. Building a Church of Small Groups. what kinds of arenas do we have to train small group leaders? It depends on two important things: one is the goal of small groups which we are pursuing. The four arenas are: 1. Personality and attitude 2. and on-the-job training. 104 Salas. Burke. 90. In general. and formal training.

Building a Church of Small Groups. training events. an associate pastor of The Worship Center in Lancaster. we all need mentors and friends to guide and inspire. Pennsylvania said. 27. As a result. Small Group Mind (Seoul. to challenge and support us as we live and work.”108 That explains why small group leaders have to be coached. “to coach is largely to facilitate. which 106 Seong-Hoon Myeong. group leadership training. 109 Donahue and Robinson. Don Neff. wasting time together. personal mentoring and coaching. Then.112 and continual training.107 PROVIDE FOLLOW-UP PROGRAMS Effective follow-up programs increase the productivity of small group leaders.106 And Earley indicates seven resources of development: on-thejob training.”109 According to Peters and Austin. what kind of follow-up programs can we provide leaders? A Coaching System Wright says “whether taking up new responsibilities of leadership or continuing in service. . 148. and various kinds of books. 120-121. providing good quality follow-up programs can render great services to the whole process of small group leadership development in the church. 107 Earley. South Korea: Institute for Church Growth. 108 Wright. Turning Members into Leaders. and magazines. “Building a coaching structure is one of the biggest challenges of small group ministry. 2002). tapes. 81-82. classroom training.

”111 It would be good to make them have weekly or monthly meetings. 384. NY: Warner Books. We can consider organizing a closed small group of several small group leaders with the availability of coaches. not everyone can be a coached of small group leaders. . Meeting with Fellow Leaders We have to provide small group leaders opportunities to learn through mutual interaction with fellow leaders. small group leaders does well doing their job and effectively develop themselves in their actual fields. A Passion for Excellence (New York. Through meeting with fellow leaders. less bound up with excessive controls and complications. build skills and teams. dramatize company goals and direction. spread irresistible enthusiasm. they can objectively think about their small groups and get more information and ideas on leading a group. those who not only understand the vision of the church but also have enthusiasm towards the vision as well as have experience of being a small group leader can be effective coaches. “they can share about their undertakings and problems of their small group. By being coached. 111 Myeong. Peters and Austin say “there is no magic: only people who find and nurture champions.113 literally means ‘to make easy’ – not less demanding. They can also give careful considerations to solve problems. and Nancy Austin. 110 Tom Peters. but less discouraging. who are other small group leaders.” That is. In the small group. As a result. 145. they can not only be coached by the coach. 1986). On this point.”110 Nevertheless. less interesting or less intense. but also get synergy effect through mutual interaction between the members.

We have to.114 Follow-up Training Many leadership gurus emphasize the importance of training leaders even after they have already become leaders through a training system. We have to scratch their itchy spots. 117 Lawrence J. Burke. we have to seriously consider providing small group leaders encouragement in various ways. What Clinton calls “nonformal workshops”115 can be the same with follow-up training.” Some use the term “operational assignment. “generally we all feel most relaxed when we can let our guard down and be completely ourselves with someone who we believe will in no way reject us. 114 Salas. 81. 1984). 39.”114 It means developing and training leaders through their work experience. therefore. 116 Barna. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. 344-345. 136-137.”117 Therefore. Turning Members into Leaders. 113 Earley. According to Crabb and Allender. Encouragement (Grand Rapids. . 115 Clinton. The Power of Team Leadership. Crabb Jr. provide them good quality follow-up training to train them for better effective ministry. Those like Donahue and Robinson112 and Earley113 call this kind of follow-up training “on-the-job training.. Encouragement People need encouragement. 90. Barna says “in spite of their busy lives. Building a Church of Small Groups. “Encouragement is one of the strongest weapons we 112 Donahue and Robinson. Even small group leaders want to be encouraged. 133-134. Allender. a majority of lay leaders we interviewed said that they wanted more training in leadership competencies.”116 This reveals that leaders think they have to be trained continually in order to solve problems which they find in their ministry. and Dan B. and Stagl.

we never succeed unless we effectively implement the vision. we cannot expect consistent development and growth. Encourage with attention 2. . Implementation To transition a traditional church to a cell-based church and to develop small group leaders are never simple processes. effective communication methods of the vision.”118 The five ways to encourage followers which Crabb and Allender introduce are noteworthy. 54. mapping a strategy. We have to bear in mind that without effective implementation. Furthermore. without appropriate evaluation. the importance of implementation and evaluation in a transitioning process is neglected in spite of its incalculable value. 119 Crabb and Allender. Tichy reminds us saying “implementation of a massive organizational change is the hardest part. because it requires selling the new response – including the case for change – and weeding out the resisters and the 118 Finzel. Each of them requires a clear vision. Encourage when they do poorly 5. Encourage when crisis comes 3. Encourage when a job is well done 4. however. we cannot expect to succeed in the process of transitioning to a cell-based church and developing small group leaders. 25. Encourage whenever there is opportunity119 IMPLEMENT AND EVALUATE Every now and then. building a team. The five ways are: 1. and many other important matters. Though these are all prepared.115 have in our arsenals of influence.

116 superfluous work. 121 Finzel. Reggie Joiner. 3. Implementation keeps the team on track. Malphurs says “every leader should ask. 120 Noel M. NY: HarperCollins Publishers. a consistent time of evaluation can produce tremendous benefits. The Leadership Engine (New York. 42. 123 Ibid. 7 Practices of Effective Ministry (Sisters. 122 Malphurs..”120 Finzel persuades the leaders by saying that “your job as leader is to make the vision happen in real life in your organization. Implementation maintains ministry momentum. Implementation accomplishes the strategic plan. and Lane Jones. 282-284.”124 Malphurs presents seven purposes of evaluation as follows: 1. 124 Andy Stanley. 298. Implementation nourishes faith in the process. am I evaluating my ministry effectiveness. 2. Implementation heightens optimism. 95. or guts. OR: Multnomah Publishers. 2004). emotional energy and the edge. Joiner.122 Evaluation Regular evaluations performed at proper time in appropriate ways make us estimate how much effective is the leader developing system which we created. 2002). and Jones claim that “no matter how good the system. 4. to see it through to the end. Evaluation prompts ministry alignment.”121 Malphurs insists about the importance of implementation as follows: 1. driving it forward beyond the paper. 7. Advanced Strategic Planning. Tichy with Eli Cohen. . and do we evaluate the effectiveness of the church?”123 Stanley. Implementation of an idea requires values. 5. 6. 174. Implementation addresses the problem of time. Implementation wards off complacency.

It is related with various ministry of the church. 126 Comiskey. spiritual victories. who is well acquainted with ICM (International Charismatic Mission) which is one of the most noticeable cell churches in the world with its G-12 principle. The author believes. that the reverse is also true. Evaluation prioritizes ministry accomplishment. We have to pay attention to both of them. deplores that: ICM talks much more about spiritual power. Evaluation coaxes ministry affirmation. and spiritual liberation and relatively little about the model. we can expect to develop competent small group leaders suitable in transitioning to a cell-based church.126 As Comiskey says. Advanced Strategic Planning. Many scholars firmly believe that an effective small group ministry is able to render great services to church growth. Evaluation promotes change. That is. 297-301. 3. 6. building an effective small group ministry and making a spiritually healthy church. 7. You’ll never get the same results as Bogota by simply copying a model without taking with you the values of the church.117 2. 4. we have to recognize that we cannot build an effective small group ministry nor an effective system of small group leadership development without 125 Malphurs. Evaluation elicits ministry improvement. . the more effective the small group ministry in the church. Groups of 12. the more healthy a church. Evaluation encourages ministry appraisal. Evaluation emboldens ministry correction. Visitors become enamored with the model. Comiskey. 5. however. 44. On the basis of these two matters.125 DEVELOP A SPIRITUAL ATMOSPHERE The development of small group leadership in a church is not an independent task.

128 Ralph W. As Comiskey urges. prayer is absolutely necessary both to building up effective small group ministry and designing a systematic strategy of small group leadership development.”130 Paul Y.”128 According to Myeong. “all of the churches which are growing with the effective small group ministry are the churches open to the work of the Holy Spirit. Inc..”127 Neighbour warns us in a different perspective. 130 Comiskey. the churches where the Holy Spirit is actively working are growing. 56. The most important thing is that we need the Holy Spirit to give us the divine power to make leadership development effective. . 16:9). 129 Myeong.”131 Never try to transition a traditional church to a cell-based church without having a healthy spiritual atmosphere. Comiskey says “sometimes we in the cell church movement forget that the cell is primarily a channel through which the Holy Spirit moves. Home Cell Group Explosion.118 spiritual atmosphere in our church. “instead of relying on our own expertise. Therefore. 122. 174. 131 Cho. Home Cell Group Explosion. saying “there is grave danger present when a cell is unplugged from the work of the Holy Spirit and the use of spiritual gifts. churches without the power of the Holy Spirit cannot grow even though they have a well-designed small group system. 45 Pastoring Years of Hope. 161. with Lorna Jenkins. 1990). Developing spiritual atmosphere is the highest 127 Comiskey. But the LORD directs his steps. Cho says “Prayer is the key to the revival of church and cell groups. Apart from His work. In other words.” (Prov. Neighbour. we must trust God to work through others as we equip and release them to lead. 43. TX: Touch Publications. Where Do We Go From Here (Houston. cells have little value. education and experience. Jr. We need to confess that “the mind of man plans his way.”129 That is.

To sum up. 6. Develop a training system 10. Implement and evaluate 12. Develop spiritual atmosphere. they could be a great help to make success in the transitioning process. Approach strategically. 3. Work as a team. the literature research has another value which the author can’t get through diagnosis investigation of Gaeumjung Church and a case study on nine churches with outstanding small group ministry. Create a leadership culture 8. These 12 lessons taught the author that small group leadership development in transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church is never easy task. Empower the small group leaders 9. Provide follow-up programs 11. 2. In this point. 7. 5. Develop leaders according to your small group ministry. At the same time.119 priority in transitioning to a cell-based church and developing competent small group leaders. Develop a vision and communicate it effectively. however. SUMMARY This literature research gave the author precious and incalculable lessons on small group leadership development for transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church. we conclude with 12 lessons which follow from this literature research: 1. Perceive the urgency and importance of developing leaders. . Recognize the senior pastor’s role 4.

CHAPTER 5 A STRAGEGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH Gaeumjung Church has a history of more than one hundred years and the Kuyeok system also has a long history in the church. Accessed by March. The church has been tried to transition as a house church for a few years. For example. thinks there is no way to revitalize the small groups in the church except transitioning the church to a cell-based church. The Holy Spirit is the author of this pattern. it does not seem that the Kuyeok system in Gaeumjung church had high productivity as we can see in chapter two of this thesis. that to transition the church is not only for revitalizing the small groups but also for restoring a Biblical model of small groups in the church. and it has sprouted up 1 The author uses “cell-based church” instead of “cell church. ordered Chojangdong Church to stop doing a house church on April 10.” or “home church” for two reasons. The first reason is because some church leaders have a feeling of refusal to use cell church or house church in the denomination of Kosin which Gaeumjung Church belongs to.. The second reason is that the author firmly believes Gaeumjung Church could be a church with authentic communities without using the expression of cell church or house church.1 It is evident. Nevertheless. the author. however. 2008). Neighbour says “there is a more effective pattern in our world today than planting traditional churches.kscoramdeo. 2007 (http://www. the presbytery of Pusan which belongs to Kosin.com.” “house church. Up to this point. 120 . who had been an associate pastor for one and half years at Gaeumjung Church and will be the senior pastor of the church in a few years.

4. Ron Nicholas.”2 And he says a cell group church is the “more effective pattern.. Inc. and a few things we have not thought of yet. Conger and Fulmer say that “succession planning and leadership development ought to be two sides of the same coin. Fulmer.121 like mushrooms all over the globe. 38. . Where Do We Go From Here (Houston. the future of small group ministry rests on the small group leaders’ shoulders in a church. . 1985). timing. Judy Johnson. Whallon is right when he says that “without adequate leadership a small group is doomed. Building a Church Of Small Group (Grand Rapids. transitioning is a very difficult process.”5 We have to keep it in mind that leadership development is never an easy task.12 (December 2003). However. vol. Rob Malone.” Harvard Business Review. MI: Zondervan. 2001). you get the best of both. IL: InterVarsity Press. 5 Doug Whallon. and Robert M. luck.” Steve Barker. “Developing Your Leadership Pipeline.”6 2 Ralph W. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates..”3 According to Donahue and Robinson. Avolio. . resources. technology. Neighbour Jr. 20. It is a life-and-death matter for a church. 6 Bruce J. we have to develop small group leaders if we really want to transition and lead the transition process into being successful. . Inc. 76-78. By marrying succession planning and leadership development. We have to make an approach to this process very carefully. 3 Jay A. 4 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson. 2005). 123. Leadership Development in Balance (Mahwah. Good Things Come in Small Groups (Downers Grove. Conger. TX: Touch Publications. history. followers. and Doug Whallon. 1990). Avolio says “I believe that leadership development is by far one of the most complex human processes in that it involves leaders. In particular. “Leadership – The Critical Factor. 81.” It seems to be unavoidable to transition Gaeumjung Church to a cellbased church.4 That shows why development of small group leadership is important in transitioning a traditional church to a cell-based church. with Lorna Jenkins. dynamic contexts.

but also all the church members should clearly know the vision. 25.” Leadership. “Vision Leaks. Stanley counsels us to answer the questions. vol. It is deeply related to other stages in the process. 35. The first stage of the process is establishing a sense of urgency. It is because the development of small group leadership is not an isolated stage of the transitioning process. Leading Change (Boston. there is no one best way to develop leaders.. THE WHOLE TRANSITIONING PROCESS AND POSITION OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROCESS Before mapping out a strategy in the development of small group leadership.7 This explains why we have to approach this matter very creatively and strategically. 1996). we need to roughly look around the whole transition process of Gaeumjung Church. Why must we do this? And why must we do it now?”9 Vision sharing is a critical stage in the whole transitioning process. We need powerful spiritual support through strategic prayer throughout the whole transition process. 8 John P. It would give us a clearer cognitive foundation in the development of small group leadership though it is not the goal of this thesis to discuss the process of transitioning in detail. Vision Sharing: The senior pastor has to share the God-given vision on being a cell-based church. MA: Harvard Business School Press. Establishing a Sense of Urgency: Kotter presents the eight-stage process of successful change. 7 Ibid. Kotter. 2. 3. Figure 40 shows the whole process of Gaeumjung Church transitioning to a cell-based church. Not only church leaders including the senior pastor. Spiritual Support (Prayer): It is not too much to say that spiritual support through prayer decides success or failure of the transitioning process. . 9 Andy Stanley. 8.1 (Winter 2004).8 It means to produce a holy dissatisfaction on the present state and to desire something better in the church.122 According to Avolio. 70. 1.

123 Establishing a sense of Urgency Vision Sharing Spiritual Support (Prayer) Building Consensus Decision Making Team Building Mapping out a Strategy Recruiting and developing leaders Proclamation/ Organization Launching Cells F e e d b a c k Follow-up Training/ Coaching System Evaluation/ Modification Figure 40. The whole process of transitioning in Gaeumjung Church .

it is the time to launch cells. 10. “it is wise to take the time to plant the vision with key leaders before sharing vision with the entire church. only then can we make a decision. Team Building: We need to build a team which takes the lead in the transitioning process. Transitioning (Grand Rapids. Proclamation/ Organization: When small group leaders are prepared. 1999). Therefore. Follow-up Training/ Coaching System: Cell leaders will have to face various problems in their fields of ministry. the senior pastor announces to the whole of church that Gaeumjung Church is a cell-based church. Decision Making: After all the church members come to understand the vision on a cell-based church and reach a consensus on transition to a cell-based church. which will be called a Vision Team. it would be best to have the church members pray earnestly for successful transitioning. Recruiting and Developing Leaders: It is no exaggeration to say that the stage of recruiting and developing leaders is the most important step throughout the whole transitioning process. Then. consists of nine persons including the senior pastor. Nevertheless. Like Southerland’s suggestion. This helps the member to follow their leader spontaneously. The team. 10 Dan Southerland. not the senior pastor. It is carried out by letting all the church members choose their own leader. Actually. we still have several stages to overcome before becoming a cell-based church and launching brandnew small groups. After launching cells. Building Consensus: Building a wide consensus on being a cell-based church church is as important as vision sharing. the vision team has to examine minutely whether cells and cell leaders progress as they should. The strategy will be about actual affairs related to transitioning like How to recruit leaders? How to develop them? How to organize small groups? How to launch small groups? How to build up a coaching system? How to develop a follow-up training program? How to evaluate the result of the transition? How to modify programs based on the result of evaluation? 8. . the transitioning process is accomplished by a team. building consensus is a goal of vision sharing. Without preparation of competent small group leaders. 6. Launching cells should be accomplished in a festive mood. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. Launching Cells: Now. From the time to begin building a team.124 4. The follow-up training system deals with specific problems effectively. 11. 68. we can’t expect a successful transitioning. The vision team surely has to have time to give an explanation to all the church members about the concept of a cell group.”10 5. we have to organize the cells. Mapping out a Strategy: The most important task of the team is mapping out a strategy for successful transitioning. 9. 7. And we have to set up a coaching system to support the cell leaders.

especially the developing system and follow-up training system of leaders.12 11 A cell church belongs to the category of “Church is groups. And we have to modify both systems on the basis of the evaluation results if necessary.” 12 Bill Donahue and Russ Robinson. and church is groups11 (Figure 41). The importance of evaluation in the transitioning process is much more significant. The reason is because a cell-based church will assume the form of an of-small group church and pursue the dynamic and the vitality of a cell church at the same time. Donahue and Robinson’s views are helpful to us. We have to evaluate thoroughly the transitioning process. The Seven Deadly Sins of Small Group Ministry (Grand Rapids. church of groups. Evaluation: Even in general situation.125 12. What is a cell-based church? Answer to this question provide the features of small groups which we want to have in Gaeumjung Church. we have to answer the question. Donahue and Robinson introduce the differences between church with groups. To understand features of the small groups in Gaeumjung Church. . regular evaluation is very important for lasting success. we have to reexamine elaborately each stage in the transitioning process. 13. 2002). 22. MI: Zondervan. Feedback/ Modification: If we do not get the expected results from the evaluation. Prior to answering this question. it would be better to understand the differences between an of-small group church and a cell church. SMALL GROUPS IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH AS A CELL-BASED CHURCH A Cell-based Church We cannot map out a strategy of small group leadership in Gaeumjung Church without considering the features of small groups we propose to have.

Church of groups. It is because of . And the most reasonable direction for Gaeumjung Church is.126  Church with groups Help people find a place in the church Someone wants to start a group Placement system (Centralized) Optional for growth Nor required for church membership Mostly reactive leader Church of groups A means of building the church as community Strategy using affinity with geography considered Group invitation or assimilation event (decentralized) Essential for growth Required for church membership Proactive shepherdleader Recommended by staff or chose by leader Designed by leader + Ministry strategy Low High Encouraged Church is groups The primary expression of the church Strategy using geography with affinity considered Assigned by geography (Group responsible) Essential for growth Required for church membership Pastoral shepherdleader Designated by staff Designed by leader + Ministry pattern High High Expected Purpose Organizing principles Getting in a group Group membership Role of group leaders Use of curriculum Chosen by leader Designed by leader or curriculum Low Low Possible Group meeting format Church authority over group Church monitoring of groups Group-based evangelistic activity Figure 41. to be a cell-based church. and Church is groups According to the writings of Donahue and Robinson. Gaeumjung Church has been a Church with small groups until now. Comparison between Church with groups. in the author’s opinion.

“Special Conversation on House Church. November 2007. At the forum. 1990). 2007. Therefore. according to the Presbyterian tradition. 15 Neal F. There are many terms which designate a small group.127 two reasons. 1.kscoramdeo. CO: NavPress. The author believes that Gaeumjung Church can get dynamic and vitality of a cell church without taking the form of church is groups. (www. . accessed at March 2008. SangKyu Lee (from a position of historical theology). an academic forum with the title “How do we have to see House Church movement” was held at Korea Theological Seminary. on November.14 It is the reason why the author does not give consideration to take church is groups.13 Small groups have to be part of the church. How to Lead Small Groups (Colorado Springs. First. because it identifies the characteristics of the activity you have agreed to lead. McBride.”15 We need to define a small group for mapping out an effective strategy in the development of small group leadership.) 14 Seoung-Cheol Hong says “we have to know that some churches.com. four speakers spoke on the subject. and Soon-Seong Kim (from a standpoint of practical theology). which the denomination of Kosin governs. The four speakers were Jong-Kil Byun (from a standpoint of Biblical theology). 23. There are so many definitions of these terms. It was danger of ecclesiola in ecclesia that all of the four speakers gave warning of even though they had a positive view on the House Church Movement overall. 72. to take the form of church is groups could cause many problems in a Presbyterian church. Hae-Moo Yoo (from a view of systematic theology). especially some Presbyterian churches have practical difficulties to accept the principles of a house church. In conclusion.” Tae-Hoon Bae.” Ministry and Theology. Small Groups in Gaeumjung Church McBride is right to say “having a definition is critical. The second reason is because a cell church has dynamic and vitality in spite of some problems. a cell-based church has the advantages of an of-small group church and a cell church simultaneously. We can introduce representative definitions like: 13 For instance. a small group is not a church.

the cell could be defined as a group of 4-15 people that meets weekly outside the church building for the purpose of evangelism and discipleship with the goal of multiplication." Ministry and Theology. . 2002).'" Ministry and Theology.17 A small group within the church is a voluntary. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. George.19 A small group is a place of loyalty and compassion. 17 Carl F. 1994). From 12 To 3 (Houston. 1995).16 A cell is a place where people have enough social reference points to find themselves sustained emotionally and spiritually. Starting small groups (Nashville. 1997).21 It would be better for us to develop a model of a cell and make our own definition of the cell in Gaeumjung Church although these definitions are really good. nobody can say there is only one type of small group in churches. February 2003. 10-11. 83.20 In all the worldwide cell churches I studied.128 A small group is an intentional gathering of a varied number of people who commit themselves to regular meetings for the purpose of becoming better disciples of Jesus Christ. 24. George with Warren Bird. How to lead Small Groups. “It is more important to develop our own model of small group ministry than to try to find out a type of small group ministry suitable to Korean churches. intentional gathering of three to twelve people regularly meeting together with the shared goal of mutual Christian edification and fellowship. TN: Abingdon Press. prayer and mutual sacrifice. 37 22 Deok-Soo Kim. 20 Lynne Hybels and Bill Hybels. 19 Carl F. "Discerning Korean Style Small Group Ministry. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership (Mansfield. The Coming Church Revolution (Grand Rapids. “Each type of small group has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore. Deok-Soo Kim says. 23 Sang-Hwa Lee. February 2003. "A Look Around Small Group Ministry For Understanding 'Cell. 21. 18 McBride. PA: Kingdom Publishing.18 A small group is a face-to-face meeting that is a sub-unit of the overall fellowship. 177.23 16 Jeffrey Arnold. commitment and caring.”22 SangHwa Lee also claims. Discovering Church (Grand Rapids. 1997). Revell. TX: Touch Publications. MI: Fleming H. 69. 115. 21 Joel Comiskey.

the cell in Gaeumjung Church is “a discipling small community in which its a members share their life on the basis of the Scriptures. get recovered. Features of a cell in Gaeumjung Church 1.” s detail.” also claim “intentionally connecting people in community is not an option for intentionally 24 Andy Stanley and Bill Willits. A small community: First of all.129 Then. evangelize. what is a cell in Gaeumjung Church as a cell based church? As we can see cell-based in Figure 42. OR: Multnomah Publ Sisters. 2004). and evangelize. it is a small authentic community which consists of three to twelve people. 40. Let’s examine the features of a cell of Gaeumjung Church in member. 24 Stetzer and Dodson s community. Creating Community: 5 Keys to Building a Small Group Culture (Sisters. It consists of 3 12 people and holds a regular weekly meeting at 3-12 the house of each member. Birth of New Group        Making Disciples       Figure 42. Publishers. . To build an authentic community is very important in a local church. Andy Stanley and Bill Willits believe “one of God’s biggest dreams for us is authentic community. grow into a cell leader.

Patty Pell.”25 In Gaeumjung Church. It has to be based upon the Word of God and principally preached on God’s word. The Master’s Plan for Making Disciples 2nd ed.. listen with care and intercede in prayer.”29 Essentially. Once that relational framework is laid we can pour the transforming truth of God’s Word. 7. 34 Bill Donahue.”35 A cell is a community in which its members share their life on the basis of the Bible. the most important purpose of a cell is to make disciples. bear each other’s burdens. and Warren Bird. 115. To use Hull’s words. 25. “The Four Ingredients of Good Group Life. Small Group Leaders’ Handbook (Downers Grove. a cell has to be the best discipling tool. “The Bible is our authority and guidebook”33 in a cell. OR: Scott Publishing Company. 11 Innovations in the Local Church (Ventura. and Doug Whallon. all the members have to try to apply the Word in their life. CA: Regal Books. 28 Bill Hull. Sharing life on the basis of the Scriptures: “Community is sharing together. 35 Ron Nicholas. “The outcome of life in community is that we are knit together in love and built up as a whole (Eph.”27 Therefore. IL: InterVarsity Press. “disciple making is the heart of the church. and Mike Dodson. 33. 2.28 It is because “disciple making is most effective when based on and permeated with love and caring. 45-46. . 31 Jimmy Long.”34 Ron Nicholas claims. 27 Carl George. 56. Donahue and Robinson argue “authentic relationships form the foundation of any quality small group. Like Jimmy Long and his friends say. we will put them into practice.130 the church. (Grand Rapids. Galloway. “discipleship is not a class but a lifestyle in community. Revell. Building a Church Of Small Group. Judy Johnson. confess sins and faults. 53. 29 Win and Charles Arn.”32 In Galloway’s words. Once the word of God is heard. and Russ Robinson. 30 Elmer Towns.”26 Carl George says “the most effective strategy for fulfilling many commands of Scripture is for a church to place priority on making disciplemakers. and Doug Whallon. 26 Bill Hull. 73-74. 2020 Vision (Portland. TN: B & H Publishing House. MI: Fleming H. 33 Dale E. 1998). Comeback Churches (Nashville. 59. Ed Stetzer. 2007). 1990). IL: InterVarsity Press. It’s a biblical mandate – the essence of what it means to be the body of Jesus Christ. MI: Baker Books. MI: Fleming H. 25. Nina Thiel. 1995). 1985). Sara Keiper.”31 Sharing life is the essence of a community. 2007). 32 Ibid. Good Things Come in Small Groups (Downers Grove. Revell. because it is the heart of the Great Commission. cells have to be small authentic communities in which all members build authentic relationship with each other. 151. Ron Nicholas. 25 Ed Stetzer. This happens as we share needs. 4:12-16). 1986). Discipling community: As Bill Hull says. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership.”30 3. “If we are wise builders once we have heard God’s words. The disciple-making pastor (Grand Rapids. Ann Beyerlein. The disciple-making church (Grand Rapids. Rob Malone.” Steve Barker. 2004). encourage each other.

Nicholas says “Christian groups exist to reach out and share the good news of Christ’s love to people in need. to the table of community. At that time. 43 Carl George. “Jesus modeled this kingdom openness for us by inviting tax collectors and sinners. This is the way the church ought to be. The Cell Church (Ventura. 25. 2003). provides a safe place for people to be open and transparent at the first hint of temptation: this is ‘preventive maintenance. or cell group. the first thing a group does is to help bring comfort. Making Small Group Work (Grand Rapids.”39 Comiskey argues “clearly. follower and Pharisee. other members have to care and support him or her emotionally and spiritually. a cell leader has to develop his or her apprentice as another cell leader. My case study reveals that more than 60 percent of the 700 cell leaders surveyed had multiplied their group at least once. Home Cell Group Explosion (Houston. 48. 1981). CA: Regal Books. Cloud and Townsend say “when a person is hurt.131 4. MI: Zondervan. 39 Paul Yonggi Cho with Harold Hostetler. 41. 37Larry Stockstill. all members of a cell have to consider themselves as 36 Henry Cloud. First. MI: Zondervan. NJ: Logos International. so we must consider it discipling.”41 Members of a cell can evangelize by serving others and telling their story to others. Community for recovery: People can recover through intercessory prayer. evangelism that results in the proliferation of cell groups is the most distinguishing feature of the cell church worldwide. . his or her sins.’ not ‘damage control. rich and poor.”40 A cell has to be open to all people. 57. a cell can grow. 22. and soothing. Carl George urges “view yourself as a leader maker – and your group as a leader-making laboratory. 45. and problems are exposed. 41 Bill Donahue. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership. and that it took about nine months to do so. 1988). The Disciple-making Church.”36 As a result. care. 98. Successful Home Cell Groups (Plainfield.”38 5. he or she can be recovered. TX: Touch Publications. 40 Joel Comiskey. Leaders growing community: To small group leaders. Stockstill insists that “a spiritual family. Walking the Small Group Tightrope (Grand Rapids. 1998). and Russ Robinson. and John Townsend. Evangelizing community: Yonggi Cho says that a home cell group is “a key to evangelism. pains.”42 As a result. 6. 38 Hull.”43 That a cell has to be cell-leader-factory could be understood in two ways.’”37 Pastoral care in a cell is “part of developing people toward maturity in Christ. 42 Nicholas. and support with other members of a cell. and have to do intercessory prayer for him or her. When someone shares his or her life on the basis of God’s Word. 141. Second. care. 2003). A cell member who recovered can confidently tell his or her story to others who have urgent needs. And it is how most groups ought to function.

. 45 Christian A. The Role of Leadership in Church Renewal toward a Cell-based Ministry (Seongnam. It is like a birth.”44 Schwarz also says. More often than not. but most will take longer.”47 Every cell in Gaeumjung Church points to reproduce another cell. leaving the apprentice behind. 2003). “Continuous multiplication of small groups is a universal church growth principle. SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP REQUIRED IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH The features of a cell require a unique style of leadership suitable to the features. 17. Home Cell Group Explosion . and growing 44 Deok-Soo Kim. it’s the leader who moves out to start a new group. Carl George says. Gaeumjung Church wants to lead every member of the cell to the point of transformation. 2001). 2003). what kind of leadership has to be developed for cells in Gaeumjung Church? The answer to this question should be explained in Figure 43. TX: Cell Group Resources. getting recovered. Earley recommends “You have to model the type of leadership you want to develop in others. IL: ChurchSmart Resources. all members including an apprentice have to be cell leaders someday. Reproducing community: Deok-Soo Kim claims “reproduction is the most remarkable feature of a cell church. Being disciples. 171. 67. Overarching Nature: Transformational leadership The overarching nature of cell leadership in Gaeumjung Church is transformational. Then. evangelizing. 47 Carl George. The norm is a year of two.132 preliminary cell leaders. Turning members into leaders (Houston. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership. 48 Dave Earley. That is. Natural Church Development (St. the cell has to be multiplied. 7.”48 A strategy of small group leadership has to be based upon the unique leadership.”45 Comiskey insists that “the ultimate goal of each cell is to multiply itself as the group grows through evangelism and then conversions. 25. Schwarz. 46 Comiskey.”46 When a cell has grown to the numeral limit and another cell leader is prepared. That is. some in 6 months. South Korea: NCD Publishing. 32. “Growing groups will tend to birth. Charles.

Transforming Leadership (Downers Grove. The leadership for a cell leader in Gaeumjung Church is transformational49 leadership. saying “God is calling people to step into a new role: 49 The term of “transformative leadership” or “transforming” is also available. The author will use the three terms. 1991). 32. transformative. and transforming in the same meaning. 50 Leighton Ford.”50 Transformational Leadership Servant Leadership Shepherd Leadership Coach Leadership Prospective Cell Members Cell Members Apprentice & other Leaders Figure 43. IL: InterVarsity Press. Transformation is what Jesus wanted to do on the earth as Ford says: “Jesus planned to build a new world through transformed sinners. Small Group Leadership in Gaeumjung Church What is transformational leadership? Lewis gives very helpful insight on transformational leadership. so at his baptism he chose to be one with sinners and to offer them forgiveness and sonship with the Father.133 into cell leaders are all related with the transformation of life. transformational. .

3:18). Transformational Leadership (Nashville. . . His call is for a total revitalization and transformation of thinking and acting. His call goes beyond the point-of-mind.134 transformational leadership. 3:18) into Christ’s likeness (Gal. however. 2 Cor.”51 The basic meaning of transformational leadership is to transform followers. Lead Like Jesus (Nashville.”53 Blanchard and Hodges say that leading like Jesus is a transformational cycle that begins with personal leadership. TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge (New York. NY: Harper & Row. for men and women to be leaders of change in his kingdom. 19. and who may convert leaders into agents of change. (Grand Rapids. 1996). 61. 54 Ken Blanchard. Malphurs claims “the biblical term for change is not conformation (which is the enemy of change) but transformation (Rom. We refer to this as “transformative leadership. 3. spiritual. 2005). 4:19) as evidenced by the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 12:2. Lewis. In conclusion. Bennis and Nanus introduce the meaning of transformative leadership to us. The goal for every Christian is to be transformed by the power of the Spirit (2 Cor. or organizational renewal. saying “the new leader. 2005). . 55 Avolio. . 1. and then he or she can transform the followers.”54 Avolio says “to transform means to transcend oneself to another self. 70. Leadership Development in Balance. MI: Baker Books. 52 Warren Bennis. who converts followers into leaders. to transform followers comes after the transformation of the leader. 5:22-23). TN: W Publishing Group. and Burt Nanus. Advanced Strategic Planning 2nd Ed.”52 Essentially. 51 Philip V. biblically and practically. is one who commits people to action. That is. 53 Aubrey Malphurs. . and Phil Hodges. Publishers. . being transformed takes precedence over transforming. 1985).”55 In principle. transformational leadership is transforming followers by the leader transformed. the leader must be transformed in the Word of God first.

The narrator. probably also Hesse’s own journey.56 According to Spears. They cannot make it without the servant Leo. Servant leadership (New York. There he discovers that Leo. 1977). whom he had known first as servant. and future of Servant Leadership. The central figure of the story is Leo who accompanies the party as the servant who does their menial chores. Spears. Greenleaf.135 Transformational leadership can be expressed in three ways in a cell as we can see in Figure 43. Focus on Leadership (New York. but who also sustains them with his spirit and his song. and Michele Lawrence Ed. In this story we see a band of men on a mythical journey. Then the group falls into disarray and the journey is abandoned. 7. a great and noble leader. shepherd leadership. one of the party.. All goes well until Leo disappears. when he read Hermann Hesse’s short novel. True leadership emerges from those whose primary motivation is a deep desire to help others. and coach leadership. NY: The Greenleaf Center for ServantLeadership. NY: Paulist Presss. “the idea of the servant as leader came partly out of Greenleaf’s half-century of experience in working to shape large institutions. 2002).”57 A direct excerpt from Greenleaf is as follows: The idea of The Servant as Leader came out of reading Hermann Hesse’s Journey to the East.58 56 Larry C. He is a person of extraordinary presence. Servant leadership One aspect of transformational leadership is servant leadership.” Larry C Spears. was in fact that titular head of the Order. The three ways are servant leadership. after some years of wandering finds Leo and is taken into the Order that had sponsored the journey. present. 57 Ibid. 58 Robert K. “Tracing the past. the event that crystallized Greenleaf’s thinking came in the 1960s. Journey to the East. 3. its guiding spirit. However. .

Matt. 41:12 Exo. 42:1. 1 Cor. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve. Deut. the idea of servant leadership is found in the Bible even before Greenleaf introduced the concept of servant leadership. 20:28. Phil. Phil. MI: Baker Books. 61 Ibid. 13. servant leadership is a precise biblical concept on leadership. 1:10. 26:24 Gen. 2:5 1 Sam. 60 Aubrey Malphurs. 1:1. 1:1 2 Pet. 17:32. . We find many examples of servants that showed servant leadership in the Bible. ..136 Greenleaf makes an additional remark: “who is the servant-leader? The servantleader is servant first – as Leo was portrayed. to serve first. 33. 2 Sam. 2003).61 Abraham Joseph Moses Joshua Nehemiah David Daniel Christ Paul Peter. who are able to influence people in a particular context to pursue their God-given direction. 4:10. 39:17-19. “a biblical image that is the most common and dominant for leaders is that of a servant. 1:1 Figure 44. 34:5 Josh. 2:7 Rom. Christian leaders are servants with credibility and capabilities. 1:12 Isa. 11. Being Leaders (Grand Rapids. Actually. .” 59 However. Gen. Malphurs presents biblical characters who are called or referred to as servants as shown in Figure 44. 1:6. Gal. 24:29 Neh. 7:5 Dan. 34. 9:19. 36. .”60 In other words. Biblical characters who were servants 59 Ibid.

but to serve. 20:26-27). He gave the disciples such precious words: “Whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant. however. For followers of Jesus. . . especially cell leaders. “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served. washed your feet. Scripture uses 62 Aubrey Malphurs. 12. the Lord and the Teacher. 2004). have to be servant leaders in Gaeumjung Church. servant leadership reaches not only his or her members. His words leave no room for plan B. 63 On this passages. servant leadership is not an option.” Blanchard. For I gave you an example that you also should do as I did to you” (John 13:14-15). 113.64 Just as Jesus did. 12. As seen in Figure 43. 64 Blanchard. Planting Growing Churches for the 21st Century (Grand Rapids. He said that. after washing the disciples’ feet. it is a mandate. “If I then. To serve others with servant leadership is a way of obeying Jesus’ teachings. i. .137 As Malphurs says. MI: Baker Books. and Hodges. Blanchard and Hodges say that “this call by Jesus to servant leadership is clear and unequivocal.63 And. objects of evangelism and his or her apprentice and other leaders who have become leaders through the leader’s ministry. and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be your slave” (Matt. Malphurs notes: “another often used image for a leader is a shepherd. you also ought to wash one another’s feet.”62 Jesus said. All Christian leaders. .e. Shepherd leadership Another leadership aspect which a small group has to have is shepherd leadership. and Hodges. Through serving others. “the greatest example of a servant-leader is the Savior. cell leaders have to serve others wholeheartedly. but also prospective members. we can transform their life. and to give His life a ransom for many” (Mark 10:45).

2. loving shepherd. who is a shepherd? Brumfield notes: “the word ‘shepherd’ may be translated. We can find other beautiful image of shepherd in John 10 where Jesus said that He is the good shepherd. A shepherd in the East was a physician to the sheep. the most beautiful. Being Leaders. and when night comes. first of all.” (John 10:10).”67 In Psalm 23. 66 Charles Edward Jefferson. 23:1). ‘my goer-forth. Jesus who is the good shepherd “came that they may have life. it gives us the powerful image of a vulnerable sheep protected by a strong. The shepherd is a savior. even with his own life. 68 J. protect and guard the sheep.”65 Jefferson says that “of all the titles which have been minted for the envoys of the Son of God. and the most ample.”68 Jefferson says that a shepherd has six functions. All rescue work is strictly pastoral work. The Minister as Shepherd (New York.”66 We can find the most beautiful image of shepherd in Psalm 23. A critical part of the shepherd’s task is rescue work. 1. C. 4. IL: Van Kampen Press. NY: Thomas Y.’ Yes. .138 the shepherd metaphor primarily of a leader – shepherds were leaders. The Potter and the Shepherd (Wheaton. . 67 Blaine McCormick. Brumfield. Then. Shepherd Leadership (San Francisco. “As great poetry. 3. 5. 1951). CA: JosseyBass. They are as follow: 1. that of ‘shepherd’ is the most popular. 2003). 1912). 65 Malphurs. a watchman. . He goes before us. David confessed that “the Lord is my shepherd. 76. The shepherd is a guide. 2. Crowell Company. He saves sheep that are lost. It is the duty of the shepherd to feed. A shepherd in the East was also a guard. and have it abundantly. 34. if necessary. . The Eastern shepherd was. and David Davenport. to count the sheep safely into the fold. I shall not want” (Ps.

139 6. The shepherd was hired because of the sheep. 28. in the way Jesus teaches. too. 1998). 24. In real meaning. 72 Bob Briner. Shepherd leadership cannot reach prospective members because they are not the leader’s sheep yet. Relational Leadership (Waynesboro.”72 What Briner and Pritchard write about is exactly the job of a shepherd. NY: Random House. a shepherd is a servant. Shepherds by definition are servants entrusted with the care of the flock. apprentice.69 Not only servant leadership but also shepherd leadership is required to a small group leader. 69 Jefferson. Briner and Pritchard argue “serving all. Walter Wright claims “shepherds are there for the sheep. 71 Walter C. It is a position of responsibility and service. A leader as a shepherd has to have concern and acceptance as Hiltner says that “the first operating principle of shepherding that will be noted involves concern and acceptance.”71 Therefore. we can be transformed and transform others with servant leadership and shepherd leadership. Wright. 295.”70 And he or she has to give a spiritual guide and satisfy the needs of the sheep. a cell leader can reach his or her cell members. Leadership Lessons of Jesus (New York. it is also about leading followers into commitment. GA: Paternoster Publishing. 2004). . is not only about washing feet. and into excellence. 70 Seward Hiltner. The Christian Shepherd: Some Aspects of Pastoral Care (Nashville. The sheep do not exist for the shepherd. That the feeding of the sheep is an essential duty of the shepherd calling is known even to those who are least familiar with shepherds and their work. In conclusion. Returning to Figure 43. not status and power. and other leaders who have become through the leader’s ministry. and Ray Pritchard. shepherd leadership is related to servant leadership. into discipline. 46-73. through shepherd leadership. into dedication. TN: Abingdon Press).

. all the while they coped with their hyperactive lifestyles and 73 John Maxwell. it is certain that potential leaders gather around a good leader.”74 When a small group leader reproduces other leaders. knowledge. Collins says “in companies large and small. coach came to use in the realm of the business world. 74 Ibid. “great leaders produce other leaders. 76 Gray R. 1996). 15. 75 David B. 3. Collins.”76 However. Christian Coaching (Colorado Springs. Leader as Coach (Minneapolis. Peterson says that “coaching is the process of equipping people with the tools. 11. Developing the Leader Around You (Nashville. coach is not a Christian term. MN: Personnel Decisions International. Inc. TN: Thomas Nelson. The leader has to be the coach to the apprentice. 14. make wise decisions. Like Collins says. Just like Maxwell’s words. CO: NavPress. . 2001). and become more effective. and Mary Dee Hicks. Then. the leader comes to be their coach. “leaders create and inspire new leaders by instilling faith in their leadership abilities and helping them develop and hone leadership skills they don’t know they possess.140 Coach leadership That a small group leader has coach leadership sets forth the fact that he or she has to reproduce other leaders as a premise.”73 Essentially. Peterson. It is the same when a leader has an apprentice in his or her cell.. people at all levels had to learn how to deal with change.”75 As we can discern. and opportunities they need to develop themselves and become more effective. 1995). develop new management styles. “coaching might have stayed in the realm of sports and entertainment if it hadn’t burst into the corporate world a few years ago.

80 Richard C.” Another job of a coach is “to help small group leaders identify potential apprentices from that “secretly warehoused talent pool. 81 Carl George. 16. that is. it explains that a leader as a coach can influence only apprentice or other leaders who have been developed through his or her ministry. case study (chapter 3). and literature research (chapter 4) as we can see in Figure 45. Through the jobs. This is because the concept of coach is related with a specific office or function. 77 Ibid. 19. 79 Gary Collins. “coaching is getting the attention of church leaders. TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers. A STRATEGY IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL GROUP LEADERSHIP IN GAEUMJUNG CHURCH For mapping a strategy of small group leadership development in Gaeumjung Church. 2003). 78 Laurie Beth Jones.141 increasing stress. the idea of coach involves “help and guidance for better results. The Leader as Coach (CA: Equity Press. you can help your team get from where they are to where they want to be – not where you want them to be.”77 This statement shows exactly what coach means in the business domain. 2004).”80 In any case. coaching is the art and practice of guiding a person or group from where they are toward the greater competence and fulfillment that they desire. xiii. The leader as a coach has to help and guide the apprentice or other leaders to do their job better. too.”79 Huseman says it a little bit differently. And then.”81 In Figure 43. we have to reexamine the results of field analysis (chapter 2). He says “as a coach. Life Coach (Nashville. Huseman. Jesus. the apprentice and other leaders.”78 What does a coach do? Collins says that “at its core. . a cell leader as a coach can transform others. 56. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership.

142
Results from literature research 1. Perceive the urgency and importance of developing leaders. 2. Approach strategically. 3. Recognize the senior pastor’s role 4. Develop a vision and communicate it effectively. 5. Work as a team. 6. Develop leaders according with your small group ministry. 7. Create a leadership culture 8. Empower the small group leaders 9. Develop a training system. 10. Provide follow-up programs. 11. Implement and evaluate. 12. Develop spiritual atmosphere.

Results from field analysis Features of small group ministry in Gaeumjung Church 1. Stagnant Small Group Ministry 2. Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members 3. Geographically Organized Small Groups 4. Women-centered small group ministry 5. Teaching-centered small group meetings Features of leadership development in Gaeumjung Church up to now 1. Very low degree of satisfaction of small group leaders on the strategy 2. A premodern strategy of small group leadership development 3. Low efficiency of the strategy of small group leadership development 4. Unsystematic process of selection and examination of new small group leaders

Results from case study 1. The senior pastor has to have a clear vision towards small group ministry and create a proper climate. 2. A healthy, new small group leader naturally comes into being in a healthy small group which a healthy leader leads. 3. The senior pastor has to empower small group leaders. 4. The system for small group leadership development has to be in harmony with the nurturing system of the church. 5. Durability of the system to develop small group leaders is very important. 6. To hold regular and frequent meetings of small group leaders is very important.

7. A formal training class
before beginning to serve as a small group leader is required by several of the churches.

5. Inefficient follow-up
training

Figure 45. The results from each research method

143 On the basis of the information given in Figure 45, we can map out a strategy of cell leadership development in Gaeumjung Church (Figure 46). Figure 46 shows a longterm strategy in the development of cell leadership in Gaeumjung Church. After the explanation of the long-term strategy, the author will suggest a temporary strategy which will last just during transitioning period. A temporary strategy for the transitioning period has to be different from a long-term strategy because the transitioning period will be four years. This means that the temporary strategy will last for four years in Gaeumjung Church, and then, the long-term strategy will be operational.

Long-term Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership Goal Doubling the whole cells every three years by recruiting new leaders equivalent to 30% of the whole cell leaders of the last year and developing them82 Principles of cell leadership development Figure 46 is a diagram of cell leadership training system at Gaeumjung Church. The diagram is based upon seven principles of leadership development which can be applied to Gaeumjung Church effectively. 1. Sharing of vision: All church members hold the same vision on cell ministry and cell leadership development through continuous and effective communication of vision. 2. Nurturing system: Recruit preliminary cell leaders of good quality through high quality nurturing system, i.e. discipleship ministry. 3. Systematic leadership training: Train the new leaders for one year through the leadership training system which consists of formal training and on-the-job training.

82 If we develop new cell leaders equivalent to 30% of the whole cell leaders of the last year for three years, we can a growth rate of 219.7% at the end of the third year. Therefore we can double the whole cells every three years though we could lose about 20% cell leaders for the period.

144 4. Empowering and trust: Empower the new leaders and trust them even though they can’t obtain good results for a while. 5. Follow-up system: Help the cell leaders with effective follow-up system. Follow-up system consists of regular leader meeting and follow-up training program. 6. Leader-developing culture: All church members recognize that they have to belong to cells, be a cell leader someday, and help others to be effective cell leaders. Make a culture that competent cell leaders come into being in a good quality cells. 7. Persistency with modification: Persist in the leader training system with regular evaluation and proper modification on the basis of the results from the regular evaluation.

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Figure 46. A diagram of cell leadership training system in Gaeumjung Church

145 Goals of Temporary Strategy in the Development of Cell Leadership during the Transitioning Period To set goals for the development of cell leadership is very important. Generally, we can set goals according to SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bounded or Timely). We have five goals of in the development of cell leadership during the four years. The five goals are: 1. To make the all current small group leaders and apprentices experience new type of small group, i.e. a cell and new type of leadership, i.e. transformational leadership 2. To train the current 87 small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church to have the transformational leadership 3. To train the current 87 apprentices to be cell leaders with transformational leadership 4. To launch 140 cells at the fourth year83 5. To have 80% of the members attend a small group meeting regularly after transitioning period Strategy to Achieve the Goals during Four-year-transitioning Period A synopsis The whole structure on the strategy of developing cell leadership can be expressed as s fourfold training strategy and a fourfold support strategy (Figure 47). The fourfold training strategy consists of experience-based strategy, observation learning strategy, formal training strategy, and on-the-job training strategy. The fourfold support strategy is made up of spiritual support strategy (prayer strategy), encouragement strategy, coaching strategy, and empowerment strategy.

83 If we succeed in training the current 87 small group leaders and 87 apprentices for four years, we can get 174 cell leaders at the fourth year. But, we can’t expect the all current small group leaders and apprentices could be cell leaders with new leadership style. If we lose 20% of them, we could launch about 140 cells after the transitioning period.

146

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Figure 47. A synopsis of temporary strategy of cell leadership development in Gaeumjung Church

Fourfold training strategy The first factor of the fourfold training strategy is “Experience-based strategy.” The accomplishment of this strategy will take three years (Figure 48). The members of Gaeumjung Church have been familiar with the traditional Kuyeok system for scores of years. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to make them experience cells regardless of their position in the church. For this goal, we will set a prototype cell84 which the senior pastor will lead. During the first year, the senior pastor will lead two prototype cells. Each of the prototype cells consists of six elders and their wife. During the second year, the senior pastor will lead another prototype cell which is made up of six fulltime

84 A prototype cell has two purposes. One is for the senior pastor to examine what problems the new-type cell has by experiencing it before transitioning the church to a cell church. The other is to settle the problems in advance if necessary.

147 ministers and their spouses. During that same year, each of the elders and his wife will lead a cell which consists of six small group leaders and their spouses. If this happens, all of the current small group leaders of Gaeumjung Church can experience a new type of small group, i.e. a cell. A Format Legend Senior Pastor Elder group Minister group Small group leader group Apprentice group

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Figure 49 An outline of experience-based strategy

Figure 48. An outline of experience-based strategy

148 During the third year, each of the six fulltime ministers and twelve elders leads his or her own cell which consists of four to five apprentices and their spouses. In this case, all of the current apprentices can gain experience about the cell. The second factor of the fourfold strategy is observational learning. It is deeply related to the first strategy. Ministers and their spouse, elders and their wives, the current small group leaders and their spouses, and the apprentices and their spouses will learn what a cell is, what the cell points to, what the job of a cell leader is, and how the cell leader does his or her job by observing other cell leaders very carefully for one year. The third factor is formal training strategy. To complete the formal training system will take 25 weeks.85 Figure 49 shows the curriculum of the formal training and appendix C is the material of the formal training. Basically, those who experienced cells can be trained through this training system. The current small group leaders experience the cell during their second year. They can be trained in the formal training system during third year. The current apprentices experience the cell during the third year. Therefore, they can be trained later during the fourth year. The fourth factor of the fourfold training strategy is OJT (on-the-job training). OJT will take six months. Small group leaders who have experienced the cell and completed the formal training can lead their own small group with new cell leadership. Of course, they already have led their own small group. However, at the OJT stage, the elders and fulltime ministers become their guides. Each of the trainees can be guided and instructed by the guides for better practicing cell leadership. The guides will have a

85 The formal training is held at the first half year and on-the-job training is held at the latter half of the year. South Korea has two major holidays. We have to pause the training at the two holidays. One of the two holidays is at January to February and another is at September to October. Therefore, both of the trainings will take 25 weeks.

At that meeting.149 weekly meeting with those who he or she had served at a cell for a year. Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Category Introduction Subject Introduction: self-introduction and fellowship with others Vision/ Purpose of a cell-based church Vision Sharing Building an authentic community Importance of leaders Understanding cells and transformational leadership Personality and attitude Cells which we desire to have Transformational leadership Servant leadership Shepherd leadership Coach leadership Personality of transformational leaders Attitude of transformational leaders How to communicate? How to facilitate sharing? How to listen to others? Practical skills Caring & Spiritual Supporting How to contact cell members? How to lead prayer meeting? How to handle the difficult members? Be a Reproducer Reproduction How to find and develop an apprentice? How to invite the unchurched to the cell? (Evangelism) Relationship with God Conclusion Importance of God’s grace How to pray? How to meditate the Word of God? Evaluation and telling about impressions Figure 49. the trainee can talk about the new type of small group and small group leadership with his or her guider. The curriculum of the formal training .

The threefold prayer support strategy .150 During the second year of the four-year-training period. the senior pastor will do the same thing to the fulltime ministers.          Figure 50. At the third year. Fourfold support strategy The first factor in the fourfold support system is the spiritual support strategy. the senior pastor will have a regular meeting with the elders and equip them to be competent guider. We cannot overemphasize the importance of prayer. We will give the threefold prayer support to each of the small group leaders and apprentices during the four-year-training period (Figure 50).

. it is very important to make all the church members encourage the trainee whenever and wherever by cultivating leadership culture. The members of the team pray 24 hours a day throughout the year. The second spiritual support strategy is the “1+3” strategy. OJT. and the fellow trainees can encourage each trainee very effectively. Basically. The encouragement strategy would be fourfold (Figure 51). Gaeumjung Church has a very powerful intercessory team.151 Prayer through the intercessory prayer team is the first prayer support. the spiritual prayer support must be offered throughout the whole training process. and when the trainees are deployed to their ministry field as we can see in Figure 47. They can be incalculable spiritual supporters for the small group leaders and apprentices who are trained. Encouragement is absolutely needed during formal training. It is to recruit three prayer supporters for each of the trainees and make them pray for three minutes a day. The senior pastor. the guider. As we can see in Figure 47. The third spiritual supporter is the guider. The fourth factor in the fourfold support system is the encouragement strategy. The guider who has led the trainee at a cell will be the best prayer supporter. His or her small group members would be the proper prayer supporter. With leadership culture. The prayer supporters would not be the families of each of the trainees. That means we have to produce an encouragement culture. the church member respects the cell leaders and encourages them.

we cannot expect to produce good results. Without empowerment. he or she will be a coach. empowered leaders can be competent cell leaders. Each of the coaches will hold a weekly meeting with those who he or she leads and serves. At first. he has to empower them (Figure 47).152               Figure 51. When the senior pastor deploys the cell leaders. On the other hand. The fourfold encouragement strategy The third factor of the support system is the coaching strategy. coaching has to be continuous after deployment of the cell leaders (Figure 47). The fourth factor of the fourfold support strategy is empowerment strategy. Guidance through the guide at the period of OJT is a type of coaching. When a cell leader reproduces other cell leaders and multiplies the cell. However. the fulltime ministers and elders will be the coaches of the cell leaders. .

case study. and OJT) and fourfold support strategy (prayer. and literature research. encouragement. and empowerment). The author believes firmly that he can develop the powers latent within the church through transitioning the church to a cell-based church and developing transformational leaders. formal training. observation. . coaching.153 SUMMARY The author suggests a strategy of small group leadership development in Gaeumjung Church on the basis of the results from the field analysis. Gaeumjung Church has the powers latent though its small group ministry and strategy of small group leadership development have several problems. The strategy consists of fourfold training strategy (experience.

However. However. we cannot expect a success in the transition without developing capable small group leaders. many of those churches have failed in the transition. One of the reasons small group ministry is unproductive in Gaeumjung Church is because the failure of developing efficient small group leaders. Therefore. In a sense. Other churches are undergoing many difficulties. there is no way to revitalize the small group ministry in Gaeumjung Church except by transitioning to a cell-based church. In these days. the author suggests ten recommendations on 154 . The author believes firmly that one of the important reasons of the problem is the failure in developing small group leaders.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR KOREAN CHURCHES CONSIDERING TRANSITIONING TO A SMALL GROUP BASED CHURCH Developing competent small group leaders is the key to a successful small group ministry. Therefore. there are many churches in South Korea which have tried or are trying to plan in transitioning to a cell-based church. Gaeumjung Church failed in developing competent small group leaders and this caused a stagnant small group ministry. Developing competent small group leaders is the most important point in the transitioning process. which eventually became bad influences on each other. the failure is a natural result because the small group ministry in Gaeumjung Church has been tied-up for a long time.

The more strategic we are.” Lead the Transition Strategically Yeong-Cheol Park says “transitioning to a cell church supposes a paradigm shift of the pastor and the church members on the essences of Christian life. Inc. . Stevens. 19. 5. Robert E.155 the basis of the result from this research for successfully transitioning into a cell-based church or a productive small group ministry within the Korean churches.P. ministry and the church.D.”1 Because the transition is so important and requires fundamental change of the whole church. February 2003.I.E. when used in the context of planning. though it is important. but the process the church works through to establish the plan. 2003). provides a perspective to planning which is long run in nature and deals with achieving specified results.”2 We have to pay attention to Marshall’s counsel.S.” Ministry and Theology. “Everything About a Cell at a Glance. Strategic planning is a journey. 1994). and David L. set up a clear goal to achieve a vision. “The word strategic. Migliore. Church and Ministry Strategic Planning (Binghamton. “The greatest value of strategic planning is not the document.A.E. The ten recommendations follow the acrostic “L. and Loudon say. 1 Yeong-Cheol Park.H. the vision God gives you becomes your church’s future destination. 2 R. Mapping Your Church Strategy (Nashville. TN: LifeWay Press.. NY: The Haworth Press.”3 To plan strategically in a transition means that we have to try to transition on the basis of a thorough analysis on the current situation of the church.R. 3 Mark Marshall. Loudon. and have a blueprint to reach the goal. Stevens. the more plentiful results we can gain. including personnel. Henry Migliore. we have to approach the transition very carefully and strategically. 78. He says.

Southerland claims. “The cell church paradigm requires the churches to make innovative change in Korean situation though it is very biblical. Transitioning (Grand Rapids. It is the same with transitioning to a cell-based church and developing capable small group leaders. “The leader has a clear idea of what he or she wants to do – professionally and personally – and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks. “Cell Ministry Does Not Be Formed As It Is. 35. It is because to achieve a purpose takes a long time. we would be in a quandary. 117.”4 Therefore. If you are expecting it – you will be prepared. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. 1996). 5 John. Bennis claims. MA: Harvard Business School Press. if we are not prepared to confront resistance. Any kind of change goes with some difficulties. very tough.’”5 To expect that there would be resistance and to be prepared for possible resistance is a very important way not to suffer from the difficulty. Kotter. 6 Dan Southerland. 4 In-Ho Kim.156 Expect There Would Be Resistance and Overcome the Resistance In-Ho Kim claims. February 2003. We have to be persistent with the whole transitioning process. Kotter says.6 Achieve the Goal in Persistence Trying to transition in a certain area requires persistence. . All kinds of innovation call for some kinds of price.” Ministry and Theology. we have to expect that there would be resistance to the transition. 113. Leading Change (Boston. 1999). “Ask almost anyone over thirty about the difficulty of creating major change in an organization and the answer will probably include the equivalent of ‘very. P. On the contrary. “The greatest difficulty with opposition is that it will discourage you and cause you to doubt your vision.

. To be persistent does not mean we do not have any changes in our blueprint. one of the most important problems encountered in Gaeumjung Church’s current strategy of the development in small group leadership is that it has not been persistent. 8 William Bridges. and Robert M. Develop Small Group Leaders Systematically What Conger and Fulmer say about the relationship between succession planning and leadership development is noteworthy.”9 Comiskey also claims that “leadership 7 Warren G. 1991). 79. 31. “Succession planning and leadership development are natural allies because they share a vital and fundamental goal: getting the right skills in the right place. However.”7 William Bridges presents “Be consistent” as the first rule of rules to reinforce the new beginning. It was because they were not persistent with the methods. The ministers of Gaeumjung Church have tried various methods to develop small group leaders up to now. 61. That we are persistent means that we have to modify the blueprint on the basis of results from regular and reasonable evaluation within the limit of holding fast to the original vision or goal. Managing Transitions (Cambridge. we have to be persistent with the blueprint. 9 Jay A. Then. 2003).157 even failures. all of those methods did not continue long in existence. On Becoming A Leader (New York.8 As we can see in Chapter two of this thesis. Conger. NY: Basic Books. MA: Perseus Books. On the contrary.12 (December 2003). Bennis. We have to have a clear vision or goal and also a clear-cut blueprint in getting the vision or goal. They insist. the blueprint has to be continuously changed. “Developing Your Leadership Pipeline. Fulmer. vol.” Harvard Business Review. 81.

We can use various methods including formal instruction and informal instruction. 60. Various ways to develop small group leaders Empower and Encourage the Small Group Leaders It is absolutely necessary to empower small group leaders for successful transition to a cell-based church. Home Cell Group Explosion (Houston. using it. The reason why we have to empower small group leaders is because “leadership is largely about authority – acquiring it. MI: Baker Books. 2004).11 Process Oriented Classroom Small Group Turbo Group Apprenticing One-on-One Coaching Consulting Self-led Event Oriented Huddle Seminar Conference Getaway Retreat Workshop Rally Benchmarking Figure 52. 160.158 development and deployment is first and foremost a divine task. TX: Touch Publications. and investing it in 10 Joel Comiskey.”10 It is illogical that we do not develop capable small group leaders though we want to transition a church into a cell-based church.” That means we have to intentionally develop small group leaders according to clear principles and a thorough plan. Figure 52 shows the various ways to develop leaders which Malphurs and Mancini introduce. . We have to develop current and preliminary small group leaders “systematically. 1988). Building Leaders (Grand Rapids. 11 Aubrey Malphurs and Will Mancini.

“Inclusive leaders enable others to lead by sharing information. PA: Kingdom Publishing. CO: NavPress. and Ray Pritchard. Leadership Lessons of Jesus (New York. small group leader. “Coaching is the key element in producing good leaders. And to be a good coach you must recognize that coaching is a significant form of leadership. George.”15 Coaching is a very good way to encourage small group leaders regularly and effectively. Gary Collins says.”16 12 Bob Briner. 13 Carl F. CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. TX: Cell Group Resources. Turning Members Into Leaders (Houston. This person is called a lay minister.159 others. 48. structure. 190. process. 76. 1995).”13 James O’Toole says. 2001). and the like. but also have to encourage them. “We all need someone who believes in us. and communication. We not only have to empower the small group leaders. 14 James O’Toole. 30. NY: Random House. . 1997). by fostering a sense of community.”12 Small group leaders cannot fulfill their functions if the senior pastor does not empower them in a church. volunteer leader. 2001). Earley claims. Leading Change (San Francisco. 16 Gray R. Christian Coaching (Colorado Springs. Sunday school class care coordinator. To be a good leader you must be a good coach. 70. 15 Dave Earley. 1998). Everyone needs encouragement. Collins. Carl George insists “we must empower a new class of Christian worker (which is really a return to the New Testament model). and by creating a consistent system of rewards. Nine Keys to Effective Small Group Leadership (Mansfield.”14 This is exactly what it means to have empowerment.

most Korean pastors are not familiar with the notion of a team because Korea is a society that has a vertical structure. “There is no substitute for having all the right people on your ministry team. 1998). 1995). 17 John C. 20 Neal F. They will make or break your effectiveness as a leader. 2005). CO: NavPress. How to Build a Small Group Ministry (Colorado Springs. MI: Baker Books.20 Figure 53 would be a great help to those who want to build up a team for transitioning to a cell-based church. “The belief that one person can do something great is a myth. 3.”17 Generally. Malphurs claims. 28. 19 Hans Finzel. Empowered Leaders (Nashville. Nevertheless. Maxwell. The 17 Indisputable Laws of Teamwork (Nashville. TN: Thomas Nelson. (Grand Rapids. we have to work as a team to be successful in transitioning though we recognize the senior pastor as the point leader.”18 Finzel argues. Inc. McBride.. Maxwell says. “Excellent leaders understand that they can accomplish far more through the wisdom of a gifted and committed strategic team of staff and lay leaders. 121. 18 Aubrey Malphurs.160 Recognize the Importance of a Team We have to learn to work as a team. Advanced Strategic Planning 2nd Ed. . TN: W Publishing Group. 2001).”19 McBride suggests the number of persons to build up a team according to church size (Figure 53). A group can do more than what an individual does. 13.

000 or more Team size (Number of members) 3 3 to 5 5 to 7 7 to 9 9 to 11 11 to 13 Figure 53. Bennis and Goldsmith claims. dedication to an overarching vision. 22 Lynne and Bill Hybels. and Joan Goldsmith.161 Church size (Average Adult Participants) 50 to 150 151 to500 501 to 1000 1001 to 1500 1501 to 2000 2. 2003). “Although leaders come in every size. “God has created human beings to respond to a worthy vision when it’s passionately presented by a gifted leader. there is at least one ingredient that every leader shares: passion for a guiding purpose. Learning to Lead 3rd Ed. Therefore. 1995). Number of persons of a team according to church size Share the Vision Effectively It is not too much to say that setting a clear vision is the most important factor in the whole transitioning process. (New York.”22 There is nobody who has fear or hesitation to a fundamental change like transitioning to a cell-based church. MI: Zondervan Publishing House. the leader of a church has to show the church members a clear destination and the way to the destination with a clear-cut vision. and disposition. NY: Basic Books. 151.”21 People follow a leader who has a clear vision. Discovering Church (Grand Rapids. 119. It is very important for the senior pastor to share the vision with the whole church 21 Warren Bennis. shape. To share the vision through effective communication is as important as having a vision. . Lynne and Bill Hybels say.

Turning Members Into Leaders.”26 Therefore. the Lay Leaders Walter Wright claims that “leadership is a relationship – a relationship in which one person seeks to influence the thoughts. MacDonald says that trust is “almost indescribable quality of relationship in 23 Bridges. 2. Communicate vision one-on-one. William Bridges explains the relationship between a vision (or a purpose) and communication very well. 2002). They need a picture of how the outcome will look. Communicate vision by going public. “leaders fail when they have an inappropriate attitude and philosophy about the relationship between themselves and their followers. Relational Leadership (Waynesboro. He says: Purposes are critical to beginnings.”27 Leaders who lead the transitioning process have to be in good relationship with all the church members. Communicate vision by embodying it. MI: Zondervan. 24 Bill Hybels. 38-42. 27 O’Toole. 2.23 How can we communicate a vision? Bill Hybels suggests three ways to communicate a vision like: 1. They are ideas. but they are rather abstract. and most people are not ready to throw themselves into a difficult and risky undertaking simply on the basis of an idea.162 by spreading it effectively. 37. and they need to be able to imagine how it will feel to be a participant in it. GA: Paternoster Publishing. behaviors. 25 Walter C. 3. Courageous Leadership (Grand Rapids. . 55. Trust is the kernel of relationship between the leaders and all the members in a church. at least in their imaginations. “The length and breadth of our influence on others is related to the depth of our relationships to with them. They need something they can see. 26 Earley.”25 Earley says. 46. beliefs or values of another person.24 Have a Good Relation with the Church Members. Wright. 2004). Especially.

2020 Vision (Portland. OR: Scott Publishing Company. These words are filled. “The Root of Leadership. “When it comes to tapping into the power of God there are three key words that have opened the door for me personally into living in the power of the Spirit. 1986).163 which a leader builds and then enjoys the confidence of the people.”29 28 Gordon MacDonald. fellowship. Galloway. and flow. 24. we cannot expect that they would follow us from their heart.”28 People form deep relationships with those who they can trust. The leaders who lead the transitioning process must seek the power and guidance of the Holy Spirit continuously in order to succeed.1 (Winter 2003). .” Leadership. If church members can trust their leaders on the basis of relationship. At first. Without good relationships. Galloway says. 57. It is absolutely necessary for church leaders to form good relationships with all the church members. especially. they can follow the leaders even though they may have a certain kind of fear and hesitation in the fundamental change. 29 Dale E. the lay leaders. The only way of getting their heart is forming good relationship with them. 48. Do not try to transition until getting all the church members to agree from the bottom of the heart. the leaders must be in good relationship with the Holy Spirit. Illuminated by the Holy Spirit How important is it to be illuminated and guided by the Holy Spirit? The Holy Spirit is our guider and leader at every moment of our lives.

31 Paul Yonggi Cho. all our efforts to build up a small group ministry and develop small group leaders will end in failure. we can get incalculable results from our small group ministry and development in leadership. 2006). 30 Ibid. 60.”31 The more we pray. the leaders have to produce fertile leadership culture with an eye of the future. 32 Kotter. Kotter suggests that “anchoring new approaches in the culture” as the final stage in his eight-stage process of change. 33 Joel Comiskey. 145-158. Produce Leadership Culture To produce leadership culture is an effective way to raise the productivity in the development of small group leadership. 45 Pastoring Years of Hope (Seoul. 1999). “Prayer is the key to the revival of church and home cell groups.164 And then. 174. Groups of 12 (Houston. Korea: Institute for Church Growth.”30 Yonggi Cho says. Without rich leadership culture. Therefore.32 Comiskey also says that tight-knit culture is one of the core values of Groups of 12. . Many leadership gurus urge us to produce fertile leadership culture. the more abundant results we can get. the leaders must “make prayer a top priority. 35-36..33 With productive leadership culture. TX: Touch Publications.

Under 3 years B.165 APPENDIX A QUESTIONAIRE ON THE SMALL GROUP LEADERS OF GAEUMJUNG CHURCH I. go to question 5 via question 4. 3-6 years C. F. No (If yes. If no. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which consisted of at least 3 classes. Small Group Leadership Development 3. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group ministry to be a small group leader. B. C. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or a member. B. What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in the church? Put marks on every point applicable to you. Others: (write down any training or education which you received. Personal Affairs 1. I took a systematic training for being a small group leader which consisted of at least 3 classes. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting. How long have you been a member of Gaeumjung Church? A. 4-5 years D. . A.) 5. I learned through seeing my small group leader as an apprentice or a member. Over 10 years 2. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one or two classes. A. Over 10 years II. Yes B. E. go to question 5 directly. D. What kinds of training or education did you receive to be a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church? Put marks on every point applicable to you.) 4. 1-3 years C. 6-10 years E. Have you served as a small group leader in other church before being a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church? A. Under 1 year B. How long have you been a small group leader in Gaeumjung Church? A. 7-10 years D.

What kinds of supports does Gaeumjung Church give you for doing job of a small group leader? Put marks on every point applicable to you. The small group leader when I was a small group member or an apprentice E. I have learned systematically how I lead a small group meeting. E. A guiding principle of the senior pastor C.166 C. Systematic follow-up training B. D. Teaching you what you teach at a small group meeting C. F. A minister in charge of small group ministry D. I took counseling with the senior pastor or a minister in charge of small group ministry to be a small group leader. (About the previous question) Why do you think so? Give just one reason. Assistance of prayer E. After becoming a small group leader.) ______________________________________________ 6. Connection with a mentor or coach D. have you ever taken any training that helped you to be a more effective small group leader in Gaeumjung Church? A. Others: ______________________________________________ 7. __________________________________________________________ III. Yes B. go to question 12 directly. A. I took training for being a small group leader which consisted of one or two classes. Do you think the development of small group leadership in Gaeumjung Church is systematic? Give grade by circling number with 1 being the lowest and 10 as the highest. If no. From whom (of from what) did you learn the most about jobs and attitudes of a small group leader? A. A systematic small group leadership development program B. I really have not learned anything about jobs and attitudes of small group leaders G. Follow-up training 9. Financial support F. Others: (write down any training or education which you received. Fellow small group leaders F. . No (If yes.) 11. go to question 11. what kinds of training did you receive? Put marks on every point applicable to you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8. Others: ______________________________________________ 10. If yes.

Assistance of prayer F. Because of the relationship with the leader of other members . Whom do you call when you have difficulties as a small group leader first of all? A. The senior pastor B. The meetings are official gatherings of the church. What do you want Gaeumjung Church to give you as an effective small group leader? Choose two. Why do the members attend small group meetings? A. Others: ______________________________________________ IV. Attend 50-69% of the whole meetings: _________ D.167 A Spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat B. No one G. Attend over 90% of the whole meetings: _________ B. Attend 70-89% of the whole meetings: _________ C. Predecessor E. Financial support G. Small group or small group meeting 14. Systematic follow-up training B Spiritual training through prayer meeting or retreat C. C. Practical techniques for leading a small group D. What do I teach in a small group meeting G. A minister in charge of leading you. Connection with a mentor or coach E. How many people attend your small group meeting on annual average? 16. How to resolve conflicts in the small group F. C. People appointed your mentor or coach by the church D. How to lead small group meetings effectively C. They are impressed by the small group meeting. Others: ______________________________________________ 12. How many adults did the church assign as your small group members at the beginning of this year? 15. Fellow small group leader F. B. Others: ______________________________________________ 13. Attend less than 50% of the whole meetings: _________ E. Never attend: _________ 17. A. How to build relationships with small group members E. How to make apprentice D. How many members do you have that: A.

Prayer ____ B. Building the relationship with God ____ K. Others: ______________________________________________ 19. Because of resistance of family D. Administration ____ H. Leading small group meetings ____ G. E. The leader or members encourage them through visiting or calling if they don’t attend. ____ A. In what five areas do you need more training? Prioritize them by placing numbers one through five in the blanks next to the area. B. Teaching ability ____ C. One is most important and five is the least important. Do you think you need more training to lead the small group meetings more effectively? A. Why the members do not attend small group meetings? A. Yes B. They don’t feel they belong to the small group. No (If yes. Other _______________________ . Others: ______________________________________________ 18.168 D. C. They are not impressed. Loving and serving the members ____ I. If no. Personality ____ J. do not answer question 20. Building relationships ____ F. They are busy.) 20. Visiting and calling ____ E. Counseling ____ D. go to question 20. E.

Why are you going to change the program or strategy? 12. House church C. How do you help the small group leaders of your church to make them do their ministry more effectively? 13. Cell B. A Synopsis on small group ministry 1. Small Group Leadership Development 8. What kind of small groups do you have? Do you know the difference in these types of small groups? A. What are the three things that are absolutely necessary to small group leaders? . When did you transition your church into the small group system? II. If you had other small group system except Kuyeok. What percentage of church members regularly attend small group meetings? 5. why have you transitioned into the system? 7. How many small groups does your church have? 3. What is the strategy for small group leadership development which you regard the most important? 9. What do you think makes it the most effective? 10.169 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW WITH THE SENIOR PASTORS OF THE CHURCHES WITH OUTSTANDING SMALL GROUP MINISTRY I. How many adult members does your church have? 2. What percentage of church members belong to small groups? 4. G-12 church D. Which program or strategy are you going to change in your church for small group leadership development in the near future? 11. Of-small group church E. Others: 6. Traditional Kuyeok system F.

170 APPENDIX C         NAME:______________________________ GAEUMJUNG CHURCH    .

You have to recruit at least three prayer supporter for the training  Time Schedule 1. 7:30~7:40 Sing along 7:40~7:50 Calling the roll and check the assignment 7:50~8:00 Ice breaking 8:00~9:00 Lecture (including group discussion) 9:00~9:15 Break 9:15~10:10 Lecture (including group discussion) 10:10~10:25 Sharing for practice Closing prayer . You have to be at the conference room at the appointed time. 8. 2. 5. To understand and to be able to explain the cell and its features in Gaeumjung Church 3. You don’t have to be absent from more than three lectures. 6. 3. 2. 3. You have to join the group discussion. Lecture Group discussion Presentation Reading several required books and writing down impressions of the books Memorizing a Bible passage per week Test  Rules for trainees 1. You have to attend all lectures sincerely. You have to make up for missing lectures when you are absent from more than four lectures. 4. To understand and to be able explain the “cell-based church” which Gaeumjung Church is going to be 2. To acquire practical skills to lead a cell 5. You have to pray throughout the training period 8. 7. 5.171   Course: Cell Leadership Training  Title: Be a Transformational Leader  When: 7:30pm ~ 10:00pm on every Monday (25 Weeks)  Where: Conference Room (of Gaeumjung Church)  Purposes 1. 4. 2. 3. To be equipped with transformational leadership 4. To start my own cell after complete the courses of Cell Leadership Training and On-the-job Training  Education Methods 1. You have to do the task assigned to you every week. 6. You have to make a good record on the final test (more than 70%) 7. 6. 4. 5.

172  Week Category Subject Learning objective 1 Introduction Introduction Vision/ Purpose of a cellbased church Building an authentic community Make him/herself effectively to fellow trainees and know them To understand and explain the cell-based church To understand and explain why and how we build an authentic community To understand the importance of leaders and believe that we are called to be the leaders To understand and explain the cell and its features To understand and explain the transformational leadership and try to have it To understand and explain the servant leadership and try to have it To understand and explain the shepherd leadership and try to have it To understand and explain the coach leadership and try to have it To be able to explain the personality of transformational leadership To be able to explain the personality of transformational leadership 2 3 Vision Sharing 4 Importance of leaders Cells which we desire to have Transformational leadership Understanding cells and transformational leadership 5 6 7 Servant leadership 8 Shepherd leadership 9 Coach leadership 10 Personality and attitude 11 Personality of transformational leaders Attitude of transformational leaders .

and telling each one’s impressions Practical skills 16 17 18 19 Be a Reproducer 20 Reproduction How to find and develop an apprentice? How to invite the unchurched to the cell? (Evangelism) Importance of God’s grace 21 22 23 24 25 Conclusion Relationship with God How to pray? How to meditate the Word of God? Evaluation and telling about impressions .173 Week Category Subject Learning objective 12 How to communicate? 13 14 15 How to facilitate sharing? How to listen to others? Caring & Spiritual Supporting How to contact cell members? How to lead prayer meeting? How to handle the difficult members? To acquire effective communication skills to raise the cell’s vitality To acquire the skill to facilitate the cell members to share their life To acquire listening skills To acquire the skills to care and support spiritually and emotionally To acquire the skills to contact cell members regularly and irregularly To acquire the skills to lead prayer meeting To acquire the skills to handle the difficult members in the cell To recognize and explain that the leader has to be a reproducer and the cell has to be reproduced within three years To understand and explain how to find and develop an apprentice To understand and explain the importance and ways to invite the unchurched to the cell To understand the importance of God’s grace for the cell and cell leadership To deepen and enlarge the inner prayer world of the cell leader To understand and practice the meditating the Word of God on the daily basis Test. evaluation.

............ 182 5... How to handle the difficult members? …………………………………........ 179 3................................................................ 12....... Servant leadership …………………………………………………………….............................……………………… 186 9..... How to lead prayer meeting? ………………………………….......…………………......... Transformational leadership ………………………………….... How to communicate? …………………………………............... How to find and develop an apprentice? ……………………………………… 201 21.... 180 4.......................... Building an authentic community ……………………………………………... Personality of transformational leaders …………………………………....................................................................... 199 19...........…................................ Coach leadership ……………………………………………………………… 187 Personality and attitude ..... Shepherd leadership ………………………………….. 176 1.... 185 8..................... How to listen to others? ………………………………….. 181 Understanding cells and transformational leadership ........ 171 Curriculum of the course ........................ How to invite the unchurched to the cell? ……………………………………........... 200 20.... 15.............................. 190 Practical skills .................. 183 6............................ 184 7........... 202 .......................................................................................................................... 13...... Attitude of transformational leaders …………………………………...................... 16......... Importance of leaders …………………………………............................ 188 10......................... 174 Introduction ....... 18..................................................................... 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 Reproduction .........................................174  Outline of training course ................................................................................. How to facilitate sharing? ………………………………….................................. 172 Contents ................................ 189 11............................ 178 2............................ Cells which we desire to have …………………………………..................................... Be a Reproducer ……………………………………………………………….................................. 17.......................... 14........ Caring & Spiritual Supporting …………………………………............... Vision/ Purpose of a cell-based church ………………………………….................... 177 Vision Sharing .......... Introduction …………………………………………………………………..................... How to contact cell members? ………………………………….............

................ 24....................... How to pray? ………………………………………………………………….. Importance of God’s grace …………………………………..........175 Relationship with God ...... 22............................. How to meditate the Word of God? …………………………………........... 207 25...................................................................... 23.......... 208 .............................................................. 203 204 205 206 Conclusion .................... Evaluation and telling about impressions …………………………………….....

176   .

  .               Form a friendship with your fellow trainees through an Ice-breaking question given by the trainer.177    Introduce yourself for a minute to carving a seal of your image to others effectively.

178               .

5. 2:2). 28:19-20) 2. We can hand over the precious Christian heritage to others (2 Tim. 4:11-12). to the building up of the body of Christ (Eph. Stagnant Small Group Ministry Small Group Ministry for Managing the Church Members Geographically Organized Small Groups Women-centered small group ministry Teaching-centered small group meetings    A cell-based church prefers advantages of an of-small group church and a cell church simultaneously.   Step 1  Step 2   Step 3  .179           1. We can fulfill the Great Commission (Matt. We can be equipped for the work of service. 2. 4.  1. 3. We can make a cell as a leader-factory. We can build an authentic community. 3. 5. 4.

2. 4. 5. and spiritual support Intercessory prayer Practice the Christian life together.      3. 8.180   1. caring. Spiritual growth (to a true disciple) Characteristics of fellowship in a cell () 1.  God created human beings as relational beings. 4. Effective fellowship meets not only general needs also specific needs. 2. Effective fellowship is based on a person’s fellowship with God. 3.             What is an authentic community? It is a place of: 1. Church is essentially a community. 3. Effective fellowship is characterized by total acceptance. 6. Effective fellowship includes the basic dynamics of spiritual life. 7. . Presence of God Trust Loyalty and commitment to each other Sharing together Forgiveness. God Himself is the Triune God.

A cell leader is not a Bible teacher. 3. The relationship between the senior pastor and the cell leaders The senior pastor is the one who helps the cell leaders be successful. He/she wants to have an influence on the followers. 2. 18) 2. Jethro’s recommendation to build leaders (Ex.  1. the senior pastor can’t lead the small group ministry without cell leaders’ help. 4.   2. 6:12-16) 3. A cell leader is a reproducer of other cell leaders.181    God called all of you as leaders. Therefore. 4. God wants all of us to strive for doing God’s great work. A cell is a place where leaders grow into a leader. The cell leaders are collaborators of the senior pastor. Every Christian is a leader. A cell leader is not satisfied his or her position. A cell leader is like a pastor to the cell.  1.         . 3. Jesus’ 12 disciples (Lk. 2. A cell needs a leader. Paul’s evangelism team  1.

182               .

A small community Discipling community Sharing life on the basis of the Scriptures Community in which getting recovered Evangelizing community Leaders growing community Reproducing community   .                     1. 3. 2. and grow into a cell leader. 7.183     A discipling small community in which its members share their life on the basis of the Scriptures. 5. 6. It consists of 3-12 3 people and holds a regular weekly meeting at the house of each member. evangelize. get recovered. 4.

2.184    What is transformational leadership?        1. transform the followers. Be transformed.                                         . And then.

2 Sam. Joseph (Gen. 41:12). 2:5). 1:1). 1 Cor. 3. Deut. The greatest example – Jesus Christ              1. Being Leaders): Abraham (Gen.   See the figure of page 12. 17:32. Phil. 34:5). Nehemiah (Neh. Have the Head of a Servant Leader. 1:6. 2. 11. 39:17-19. 1:10. Paul (Rom. 36.185    1. Moses (Ex. . Robert Greenleaf: from Hermann Hesse’s short novel Journey to the East  Biblical idea – servant leadership is a precise biblical concept on leadership. 1:1) 2. Daniel (Dan. David (1 Sam. Gal. Joshua (Josh. 1:12). 26:24). 24:29). Peter (2 Pet. 4.       1. 1:1. 4:10. Have the Heart of a Servant Leader. Have the Hands of a Servant Leader. 7:5). 9:19. Biblical characters which have servant leadership (Aubrey Malphurs. 34. Have the Habits of a Servant Leader.

. Can reach his or her cell members.186    Another important leadership aspect necessary in a cell is shepherd leadership. first of all. and have it abundantly. He saves sheep that are lost.  With shepherd leadership a cell leader: 1. A shepherd in the East was a physician to the sheep. The Eastern shepherd was. That the feeding of the sheep is an essential duty of the shepherd calling is known even to those who are least familiar with shepherds and their work. All rescue work is strictly pastoral work. and other leaders who have become through the leader’s ministry.          Jesus who is the good shepherd came that they may have life. 3. . (John 10:10)  The six functions of a shepherd (: 1. a watchman. 2. The shepherd is a guide. . 2. A shepherd in the East was also a guard. 5. Cannot reach prospective members because they are not the leader’s sheep yet. . 6. 4. apprentice. The shepherd is a savior. A critical part of the shepherd’s task is rescue work .

  The art of guiding a person or group      The process of equipping people                   See the figure of page 12. When a small group leader reproduces other leaders. 3.     2. . the leader comes to be their coach. The leader has to be the coach to the apprentice.187     A cell leader has to reproduce other leaders.

188                 .

and doing 2. Humility starts from admit objective facts.         1. 2. Transparency is bigger idea than honesty though it contains honesty. Humility is to receive others inclusively. they can gain the trust of their followers followers.       .189     Personality is the most important factor in the leadership arenas. 3. Perfect triangle: Balance between knowing. Priority: being doing knowing              1. People follow humble leaders more than competent leaders. As a result. Word and deeds without a foreshadowing 3. being. deed 2.  1. Leaders have to bear for the responsibility for their words and deeds. 2. Objective life        1.

2. Leaders cope with changes proactively. Leaders help followers be successful. 2.        1. Positive thinking is more productive than negative thinking.190     1. “Prey” (Nu. Leaders have to be proactive to self-transformation.       . 2. Antonym: Being biased/ Analogous but different idea: Equity  1. 13~14) – The 12 spies were all leaders!    1. Leaders have to expose their vulnerability like shortcomings and mistakes. 2. All Christians have the responsibility to encourage and help others.  1. Leaders have to treat all followers fairly. “Grasshoppers” Vs.

191                            .

Develop a culture to facilitate mutual communication. 4. Improve the receiver’s ability to decode. Raise the quality and efficiency of signals.192    1. 2. Maintain good relationships with others. 2. Respond to the feedback sensitively. it is very important for a cell to convey what he/she thinks. Enlarge the common field of experience. 7. 5. not one-side communication. 9. People make interactions continuously in a cell. Therefore. Minimize the noises which prevent the communication. Improve the sender’s ability to encode 3.      . 8.                      1. 6. 10. To convey the thoughts effectively is the goal of communication. Try to do mutual communication. Recognize the importance of nonverbal message.

The goal of sharing is spiritual growth. All members have to sharing on the basis of the Word of God. don’t interrupt him/her. All members have to share their own story. All members have to share. 2. Give the opportunities to all members equally. especially the sermon of the last Sunday. Maintain the acceptance as a response to sharing. Don’t try to give an answer to the problems. 6. but don’t hurt them. The leader can restrain those who speak what could make big problems. 5. 10. Sharing has to be connected with intercessory prayer. 2. Sharing has to be beneficial to all members. 6.193    1.   1. 7. When a member shares his/her life regardless of the Word. 9. 10. 7. All members have to share frankly. encourage all members to share their response to the sermon. All members have to share their lives voluntarily. With what kind of contents God challenged you at the last Sunday? 2. When a member confess his/her sins or mistakes or faults. 5. 2. but don’t impose a burden on them too much. 3. don’t allow the other members criticize or condemn him/her. 4. Acknowledging everyone who speaks during a discussion Clarifying what is being said and left Turning it back to the group as a means of generating discussion Summarizing what has been said  1. 9. After summarizing the sermon of the last Sunday. 8. How do you think to response to the Word? . Encourage those who do not share. Sharing has to be deepen (from sharing the response to the Word of God to the whole life of the members) 4. Encourage the members to share their life on the basis of the Word of God. 8. 3. 3. 4. Control those who are too talkative. Lead all members to intercessory prayer after sharing. And don’t try to teach the followers. Response to the sharing positively and actively. Why did you think so? 3.    1.

/ Be aware of your own emotions. 3. / Check your listening attitudes. Explore their statements. 4. Nonverbal: how the content is expressed. lecturing. giving advice. seeking more information. you can think faster than the other person can talk. / Ask questions sparingly – especially at the beginning. Emphasize with people’s emotions. or arguing. 2. / Try not to interrupt. . / Listen for themes. / Be aware of both content and delivery. / Remember. Clarify what has been said. Verbal: the content of what is said. 2. / Resist distractions.194    1. / Encourage further sharing. / Don’t get carried away by your own curiosity. / Avoid preaching.   1. Invite comments from the group. Facial expressions Tone of voice Body movements and posture                                    Prepare to listen.

attitudes. and desire for help are also important. The helpee: The helpee’s attitudes. Pray together at a meeting. 4. 3. and behavior – all three. The relationship: The helping relationship between the helper and the helpee is of great importance. Skills: Helping involves a variety of skills that need to be learned. and pray privately. and Actions: Helping must focus on the helpee’s emotions. If he/she needs a help. Plan to practice alternatives definitely.195   1. 8. 5. Reason: We should help the member who exposes problems through sharing. Thoughts. thoughts. 6. motivation. the personality. 6. 2. 7. Feelings. 4. Never try to give an alternative awkwardly. . Explore alternatives together. The helper: In any helping relationship. 2. values. 3. Let him/her practice to change his/her life and encourage him/her. 5.  1. and beliefs of the helper are of primary importance. expectations. Put yourself in his/her shoes. Evaluate the process regularly. let all members help him/her as possible. Goal: Personal growth of the members               1. 2. Disciple making: The ultimate goal of helping is to make disciples and disciplers of the people whom we help.

Ask them. 2. “Do you want to pray?”   1. Contacting increases your average weekly attendance. Try to see that everyone is contacted regularly.196    1. don’t push them. Have a regular time scheduled each week to do your contacting.  Soon after a first visit to your cell group Weekly for the first few weeks After an absence After they have shared in the group that they are going through a trial After a tense moment in the group                View the time you spend contacting as prime ministry time. Use your apprentices and small group members to share the contacting load. Be sensitive to their mood. If not. 3. “Let’s pray right now. 2. 2. 4. confidential. 3. Be consistent.” Then pray for them right then. Contacting helps a shepherd know the state of his/her flock. Ask. If they have shared a need with you. 3. The most…) Pray about who God wants you to contact that week. Have a place to record your contacts. Contacting communicates care. Contacting helps your group grow. Don’t miss the key times mentioned above (III. If they are willing to talk. close the contact by praying for them. 4. If they are busy. Be considerate of their time and schedule. 5. Build an hour or two of contacting into your weekly schedule and see what a difference it makes. your church. “What do you want God to do about this?” Say.   1. be brief. Pray for Spirit-led direction as to what to say. aloud. take the time to listen. Keep things that are shared in confidence. 4. . and your cell group. “How may I pray for you?” Ask them. Be positive about God.

Listen. 2. rather than in sequence. 5. and yourself)                               1.197     1. 4. . 3. Pray audibly so everyone can hear you. 6. Your relationship with Christ and each other will deepen. each members. 2. Pray spontaneously. Pray about one point at a time. He will answer your prayers in amazing ways. pray first. There is less chance of burnout as you put problems in God’s hands and trust members to His care. Don’t spend too much time sharing prayer requests before actually praying.   1. Pray briefly. 4. and your faith will increase. 3. You allow the Holy Spirit to work in your group so your time together is filling and refreshing. 6.  When you find a member to have a need When you find a member to have problems When you know there is a conflict between members When you need to pray for those who are going to be invited to the cell When you close the meeting Regularly (for vision of the cell. 2. 3. 7. 4. 5. You will experience spiritual growth. As the leader.

Never shirk the responsibility to handle difficult members. 4. but also get great momentum for the cell. There must be difficult members in a cell. 5. we can not only nurture them. Make a good cell covenant. we have to think that all members are difficult members. we will be in a quandary. Understand temperament and characters of difficult members. Pray for his/her change. 8. 5. 6. Keep the receptive mode in the cell. 6. 7. 2.   1. 2. 8. 5.198    1. Bear the mind of a shepherd for those difficult members. Meet a difficult member privately and talk about what you think about him/her frankly. . 2. Actually. 9. Balance between the goal of the cell and unique characters of each member. 4. 7. If we handle those difficult members effectively. 3. 3. 6. 8. Information seeker Opinion seeker Initiator Elaborator Tension-reliever Reviewer Consensus seeker Encourager Standard-bearer   1. 7. 4. Aggressor Rabbit chaser Recognition seeker Dominator Special-interest advocate Negativist Quibbler Practical joker  1. 3. 2. If we fail to handle those effectively. 3.

199        .

4. 2. Every cell has to reproduce every three years. and your members. Believe that God can and will do it. 10. 8. “A cell” has a life. Have a vision to reproduce yourself and your cell. 9. 2. 3. Ask God to do it His way and in His timing. Train your apprentice to multiply your group at any time. Encourage cell members to invite the unchurched. Never give up.      1.   1.                                          . your apprentice. 6. Write it down and picture it. A living organism grows and multiplies (reproduces). A leader who fails to reproduce has to break up his/her cell and restart new cell. 3. 7. Be the first to invite the unchurched to your cell. Ask advices of reproducers.200    1. Refer to it frequently to yourself. A leader who has reproduced more than once become a coach of those who he/she reproduced. 5.

There must be present a compelling vision that says “we need more leaders. 5. 9. Develop them.201      1. 3.  Demonstrate what you hope to reproduce. You will want a clearly identified process by which apprentice leaders can be commissioned into ministry. 2. Deploy them. 7. 6. Offer supervision. 10. 6. and encouragement to your rising leaders. 3.” 2.   1.   Love / Learn / Lead / Look    1. Discover potential leaders. Be aware of the early identifying symptoms of an apprentice. Continue to model small group leadership to your apprentice. Allow your apprentice to lead. 4. 5. 4. Consider using the “Apprentice Planner” that follows: (1) The apprentice’s involvement in meetings (2) Their work with members (3) Personal development (4) Long-term planning and goals. Bring your apprentice with you whenever you are involved in ministry. 2. Help your apprentice determine what types of skill training would best fit in this stage of development. 5. Help your apprentice find a new apprentice. Describe the vision.  Work through a good quality material with your apprentice. 4. 8. Deepen your relationship with potential leaders. 7. Determine the commitment to be made. coaching. 3. Pray regularly with your apprentice for his/her personal needs and ministry development. Walk them through the process of becoming a participating member of the church. Take turns with your apprentice regularly evaluating one another. You can go forward only as fast as you can travel on your knees. .

4. Keep prayers simple.202     1. If you discuss a Bible passage. Don’t shy away from hard issues or places where even some believers have doubts. 2. Inviting builds spiritual ownership of the group. they will come. Focus on the needs of the seeker. 4. 3. If your group has no guests. not your personal agenda. 4. 5. Focus on relevancy. 2. 3. 2. it will experience no growth. 5. 6. Involving ourselves with them   1. Empty chair strategy Relational evangelism – Extended Family strategy Serving evangelism Finding the needed with love Telling my story to others   1. People must connect with you before they can connect with God. 5. Inviting stops declining numbers. . If you invite them. Praying for the people 3.      1. 3. use a version of the Scripture that is seeker friendly. Identifying the people 2. Numerical growth builds excitement and morale. Allow seekers to make comments that might appear strong or opinionated. 6.

203    .

(2) They can be cell leaders effectively. (2) It can be harmonious.   1. Gratitude Contentment Humility Forbearance Forgiveness  1.  1. Ask the guidance and help of the Spirit. 4. 5. (4) He/She entrusts his/her all works to God 2. Cell members: (1) Each of them can experience personal growth. 3. 3. (3) He/She works more effectively. Tell to the members why we have to long for God’s grace. Basically. 2. 3. Pray (pray alone and pray together). Cell: (1) It can be reproduced more powerfully.204           1. 2. (2) He/She can be transformed. Cell leader: (1) He/She does not get a burnout. Long for God’s grace always. . 4. 2. It is God who achieves something valuable. transformation is possible only by the grace of God.

6. though not always according to our agenda. 6. Prayer makes everything better. Prayer is the most important task of a leader Prayer saves time. 5. . God hears our hearts more than the words in prayer (v. Ask God direct you to appropriate Scriptures. 2. Have a set time and amount of time for prayer. 2. Pray for God’s grace to help you live all characters of an effective leader. Pray for your apprentice(s) and the future groups to grow out of your current group. 4. 1 Thess. Pray through all possible elements of the small grouop meeting prior to the meeting time. 3. Prayer gives needed insight. 4. Have a plan for prayer. Prayer is always answered (vs. 9. 1 John 5:14-15)    1. 4. Have a usual place for prayer. 3.    1. 5. Mix fasting with prayer for greater effectiveness. Have a place for recording requests and answers. 10. 3. 26). Adoration (Ps. 2. 2. 5:16-18) Supplication (Phil. 26).205    1. Prayer is omnipresent and omnipotent.   1. 3. Prayer is our greatest spiritual weapon. 8. 27). 100) Confession (1 John 1:9) Thanksgiving (Lk. 28-29). The Holy Spirit helps us to know what and how to pray (v. 17:11-19. God blesses us when we pray for others. 4:6-7. Season your intercession with thanksgiving for each member. 4. 7. The Holy Spirit intercedes on our behalf (v. 7.

206          1. Fellowship between the members has to be based on the Word of God. Use a useful material to help meditation. . Set a time and place to meditate. What is the example that I have to follow? c. What is the commandment that I have to obey?  1. Who is Jesus? c. What is the sin that I have to confess? b. He/She has to be supplied with spiritual nutrients through meditation of the Word. 3. 3. He/She has to care and support the members through the Word of God. 2. Who is the Spirit? (2) Questions about myself a. Cell meetings have to be based on the Word of God. Meditation according to structural questions (1) Questions about God a. Review what you meditate evening. Write down what you meditate. Share with someone what you meditate. 6. 4. What is the promise that I have to seize? d. 5. 2. Who is God? b. Meditation by the verses 2.  Observation Interpretation Application  1. Start and end with prayer. 4.

207 .

On the features of the cell in Gaeumjung Church 4. On servant leadership 6. On personality of transformational leaders 9. On coach leadership 8.208    1. On vision and purpose of being a cell-based church 2. On relationship with God    . On becoming a reproducer 12. On several practical skills required to cell leaders 11. On attitudes of transformational leaders 10. On building an authentic community 3. On transformational leadership 5. On shepherd leadership 7.

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Ed. MINISTERIAL License: February. Korea Theological Seminary. Anyangilsim Church. 2006. October 3. 1992. Gaeumjung Church. M. 1989-1990. .. 2005 – present) Senior Pastor. 1996. 1999 – 2000. Richmond Samil Church. 1996..Div. 2001 – 2003. 1997 – 1999. 2003. Liberty Theological Seminary. 1997 – 2001 Proxy of the representative. The Board of Christian Education in Korea Presbyterian Church. 1968 Married: Young Hye Jang. 2003 – present. (Studying in Liberty Theological Seminary. Korea Theological Seminary. M. Ordination: October 13. Children: Surin Jei. 1997. 1998. Associate Pastor. Th. 2007. Suah Jei. Hanyang University. 2002 – 2003 Associate Pastor.A... 1995. Jamsiljoongang Church. Associate Pastor. Seoul Nam-Bu Presbyterian Church.M. The Board of Christian Education in Korea Presbyterian Church. 2001. PROFESSIONAL Staff. born September 1. Hyangsang Church.223 VITA In Ho Jei PERSONAL Born: December 20. MILITARIAL Enlisted and discharged from the service (Korean Army). Associate Pastor. EDUCATIONAL B. born December 26. Seoul National University.

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