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whose interfaces and binding are capable of being defined. and FTP. developers can search and find necessary information from a service registry using UDDI (Universal Description. whose response will also be SOAP messages. WSDL and UDDI Up to this point we have learned about three elements of web service platforms: SOAP. An Introduction to Web Services .e. a web service is a software application which is identified by a URI. … Once a Web service is deployed. and invoked across the Web. which can be anything from simple requests to complicated business processes. other applications (and other Web services) can discover and invoke the deployed service. Web services can be better described with the following diagram. A service registry can be thought of as a database of web services. Web standards). SMTP. According to them. Web services perform functions. applications) through the Internet infrastructure (i. .in Abstract Web services are a new breed of Web application. A client can query the registry using UDDI and get the WSDL from the registry. Discovery and Integration). The notion of web services captures a recent technological development that aims at the possibility to access services (i. After that the client can establish a connection with the service and send SOAP requests to the service. A requester makes SOAP requests to the provider and the provider responses accordingly.Web Technologies And Services Name: sravya Cse 3rd year Vidya Vikas Institute Of Technology Email-id : firstname.lastname@example.org. but the impact of this new technology is considered as being very high as it facilitates automated distributed computing and information access by taking advantage of the ubiquitously available Web infrastructure. It has the definitions and URIs for web services. They are self-contained .self-describing. WSDL and UDDI. and the service provider is the host of the web service. which are XML based messages transported over Internet protocols like HTTP. Technologically they represent only a small change as compared to earlier distributed computing standards. A web service has WSDL (Web Service Description Language) definitions. Since a registry has all the information required to develop a web client. Developers of web services can publish their services to a service registry if they wish. After that someone can query the registry and choose the service from the registry. In particular on-demand use of software is considered as one of the important developments Web service technology is going to support. located. Here.e. modular applications that can be published. A web service is usually identified by a URI (Unified Recourse Identifier). A developer usually publishes the WSDL for their services in the registry. the service requester is the client of the web service.A closer look at SOAP. described and discovered by XML using XML-based messages via Internet-based protocols. To communicate with web services we need to use SOAP messages. An Introduction to Web Services Let's start learning about web services with the definition for web service as provided by W3C.
Web services differ from existing component object models and their associated object model specific protocols. and Java and RMI. describing. web services consist of multiple layers that.SOAP is used for communication between applications via the Internet. SOAP is also language independent. SOAP is platform independent. Web services can be written in any language and can be accessed using the familiar and firewallfriendly HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP). COM and DCOM. Web services consist of methods that operate on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. Each SOAP message has a mandatory SOAP envelope. Web services stack As shown in Figure 1. form the basis for a standard mechanism for discovering. UDDI is a directory for storing information about web services. such as CORBA and IIOP. when stacked together. which is used to describe web services. Web services provide a loosely coupled infrastructure that enables cross-enterprise integration. and invoking the functionality provided by a standalone web service. and optional fault sections. A SOAP envelope consists of an optional SOAP header. Protocol layer . Usually a SOAP body contains the original requests or the responses. typed definitions of data being exchanged (Request/Response) Operations • • Abstract descriptions of an action Refer to input and/or output messages Port type • • Binding • Concrete protocol and data format for a particular Collection of operations Abstract definition of a service Port • • Service • Aggregate set of related ports Defines a single communication endpoint Endpoint address for binding Figure 1. UDDI is also a directory of web service interfaces described by WSDL. An architecture that is based on web services is the logical evolution from a system of distributed object-oriented components to a network of services. Messages • Abstract. a mandatory body. it is based on XML. UDDI communicates via SOAP. and multiple optional attachments. WSDL is also used to locate web services. WSDL elements include the following: Types • Data type definitions A definition A web service is a programmable component that provides a service and is accessible over the Internet. in that the distributed components are interfaced via non-object-specific protocols. Web services can be standalone or linked together to provide enhanced functionality. WSDL is an XML document.
The initial definition focuses specifically on HTTP/1. The SOAP specification details the mechanisms used to make remote procedure calls (RPC). but web services can be invoked using other encoding techniques. along with types derived from those. if necessary. The SOAP message exchange model requires that applications receiving a SOAP message execute the following sequence of actions: 1. SOAP represents the evolution of xml-rpc and has been adopted as an Internet standard. it defines a modular packaging model and the encoding mechanisms for encoding data within modules.1 is a text-based "request-response" style protocol. SOAP is no exception. Any robust messaging system must expect that faults may occur. unlike ORBs. 3. Focused on distributed. SOAP is simply one way to package and bind the information required to invoke a web service. or XML) and can run over HTTP. and so on) and compound types (structures and arrays). RMI. Because it is based on XML. The SOAP encoding style uses both scalar types (strings. then sends a request using a very specific format. which specifies that a client opens a connection to a server. which provides the framework for packaging message information Encoding rules that define how messages should be processed An RPC representation that defines how to represent remote procedure calls and responses 2. decentralized environments. such as . though they are not yet defined in the standards around web services. The data types defined in the XML schema specification. SOAP has a builtin fault element that is used to carry error and status information. The example in Listing 1 actually invokes a remote procedure (in this case a web service called Event Service) by packaging the parameters the procedure requires as a structure. Instead. The SOAP specification also defines bindings to transport SOAP messages using the HTTP protocol. Verify that all the mandatory parts specified in the SOAP message are supported by the application. can be used directly as SOAP elements. SOAP messages are uni-directional. keeps the connection open. the faultreporting system of SOAP is highly extensible and quite flexible. The server responds and. This allows SOAP to be used in any number of systems ranging from message passing systems to remote procedure calls. It happens to be the method that is most commonly associated with web services. Other requestresponse style protocols. Individual messages are typically combined to form a request/response mechanism. and process them accordingly. A SOAP message is XML-encoded and consists of three parts: • • • An envelope. The response to a method invocation is also modeled as a structure that contains the return value and possibly the parameters (in the same order they were passed). Applications may act as SOAP intermediaries and pass parts of the message on to other applications. it should remove all the parts that the application consumes and then forward the message to the next application the message is intended for. Web services and SOAP are two different things. or IIOP. making it better able to operate in the face of firewalls than DCOM. integers.1 (and the encrypted HTTPS). SOAP is text based (extensible Markup Language. SOAP does not define a programming model or implementation. it provides a framework to invoke services across the Internet. any of the standard Internet protocols may be used to invoke web services over the network. If the SOAP application is not the end destination of the message. It also provides the mechanism for enabling cross-platform integration independent of any programming language and distributed object infrastructure. Packaging layer Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a lightweight protocol designed for the exchange of information. such as FTP and SMTP can also be used. These types appear as elements in an XML document.At the bottom of the layered architecture model. HTTP/1. Identify all the components of the SOAP message that are intended for this particular application. SOAP is also easy to implement on an embedded device.
significant benefits accrue through maintaining an XML document's structure. In addition. The following list enumerates the elements used to define a web service: • • • • • • • types-containers for data type definitions can be scalar or complex. In essence. That is why the higher-level concept of web services. Some people will tell you that all you need to do is support XML in your devices to solve all of the world's problems. The interface to web services is defined in the XMLbased Web Services Description Language (WSDL).simple URL-encoded messages for bandwidthconstrained scenarios. but it does not provide the device or business logic that says what to do when that fault occurs or how to ensure that the fault indication is properly captured in one or more enterprise applications. which are based on XML. and Integration (UDDI) specification. WSDL takes great pains to promote reusability. HTTP GET/POST. The UDDI specification provides a programmatic interface that allows a business to register a web service and/or search through the registry for a specific web service. is so important. part of the content of an HTML document may look as follows: <b>Motor Failure</b> This instructs a browser to display the text string "Motor Failure" as bold text. and presentation as three distinct components. Discovery layer The final. UDDI offers a way to publish information about web services. Several abstract and concrete elements are combined to define the functionality and access mechanisms of a web service. HTML is purely about formatting and display. Discovery. typed definition of the data being communicated operation-an abstract description of an action supported by the web service port type-an abstract set of operations supported by one or more end points binding-a concrete protocol and data format specification for a particular port type port-a single endpoint that is an instantiation of a port type in combination with a binding and a network address service-a collection of related ports Information layer XML is a meta-language that enables cross-platform data interchange using a standard method for encoding and formatting information. Keeping the operations and messages abstract allows them to be bound to different protocols and data formats such as SOAP. XML may provide a description of an event as a fault. and optional. piece in the web services protocol stack is the Universal Description. are a collection of abstract operations and messages. currently based on the XML schema message-an abstract. But XML is only a markup language. but also about what it means (that is. Once the Service layer . SOAP itself is not strictly relegated to web services. not just about how it looks. or MIME. which provides all of the information necessary for an application to access the specified service. XML takes it much further and provides information about what the content is describing. For example. SOAP can be used as an access mechanism for any type of remote objects or procedures or as a simple message passing mechanism. and associated schema. A web service is defined in a collection of ports. Unlike HyperText Markup Language (HTML). in turn. as well as provide a mechanism to discover what web services are available. which contain a description of a business entity and the web services that it offers. XML lets you publish information not only about how your data is structured. its context). which. In addition. A WSDL document is an XML description of a web service. an XML document may take the same text but actually apply a data type to it as follows: <FaultType>Motor Failure</FaultType> This format gives the interpreter of this document a clearer understanding of what the text signifies. For example. supporting XML does not magically integrate you into a host of business applications or make for a complete solution. It is envisioned that there will ultimately be many public UDDI registration servers distributed about the Web that continually replicate data amongst themselves. UDDI is a registration system instantiated as a series of XML files. content.
New technologies and languages have to be learnt to implement these services. The structure of Web Services is also very similar. a pointer to the location of the WSDL document is provided. However. You might. in which all the Web sites register themselves associated with their keywords. In the example. CORBA. In Web Services. So. you will see that there is a requestor or a consumer—that is Figure 1. Companies with web services that want to limit specific functionality to people or devices of their choosing need not advertise their service externally. COM. making it more portable. Discovery. and Integration) is the global look up base for locating the services. After getting the location. this is analogous to the index service for the search engine. and ebXML also address the same problem space. If you carefully look at the preceding example. RMI. You would not go out on the road and ask every person you met the way to the store. your request is wrapped in a structure. Figure 1. and uses XML as the base language. you would find the directions to the store. whose language is predetermined and localized. Also. refer the Web site of the pharmacy on the Internet. the pharmacy store. and WSDL represent the roles mentioned in these steps. most of the abovementioned technologies such as RMI. UDDI (Universal Description. and then passed onto the server running the search engine. you would need to compile a new . COM.desired web service is identified. It is important to note that UDDI is entirely optional. If not. This is similar to how you communicate with the search engine that contains an index with the Web sites registered in the index associated with the keywords. There is also a service. Component Technologies of Web Services Consider a scenario in which you need to locate a particular pharmacy store in your area. EDI. WSDL (Web Services Definition Language) is the method through which different services are described in the UDDI. you. what would make Web Services so special and different from the rest? Web Services is based on the already existing and well-known HTTP protocol. and then go to the store. and CORBA involve a whole learning curve. Web Services is based on a set of standardized rules and specifications. you would go to a search engine and type out the name of the pharmacy in the language that the search engine was meant to recognize. This makes it a very developer-friendly service system. when you fire a search in the search engine.1 Imagine if you had to maintain a copy of such information for each and every service available in your vicinity! With every change in your residence or your requirement.1 illustrates this concept. UDDI. The central database of information is the Internet. Web Services provide for each of these previously described activities. It maintains a record of all the pharmacy store locations throughout the country. instead. through which you find the location of the pharmacy. Problem Space Addressed by Web Services Web Services is probably not the first solution to such a problem. In the example mentioned earlier. This was not the case with the technologies mentioned earlier. SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the method by which you can send messages across different modules. SOAP. This maps to the actual search engine in our example. you would look it up directly and find the location through the store locator link. If you knew the pharmacy's Web site.
without having to wait for a supervisor to notice it and generate a work order. XML is used to tag the data. and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations. provides a mechanism of communication between two remote systems. In fact. depend on the requirement of your company. WSDL is an integral part of UDDI. There are many more important uses of Web Services. Interested enough to find out more? In our next article. and to make certain that Web services can be combined to work independent of a vendor. XML is a pareddown version of SGML. transmission. These levels can be constantly monitored by the business system of a trusted supplier. Business Aspects of Web Services Web Services in the business world. how does Web Services become important for the business world? applications using the XML. WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet protocol backbone XML Short for Extensible Markup Language. designed especially for Web documents. By extending the business applications as Web Services. The scope of Web Services is not limited to just a lookup service. SOAP messages are independent of any operating system or protocol and may be transported using a variety of Internet protocols. a lightweight XML-based messaging protocol used to encode the information in Web service request and response messages before sending them over a network. an XML-formatted language used to describe a Web service's capabilities as collections of communication endpoints capable of exchanging messages. WSDL Short for Web Services Description Language. some even call Web services the next evolution of the Web. Discovery and Integration. companies don't have to invest large sums of money developing software to bring the systems of the different companies together. But. and promptly replenished. The preceding example is a very simplified form of the Web Services environment. WSDL was developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM. WSDL is the language that UDDI uses. SOAP Short for Simple Object Access Protocol. Web services' distributed computing model allows application-to-application communication. UDDI Short for Universal Description. a manufacturing company requires some raw materials to be supplied whenever the material in stock reaches the threshold levels. WSDL is used for describing the services available and UDDI is used for listing what services are available. The term Web service describes a standardized way of integrating Web-based Security . SOAP is used to transfer the data. and the basic steps involved in building a Web Services application. These business systems then can be accessed by using simple SOAP messages over the normal HTTP Web protocol. again. and HTTP. enabling the definition. For example. in the most simplistic fashion. Web services have grown in popularity and are beginning to improve business processes. For example. in case of a merger or an acquisition. It allows designers to create their own customized tags. SOAP. one purchase-and-ordering application could communicate to an inventory application that specific items need to be reordered. So.list. including SMTP. the protocols used. the information systems of different companies can be linked. These. a specification developed by the W3C. an XML-based worldwide business registry. Used primarily as a means for businesses to communicate with each other and with clients. MIME. It is a Web-based distributed directory that enables businesses to list themselves on the Internet and discover each other. Web Services Technology Web services are built on several technologies that work in conjunction with emerging standards to ensure security and manageability. validation. don't get fooled by this. similar to a traditional phone book's yellow and white pages. you will learn about the architecture of Web Services. connected through the network of the Web Services. Because of this level of application integration. the technology organization. For example. Web services allow organizations to communicate data without intimate knowledge of each other's IT systems behind the firewall.
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