An Integrated Design Approach for Improving

Drinking Water Ozone Disinfection Treatment
Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

by

Jianping Zhang


A thesis
presented to the University of Waterloo
in fulfilment of the
thesis requirement for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in
Civil Engineering

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2006

©Jianping Zhang 2006

ii
AUTHOR'S DECLARATION
I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis,
including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners.
I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public.


iii
ABSTRACT
Ozonation is currently considered as one of the most effective microbial disinfection
technologies due to its powerful disinfection capacity and reduction in levels of chlorinated
disinfection by-products (DBP). However, ozonation of waters containing bromide can
produce bromate ion above regulated levels, leading to tradeoffs between microbial and
chemical risks. In efforts to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations and to be
cost-effective, water suppliers are required to optimize ozone dosage. Therefore, there is a
need to develop a robust and flexible tool to accurately describe ozone disinfection processes
and contribute to their design and operation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has come
into use recently for evaluating disinfection systems. However, the focus of its application
has been largely on modelling the hydraulic behaviour of contactors, which is only one
component of system design.
The significance of this dissertation is that a fully comprehensive three dimensional (3D)
multiphase CFD model has been developed to address all the major components of ozone
disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics, ozone mass transfer, ozone decay, and microbial
inactivation. The model was validated using full-scale experimental data, including tracer test
results and ozone profiles from full-scale ozone contactors in two Canadian drinking water
treatment plants (WTPs): the DesBaillets WTP in Montréal, Quebec and the Mannheim WTP
in Kitchener, Ontario. Good agreement was observed between the numerical simulation and
experimental data.
The CFD model was applied to investigate ozone contactor performance at the DesBaillets
WTP. The CFD-predicted flow fields showed that recirculation zones and short circuiting
existed in the DesBaillets contactors. The simulation results suggested that additional baffles
could be installed to increase the residence time and improve disinfection efficiency. The
CFD model was also used to simulate ozone contactor performance at the Mannheim Water
Treatment Plant before and after installing new liquid oxygen (LOX) ozone generators and
removing some diffusers from the system. The modelling results indicated that such changes
led to an increase in effective residence time, and therefore an adjustment to operational
parameters was required after system modification.
Another significant contribution is that, for the first time, the Eulerian and Lagrangian (or
particle tracking) approaches, two commonly utilized methods for predicting microbial
inactivation efficiency have been compared for the study of ozone disinfection processes.
The modelling results of two hypothetical ozone reactors and a full scale contactor suggested
that the effective CT values predicted by the Lagriangian approach were slightly lower than

iv
those obtained from the Eulerian approach but their differences were within 10%. Therefore,
both approaches can be used to predict ozone disinfection efficiency. For the full scale
contactor investigated, the tracer residence time distribution predicted by the Euerlian
approach provided a better fit to the experimental results, which indicated that the Eulerian
approach might be more suitable for the simulation of chemical tracer performance.
The results of this part of work provided important insight in understanding the complex
performance of multiphase ozonation systems and played an important role in further
improving CFD modelling approaches for full-scale ozone disinfection systems.
The third significant contribution of this work is that a CFD model was applied to illustrate
the importance of ozone residual monitoring locations and suggest an improved strategy for
ozone residual monitoring. For the DesBaillets ozone contactors, the CFD modelling results
showed that ozone residuals in the cross section of the outlets of some contactor chambers
differed by an order of magnitude. The “optimal” area of monitoring locations however
varied at different operational conditions. Therefore, it was suggested that multiple ozone
residual sampling points should be installed based on CFD analysis and experimental studies,
to provide more accurate indicators to system operators. The CFD model was also used to
study the factors affecting the residence time distribution (RTD). The results suggested that
the selection of the tracer injection locations as well as tracer sampling locations might affect
the RTD prediction or measurement. The CFD-predicted T
10
values at different outlet
locations varied by more than 10% variation. It is therefore recommended that CFD
modelling be used to determine tracer test strategy before conducting a full-scale tracer test,
and multiple sampling points should be employed during tracer tests, if possible.
In addition, a research based on full-scale investigation has also been done to compare the
three different CT prediction approaches: CT
10
, integrated disinfection design framework
(IDDF), and CFD, to determine the most appropriate method for design and operation of
ozone systems. The CFD approach yielded more accurate predictions of inactivation efficacy
than the other two approaches. The current results also suggested that the differences in the
three approaches in CT predictions became smaller at higher contactor T
10
/T ratios
conditions as the contactors performed more closely to ideal plug flow reactors.
This study has demonstrated that the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is an
efficient tool for improving ozone disinfection performance of existing water treatment
plants and designing new ozonation systems. The model developed in this study can be used
for ozone contactor design, evaluation, and troubleshooting. It can also be used as a virtual
experimental tool to optimize ozone contactor behaviour under varying water quality and
operational conditions.

v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my
supervisors Dr. Peter Huck and Dr. Gordon Stubley, for their knowledge and guidance to my
research. Over the past four years, Dr. Huck has been providing me strong continuous
support both scientifically and personally. This dissertation would have been impossible
without his great efforts, encouragement, trust, and patience. I also thank him for teaching me
not only drinking water treatment principles but also the great skills in producing a quality
work. Dr. Stubley’s creativity, inquisitive nature and incredible dedication to his work are all
qualities to which I aspire. I greatly appreciate his strong support, patience and speedy replies
to my numerous computational fluid dynamics queries. His expertise, feedback and guidance
were crucial to the completion of my thesis.
I would also like to express my special and great thanks to Dr. William B. Anderson for his
valuable advice and friendship throughout my study. I appreciate his important suggestions
and countless patient hours spent on my thesis work. His unrelenting support and outstanding
work ethic also made the work much enjoyable.
My sincere thanks are extended to the other members of my advisory committee for their
constant interest in my work and for many useful comments during this research. They are:
Dr. Susan Andrews, Dr. Neil Thomson, Dr. William Anderson and Dr. Hans van Dijk.
I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Benoit Barbeau, Mr.
Franklyn Smith, and Mr. Abhay Tadwalkar for their continuous support with respect to data
collection and field investigation of the DesBaillets, Mannheim and City of Toronto Water
Treatment Plants. I am very thankful for the exceptional technical support afforded by Mark
Sobon and Bruce Stickney in the laboratory to this research project. I appreciated their
patience and strong problem solving ability.

vi
The financial support of the following organizations for this research is greatly
acknowledged: the partners of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada (NSERC) chair in Water Treatment at the University of Waterloo, and the Canadian
Water Network.
My great thanks also go to all of the Water Resources Civil and Environmental Engineering
Graduate students for their help, the laughs, and the memories.
Finally, I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my parents, my wife and my son,
for their unconditional encouragement, inspiration and support to my research. Their love
and support is the foundation for all that I am, do, and that to which I aspire.







vii

To my parents, to Shujun and Andrew






viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT….…………………………………………….……………………………….III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................. V
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................... 1
1.1 Research Motivation ....................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Research Objectives ........................................................................................................ 6
1.3 Scope of Thesis ............................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Significant Contributions of This Work.......................................................................... 8
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND............................................................................................ 10
2.1 Regulations for Disinfection and Disinfection By-products......................................... 10
2.1.1 Regulations in the United States ............................................................................ 11
2.1.2 Regulations in Canada............................................................................................ 14
2.1.3 Effects of Current Regulations on Application of Ozone Disinfection Treatment 15
2.2 Aqueous Chemistry of Ozone ....................................................................................... 16
2.2.1 Reactions of Ozone in Water.................................................................................. 16
2.2.2 Pathways and Reactions of the DBP Formation .................................................... 19
2.2.3 Effects of Water Quality on Ozone Decay and DBP Formation............................ 20
2.3 Overview of the Ozone Disinfection Process ............................................................... 24

ix
2.3.1 Process Description................................................................................................ 24
2.3.2 Factors Affecting Ozone Disinfection Performance .............................................. 27
2.3.3 CT Concept............................................................................................................. 37
2.4 Existing Models for Simulation of Non-ideal Ozone Reactor Performance................. 39
2.4.1 Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) .............................................. 39
2.4.2 Complete Micro-Mixing Models ........................................................................... 41
2.4.3 Axial Dispersion Model (ADM) ............................................................................ 42
2.5 CFD Modeling of the Ozonation Process ..................................................................... 44
2.5.1 Computational Fluid dynamics .............................................................................. 44
2.5.2 Fundamentals of Multiphase CFD Modelling........................................................ 45
2.5.3 CFD Software Packages......................................................................................... 48
2.5.4 Example Studies in the Literature .......................................................................... 48
2.6 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 52
CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS................................................................... 54
3.1 Two Case Studies.......................................................................................................... 54
3.1.1 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors ........................................... 54
3.1.2 Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors ........................................... 55
3.2 Determination of Ozone Demand and Decay Kinetics................................................. 56

x
3.3 Tracer Test Methodology.............................................................................................. 60
3.4 Ozone Residual Profile Testing .................................................................................... 62
3.5 Biodosimetry Test using Indigenous Aerobic Spore Formers ...................................... 63
3.6 Analytical Methods ....................................................................................................... 64
CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION, AND APPLICATION OF A
MULTIPHASE CFD MODEL FOR OZONE DISINFECTION
PROCESSES.................................................................................................. 66
4.1 Introduction................................................................................................................... 66
4.2 The Multiphase CFD Model For Ozone Disinfection Processes .................................. 69
4.2.1 Governing Equations.............................................................................................. 71
4.2.2 Turbulence Model .................................................................................................. 77
4.2.3 Sub-Models for Ozone Mass Transfer, Reactions and Microbial Inactivation...... 81
4.3 Full-Scale Case Studies................................................................................................. 94
4.3.1 The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant ozone contactor ..................................... 94
4.3.2 The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor...................................... 96
4.3.3 Numerical Method.................................................................................................. 98
4.4 Results and Discussions .............................................................................................. 100
4.4.1 DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study................................ 100
4.4.2 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study................................. 114

xi
4.5 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 118
CHAPTER 5 IMPROVING OZONE RESIDUAL MONITORING AND TRACER
TESTING STRATEGIES FOR FULL-SCALE OZONE CONTACTORS
BASED ON CFD MODELING.................................................................. 119
5.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 119
5.2 CFD Model Description.............................................................................................. 121
5.3 Case Study................................................................................................................... 122
5.4 CFD Modelling Results and Discussion ..................................................................... 124
5.4.1 Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration at the Outlet of the Cells.......... 124
5.4.2 Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration within Ozone Contactors
....................................................................................................................................... 129
5.4.3 Ozone residual distribution in the contactor after installing additional baffles ... 131
5.4.4 Effects of Tracer Injection Points on RTD and T
10
.............................................. 133
5.4.5 Effects of Tracer Monitoring Point Selection on RTD and T
10
........................... 135
5.5 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 136
CHAPTER 6 A COMPARISON OF EULERIAN AND PARTICLE TRACKING
APPROACHES FOR PREDICTION OF OZONE CONTACTOR
PERFORMANCE ....................................................................................... 138
6.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 138
6.2 CFD Modelling Methodology..................................................................................... 140

xii
6.2.1 Flow Equations..................................................................................................... 140
6.2.2 CFD-based CT...................................................................................................... 141
6.3 Case Studies ................................................................................................................ 151
6.3.1 Verification Case Study........................................................................................ 151
6.3.2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study........................................................................ 153
6.4 Results and Discussion................................................................................................ 154
6.4.1 Results of Verification Case Study ...................................................................... 154
6.4.2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study........................................................................ 161
6.5 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 166
CHAPTER 7 A COMPARISON BETWEEN CT
10
, IDDF-BASED CT, AND CFD-
BASED CT FOR EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER OZONE
DISINFECTION PERFORMANCE......................................................... 168
7.1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 168
7.2 Case Study................................................................................................................... 170
7.3 Theoretical Background and Methodologies .............................................................. 171
7.3.1 CT
10
...................................................................................................................... 173
7.3.2 IDDF-based CT.................................................................................................... 174
7.3.3 CFD-based CT...................................................................................................... 175
7.3.4 Bioassy-based CT................................................................................................. 176

xiii
7.4 Results......................................................................................................................... 177
7.4.1 Comparison of CT
10
, IDDF-based CT, CFD-based CT and Bioassy-based CT. 178
7.4.2 Comparison of Three Approaches for Alternative Contactor Configurations ..... 180
7.5 Discussion ................................................................................................................... 183
7.6 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 186
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.................................... 188
8.1 Conclusions................................................................................................................. 188
8.2 Recommendations for Future Research ...................................................................... 193
REFERENCES.................................................................................................................... 196
APPENDIX A GEOMETRY AND SAMPLING POINTS OF THE DESBAILLETS
WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE CONTACTOR.. ............... 220
APPENDIX B ARRANGEMENT OF BUBBLE DIFFUSERS IN THE CELL 1 OF
THE DESBAILLETS WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE
CONTACTOR.......................................................................................... 221
APPENDIX C GEOMETRY OF THE MANNHEIM WATER TREATMENT PLANT
OZONE CONTACTOR........................................................................... 222
APPENDIX D ARRANGEMENT OF BUBBLE DIFFUSERS IN THE CELL 1 OF
THE MANNHEIM WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE
CONTACTOR.......................................................................................... 224

xiv
APPENDIX E TRACER TEST CONDITIONS AND RESULTS OF THE
DESBAILLETS WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE
CONTACTOR.......................................................................................... 225
APPENDIX F TURBULENCE MODEL SENSITIVITY TESTS: SIMULATION
CONDITION AND RESULTS................................................................ 227
APPENDIX G MESH DENSITY SENSITIVITY TESTS: SIMULATION
CONDITION AND RESULTS................................................................ 231
APPENDIX H EVALUATION OF A CFD MODELLING APPROACH FOR
PREDICTION OF FLOCCULATION MIXING PERFORMANCE AT
THE CITY OF TORONTO’S R.L. CLARK WATER TREATMENT
PLANT ...................................................................................................... 234

xv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Bromate formation pathways (von Gunten and Pinkernell, 2000) ............... 20
Figure 2.2 Three typical types of ozone contactors (adapted from USEPA, 1999) ....... 25
Figure 2.3 A typical ozone decomposition curve........................................................... 31
Figure 2.4 Flowchart for development of mathematical models for Integrated
Disinfection Design Framework (Source: Bellamy 1998) ............................ 40
Figure 3.1 Three dimensional schematic drawing of Mannheim WTP ozone contactor55
Figure 3.2 Three dimensional schematic drawing of DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor
....................................................................................................................... 56
Figure 3.3 Experimental setup for ozone generation ..................................................... 57
Figure 3.4 Bench scale experimental ozone system...................................................... 58
Figure 3.5 Tracer injection and monitoring points for the DesBaillets WTP ozone
contactor (El-Baz, 2002) ............................................................................... 60
Figure 4.1 A typical bubble diffuser ozone contactor .................................................... 70
Figure 4.2 Modelling scheme for simulating ozone mass transfer and reactions .......... 90
Figure 4.3 Schematic drawing and mesh of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor ......... 95
Figure 4.4 Schematic drawing of the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor ...................... 98
Figure 4.5 Procedures for CFD modelling of ozone disinfection processes .................. 99

xvi
Figure 4.6 Sensitivity of the mesh density on the simulation of tracer residence time
distribution................................................................................................... 101
Figure 4.7 Sensitivity of the turbulence model on the simulation of tracer residence time
distribution................................................................................................... 102
Figure 4.8 The simulated air volume fraction at different bubble sizes....................... 104
Figure 4.9 The simulated dissolved ozone concentration at different bubble sizes..... 104
Figure 4.10 Comparison of simulated and experimental tracer curves........................ 105
Figure 4.11 CFD predicted ozone residual distribution ............................................... 106
Figure 4.12 Simulated velocity vector field and streamlines of the DesBaillets WTP
ozone contactor.......................................................................................... 108
Figure 4.13 Simulated ozone residual and CT value profiles within the DesBaillets.. 109
Figure 4.14 Simulated flow field after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone
contactor .................................................................................................... 110
Figure 4.15 Simulated CT after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor
..................................................................................................................... 111
Figure 4.16 Effects of immediate ozone demand on the CT of DesBaillet ozone
contactor .................................................................................................... 113
Figure 4.17 Effects of ozone decay constant on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor
..................................................................................................................... 113
Figure 4.18 Numerical tracer RTD curves for the outlet of each cell in the Mannheim
contactor .................................................................................................... 115

xvii
Figure 4.19 A comparison between the CFD predicted and on-site tested ozone profiles
for the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor .................................................. 116
Figure 4.20 Predicted contactor hydraulics before and after system modification...... 117
Figure 5.1 Ozone residual sampling ports in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor...... 123
Figure 5.2 Tracer injection pipe and sampling point in a DesBaillets WTP ozone
contactor .................................................................................................... 123
Figure 5.3 Simulated ozone residual distributions around the outlet of cell 1 in the
DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor (only half of the outlet is shown) ....... 125
Figure 5.4 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within
± 20 % of the average value (water flow rate =3.22 m
3
/s; gas flow
rate=0.21m
3
/s; ozone dose=2.2 mg/L) ...................................................... 126
Figure 5.5 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within
± 20 % of the average value ..................................................................... 127
Figure 5.6 The location of 3 sampling points at the outlet of cell 1............................. 128
Figure 5.7 Spatial ozone residual distributions along the horizontal profile of the
DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor............................................................... 129
Figure 5.8 CFD predicted ozone residuals at the outlet of each cell after installing
additional baffles ......................................................................................... 132
Figure 5.9 Simulated ozone residuals of each cell after installing additional baffles .. 133
Figure 5.10 Effects of tracer injection location on tracer residence time distribution. 134

xviii
Figure 5.11 Three monitoring points for simulation of tracer residence time distribution
..................................................................................................................... 135
Figure 5.12 Effects of tracer monitoring points on residence time distribution........... 136
Figure 6.1 Procedures for predicting CT through Eulerian and Particle tracking
approaches ................................................................................................... 149
Figure 6.2 Geometries of two hypothetical ozone reactors.......................................... 152
Figure 6.3 Mesh used for modelling of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor .............. 153
Figure 6.4 Flow velocity fields in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right) ....................... 155
Figure 6.5 Particle trajectories in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right) ........................ 155
Figure 6.6 Eulerian CT distribution in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2(right) ................. 156
Figure 6.7 Distribution of velocity and Eulerian based CT at the outlet of the reactors
1and 2 .......................................................................................................... 157
Figure 6.8 Particle trajectories of the Desbaillets ozone contactor .............................. 161
Figure 6.9 Effect of particle size on particle tracer residence time distribution .......... 162
Figure 6.10 Comparison of tracer curves: particle tracking vs. Eulerian approach ..... 163
Figure 6.11 Particle tracking-based CT vs. particle residence time for the ozone
contactor .................................................................................................... 164
Figure 7.1 Schematic drawing of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor ....................... 171
Figure 7.2 Comparison of the four CT prediction methods under various operating
conditions….............................................................................................. 179

xix
Figure 7.3 Two alternative contactor configurations for studying the CT approaches 180
Figure 7.4 Comparison of the flow velocity fields (m/s) at different contactor
configurations.............................................................................................. 181
Figure 7.5 Comparison of the tracer residence time distributions at different contactor
configurations.............................................................................................. 182
Figure 7.6 Comparison of CT calculation methods at different contactor configuration
conditions .................................................................................................... 183


xx
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Mechanisms of ozone decomposition in water .............................................. 18
Table 2.2 Effects of water quality parameters on ozonation......................................... 23
Table 2.3 Summary of microbial inactivation kinetic model of ozone.......................... 33
Table 2.4 Guidelines for prediction of ozone residual concentration based on chamber
inlet and outlet ozone concentrations (USEPA, 1991; USEPA, 2003) ......... 37
Table 2.5 USEPA recommended CT (mg/L min) values for inactivation of
Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (USEPA, 2006)......................................... 38
Table 2.6 Example of commercial CFD packages ......................................................... 48
Table 4.1 Some reported Hom-Haas model constants for ozone disinfection.............. 88
Table 4.2 Kinetics and source terms of transport equations for modelling ozone
processes........................................................................................................ 93
Table 4.3 A Comparison between the predicted and measured ozone concentrations at
6 monitoring points ..................................................................................... 107
Table 5.1 A comparison of the mass flow averaged ozone concentration and the
arithmetic average residual calculated from three points at outlet of cell 1 128
Table 5.2 A comparison of the volume averaged residual and arithmetic average
residuals calculated from 5 points at different planes ................................. 131
Table 6.1 A comparison of Eulerian approach vs. Lagrangian approach..................... 150
Table 6.2 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking ............................. 158

xxi
Table 6.3 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking ............................. 165
Table 7.1 Summary of the modeling conditions for comparison of different CT
calculation methods..................................................................................... 178
Table 7.2 Key differences of CT
10
, IDDF and CFD methodologies............................ 185

1
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Motivation
The primary goal of drinking water treatment is to protect public health by supplying
water with acceptably low concentrations of microbial and chemical contaminants.
Ozone is a strong oxidant and a powerful disinfectant. It has been used in drinking
water treatment for close to one hundred years (Rakness, 2005). In recent years, the
application of ozone as a disinfectant has become increasingly common because of its
effectiveness in treating pathogens such as oocysts of the protozoan parasite
Cryptosporidium parvum, which are resistant to free chlorine and monochloramine at
concentrations used in drinking water treatment. In addition, due to stringent regulations
for trihalomethanes and other halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), ozone has
been identified as an effective alternative to free and combined chlorine (Finch et al.,
2001; Rakness et al., 2005). Ozonation of waters containing bromide however can
produce other types of DBPs (including bromate, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids)
above regulated levels, leading to tradeoffs between microbial and chemical risks
(Amy et al., 2000; Bellamy et al., 1998). To meet increasingly stringent drinking water
regulations and to be cost-effective, water suppliers are required to optimize ozone
dosage.
The current commonly used design approaches for ozone disinfection processes involve
application of a CT concept, where C is the ozone residual concentration in the
contactor and T is usually represented by T
10
, which is defined as the detention time for
ten percent of the water to pass through a disinfection contactor (USEPA, 1991). The

2
CT approach is a simple way to evaluate disinfection treatment efficiency; however, it
has two important drawbacks. One is that the effect of ozone contactor hydraulics is
described by a single parameter, T
10
. Such a simple parameter cannot reveal all the
underlying factors governing hydrodynamic behaviour (Greene, 2002). The other
significant drawback is that the CT approach ignores the details of other important
components which may affect the efficiency of ozone disinfection, including ozone
mass transfer, ozone demand and decay, microbial inactivation, and bromate formation
kinetics. Previous research has demonstrated that application of the CT approach may
result in inaccurate estimation of the ozone disinfection efficiency (Bellamy et al.,
1998).
The more recently developed Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is a
somewhat more sophisticated approach for designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et
al., 1998). The IDDF approach incorporates four components in one model, including a
contactor hydraulic module, a disinfectant decay kinetics module, a pathogen
inactivation module and a DBP formation module. It has been shown that the IDDF
method is more accurate than the CT method in predicting ozone disinfection efficiency
(Carlson et al., 2001). The IDDF approach employs the tracer residence time
distribution (RTD) together with a disinfectant decay kinetic model to predict
disinfection efficiency in a chemical disinfection process. However, the use of the RTD
ignores the complex three dimensional flow behaviour within a contactor. Additionally,
the IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the disinfection contactor are
completely segregated. This assumption may over- or under-estimate disinfection
efficiency (Greene 2002). Therefore, there is a need to develop a more accurate
approach to contribute to the design and operation of ozone disinfection processes.
Other reported studies have concentrated on modeling the hydrodynamics and
disinfection performance using reactor theory models, such as continuous stirred-tank

3
reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), CSTR cascade, axial dispersion reactor, back-
flow cell, and various combinations of these models (Zhou and Smith, 1994; Chen,
1998; Roustan et al., 1999; Kim, 2002). The advantage of these models is their
simplicity and hence eases of solving. However, they do rely on empirical inputs, such
as axial dispersion coefficients (Chen, 1998; Kim, 2002). These empirical inputs are
case dependent and cannot be extrapolated to other geometries, scales, and operating
conditions (Cockx et al., 1997). Therefore, there is a need to develop a more robust and
flexible modelling tool to fully describe ozone disinfection processes and contribute to
their design.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, mass
transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving the mathematic
equations governing these processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al., 1995).
One of the main advantages of CFD is its ability to test a large number of variables at a
much lower cost than with experimental models (Hossain, 2005). Another advantage of
the CFD approach is its ability to resolve small scale phenomena and its efficiency to
simulate both small scale (laboratory pilot units) and large scale (full-scale reactors)
facilities without the use of particular scale-up laws. Thus, the predictions of the CFD
tool can be used to obtain more accurate information about the performance of the
process units; and to find rapid design solutions for optimization (Do-Quang et al.,
1999). CFD has gained large popularity during the last two decades due to the
development of advanced commercial CFD codes and increasing power of
computational resources. Applications of CFD are common in industries as diverse as
the auto industry, the aerospace industry, and in the medical/biological/chemical
research field. It also has been used somewhat sporadically in the drinking water field
for the past decade or so, including study of mixing in reservoirs, design of clearwells
and contact tanks, and optimization of design parameters for flocculators and
sedimentation tanks (Grayman et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2006e). CFD is now being

4
used to evaluate disinfection systems, including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV), and
ozonation processes (Lyn et al. 1999; Greene, 2002; Do-Quang et al., 1999; Zhang et al.,
2005).
CFD modelling of ozonation processes appears more complicated than modelling of
chlorination and UV processes, because the ozonation processes include more
complicated phenomena, such as interphase mass transfer, multiphases, reactions, etc..
Several researchers (Murrer et al., 1995; Peltier et al., 2001; and Huang et al. 2002)
tried to simplify the problem by developing mono-phase CFD models to simulate the
ozone contactors and apply their models to optimize the ozone contactor hydraulics.
These models did not consider the effects of the gas phase on contactor hydraulics, so
they are not capable of predicting the effects of gas flow rate, gas concentration, and gas
injection locations on the contactor flow patterns.
Henry and Freeman (1995) provided a two-phase two dimensional (2D) CFD model to
track ozone bubble trajectories and their influence on the velocity and pressure
distribution of the mean flow field. A tracer test simulation was conducted using a
transient advection-diffusion analysis and the simulation results were validated by
tracer tests. The effects of the gas/liquid ratio and addition of vanes, corner fillets and
wall foils were analyzed to optimize the contactor design. Ta and Hague (2004) used
similar approach in a three dimensional (3D) CFD modelling of full-scale contactor.
The focus of their study is only on contactor hydraulics. No attempt was performed to
simulate ozone profile and pathogen inactivation performance.
Kamimura et al. (2002) developed a mono-phase CFD model for an O
3
/UV reactor
based on CFD analysis. The mono-phase fluid dynamics model is combined with a
complex radical reaction model. This radical model consists mainly of two processes,
i.e., the photochemical reaction process and the O
3
/UV reaction process. The validity

5
of the radical reaction model was evaluated by comparing the simulated concentrations
of total organic carbon (TOC), H
2
O
2
, and dissolved ozone with experimental data
obtained from a bench-scale CSTR. Once the radical reaction model was validated,
CFD simulation was executed to obtain the distribution of the concentration of TOC,
ozone, OH· and other substances in the reactor. The CFD model was used for
optimizing the reactor configuration and operational conditions, to reduce the ozone
demand required for decomposing TOC. The weaknesses of this model include that it is
a single phase model and the model relies on details of very complex ozone reaction
kinetics. Such information is difficult to obtain at site-specific conditions.
Do-Quang et al. (1999) formulated an ozone disinfection model for a two-phase ozone
disinfection system. Water velocity and ozone gas hold-up fields were numerically
estimated from a two phase, Eulerian flow sub-model. Ozone concentrations in the
water phase were then predicted by solution of coupled mass transfer and first-order
ozone decay expressions. It was reported that predicted reactor ozone concentrations
correlated well with experimental results. However, the authors did not investigate the
sensitivity of some important factors (such as mesh density, turbulence model slection
and bubble size) on the modelling. No attempt was performed to use Lagrangian
approach to simulate pathogen inactivation.
As discussed above, previous researchers have demonstrated the capabilities of CFD,
however the focus of its application has been largely on modelling the hydraulic
behaviour of contactors, which is only one component of system design. There are few
studies considering the effects of water quality on the CFD model and there is limited
information on applying a CFD model to optimize the operation of ozone contactors at
varying operational conditions. No model has been reported to compare the Eulerian
and Lagrangian approaches for predicting ozone disinfection efficiency. No reported

6
studies have compared the CFD approach with two commonly used disinfection design
approaches: CT
10
and IDDF approaches.
1.2 Research Objectives
The goal of this thesis was to develop an integrated CFD model to predict ozone
disinfection performance and to assist with the design and operation of full-scale ozone
contactors. The specific objectives of this research were to:
(1) develop a comprehensive multiphase CFD model to address all the major
components of ozone disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics, ozone mass transfer,
ozone demand and decay, microbial inactivation, and disinfection by-product formation
kinetics.
(2) validate the CFD model using full-scale experimental data, including tracer testing
results, ozone profiles, and microbial inactivation tests of full scale ozone contactors in
two Canadian water treatment plants: the DesBaillets WTP in Montréal, Quebec and the
Mannheim WTP in Kitchener, Ontario.
(3) compare the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches for the prediction of
microbial inactivation efficiency of ozone contactors.
(4) improve ozone monitoring and tracer test strategies based on CFD analysis to assist
with ozone contactor operation and ozone disinfection efficiency prediction.
(5) investigate the effects of water quality (represented by ozone demand, decay kinetic
constants and temperature etc.) on ozone disinfection performance based on CFD
modelling.

7
(6) use the model to predict the effective CT of ozone disinfection processes and
compare the results with the results calculated from conventional design approaches,
including CT
10
and IDDF approaches.
Objectives (1) and (2) include significant improvements over previous CFD modelling
approaches. Objectives (3), (4), (5) and (6) are original contributions in the field of
numerical modelling of ozone disinfection processes.
1.3 Scope of Thesis
This thesis consists of seven additional chapters, as follows.
Chapter 2 Background and Literature Review: examines the most important factors
affecting ozone disinfection performance, reviews the pros and cons of currently used
design approaches for ozone disinfection processes, and discusses the historical CFD
modelling studies for predicting the performance of drinking water treatment units.
Chapter 3 Experimental approach: presents the experimental methodologies for tracer
testing, ozone demand and decay kinetics testing, ozone profile monitoring, and
microbial inactivation determination experiments performed by the École
Polytechnique de Montréal and the author.
Chapter 4 Development and validation of CFD model: summarizes the mathematical
equations and inputs of the multiphase CFD model for ozone processes, and also
provides relevant background that shaped this investigation. Presents and discusses the
results including model validation and applications through two case studies.

8
Chapter 5 Improving ozone residual monitoring and tracer test strategies: presents the
results of the sensitivity study of ozone residuals corresponding to monitoring locations
and proposed ozone monitoring strategy. Discusses the effects of tracer input methods
and sampling strategy on residence time distributions and T
10
predictions.
Chapter 6 Comparison of Eulerian and Particle tracking methods in prediction of
disinfection efficiency: presents the two CFD modelling approaches, compares and
discusses the predicted disinfection results.
Chapter 7 A comparison of CT
10
, IDDF, CFD approaches: presents and discusses the
prediction results of disinfection performance by three different approaches.
Chapter 8 Conclusions and future work: provides the conclusions from the research
and presents the recommendations for future work.
1.4 Significant Contributions of This Work
The most significant contribution of this work is that, a fully comprehensive
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed, validated and applied
to quantitatively evaluate the effects of water quality and operational parameters on
ozone disinfection and bromate formation.
Another significant contribution of this work is that, for the first time, the CFD
modelling approach was used to assist with the optimization of the locations of ozone
monitoring points to provide more accurate information for system operators.
Other contributions include: the Lagrangian approach was introduced to the modelling
of ozone disinfection performance and compared the results with that of Eulerian

9
approach; Conducted investigation to compare CT
10
, IDDF and CFD approach; and the
effects of water quality and operational parameters on ozone disinfection performance
were studied.
The work has demonstrated that the CFD approach is an efficient tool for improving the
ozone disinfection performance of existing water treatment plants and designing new
ozonation systems.











10
CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND

Modelling ozone disinfection processes requires some understanding of background
information including: 1) drinking water regulatory issues regarding disinfection and
disinfection by-product (DBP) requirements; 2) ozone chemistry; 3) components of
ozonation processes and factors affecting ozone disinfection processes 4) current design
and modelling approaches; and 5) the background of multiphase computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) and previous studies on CFD modelling of water treatment processes
especially disinfection treatment systems. Each of these items is addressed in the
following literature review.
2.1 Regulations for Disinfection and Disinfection By-products
Disinfection can effectively reduce the health risks caused by pathogenic
microorganisms in drinking water. However, disinfectants themselves can react with
naturally-occurring materials in water to form unintended organic and inorganic
byproducts which may pose health risks. Therefore, the major purpose of current
drinking water regulations related to disinfection is to ensure that drinking water is
microbiologically safe for drinking purposes while at the same time reducing health
risks resulting from the consumption of disinfectant residuals and disinfection by-
products (USEPA, 1994; USEPA, 1996).

11
2.1.1 Regulations in the United States
In the United States, regulations for drinking water treatment by the US Environmental
Protection Agency (USEPA) have directly affected the use of ozone (Rakness, 2005).
These USEPA regulations include:
The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR): The SWTR was promulgated in 1989 and
made effective in December 1990 (USEPA, 1991). It applies to all public water
systems using surface water sources or ground water sources under the direct influence
of surface water. The SWTR requires that treatment plants should achieve a minimum
of three logs (99.9%) and four logs (99.99%) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia
cysts and viruses, respectively (USEPA, 1991). The SWTR guideline manual discussed
ozone CT values for inactivation of Giardia and viruses. Ozone CT is defined as ozone
residual times contact time, which is similar in concept to chlorine CT (Rakness, 2005).
Consequently, the SWTR is based on the approach of specifying treatment requirements
instead of the regulatory approach used in some other conditions of establishing
maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for target pathogenic microorganisms.
Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR): The IESWTR was
promulgated in December 1998 and made effective in February 1999 (USEPA, 1999).
It applies to systems using surface water, or ground water under the direct influence of
surface water that serve 10,000 or more persons. The rule built upon the treatment
technique requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule with the following key
additions and modifications: i) it introduced a maximum contaminant level goal
(MCLG) of zero for Cryptosporidium; ii) it set 2-log Cryptosporidium removal
requirements for systems that filter; iii) it lowered filtered water turbidity requirements;
and iv) it included disinfection benchmark provisions to assure continued levels of

12
microbial protection while facilities take the necessary steps to comply with new DBP
standards.
Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR): The final
Stage 1 DBPR was promulgated in December 1998 and made effective in February
1999 (USEPA, 1999). It applies to community water systems and non-transient non-
community systems, including those serving fewer than 10,000 persons, that add a
disinfectant to the drinking water during any part of the treatment process. The final
Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule included the following key
provisions: i) it set maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDLs) for three
disinfectants (chlorine [4.0 mg/L], chloramines [4.0 mg/L], and chlorine dioxide [0.8
mg/L]); and ii) it lowered maximum contaminant level (MCLs) for total
trihalomethanes to 0.080 mg/L, haloacetic acids (HAA5) to 0.060 mg/L, and set two
inorganic disinfection byproducts (chlorite (1.0 mg/L) and bromate (0.010 mg/L)).
Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR): The Rule was
promulgated in January 2002 and made effective in January 2005 (USEPA, 2002). The
purpose of the LT1ESWTR is to improve the control of microbiological pathogens such
as Cryptosporidium in public drinking water systems serving fewer than 10,000 persons.
It also protects the public against increases in risk from such pathogens in cases where
systems alter their disinfection practices to meet new disinfection byproduct standards
promulgated under the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR).
The rule was developed based on the IESWTR, but has been modified to reduce the
burden on small systems.
Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 ESWTR): The LT2
ESWTR was promulgated in January, 2006 and made effective in March, 2006
(USEPA, 2006a). The purpose of the LT2 ESWTR is to reduce disease incidence

13
associated with Cryptosporidium and other pathogenic microorganisms in drinking
water. The rule applies to all public water systems that use surface water or ground
water that is under the direct influence of surface water. The LT2 ESWTR classified
filtered water systems into one of four treatment categories (bins) based on actual
monitoring results. Systems classified in higher bins must provide additional water
treatment to further reduce Cryptosporidium levels by 90% to 99.7% (1.0 to 2.5-log),
depending on the bin. All unfiltered water systems must provide at least 99% or 99.9%
(2 or 3-log) inactivation of Cryptosporidium, depending on monitoring results. The LT2
ESWTR introduced Cryptosporidium log inactivation CT tables for ozone disinfection
treatment. The CT values for Cryptosporidium inactivation credits are 15 to 25 times
higher than for Giardia. Therefore, a larger ozone dose is needed to meet
Cryptosporidium inactivation credit. Consequently, the LT2 ESWTR will increase
operating costs, and may increase ozone disinfection by-product formation (Rakness,
2005). The USEPA also published the draft LT2ESWTR Implementation Guidance
Manual and Draft LT2 ESWTR Toolbox Guidance Manual (USEPA, 2003), which
included alternative inactivation credit calculation methods to assist with design and
operation of full-scale ozone disinfection systems.
Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBPR): The Stage 2
DBPR was proposed in August 2003 and promulgated on December 15, 2005 (USEPA,
2006b). The Stage 2 DBP rule focuses on public health protection by limiting exposure
to DBPs, specifically total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5),
which can form in water through disinfectants used to control microbial pathogens. This
rule applies to all community water systems and nontransient noncommunity water
systems that add a primary or residual disinfectant other than ultraviolet (UV) light or
deliver water that has been disinfected by a primary or residual disinfectant other than
UV.

14
2.1.2 Regulations in Canada
In Canada, drinking water regulations are developed through a federal-provincial-
territorial consultative process. The drinking water guidelines are established by health
Canada (Health Canada, 2006). However, each province adopts fully or partially the
guidelines set forth by Health Canada and enforces them legally. The current Guidelines
outline a standard for total coliforms and E. Coli of zero per 100 mL, however no
numerical guidelines exist to monitor and control the concentrations of viruses and
resistant protozoa such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Viruses and protozoa
are under review for potential regulations in the next revision of the guidelines (Health
Canada, 2006). However, the Guidelines state: "If the presence of viable, human-
infectious cysts or oocysts is known or suspected in source waters, or if Giardia or
Cryptosporidium has been responsible for past waterborne outbreaks in a community, a
treatment and distribution regime and a watershed or wellhead protection plan (where
feasible) or other measures known to reduce the risk of illness should be implemented.
Treatment technologies in place should achieve at least a 3-log reduction in and/or
inactivation of cysts and oocysts, unless source water quality requires a greater log
reduction and/or inactivation". The guidance suggests the use of CT concept to design
drinking water disinfection systems, however does not provide CT tables for different
disinfectants. Some water treatment plants are voluntarily using the USEPA's SWTR
approach to ensure that the treated water is microbiologically safe for drinking purposes
by minimizing the waterborne concentration of viruses and Guardia lamblia (Bdantyne,
1999). For disinfection by-products, the Guidelines specify an interim maximum
acceptable concentration (IMAC) of 0.100 mg/L for TTHMs and an IMAC of 0.01
mg/L for Bromate (Health Canada, 2006).
The detailed disinfection requirements are given in many Canadian provincial
regulations. For example, the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) requires that

15
drinking water systems that obtain water from a raw water supply which is surface
water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water must achieve a
minimum a 2-log (99%) removal or inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts, a 3-log
(99.9%) removal or inactivation of Giardia cysts and a 4-log (99.99%) removal or
inactivation of viruses before the water is delivered to the first consumer. At least 0.5-
log removal or inactivation of Giardia cysts and 2-log removal or inactivation of viruses
must be provided through the disinfection portion of the overall water treatment process.
In “Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Ontario” (MOE, 2006), the CT
tables for inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and viruses by
different chemical disinfectants have been provided. It also stated that “The treatment
processes must be designed and always operated to achieve the required removal or
inactivation of pathogens as a priority with the minimization of disinfection by products
formation as a secondary objective”.
Generally, American regulations are more stringent than those in Canada. However, it is
expected that Canadian regulations will follow a similar path to those stipulated in the
United States. It is therefore necessary to consider American regulations when
designing new treatment plants or when altering disinfection practices at existing
treatment plants in order to ensure that new treatment processes meet forecasted future
Canadian regulations (Bdantyne, 1999).
2.1.3 Effects of Current Regulations on Application of Ozone Disinfection
Treatment
The American and Canadian drinking water regulations have been and will continue to
be more and more stringent to ensure that drinking water is microbiologically safe and
at the same time minimize health risks resulting from disinfection by-products. The
stricter requirements for removal/inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms especially

16
Cryptosporidium and the lower limits for chlorinated disinfection by-products are major
drive forces for many water utilities to choose ozone as a primary disinfectant. Ozone
has been proven to be an excellent alternative disinfectant in many cases: i) to enhance
Cryptosporidium and Giardia inactivation treatment; ii) to partially replace chlorine to
reduce the formation of the chlorinated DBPs such as TTHM and HAA5; and iii) to be
used in treatment plants without filtration systems meeting disinfection requirement by
ozone alone (Rakness, 2005). Therefore, it is expected that the application of ozonation
will continue to grow in the water industry.
However, ozone disinfection is currently a more expensive technique than chlorination
and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. In addition, ozonation of waters containing bromide
can produce other types of DBPs (including bromate, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids)
above regulated levels, leading to tradeoffs between microbial and chemical risks (Amy
et al., 2000; Bellamy et. al., 1998). In efforts to meet increasingly stringent drinking
water regulations and to be cost-effective, water suppliers are required to optimize
ozone dosage. The purpose of this study is to develop computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) models to fully describe ozone disinfection systems and to use CFD as an
effective tool to balance between the microbial inactivation requirements and DBP-
related health risks.
2.2 Aqueous Chemistry of Ozone
2.2.1 Reactions of Ozone in Water
Ozone is a gas of limited solubility that must first be dissolved into water to be effective
against microorganisms(Langlais et al., 1991; Bryant et al., 1992; Singer and Hull,
2000). Once dissolved, aqueous ozone engages in complex chemistry that includes

17
auto-decomposition and reaction with various constituents of the water, in addition to
reaction with microorganisms (Langlais et al., 1991).
Aqueous ozone may react with various species via two pathways: direct reaction by
molecular ozone and/or indirect reaction by the radical species that are formed when
ozone decomposes in water (Langlais et al., 1991). Depending on the treatment
objectives, either pathway may be relevant. In the case of disinfection, the direct
reaction pathway of molecular ozone is relevant because the reaction of molecular
ozone with different constituents of natural water sources is relatively slow and
selective (Langlais et al., 1991), whereas OH radicals react rapidly with many types of
dissolved species and are therefore scavenged before they encounter particles such as
microorganisms. This has been demonstrated experimentally using Giardia muris cysts
(Labatiuk et al., 1994, as cited by Urfer et al., 1999). The evidence that is available also
suggests that ozone achieves disinfection largely through oxidation reactions that
damage and destroy critical components of micro-organisms (Finch et al., 2001; Bryant
et al., 1992). For the oxidation of certain micropollutants in the waters, the kinetics of
the direct reaction of molecular ozone is too slow, and therefore the reaction of OH
radicals with such components is of importance (Urfer et al., 1999).
The mechanism of ozone reaction and decomposition has been the subject of numerous
studies (e.g. Langlais et al., 1991; Singer and Hull, 2000). The two most widely
accepted mechanisms for decomposition of the ozone in water are shown in Table 2.1.




18
Table 2.1 Mechanisms of ozone decomposition in water
Steps Hoigne, Staeholin and Bader
mechanisms (Langlais et al, 1991)
Gordan, Tomiyasn and Fukuton
mechanisms (Langlais et al,
1991)
Initiation
Step



+ −
− −
+ →
+ → +
H O HO
O HO OH O
k
k
2 2
2 2 3
'
1
1
) ' 1 (
) 1 (
O H O OH HO
HO O O HO
O HO OH O
a
k
k
k
2 2 2
2 3 3 2
2 2 3
) 11 (
) 10 (
) 9 (
10
9
+ → +
+ → +
+ → +
− −
− −
− −

Propagation/
termination
step
2 3 2 2 3 4
3 2 2 4 4
2 2 4
4 3
2 3
3 3
2 3 2 3
) 8 (
2 ) 7 (
) 6 (
) 5 (
) 4 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
6
5
4
3
2
O O O H HO HO
O O H HO HO
O HO HO
HO O OH
O OH HO
HO H O
O O O O
k
k
k
k
k
+ + → +
+ → +
+ →
→ +
+ →
→ +
+ → +
+ −
− −

) ( ) 17 (
) 16 (
) 15 (
) 14 (
) 13 (
) 12 (
) 2 (
2 2 2 3 3
3
2
3
2 2 3
3 3
2 2 3
2 2 3
2 3
2
2 3
16
15
14
13
12
O O CO products O CO
CO OH CO OH
O HO O OH
HO O O OH
HO O O OH
HO O OH O H O
O O O O
k
k
k
k
k
k
+ + → +
+ → +
+ → +
+ → +
+ → +
+ + → +
+ → +
− −
− − −
− −
− −
− −
− −


In natural water, the reaction and decomposition of ozone are strongly dependent on
water quality. Some species may induce the formation of a superoxide ion (O
2
-
) from
an ozone molecule, which then initiate the ozone chain reaction. These species are
called initiators. Some other species may react with the hydroxyl radical (OH·) and
regenerate the superoxide anion (O
2
-
or HO
2
-
), these species promote ozone
decomposition, and are called promoters. There are also some species that are capable
of consuming hydroxyl radical but do not generate the superoxide ions. These species
provide a stabilizing effect on the ozone molecule in the water, and are called inhibitors.
Aqueous ozone chemistry is still the subject of research. Some researchers have tried to
develop kinetic-based mechanistic models to predict ozone reactions (Yuteri and Gurol,
1988; Chelkowska et al., 1992; Westerhoff et al., 1996). But the precise description of

19
ozone reactions is still difficult at the present time because of the complexity of ozone
reactions and limited information on kinetic constants.
2.2.2 Pathways and Reactions of the DBP Formation
Bromate (BrO
3
-
) is the main ozone disinfection byproduct of human health concern.
Drinking water regulations in the U.S. have specified a maximum contaminant level
(MCL) of 10 ug/l for the bromate ion (USEPA et al., 1998). Future regulations for
bromate may be lowered since 10 ug/L currently represents a 10
-4
excess cancer risk
level and is higher than the normal regulatory level of 10
-6
(Westerhoff, 2002).
Bromate can form through both a molecular ozone pathway and a hydroxyl radical
pathway, depending on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, Br
-
content,
and pH of the source water (Siddiqui et al., 1998). In the molecular ozone pathway, Br
-

is first oxidized by dissolved ozone to form the hypobromite ion (OBr
-
) which is then
further oxidized to BrO
3
-
as shown below.
− − − −
→ → →
3 2
3 3 3
BrO BrO BrO Br
O O O

Via the hydroxyl radical pathway, the dissolved ozone plays an indirect role by
decomposing ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals, which further react with bromine
species to produce BrO
3
-
.
Figure 2.1 shows the possible chain reactions for bromate formation during ozonation
treatment. Molecular ozone, OH radical reactions, and reactions of intermediate species
with some water matrix components are shown in this figure.

20

Figure 2.1 Bromate formation pathways (von Gunten and Pinkernell, 2000)
Previous research (Hofmann and Andrews, 2001) indicated that, the rate constants of
the ozone molecular pathway reactions are much lower than those for the hydroxyl
radical pathway reactions. Therefore, the ratio of the O
3
/OH will have great influence
on the reactions of bromate formation. In other word, the rate of ozone decomposition
may greatly affect bromate formation.
2.2.3 Effects of Water Quality on Ozone Decay and DBP Formation
Many aqueous species can function as the initiators, promoters, or inhibitors of the
reactions of ozone decomposition and bromate formation. Therefore, the ozonation
process highly depends on water quality parameters, including pH, alkalinity, natural
organic matter (NOM), and temperature etc.
Temperature
Temperature influences the solubility of the ozone as well as its chemical reaction-rate
coefficients. The Henry’s Law coefficient increases in the temperature range typical for

21
water treatment by about 5% /˚C. Also, activation energies for the reactions of ozone
with specified reactants at ambient temperature typically are in the range 35 to 50
kJ/mol. The decomposition of ozone in natural water, however occurs by chain
reactions and their temperature effects vary for different types of waters (Hoigne, 1994).
Since the concentration of hydroxyl radicals increases with increasing temperature,
bromate formation will be accelerated at higher temperatures, though some researchers
agree that temperature has a relatively small effect on bromate formation relative to pH
and ammonia concentration (von Gunten and Pinkernell, 2000).
pH
OH
-
is the main initiator of the chain reaction for ozone decomposition. Therefore, an
increase in pH will promote ozone decomposition and influence the oxidation reactions
of ozone with other species. It was reported that when ozone dissolves in aqueous
solutions at pH levels below 7, it does not react with water and is present as molecular
O
3
. As the pH is elevated, however, spontaneous decomposition of ozone occurs to
ultimately produce a variety of very reactive free radials, such as the hydroxyl radical
(OH·) (Gorden, 1995).
pH also has great influence on the bromate formation (von Gunten and Pinkernell,
2000). Decreasing pH can change the bromate formation in two ways:
(1) Shift of HOBr/OBr

equilibrium to HOBr to prevent further oxidation by ozone.
(2) Decrease of the rate of OH radical formation from ozone decomposition which
results in a decrease of the rate of the oxidation of HOBr.

22
Therefore, bromate formation in ozonation processes may be controlled by the method
of pH depression.
Alkalinity
Carbonate and bicarbonate ions can scavenge the hydroxyl radicals formed during the
ozone decomposition, which otherwise would act as chain carriers in the radical-type
reactions decomposing ozone in water. As a result, alkalinity species may reduce the
decomposition rate of the dissolved ozone and inhibit the hydroxyl radical pathway of
bromate formation or other ozone consumption reactions. This means that a water with
high alkalinity may have better disinfection performance and lower DBP formation
(Fabian, 1995).
In addition, in waters with low dissolved organic matter (DOC), bicarbonate and
carbonate may become the dominant scavengers for OH radicals and thereby protect
micropollutants from being oxidized. Above pH 8.5, the effect of alkalinity becomes pH
dependent because carbonate ions scavenge OH radicals with rate constant much larger
than that of bicarbonate ion (Hoigne, 1994).
Ammonia
Ammonia (NH
3
) reacts with ozone very slowly, and does not significantly affect ozone
decomposition due to its slow reaction with ozone and OH·. However, in the presence
of the bromide ion, ammonia can mask the hypobromate ion formed during ozonation
and thereby delay the formation of bromate, bromoform and further bromo-organic
compounds (Langlais et al., 1991). As a result, the formation of bromate can be
inhibited in ammonia-containing water.

23
Addition of ammonia may be used as a bromate control method. However, bromate
removal by ammonia addition is not efficient for waters that have a low pH and/or
already contain high ammonia levels (Westerhoff, 2002).
Natural organic matter (NOM)
The stability of ozone largely depends on the type and content of natural organic matter
(NOM). NOM can affect the ozone stability in two ways: (a) directly through reacting
with ozone; (b) indirectly by scavenging of OH radicals (OH·) and leading to an
accelerated ozone decomposition.
NOM is involved in bromate formation in several ways by (1) influencing ozone
demand and rate of ozone decay, (2) affecting OH· concentrations, (3) reacting with
HOBr/OBr and (4) potentially reacting with brominated radicals.
Generally, the presence of the NOM in water will lower the stability of ozone through
direct reaction with molecular ozone and consumption of OH radicals. The presence of
NOM inhibits the formation of bromate especially at the initial period of ozonation
(Song, 1996).
Summary of the effects of water parameters
The effects of the above water quality parameters on ozone decomposition and bromate
formation are summarized in Table 2.2 (adapted from Westerhoff, 2002).

Table 2.2 Effects of water quality parameters on ozonation

24
Parameters Disinfection
efficiency
Decomposition
rate
Bromate formation
rate
Temperature + + + +
pH+
_
+ +
Bromide +
_
+ +
Alkalinity + +
_

_

NOM +
_
+
_

Ammonia + unchanged unchanged
_

(“+”: increasing concentration or value; “
_
”: decreasing concentration or value)
2.3 Overview of the Ozone Disinfection Process
2.3.1 Process Description
In drinking water treatment, ozone is produced by an ozone generator. The feed gas can
be either air or pure oxygen. A high voltage (6-20 KV) is applied to two electrodes and
the high voltage produces an arc. In the arc, part of the O
2
is converted into O
3
. Ozone
is very unstable and reverts back to O
2
within minutes. Therefore ozone must be
generated on-site and cannot be shipped to water treatment plants.
For the ozone to perform disinfection and oxidation it must be brought into the water
and dispersed as finely as possible. This is accomplished generally through fine bubble
diffusers located in baffle chambers, or in a turbine type contactor. Figure 2.2 shows the
typical arrangement for three types of ozone contactor.

25

(a) Baffled chamber

(b) Turbine Diffuser


(c) Side-stream ozone system
Figure 2.2 Three typical types of ozone contactors (adapted from USEPA, 1999)

26
Baffled chamber diffusers seem to be most prevalent because of its multiple advantages,
such as: no moving parts, effective ozone transfer, low hydraulic headloss, and
operational simplicity (USEPA, 1999). The number of chambers, their geometry, the
diffuser systems, and their operation differ from plant to plant and are subject to the
experience of the design engineers. A typical ozone contactor usually has several
compartments in series with bubble diffusers at the bottom. The chambers are covered
to prevent the escape of ozone and to increase the partial pressure of the ozone in the
contactor. Additional chambers follow to guarantee a contact time between the ozone
and the water. Each of the chambers has sampling ports so that the ozone concentration
in each chamber can be determined. This is needed to calculate the product of
concentration and detention time to get the required CT value.
Research has shown that the following design and operational variables may have a
significant impact on the ozone contactor performance (Bellamy, 1995; Singer and Hull,
2000):
• Geometry of the ozone contactor (configuration, cell numbers, inlet/outlet
arrangement)
• Mode of contacting, e.g., cocurrent, countercurrent, and turbine (completely mixed)
• Placement, shape, and number of baffles
• Diffuser placement
• Range in water flow rates
• Gas/liquid flow ratio (dose and feed gas concentration)

27
All of these factors relate to the disinfection objective. The relationship between these
factors and the efficiency of disinfection, however still has not been defined (Bellamy,
1995). To date, no single model (either mathematical or empirical) or approach has
been developed to account for all above factors in the design and operation of ozone
processes.
2.3.2 Factors Affecting Ozone Disinfection Performance
The efficiency of the ozone disinfection process is governed by several key components
including contactor hydraulics, ozone mass transfer, ozone chemistry, microbial
inactivation kinetics, and DBP formation kinetics (Bellamy, 1995).
2.3.2.1 Ozone Contactor Hydraulics
Contactor hydrodynamic conditions are of primary importance in ozonation systems
since mixing conditions significantly affect the observed gas and liquid concentration
profiles, and can greatly affect disinfection efficiency (Bellamy, 1995). Ozone
contactors should be designed to provide adequate residence time for the microbial
inactivation.
Tracer studies have long been used to determine mixing in disinfection contactors. The
residence time distribution (RTD) is measured by applying a conservative tracer to the
inlet of an ozone contactor and measuring the effluent concentration as a function of
time. Two types of tracer studies are typically performed, pulse tracer tests or step
tracer tests. The pulse tracer test involves the injection of a mass of tracer solute
instantaneously into the reactor influent, while the step tracer test is performed via a
step changes in concentrations of a tracer added to the influent of the reactor. The
effluent tracer concentration as a function of time is recorded during the tracer testing

28
and the residence time distribution curve can be obtained from tracer test data
(Levenspiel, 1999; USEPA, 1991).
Modelling of the ozone contactor hydrodynamics has been well addressed in some
previous studies (Bellamy, 1998; Cheng, 1999; Kim, 2002). The most commonly used
models are Plug Flow with Dispersion model (PFD), the Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactor model (n-CSTR), the Axial Dispersion model or a combination of one or more
of these models. Due to the complexity of ozone contactor mixing, these models are
questionable to be used for accurately prediction of hydraulic performance. Application
of these models is not feasible under varying operational conditions, such as change of
gas/liquid flow rates and water level.
Ozone Mass Transfer
Since ozone gas has limited solubility and it must first be dissolved into water to be
effective against microorganisms, the transfer of ozone from gas phase to the liquid
phase is of central importance in the study of ozonation systems applied for drinking
water treatment.
According to the two-film theory developed by Lewis and Whitman (1924) as cited by
Singer and Hull (2000), ozone mass transfer occurs across the gas and liquid films. For
relatively insoluble gases such as ozone, the gas-phase resistance becomes negligible
compared with the liquid-phase resistance. The rate of ozone mass transfer according to
the two-film model is given by the following equation:
) (
*
l l l
l
C C a K
dt
dC
− = (2.1)
where

29
l
C = liquid phase ozone concentration g O
3
/m
3

l
K = liquid-phase ozone transfer coefficient, m/min
a = interfacial area per unit volume, m
2
/m
3

*
l
C = saturation liquid phase ozone concentration, g O
3
/m
3

t = time, min
For a gas-liquid ozone system, the reactions in liquid phase (water) are quite fast. It is
therefore important to consider if the liquid film reactions can increase the
concentration gradient in the film to enhance mass transfer (Singer and Hull, 2000).
A dimensionless Hatta number can be used to calculate the enhancement factor. The
Hatta number (Ha) is expressed as:
l O l
K D k Ha / ) (
2 / 1
3
⋅ = (2.2)
where,
l
k is the first-order rate constant with ozone (min
-1
);
3
O
D is the diffusion
coefficient of ozone in water (m
2
/min); and
l
K is the liquid phase mass transfer
coefficient (m/min).
For significant reactions in the liquid phase to produce enhanced mass transfer, the
Hatta number must be greater than 0.3 (Singer and Hull, 2000). Several studies (Yurteri,
1988; Zhou and Smith, 1995; Singer and Hull, 2000) have demonstrated that the Hatta
number is much less than 0.3 at different ozone reaction conditions, even at high pH
values where ozone decomposition is rapid. Therefore the enhancement of mass transfer
by liquid film reactions is negligible, and it is an acceptable approach to model mass
transfer and ozone reactions as separate processes.

30
As ozone is a sparingly soluble gas, its transfer efficiency is mainly controlled by such
physical parameters as temperature, gaseous flow rate, water quality and type of
diffusers (Zhou and Smith, 1995; Marinas, 1999; Wu and Masten, 2001; Beltran, 2005).
In this study, the mass transfer coefficient was estimated from literature correlations.
Additional details of the empirical model selection for mass transfer coefficient will be
discussed in Chapter 4.
The Decomposition Kinetics of Ozone
Once dissolved in water ozone becomes very unstable. Previous ozonation studies have
showed that for water containing natural organic matter there is a rapid initial
consumption of ozone followed by a slower period of decay (Zhou and Smith, 1995;
Marinas, 1999; Singer and Hull, 2000; Wu and Masten, 2001; Beltran, 2005).
Figure 2.3 shows a conceptual ozone decomposition curve plotting log concentration
versus time.
The difference between the applied ozone dose and the initial ozone residual is termed
as the immediate ozone demand (IOD), and can be expressed as:
IOD = C
in
– C
0
(2.3)
where, C
in
is the applied ozone dosage (mg/L) and C
0
is the initial ozone residual
(mg/L).
For a specific water, the IOD is usually a function of ozone dosage (El-Baz, 2002).
However, the experimental results of Kim (2002) show that the IOD is almost constant
at different dosages. Therefore, the IOD value is strongly water quality dependent and
should be determined for site-specific conditions.

31
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Time (min)
D
i
s
s
o
l
v
e
d

O
z
o
n
e

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
g
/
L
)
C
0
C
i n
Immediate Ozone Demand
First Order Decay

Figure 2.3 A typical ozone decomposition curve
Following the fast initial demand period, the slower decay period of ozone residual can
typically be characterized with a pseudo first-order kinetics model as follows (Langlais
et al., 1991):
l d
l
C k
dt
dC
− = (2.4)
where
d
k = water quality dependent decay rate constant (min
-1
) and
l
C is dissolved
ozone concentration (mg/L), t = time (min)
The decomposition of ozone is also highly dependent on water quality parameters.
Previous studies have been conducted to develop models for predicting the effects of
water quality factors on ozone decay kinetics (Chen et al., 1999; Chelkowska et al.,
1992; Westerhoff et al., 1996; Yuteri and Gurol, 1988; Siddiqui et al., 1998; Urfer et al.,

32
1999). Two types of models have been employed, one is a numerical model, and the
other is an empirical model.
The numerical models were based on ozone chemistry. Such models can be more
widely used under varying water quality conditions. This approach includes many
intermediate reactions and detailed information on the reaction kinetics is currently still
limited. Different numerical models have resulted in completely different predicted
results (Chelkowska et al., 1992; Westerhoff et al., 1996; Yuteri and Gurol, 1988).
Empirical decomposition models have used data from bench or full scale experiments
(Chen et al., 1999; Siddiqui et al., 1998; Urfer et al., 1999). Since most current
empirical models are obtained for limited numbers of synthetic waters or natural waters,
these models are site-specific. Hoigne (1995) indicated that, for a given water, the
sensitivity of ozone decomposition with respect to small changes in chemical
composition can be estimated from empirical correlation, however, correlation
including varying types of waters is highly uncertain. Therefore, empirical models are
site-specific, unless a model is validated with a wide range of water sources.

Microbial Inactivation Kinetics
Numerous studies have been performed to describe the kinetics of microbial
inactivation by ozone for batch systems (Finch et al., 2001). Table 2.3 summarizes
reported models.




33
Table 2.3 Summary of microbial inactivation kinetic model of ozone
Model Survival ratio
Chick-Watson
T kC
n


Hom
m n
T kC −

Rational
] ) 1 ( 1 ln[
1
1 1
0
T kC x N
x
n x
− +

− −

Hom-power law
] ) 1 ( 1 ln[
1
1 1
0
m n x
T kC x N
x
− +

− −

Multiple target
] ) 1 ( 1 ln[
c
n kCT
e

− −
Series-event
1
]
!
) (
ln[
1
0

+ −


=
x
kCT
kCT
l
κ
κ
κ

(Source: Adapted from Finch et al., 2001)
The Chick-Watson model is a pseudo first order rate model that predicts a linear log
survival plot. However, ozone disinfection systems rarely display first order kinetics.
Typical log survival plots exhibit “shoulders” or “tailing”. The presence of a
“shoulder” has been attributed to inadequate mixing, delays in diffusion of the
disinfectant to target sites on microorganisms, or the condition of multiple target sites
required for microbial inactivation. “Tailing” has been attributed to the presence of
distinct sub-populations with varying resistance to a disinfectant or a distributed
inactivation resistance within one population (Gyurek, 1998).
The Hom model accounts for derivations from the Chick-Watson model. The intrinsic
kinetics aer assumed to be pseudo first-order. The Hom model, however predicts
derivations from first-order kinetic behaviour due to non-ideal conditions in a batch
reactor. For m=1, the disinfection kinetics follow a pseudo-first order relationship

34
(Chick-Watson model). For m>1, the presence of “shoulders” is predicted; for m<1,
“tailing” is predicted.
The Rational model employs the power law to describe disinfection kinetics. Similar to
the Hom model, the rational model can predict “shoulders” and “tailings” for x>1 and
x<1, respectively.
The Multiple target model states that each microorganism possesses multiple “target
sites”, all of which must be contacted by the disinfectant to inactivate individual or
grouped microorganisms. Multiple target models are thought to be unsuitable to
accurately describe disinfection kinetics because microorganism clumps are of unequal
size and consequently it is unlikely that cell damage will be randomly distributed across
the microbial community.
The Series event model considers that an organism has an infinite number of targets,
and that a finite number of lethal events are required for inactivation. Series event
models assume that each lethal event is first-order with respect to disinfectant
concentration. Since this assumption is not valid for most ozone disinfection systems,
series event models are generally thought to be unsuitable to describe ozone
disinfection behaviour. Furthermore, series-event models are not well suited to predict
“tailing” behaviour.
Finch et al. (1992) performed Giardia inactivation studies using ozone and found that
the Chick-Watson model was not appropriate in describing the inactivation of Giardia
muris cysts since ozone competing reactions and demands significantly affected the
residual concentration thereby increasing the survival of Giardia cysts. In a later study,
Finch et al. (1994) reconfirmed that the Hom-type kinetic model more accurately
represented the ozone inactivation of parasite cysts and oocysts, including Giardia and

35
Cryptosporidium, than other models. Thus, the Hom model has been more commonly
used for ozone disinfection processes in recent ozone studies (Finch et al., 1994;
Gyurek, 1998; Bellamy et al., 1998; Carlson et al., 2001; Kim, 2002).
Bromate Formation Kinetics
Bromate formation is also highly dependent on water quality parameters and some
operational conditions such as ozone dosage and residence time. Similar to the ozone
decomposition kinetics, bromate formation kinetics also have two types of models:
empirical models and kinetic based models.
Most of the empirical bromate formation models permit predictions based on water
quality conditions (DOC, [Br
-
], pH, alkalinity, and temperature) and on treatment
conditions reflected by transferred ozone dose and contact time (Song et al., 1996;
Ozekin and Amy, 1997; Siddiqui et al., 1994). Transferred ozone dose is defined as the
amount of aqueous ozone consumed by the water matrix (Buffle, 2005). These models
are based on true-batch ozonation experiments using synthetic waters or raw waters
containing bromide.
Carlson recommended using the models developed by Amy and coworkers (Carlson et
al., 2001) to predict bromate formation. The equations are as follows:
When NH
3
is not present in the source water:

28 . 0 73 . 0 57 . 1
3
82 . 5 26 . 1 6
3
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 10 55 . 1 ] [ t Br dose O pH DOC BrO
− − − −
× × = (2.5)
When NH
3
is present in the source water:
033 . 0
3
27 . 0 73 . 0 59 . 1
3
79 . 5 3 . 1 6
3
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 10 63 . 1 ] [
− − − − −
− × × = N NH t Br dose O pH DOC BrO (2.6)

36
Amy also gave the following equations to adjust for the effect of the temperature on
bromate formation.
[BrO
3
-
]
@temp

T
= [BrO
3
-
]
@temp 20
o
C
(1.035)
(T -20)
(2.7)
where [BrO
3
-
]
@temp T
= bromate concentration at temperature T.
More recently, several researchers have reported that, in some cases, the formation of
bromate tends to increase linearly with ozone exposure for various synthetic and natural
waters under conditions relevant to drinking water disinfection (Kim, 2002; Manassis
and Constantinos, 2003; Tyrovola and Diamadopoulos, 2005; Tang et al., 2005).
Accordingly, the following empirical expression could be used:

= =
t
B l B B
CT k dt C k C
0
(2.8)
in which C
B
is the bromate concentration (mg/L) and
l
C is the dissolved ozone
concentration (mg/L), and k
B
is the rate constant for bromate formation (min
-1
) which is
water quality dependent (e.g., pH and alkalinity). For a constant water quality condition,
k
B
is constant and can be obtained by linear regression analysis of bromate data
obtained from batch experiments plotted against the corresponding CT values (Tang
et al., 2005).
As an alternative approach, the kinetic-based bromate formation model incorporates the
reaction kinetics of the main reactions involved (Siddiqui et al., 1994). To set up a
kinetic based model, the detailed reactions and accurate kinetic constants must be
known and validated. If natural organic matter (NOM) or other species are involved in
the reaction, the model will be more complex. These factors will greatly affect the
accuracy and feasibility of the models.

37
2.3.3 CT Concept
The current commonly used approach for estimation of ozone disinfection performance
involves application of a CT concept. C is defined as average ozone residual
concentration at the outlet of a contactor chamber evaluated by direct measurement
through contactor sampling ports or estimated from Table 2.4. T is the residence time
which is usually prescribed as T
10
, the residence time of the earliest ten percent of
microorganisms to travel from the contactor inlet to outlet, as determined from a tracer
residence time distribution (RTD) (USEPA, 1991; Greene, 2002). The USEPA employs
this conservative T
10
value to ensure a minimum exposure time for ninety percent of the
water and microorganisms entering a disinfection contactor to disinfectants (Chen,
1998). Table 2.5 presents the CT values required by US EPA used to determine
Cryptosporidium log inactivation credit for ozone or chlorine dioxide at different water
temperature (USEPA, 2006).
Table 2.4 Guidelines for prediction of ozone residual concentration based on chamber
inlet and outlet ozone concentrations (USEPA, 1991; USEPA, 2003)
Type of Chamber Concentration C for CT product
First Dissolution Not applicable for Cryptosporidium, but certain
inactivation credit can be granted for Giardia and virus
provided that the ozone residual at the outlet of the first
contact chamber met minimum concentration levels
Reactive
eff
C
Co-Current Dissolution
Max (
eff
C , ]
2
[
inf eff
C C +
)
Counter-Current
Dissolution
2
eff
C


38
Table 2.5 USEPA recommended CT (mg/L min) values for inactivation of
Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (USEPA, 2006)
Temperature °C Log
credit ≤0.5 1 2 3 5 7 10 15 20 25 30
0.25
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
6.0
12
24
36
48
60
72
5.8
12
23
35
46
58
69
5.2
10
21
31
42
52
63
4.8
9.5
19
29
38
48
57
4.0
7.9
16
24
32
40
47
3.3
6.5
13
20
26
33
39
2.5
4.9
9.9
15
20
25
30
1.6
3.1
6.2
9.3
12
16
19
1.0
2.0
3.9
5.9
7.8
9.8
12
0.6
1.2
2.5
3.7
4.9
6.2
7.4
0.39
0.78
1.6
2.4
3.1
3.9
4.7

The CT approach is the simplest way to evaluate disinfection treatment efficiency, but it
has some significant drawbacks:
The CT approach uses the ozone residual concentrations measured at certain ports to
represent the average ozone concentration in whole chamber. However the ozone
system is a gas/liquid system with complex mixing condition and reactions, and the
ozone concentrations may vary very significantly in space. A previous study by
Bellamy (1995) demonstrated the variability of ozone concentrations in dissolution cells.
Carlson et al. (2001) found that the measured ozone residual concentrations differed
four-fold from one sampling port to another, and for the same sampling port, the
variations in the operational conditions induced a three-fold variation in ozone
concentration. Thus, using a single ozone residual concentration value to calculate the
inactivation ratio of a whole chamber could over or under estimate ozone disinfection
efficiency.
The effect of ozone contactor hydraulics is also described by a single parameter, T
10
.
Such a simple parameter is over conservative and can not reveal all the underlying

39
factors governing hydrodynamic behaviours (Greene, 2002). In addition, T
10
values are
usually obtained from tracer tests, which are time-consuming and expensive to perform
for existing full-scale reactors.
The current CT approach ignores the details of other important components which may
affect the design of ozone disinfection systems, including ozone mass transfer, ozone
demand and decay, microbial inactivation, and bromate formation kinetics. Previous
research has demonstrated that application of the CT approach may result in inaccurate
estimation of ozone disinfection efficiency (Bellamy et al., 1998).
Therefore, there is a need to develop a robust and flexible tool to fully describe ozone
disinfection processes and contribute to their design.

2.4 Existing Models for Simulation of Non-ideal Ozone Reactor
Performance
2.4.1 Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF)
The Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is another approach for
designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et al., 1998). It is a completely segregated fluid
model which assumes that molecules are grouped together in aggregates of a larger
number of molecules. The IDDF approach incorporates three components in one model,
including a contactor hydraulic module, disinfectant decay kinetics module, and a
pathogen inactivation module. It utilizes mathematical relationships for each of the
three disinfection components. Through this approach, the integrated model can be
solved with the complex integral shown in Figure 2.4, in which C(t) is the disinfectant

40
concentration, Co is the initial disinfectant concentration, k* is the first-order
disinfectant decay constant, N is the number of viable microorganisms per unit volume,
No is the initial number of viable microorganisms per unit volume, K is the microbial
inactivation rate constant, m and n are constants for Hom inactivation kinetics model,
No is the initial number of viable microorganisms per unit volume, θ is the ratio of
residence time to mean residence time (T
10
/T), and d is the dispersion coefficient.
Carlson et al. (2001) further developed the IDDF approach by introducing an IDDF
spreadsheet method, which allows the use of the RTD data determined from tracer tests
directly as an input to the hydraulics module.






Figure 2.4 Flowchart for development of mathematical models for Integrated
Disinfection Design Framework (Source: Bellamy 1998)
It has been shown that the IDDF method is more accurate than the CT method in
predicting ozone disinfection efficiency (Bellamy 1998; Carlson et al., 2001). However,
the IDDF model makes the assumption that fluids in the disinfection reactor are
completely segregated which is not true for real fluids (Greene, 2002). It ignores the

Characterize
disinfectant
) ( t k* exp
0
C C(t) ⋅ − ⋅ =
Determine
inactivation kinetics
m
t
n
KC
N
N
= )
0
ln(
Assess DBP
formation
dt
d
d m
m
t nk n
KC
m
nk
m
N
N

− −


− −

=
∫ τ
θ
π
4
2
) 1 (
exp
5 . 0
) ( 2
1
0
)] exp( 1 [
0
) ( )
0
ln(
Example IDDF model
Determine contactor
hydraulics
RTD function


41
detailed hydrodynamic characteristics that affect process efficiency. This assumption
may result in an over estimation of ozone disinfection efficiency (Craik, 2005).
2.4.2 Complete Micro-Mixing Models
The perfectly micro-mixed model assumes that complete mixing and exchange of
reacting material occurs between adjacent elements of a fluid on a molecular scale as
they travel through the reactor. A method for determining conversion for the case of
complete micro-mixing based on the concept of life expectancy of an element of fluid
within the reactor,λ, was proposed by Zwietering (1959). The general equation for the
complete micro-mixing model is:
) ( 1
) (
) ( ) (
λ
λ
λ F
E
C C C r
d
dc
in

− + − = (2.9)
where
in
C is the reactant concentration at the inlet of the reactor, C is the local
concentration within the reactor, r(C) is the local rate of reaction at reactant
concentration C, λ is the residence time, E(λ) is the life expectancy density distribution
function and F(λ) is the life expectancy cumulative distribution function. E(λ) and F(λ)
are related to the tracer resident time distribution E(t) and are determined from tracer
information (Craik, 2005). The concentration at the outlet of the reactor, C
out
, can be
determined by solving the differential equation with boundary conditions of λ = 0 at the
outlet and λ = 1 at the inlet.
A mathematical description of a completely micromixed reactor was derived by
substituting ozone concentration, live parasite concentration, and the respective rate
expressions for ozone decay and inactivation kinetics, into the general equation for
complete micro-mixing to yield the following two differential equations (Craik, 2005):

42
) ( 1
) (
) (
λ
λ
λ F
E
C C C k
d
dc
in d

− + − = (2.10)
and
) ( 1
) (
) (
0
λ
λ
λ F
E
N N kCN
d
dN

− + − = (2.11)
The above equations can be solved simultaneously to determine dissolved ozone
concentration and the live parasite concentration at different positions in the reactor
from inlet to outlet.
According to the modeling results of Craik (2005), calculations of inactivation based on
the assumption of complete micro-mixing may tend to underestimate microbial
inactivation. In addition, computations for micro-mixed analysis are somewhat more
complex than those required for segregated flow analysis. Therefore this approach has
seldom been used by previous researchers and in real engineering design.
2.4.3 Axial Dispersion Model (ADM)
The axial dispersion flow model (ADM) is a common modeling approach for prediction
of bubble column ozone reactors. An application of the axial dispersion flow model
concept for modeling two phase ozone reactors usually assumes that the liquid phase is
in axial dispersion and the gas phase is in plug flow. The ADM model expressions
representing the steady-state dissolved and gas-phase ozone concentrations in a bubble
column contactor are as follows (Kim, 2002):
0 ) (
2
2
= − − + ±
L G L
G
L
L L
C N C
m
C
N
dz
dC
dz
C d
d (2.12)

43
0 ) (
) (
= − −
L
G L
G
C
m
C
S
N
dz
m
C
d
(2.13)
in which C
L
is the liquid phase ozone concentrations; C
G
is the gas phase ozone
concentrations; z is the normalized downward distance from the top of the contactor in
the axial direction; d is the dispersion number; N
L
is the Stanton number; N
D
is the
Damköhler number; S is the stripping factor; m is the Henry’s law constant.
The axial dispersion model was applied by Marinas et al. (1993), Zhou et al., (1994),
and Singer and Hull (2000) to predict hydrodynamics and ozone residual profiles in
bubble diffuser contactors. Chen (1998) and Kim (2002) extended the ADM model by
integrating microbial inactivation kinetics models for prediction of the profiles of
microorganisms in ozone bubble columns. Their modelling results were validated by
pilot experimental data. As concluded by Chen (1998), the ADM model appears to be a
good approach for representing the distribution of dissolved ozone concentration and
the disinfection efficiency in bubble-diffuser ozone columns.
The advantages of the ADM models are their simplicity and hence ease of solving.
However, they do rely on empirical input, such as axial dispersion coefficients (Chen,
1998; Kim, 2002). The empirical inputs of the axial dispersion model are case
dependent and cannot be extrapolated to other geometries, scales, and operating
conditions (Cockx et al., 1997). Marinas et al. (1993) developed an empirical model to
describe axial dispersion coefficient for a pilot ozone bubble diffuser contactor. The
effects of operating conditions on dispersion efficiency were considered. However, such
a model can only be used for bubble columns with similar geometry (Kim, 2002). Thus,
this modelling approach is difficult to apply for prediction of full scale ozone contactor
performance. Such a shortcoming can be overcome by the use of computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) as discussed in following section.

44
2.5 CFD Modeling of the Ozonation Process
2.5.1 Computational Fluid dynamics
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat
transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions and related phenomena by solving the
mathematic equations that governing these processes using numerical algorithms
(Versteeg et al., 1995). The fluid hydrodynamics governing equations are known as the
Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. These are partial differential equations which were
derived in the early nineteenth century. They have no known general analytical solution
but can be discretized and solved numerically.
CFD has increased in popularity during recent years due to the development of
advanced commercial CFD codes and the increasing power of computational resources.
There are many advantages to using CFD including low cost and quick solutions. One
of the main advantages of CFD is its ability to test a large number of variables at a
much lower cost than with experimental models (Hossain, 2005). Another advantage of
the CFD approach is its efficiency to simulate both small scale (laboratory pilots) and
large scale (full-scale) facilities without the use of particular scale-up laws. Thus, CFD
can be used to obtain more accurate information about the performance of water
treatment processes and find rapid design solutions for improvement (Do-Quang et al.,
1999).
Applications of CFD are common in industries as diverse as the auto industry, the
aerospace industry, and in the medical/biological/chemical research field. It also has
been used somewhat sporadically in the drinking water field for the past decade or so;
including the study of mixing in reservoirs, design of clearwells and contact tanks, and

45
optimization of design parameters for flocculation and sedimentation tanks (Grayman et
al., 2003). The potential for CFD is clearly being recognized by the water industry.
2.5.2 Fundamentals of Multiphase CFD Modelling
For multiphase flow, two main CFD approaches can be applied. While most models
compute the flow field of the continuous phase using the Navier-Stokes equations, the
dispersed phases can either be calculated as semi-continuous phases where all phases
are regarded as interpenetrating continua (Eulerian–Eulerian approach) or as discrete
entities (bubbles, particles or clusters) in the eulerian-Lagrangian approach (Schugerl
and Bellgardt, 2001; Lakehal, 2002; Michele, 2002; Ansys, 2005).
The Eulerian–Eulerian approach
The Eulerian–Eulerian approach is commonly adopted for the prediction of
interpenetrating media situations, including gas–liquid mixtures such as bubbly flows.
This approach can be employed in two distinctive forms: the one-fluid formulation and
the two-fluid approach. In the one-fluid formulation, the particle concentrations are
assumed to be a continuous phase. In the two-fluid formulation, also known as the six
equation model approach, the phases are treated as two interpenetrating continua
evolving within a single system: each point in the mixture is occupied simultaneously
(in variable proportions) by both phases. Each phase is then governed by its own
conservation and constitutive equations; these are then coupled through interphase
interaction properties. Eulerian/Eulerian methods are suitable for large phase density
ratios and if body forces are important (Hossian, 2005).


46
Eulerian-Lagrangian approach
In the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach (also known as the particle tracking approach),
individual particles or clouds of particles are treated in a discrete way. The fluid phase
is treated as a continuum by solving the time-averaged Navier-stokes equations, while
the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles, bubbles or
droplets through the calculated flow field. The dispersed phase can exchange
momentum, mass and energy with the fluid phase (Hossain, 2005). This model is
usually suitable when the dispersed phase occupies a low volume fraction. The particle
trajectories are computed individually at specified intervals during the fluid phase
calculation. (Greene, 2002; Lakehal, 2002; Ansys, 2005; Hossain, 2005). Treating
particles via the Lagrangian approach is in essence natural because their motion is
tracked as they move through the flow field, which preserves their actual non-
continuum behaviour and accounts for their historical effects in a natural way (Schugerl
and Bellgardt, 2001; Lakehal, 2002). However, the most important disadvantage of a
Eulerian-Lagrangian model is its relatively high computational load .
The Eulerian-Eulerian approach for simulating turbulent dispersion has its own
advantages as compared to Eulerian-Lagrangian methods. For flow laden with a large
number of particles the quantitative description of the variation in particle concentration
is much simpler by means of the Eulerian-Eulerian method since, for the same purpose,
statistical sampling is required with the Eulerian-Lagrangian description. In addition,
the Eulerian-Eulerian approach allows both phases to be computed over a single grid,
whereas the Eulerian-Lagrangian methods require the interpolation of quantities
between the fixed grid nodes (Lakehal, 2002).
When overall information about the particulate phase is required, rather than the
individual behavior of distinct particles or bubbles, the flows are more effictively

47
modelled using the Eulerian-Eulerain multiphase model (Delnoij et al., 1997). For the
studies of the large-scale industrial flow structures, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach
shows more significant benefit in its computational efficiencies. Therefore, in this
research, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach was selected to model gas-liquid flow
behaviour, the dissolution and reactions of ozone, chemical tracer tests, and bromate
formation in ozone contactors.
Because micro-organisms are physically unlike a molecular ozone or chemical tracer,
but rather are discrete, a Lagrangian approach to determining disinfection is more
intuitive (Lyn and Blatchley, 2005). Many previous studies in modeling drinking water
UV disinfection reactor employed the Lagrangian approach (Chiu et al. 1999; Lyn and
Blatchley 2005; Ducoste 2005). However, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach has also been
successfully used in predicting microbial inactivation of UV, chlorine, and ozone
disinfection systems (Do-Quang et al, 1999; Green 2002; Lyn and Blatchley 2005;
Ducoste 2005). Lyn et al. (1999) and Lyn and Blatchley (2005) conducted numerical
studies using both Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to predict UV disinfection
efficiency. Consistent results were obtained showing that the disinfection efficiency
predicted by the Lagrangian approach is slightly lower than that by the Eulerian
approach but the results of the predictions were close. Therefore, Lyn and Blatchley
(2005) suggest that both approaches could be applied for UV disinfection.
However, to date, no study has been reported using the Lagrangian approach for
simulating microbial inactivation of ozone contactors. In the present research, both the
Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Larangian approaches were implemented in the CFD
modeling of ozone processes and the results from the two approaches were compared.

48
2.5.3 CFD Software Packages
In recent years, there have been many commercial CFD packages available that may be
applied to solve complex multiphase and multi dimensionality flow problems, such as
ozone contactors. A sample of such packages is provided in Table 2.6.
Table 2.6 Example of commercial CFD packages
CFD package Company Website
Fluent & Fidap FLUENT, Inc. www.fluent.com
CFX ANSYS, Inc. www.ansys.com/cfx/
Phonics CHAM www.cham.co.uk
Star-CD The CD adapco Group www.cd-adapco.com
Flow-3D Flow Science, Inc www.flow3d.com
Estet Astrid Simulog Technologies www.simulog.fr
Disinfex British Hydromechanics Research
Group
www.bhrgroup.co.uk

CFX is one of the most powerful commercial CFD codes. It has a wide range of
physical models available for solving industrial problems. Both Eulerian-Eulerian and
Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase are supported in CFX. Multiple phases (fluids) can be
solved simultaneously with the coupled solver in a robust and efficient manner, which
provides substantial stability and run-time benefits. Therefore, the CFX code was
chosen for this study.

49
2.5.4 Example Studies in the Literature
The CFD modelling approach has been applied to simulate various disinfection
processes including chlorination, ozonation, and UV irradiation.
CFD modelling of chlorination processes has been conducted by numerous researchers
(Do-Quang et al, 1999; Greene, 2002; Ducoste, 2001; Crozes et al., 1998). The main
efforts of their research were to investigate the contactor hydraulics. Peplinski et al.
(2002) and Crozes et al. (1998) studied the sensitivity/uncertainty of the CFD modelling.
Greene (2002) set up a more comprehensive three dimensional (3D) CFD model to
address all major components of chlorine disinfection processes in continuous flow
systems (flow structure, mass transport, chlorine decay, and microbial inactivation).
Such a model was found to be more accurate for predicting disinfection performance
than the traditional CT approach and IDDF approach.
CFD application for UV disinfection has also drawn the focus of many researchers in
recent years, mainly because the disinfection performance of full-scale UV systems is
hard to be empirically validated. Lyn et al. (1999) and Chiu et al. (1999) developed
two-dimensional (2D) Eulerian-Eulerian disinfection models for UV reactors. In
contrast to chlorine disinfection processes, the disinfectant field in a UV reactor has
fixed position and intensity gradient independent of the flow field. The Chiu et al. (1999)
model accurately predicted experimental inactivation levels over a range of UV dose
levels, in contrast the Eulerian-Eulerian model of Lyn et al. (1999) which exhibited
poor correlation at high UV doses for the same data set. The improved performance of
the Chiu et al. model over the Lyn et al. model was attributed to differences in the flow
sub-models (Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurement versus numerical simulation)
rather than the inactivation model algorithms. Downey et al. (1998) utilized an
Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to simulate microbial transport in a UV reactor. The

50
reactor flow field was established by numerical simulation with an Eulerian model;
microbial transport was then simulated with a Newtonian particle model. Particle travel
times were estimated for a pulse input of 100 particles at the reactor inlet, and plotted to
develop reactor RTD curves. Simulation RTDs correlated with experimentally derived
tracer curves.
CFD modelling of ozonation processes is more complicated than modelling of
chlorination and UV processes, because the ozonation process includes more
complicated problems, such as interphase mass transfer, multiphase, reactions, etc..
Several researchers (Murrer et al., 1995; Peltier et al., 2001; Huang et al. 2002) tried to
simplify the problem by developing mono-phase CFD models to simulate the ozone
contactors and apply their models to optimize the ozone contactor hydraulics. These
models did not consider the effects of the gas phase on contactor hydraulics, so they are
not capable of predicting the effects of gas flow rate, gas concentration, and gas
injection locations on the contactor flow patterns.
Henry and Freeman (1995) provided a two-phase 2D CFD model to track ozone bubble
trajectories and their influence on the velocity and pressure distribution of the mean
flow field. A tracer test simulation was conducted using a transient advection-diffusion
analysis and the simulation results were validated by tracer tests. The effects of the
gas/liquid ratio and addition of vanes, corner fillets and wall foils were analyzed to
optimize the contactor design. Ta and Hague (2004) used similar approach in a 3D CFD
modelling of full-scale contactor. The focus of their study was only on contactor
hydraulics. No attempt was performed to simulate ozone profile and pathogen
inactivation performance.
Kamimura et al. (2002) developed a mono-phase CFD model for an O
3
/UV reactor
based on CFD analysis. The mono-phase fluid dynamics model is combined with a

51
complex radical reaction model. This radical model consists mainly of two processes,
i.e., the photochemical reaction process and the O
3
/UV reaction process. The validity
of the radical reaction model was evaluated by comparing the simulated concentrations
of total organic carbon (TOC), H
2
O
2
, and dissolved ozone with experimental data
obtained from a bench-scale CSTR. Once the radical reaction model was validated,
CFD simulation was executed to obtain the distribution of the concentration of TOC,
ozone, OH· and other substances in the reactor. The CFD model was used for
optimizing the reactor configuration and operational conditions, to reduce the ozone
demand required for decomposing TOC. The weaknesses of this model include that it is
a single phase model and the model relies on details of very complex ozone reaction
kinetics. Such information is difficult to obtain at site-specific conditions.
Do-Quang et al. (1999) formulated an ozone disinfection model for a two-phase ozone
disinfection system. Water velocity and ozone gas hold-up fields were numerically
estimated from a two phase, Eulerian flow sub-model. Ozone concentrations in the
water phase were then predicted by solution of coupled mass transfer and first-order
ozone decay expressions. It was reported that predicted reactor ozone concentrations
correlated well with experimental results. However, the model did not consider the
effects of water quality on model parameters and no attempt was performed to use
Lagriangian approach to simulate pathogen inactivation.
As discussed above, previous researchers have demonstrated the capabilities of CFD,
however the focus of its application has been largely on modelling the hydraulic
behaviour of contactors, which is only one of the components of the system design.
There are few studies considering the effects of water quality on CFD model and there
is limited information on applying CFD model to optimize the operation of ozone
contactors at varying operational conditions. No model has been reported to compare
the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches for predicting ozone disinfection efficiency.

52
No reported studies have compared the CFD approach with two commonly used
disinfection design approaches: CT
10
and Integrated Disinfection Design Framework
(IDDF).

2.6 Summary
In this chapter, the factors affecting ozone disinfection performance, the different
approaches for modeling of ozonation process, and the status of using a computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) technique for describing ozonation systems were reviewed. A
number of areas were identified herein that would require further research. These
included:
• The CT
10
, IDDF and other common modeling approaches may overestimate or
underestimate ozone disinfection efficiency. Therefore, a more accurate modeling
method should be developed which can fully integrate contactor hydraulics, ozone
mass transfer, ozone reactions and microbial inactivation within the model
• Most of previous CFD studies applied two dimensional or single phase CFD models
to describe ozone contactors. Because of the complex of ozonation process, these
models are not capable of accurately predicting contactor performance. It is needed
to develop a three dimensional multiphase model for improving the design and
operation of ozonation systems. It is also required to fully validate the CFD model
by full-scale experimental data.
• No previous researchers compared the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with the
Eulerian-Langrangian modeling approach in predicting disinfection efficiency of

53
ozone systems. Since the two approaches have fundamental differences, there is a
strong need to compare them and find a better approach for predicting ozone
disinfection efficiency.
• Many water quality factors can significantly affect ozone disinfection efficiency.
Previous studies focused on investigating the effects of individual factors or
parameters based on bench-scale experimental studies. There is a research need to
select more appropriate parameters and utilize CFD modeling to quickly evaluate
the effects of water quality on ozone disinfection performance.
• No previous CFD modelling studies have been done to investigate the effects of
ozone monitoring points and tracer test methods on ozone disinfection efficiency
calculation. To accurately determine ozone dosage and predict CT values, it would
be important to optimize ozone monitoring points and tracer test strategies
• No previous research works have ever compared the CT
10
, IDDF and CFD
approaches for full-scale ozonation systems. It would be very necessary to conduct
such a comparison study to determine the best approach for the design and operation
of full-scale ozone disinfection processes.

54
CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

The objective for conducting the experiments as described in this chapter is to provide
model inputs for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of ozone
contactors and to validate the modelling results. A series of lab-scale and full-scale
experimental studies were undertaken for two full-scale ozone contactors, one was at
the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP) located at Kitchener, Ontario, Canada;
and another was at Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant located at Montréal, Quebec,
Canada. The lab-scale ozone decay kinetics experiments and full-scale ozone profile
testing for the Mannheim WTP ozone contactors were conducted at the University of
Waterloo by the author. Other experimental data were kindly provided by the Regional
Municipality of Waterloo and the École Polytechnique de Montréal. A summary of the
experimental methodologies for the two case studies are presented in this chapter.
3.1 Two Case Studies
3.1.1 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors
The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is operated by the Regional Municipality
of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. It was designed to treat Grand River source water at a
nominal production capacity of 72 millions liters per day (MLD). There are two
parallel ozone contactors in this plant. The three-dimensional schematic drawing of one
of the contactors is shown in Figure 3.1. The ozonated gas is injected into each
contactor by fine bubble diffusers in the first two cells, and dissolved ozone further

55
reacts in the following four cells. The 13 year old Mannheim ozone system has recently
been modified to include new liquid oxygen fed ozone generators in order to enhance
operational flexibility and remove some diffusers from the system.

Figure 3.1 Three dimensional schematic drawing of Mannheim WTP ozone contactor

3.1.2 Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors
The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is the largest facility in the province of
Quebec, Canada. This plant has a capacity of 1,136 million litres per day (249.92
million imperial gallons per day (MIGD) or 300.13 million gallons per day (MGD)),
and treats the St. Lawrence River’s water, which is of good quality. The treatment
process is composed of a direct sand filtration (5 meter/hour (m/h)) without pre-
coagulation, post-ozonation followed by a final chlorination. The DesBaillets WTP has
six parallel ozone contactors each with 2 cells and ozone gas is fed in the first cell of
each contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers. Figure 3.2 shows the geometry

56
of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor. The cell 1 of the contactor is operated in the
counter-current mode, while the cell 2 is run at co-current mode.


Figure 3.2 Three dimensional schematic drawing of DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor

3.2 Determination of Ozone Demand and Decay Kinetics
The experimental approaches for investigating ozone demand and decay kinetics of
Mannheim WTP ozone system are described in this section.
Ozone Production
Ozone gas was generated from pure oxygen by a water cooled laboratory scale ozone
generator (Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Ltd., OzoneTM type S model 2), and then was
bubbled through a small gas washing bottle (volume of 1 L) containing deionized (DI)
distilled water (Milli-Q, Millipore Corp, Bedford, Ma) to produce ozone stock solution.

57
The ozone generation experimental apparatus is shown in Figure 3.3. A fritted glass
diffuser was used to generate fine bubbles within the gas washing bottle. To obtain
higher dissolved ozone concentration, the bottle was immersed in an ice bath. Milli-Q
water was ozonated in semi-batch model for about 1 to 1.5 hours to obtaining a typical
ozone concentration in stock solution of 20 to 30 mg/L. The stock solution was then
kept in amber bottle with ice bath and used within 2 hour. Before conducting each
decay kinetics test, the ozone concentration in this ozone stock solution was measured
on a UV spectrophotometer (HP8453, Hewlett-Pakard, Polo Alto, CA) by setting the
absorbance at the wavelength of 258 nm (Bader and Hiogne, 1981).

Figure 3.3 Experimental setup for ozone generation



58
Ozone Demand and Decay Tests
A bench scale ozone reactor was used to study ozone demand and decay kinetics of the
source water of the Mannheim ozone system. Figure 3.4 shows the experimental setup.
The reactor was made of a 2 L beaker, covered by a floating plate to make the reactor
headspace free. The floating plate was wrapped with Teflon tape. Mixing of the reactor
was accomplished by using a magnetic stir bar. The experimental temperature was
controlled to be the same as the onsite temperature at the Mannheim WTP by
immersing the batch reactor in a large glass water container. The water in the container
was circulated from a water bath. All glassware was made ozone-demand free before
experiments by adding high concentration ozonated DI water and allowing sufficient
contacting time between ozone and potential contaminants on glassware.

Figure 3.4 Bench scale experimental ozone system

59
The water samples were taken from a Mannheim WTP sampling port located between
the sedimentation tank and ozone contactor. The ozone demands and decay testing was
accomplished in the above batch mode. Before starting a test, the reactor was charged
with known volumes of water samples and ozone stock solution based on the desired
ozone dosage. When the ozone stock solution was added, the time was set as zero.
Samples were then withdrawn from the sampling port of the reactor using a 50 mL O
3
demand free glass syringe at predetermined time intervals (Kim, 2002). Samples were
collected in 50 mL beakers and immediately reacted with the indigo reagent contained
in the Hach accuvac vials. After having taken all the samples, the ozone residuals of the
samples were detected by a Hach DR/2400 spectrophotometer.
By measuring the ozone residual at various time intervals until no dissolved ozone was
detectable, an ozone decay curve for the relation between ozone residual and the
reaction time can be generated. The rate of dissolved ozone decomposition in water can
be expressed as:
m
O k
dt
O d
] [
] [
3
3
= − (3.1)
where, k = decomposition rate constant; and m = reaction order of ozone decomposition.
The values of k can be calculated by integrating the above differential equation and
plotting a semi-log line from the experimental data of dissolved ozone versus time (Wu,
2001).
The immediate ozone demand was calculated by determining the intercept of the first-
order regression line extended to time zero. The intercept is the natural logarithm of the
initial ozone concentration. The immediate ozone demand equals the ozone dose minus
the initial concentration (Kim, 2002a).

60
Ozone demand and decay testing for the Desbaillets WTP ozone contactors was done
by the École Polytechnique de Montréal and the experimental method could be found in
El-Baz (2002) and Barbeau et al. (2003).
3.3 Tracer Test Methodology
In this study, the tracer test results were used to validate the CFD model. Tracer data for
the Desbaillets WTP ozone contactors was kindly provided by the École Polytechnique
de Montréal (El-Baz, 2002). Tracer test data of the Mannheim WTP ozone contactors
before system modification was kindly provided by the Regional Municipality of
Waterloo. Shown in this section are tracer test methodologies used in the two case
studies.
DesBaillets WTP Ozone Contactors
Tracer tests at the Desbaillets WTP were conducted using a step injection of
hydrofluorosilic acid (El-Baz, 2002; Barbeau et al., 2003). Figure 3.5 shows the tracer
injection and monitoring locations.

Figure 3.5 Tracer injection and monitoring points for the DesBaillets WTP ozone
contactor (El-Baz, 2002)

61
The stock tracer solution was made by mixing 79% of hydrofluorosilic acid (purity 24%
by weight) and 21% of water. The dosage of tracer was set as 2 mg/L during the tests.
Since such a dosage led to effluent fluoride concentration above the regulated level (1.5
mg/L), the ozone contactor effluent was blended with the water in storage tanks to meet
the regulation requirement (El-Baz, 2002). Tracer tests were performed at three flow
rates (1.47, 2.16 and 3.24 m
3
/s) to characterize the hydrodynamics of the contactor. The
stock tracer solutions was pumped into the contactor through a spray nozzle system and
uniformly distributed through the spray nozzles. The concentrations of tracer were
continuously detected using an automatic fluorometer (Hach Company) at the location
C1 and C2 respectively, as shown in Figure 3.5. Tracer data were entered into an
EXCEL spreadsheet for analysis. T
10
/T value and normalized tracer residence time
distribution (RTD) curves were generated from this spreadsheet. The results were used
to validate the CFD model.
Mannheim WTP Ozone Contactors:
Tracer tests at the Mannheim WTP ozone contactors before system modification were
conducted by Dillon Consulting Limited (Ontario, Canada). A pulse injection method
was employed and hydrofluosilic acid (HFS) was utilized since it was readily available
in the plant. The tests were run at three flow rates (0.19, 0.29, and 0.38 m
3
/s). The T
10
/T
values for each test were provided by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo (Ontario,
Canada) and used for CFD model validation.



62
3.4 Ozone Residual Profile Testing
Mannheim WTP Ozone Contactor
Water samples were taken from ozone concentration monitoring points located at the
outlet of each cell of the Mannheim ozone contactors to obtain full-scale ozone residual
profiles. The indigo trisulfonate method, with AccuVac ampoules (Hach Co., Loveland,
Colo.), was utilized to determine ozone concentrations and the samples were measured
onsite. Since ozone in water is generally not very stable, all the analysis was performed
soon after sampling. Duplicate samples were collected and detected for each sampling
point. If the residual difference between the duplicate samples was greater than 0.05
mg/L, a third sample was taken to repeat the test.
When conducting ozone residual profile testing, the operational parameters including
ozone dose, gas/liquid flow rates, gas concentration and water temperature were also
recorded. These parameters were used as the CFD model inputs. The ozone residual
profile data were used for validation of the CFD simulation results and for the study of
optimizing ozone-sampling point with the CFD approach.
DesBaillets WTP Ozone Contactor
The Desbaillets ozone contactor has five sampling points taps (P1 to P5) installed in the
first cell and two sampling points (C1 and C2) located at the outlet of cell 1 and cell 2.
The locations of these sampling points are shown in Figure 3.5. The ozone residuals
were measured using the indigo colometric method (Method 4500-O
3
, B), as described
in standard methods (APHA et al., 2001). The flow rates of the sampling lines were
adjusted at 3 litres per minutes and overflowed in a 250 mL beaker. Duplicated
samples were collected from the beakers using a syringe and slowly injected into the

63
indigo reagent for measurement. The tests were performed at different operational
conditions to capture the effects of temperature, water flow rates and applied dosage.
3.5 Biodosimetry Test using Indigenous Aerobic Spore Formers
The purpose of the biodosimetry tests was to use indigenous aerobic spore formers
(ASFs) as indicators of disinfection efficiency and to validate the various approaches
(CT
10
, CT-IDDF, and CFD) for prediction of ozone disinfection efficiency. The
biodosimetry tests for the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactors were conducted by the
École Polytechnique de Montréal (Broséusa et al., 2005).
ASFs have the advantage of being fairly abundant in surface waters. They are also
highly resistant to ozone (Nieminski et al., 2000; Facile et al., 2000; Craik et al., 2002)
and typically exhibit a linear inactivation with respect to CT. It is therefore suggested
that ASF may be a potential way to validate the disinfection efficiencies of full-scale
ozone contactors (Benoit, 1997; Broséusa et al., 2005).
Before conducting each full-scale validation test, pilot scale biodosimetry tests were
performed onsite to create reference curves for the corresponding source waters. These
reference curves provided the relationships between the effective CT and disinfection
efficiencies of ASF by ozone. They were used to calculate the corresponding
Biodosimetric CT for full-scale ozone contactors. This process is similar to what is
currently being done to validate UV reactors, using reference curves developed with
MS2 phages (USEPA 2003). The details of pilot scale testing were described by
Broséusa et al. (2005).
Full-scale validation tests were performed the day following the pilot test for
biodosimetric reference curves. Each of the full-scale validations was performed by

64
applying four increasing ozone doses and maintaining a constant flow rate. During the
tests, influent and ozonated waters were sampled in one-liter sterile bottles (analysis
done in triplicate) and ten liter carboys (analysis done in duplicate) containing sodium
thiosulfate (final concentration, 0.01%) respectively. ASF measurement in ozonated
water was performed using a larger water sample volume because of the lower
concentration of surviving ASF (Broséusa et al., 2005). The data obtained from full-
scale testing was used for the comparison of CT
10
, IDDF based CT, CFD based CT and
Biodosimetric CT, which will be further described in Chapter 7.
3.6 Analytical Methods
Dissolved Ozone Concentration Measurement
The Hach ozone method (Hach Company, Loveland CO) used for ozone residual testing
is based on the indigo methods (Bader and Hiogne, 1981). A previous study by Coffey
et al. (1995) has shown good agreement between the Hach method and the standard
indigo method (Method 4500-O
3
) by APHA et al. (2001). The concentrations of the
ozone stock solutions were measured on a UV spectrophotometer (HP8453, Hewlett-
Pakard, Polo Alto, CA) by setting the absorbance at the wavelength of 258 nm. The
ozone concentration was calculated by:

o
M
A
O
258
3
000 , 48 ] [ × = (3.2)
where, A
258
was the sample absorbance at 258nm, and M
o
was the molar absorptivity of
gaseous ozone which was set as 2900 M
-1
CM
-1
in this study to convert absorbance to
mg O
3
/L (Bader and Hiogne, 1981).

65
Analysis of Indigenous Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF)
For influent water samples, spore measurements were done following the method
developed by Barbeau et al. (1997). 1 liter (L) of influent water samples from the
ozonation process were filtered through 0.45 µm filters (HAWG047S1, Millipore,
USA), placed on pads (AP10047S1, Millipore), saturated with 1.5 mL of Trypticase
Soy Broth (TSB), pasteurized at 75°C for 15 minutes, and then incubated at 35°C for
22-24h. Due to the relatively low concentrations expected in ozonated waters, a
different technique was developed using the approach proposed by Hijnen et al. (2000).
In order to improve the method detection limit, large volumes of water (10 L) were
filtered through large diameter (142 mm) 0.45 µm filters (HAWP 14250, Millipore)
using a pressure filter holder (YY30 14236, Millipore) and a peristaltic pump (Model
7521-40, Masterflex). Filters were then placed in Petri dishes containing 25 ml of
Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA), pasteurized at 75°C for 15 minutes and incubated at 35°C
for 22-24 h. The filter holder was autoclaved at 121°C during 15 minutes before all
experiments and disinfected between each type of water to be filtered. Filtering 1 L of
influent water (N
0
) and 10 L of ozonated water (N) eliminated the potential effect of the
filtration cake on the ASF count. Preliminary assays indicated that ASF recovery in
large volumes of water was statistically equivalent to ASF enumeration in a large
number of 100 mL samples (Broséusa et al., 2006).

66
CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION, AND
APPLICATION OF A MULTIPHASE
CFD MODEL FOR OZONE
DISINFECTION PROCESSES

4.1 Introduction
Ozone treatment of drinking water has been used for decades and is currently
considered one of the most effective microbial disinfection technologies. However, the
application of ozonation processes has been limited due to high capital, operating and
maintenance costs, as well as the potential formation of bromate in waters containing
appreciable levels of bromide. For water treatment plants with ozonation treatment
processes or those planning to use such processes, it is of special interest to optimize
ozone dosage levels to balance disinfection requirements and costs, as well as the
formation of ozone disinfection by products (DBPs), such as bromate.




_____________________________________________
Parts of this chapter have been published in: Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment
VIII, IWA Publishing, London, ISBN 1 84339 068X; 2004 International Ozone
Association-Pan American Group Conference, International Ozone Association; 2005
AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, American Water Work
Association; Proceedings of 12th Canadian National Conference and 3rd Policy Forum
on Drinking Water, Canadian Water and Wastewater Association. A manuscript related
to this chapter has also been submitted to the Journal of Ozone: Science & Engineering.

67
The commonly used approach for calculating ozone disinfection efficiency and ozone
dosage involves application of the CT concept. In this approach, it is usually assumed
that the average concentration is equal to the contactor-effluent concentration C (ozone
residual) although in some cases an integrated CT is calculated which takes into account
ozone decay. T is usually represented by T
10
, which is the detention time at which 10%
of the water has passed through the contactor (USEPA, 1991). The CT concept is
conservative because the average ozone concentration is actually higher than the
residual and the residence time of 90% of the water is longer than T
10
. Furthermore, the
current CT concept gives little consideration to the effects of water qualities (other than
temperature and pH) and operational parameters (e.g. ozone dose, gas/liquid flow rates,
gas concentration, etc.) on ozone disinfection efficiency; therefore it is not flexible for
optimizing system performance under changing water quality conditions. In an effort to
meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations and to be cost-effective, there is a
need to develop a robust tool to describe ozonation processes and contribute to their
design and operation.
The more recently developed Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is a
somewhat more sophisticated approach for designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et
al., 1998). The IDDF approach incorporates four components in one model, including a
contactor hydraulic module, a disinfectant decay kinetics module, a pathogen
inactivation module and a DBP formation module. It has been shown that the IDDF
method is more accurate than the CT method in predicting ozone disinfection efficiency
(Carlson et al., 2001). The IDDF approach employs the tracer residence time
distribution (RTD) together with a disinfectant decay kinetic model to predict
disinfection efficiency in a chemical disinfection process. However, the use of the RTD
ignores the complex three dimensional (3D) flow behaviour within a contactor.
Additionally, the IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the disinfection
contactor are completely segregated. This assumption may over or under-estimate

68
disinfection efficiency (Greene, 2002). Therefore, there is a need to develop a more
accurate approach to contribute to the design and operation of ozone disinfection
processes.
Other literature reported studies concentrated on modeling the hydrodynamics and
disinfection performance using reactor theory models, such as continuously stirred tank
reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), CSTR cascade, axial dispersion reactor, back-
flow cell, and various combinations of these models (Zhou and Smith, 1994; Reddy et
al., 1997; Chen, 1998; Roustan et al., 1999; Kim, 2002). The advantages of these
models are their simplicity and hence ease of solving. However, they do rely on
empirical input, such as axial dispersion coefficients (Chen, 1998; Kim, 2002). These
empirical inputs are case dependent and cannot be extrapolated to other geometries,
scales, and operating conditions (Cockx et al., 1997). However, such a shortcoming can
be overcome by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, mass
transfer, chemical reactions and related phenomena by solving the mathematic
equations governing these processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al., 1995).
The main advantage of the CFD approach is its ability to catch small-scale phenomena
and its efficiency to simulate both small-scale (laboratory pilots) and large-scale (full-
scale reactor) facilities without the use of particular scale-up laws. Thus, the predictions
of the CFD tool can be used to obtain more accurate information about the
performances of the industrial plant; and find, if necessary, rapid design solutions to
improve it (Do-Quang et al., 1999). CFD has gained large popularity during the last two
decades due to the development of advanced commercial CFD codes and increasing
power of computational sources. Applications of CFD are common in industries as
diverse as the auto industry, the aerospace industry, and in the medical, biological, and
chemical research field. It also has been used somewhat sporadically in the drinking

69
water field for the past decade or so, including study of mixing in reservoirs, design of
clearwells and contact tanks, and optimization of design parameters for flocculator and
sedimentation tank (Grayman et al., 2003). CFD has come into use recently for
evaluating disinfection systems, including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV), and ozonation
processes (Lyn et al. 1999; Greene, 2002; Do-Quang et al., 1999). However the focus of
its previous application in drinking water disinfection treatment has been largely on
modeling the hydraulic behaviour of contactors, which is only one component of system
design (Greene, 2002).
The preliminary objective of this research was to develop a CFD based integrated
disinfection design approach for full-scale ozone disinfection processes. This new
approach employed a three-dimensional multiphase CFD model to address all the major
components of ozone disinfection processes: ozone mass transfer, ozone decay,
microbial inactivation, and disinfection by-product formation kinetics. The second
injective was to validate and apply the CFD approach to optimize the hydraulics and
disinfection performance of full-scale ozone contactors in the Desbaillets Water
Treatment Plants (WTP) in Montreal, Quebec and the Manheim Water Treatment Plant
in Kitchener, Ontario.
4.2 The Multiphase CFD Model For Ozone Disinfection Processes
Bubble-diffuser ozone contactors are commonly used in drinking water and wastewater
treatment processes (Rakness, 2005). Figure 4.1 shows a typical over-under baffled
ozone contactor. Chambers in which ozone is added through porous medium diffusers
are usually called dissolution chambers. Chambers in which no ozone is added to but
ozone residual is present are called reaction chambers (Langlais et al., 1991; Rakness,
2005).

70

Figure 4.1 A typical bubble diffuser ozone contactor
Ozone disinfection system involves multi-component transport and reactions within two
phases. As the ozonated air or oxygen is transported through the system, ozone diffuses
into the liquid phase (water) where it reacts with contaminants or decomposes until
leaving the system. The system has four principle components: water, air, ozone and
pathogens. Typically, ozone and pathogen concentrations in the liquid water and air are
sufficiently small that their effects on the bulk macroscopic properties of the liquid and
air are negligible.
The computational fluid dynamics models have been developed for simulation of the
multiphase ozone disinfection process. The numerical models are capable of predicting
fluid fields, tracer residence time distribution (RTD), ozone mass transfer, ozone
demand and decay reactions, and microbial inactivation efficiencies in full-scale bubble
diffuser ozone contactors. The numerical simulation models are described in detail in
this section.
Influent Effluent
Bubble diffusers

71
4.2.1 Governing Equations
Eulerian–Eulerian and Eulerian–Lagrangian methods have been extensively used to
simulate multiphase problems (Lakehal, 2002; Green, 2002; Lyn, 2005). A comparison
of Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian –Lagrangian approaches was described in Chapter 2.
In the present work an Eulerian-Eulerian approach (Lakehal, 2002) was used to model
the turbulent hydrodynamics of the liquid phase (continuous phase) and gas phase
(dispersed phase). The two phases were treated as interpenetrating continua coexisting
in the flow domain. The share of the flow domain each phase occupies was given by the
volume fraction. Each phase had its own velocity, temperature, and physical properties.
The flow was considered to be isothermal in this work so the energy equation was
ignored. The multiphase CFD model for ozone disinfection process included mass
conservation, momentum conservation and volume conservation equations (Michele,
2002) as described below.
Mass Conservation Equations
The transport equations representing mass conservation for liquid and gas phases are:
0 ) ( ) (
,
=


+


i l l l
i
l l
u r
x
r
t
ρ ρ (4.1)
0 ) ( ) (
,
=


+


i g g g
i
g g
u r
x
r
t
ρ ρ (4.2)
where, subscript g denotes the gas phase, subscript l denotes the liquid phase. For a
given phaseα ,
α
ρ is its density,
α
r is its volume fraction, and
i
u
, α
is its flow velocity in
the i-direction.

72
For ozone systems, the amount of ozone mass transfer between air and water is
sufficiently small compared with the bulk masses of the air and water phases, thus the
mass that is carried from one phase into another is negligible. Additionally, the ozone
concentrations in water and air are also small enough that the effects of ozone transfer
on the bulk macroscopic properties of the liquid and air are also negligible. Therefore,
mass transfer and source terms were not included in mass conservation equations in this
study.
Momentum Conservation Equations
The momentum balances in multiphase formation for gas and liquid phases are:
i gl
i
j g
j
i g
g g
i i
g j g i g g g
j
i g g g
M
x
u
x
u
r
x x
p
r u u r
x
u r
t
,
, ,
, , ,
) ( ) ( ) ( +


+




+


− =


+


u ρ ρ (4.3)
i
i
j l
j
i l
l l
i i
l j l i l l l
j
i l l l
M
x
u
x
u
r
x x
p
r u u r
x
u r
t
lg,
, ,
, , ,
) ( ) ( ) ( +


+




+


− =


+


u ρ ρ (4.4)
where p is pressure and it is assumed that the gas and liquid phase have a shared
pressure field (Lo, 2000).
i
M
, αβ
represents the interfacial force in the i-direction acting
on phase α due to the presence of phase β .
The total interfacial force acting between two phases (α and β phases) may arise from
several independent physical effects.
TD VM LUB L D
M M M M M M
αβ αβ αβ αβ β α β α
+ + + + =
, ,
(4.5)

73
The terms indicated in the right hand side of above equation represent the interphase
drag force, lift force, wall lubrication force, virtual mass force, and turbulence
dispersion force, respectively (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan, 2005; Do-Quang et al., 1999).
The interphase drag force,
D
M
αβ
, accounts for force experienced by the dispersed phase
due to the relative motion of the continuous phase. The lift force,
L
M
αβ
, accounts for the
force acting perpendicularly on the direction of the rising dispersed phase due to
vorticity or shear in the continuous phase nonuniform flow field. The wall lubrication
force,
LUB
M
αβ
, accounts for the force when the dispersed phase is moving in the vicinity
of the wall. The virtual mass force,
VM
M
αβ
, appears when a dispersed phase accelerates
relative to the continuous phase; some part of the surrounding continuous phase is also
accelerated with the dispersed phase—this extra acceleration of the continuous phase
has the effect of added inertia or ‘‘virtual mass.’’ The turbulent dispersion force,
TD
M
αβ
,
considers the additional dispersion of phases from high volume fraction regions to low
volume fraction regions due to turbulent fluctuations (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan, 2005).
Note that the interfacial forces between two phases are equal and opposite. Hence, the
net interfacial forces sums to zero:
βα αβ
M M − = (4.6)
Appropriate models were required to account for these forces (Kuipers and Swaaij,
1998; Rafique et al., 2004; Ranade, 2002; Sokolichin and Eigenberger, 1994,
Sokolichin et al., 2004). Only the interphase drag force and turbulence dispersion force
were considered in the present model, because the effects of other non-drag forces
became less significant in large gas-liquid phase columns (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan,
2005; Lo, 2000; ANSYS, 2004).

74
The interphase drag force,
D
M
αβ
, was modeled with the Grace Drag model (Clift et
al.,1978). This model was developed using air–water data and hence produces better
results for air–water systems (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan, 2005), therefore it was
appropriate for modelling ozone disinfection processes which consisted of air and water
phases. The Grace Drag model is expressed as:
l g l g D
g
g
l
D
l g
u u u u C
d
r
M − − = ) (
4
3
,
ρ (4.7)
where,
g
d is the gas bubble diameter,
g
u and
l
u are the gas and liquid velocities, and
D
C is the drag coefficient given by:

=
D
P
l D
C r C (4.8)
where
∞ D
C is the single bubble Grace drag coefficient, P is a correction factor for dense
bubble effects (or bubble swarm effect). Previous studies done by Lo (2000) and Gobby
(2004) showed that dense bubble effects can be represented by P = 4 in the above
equation.
∞ D
C is determined by:
)) ( ), ( max( distorted C sphere C C
D D D
=

(4.9)
where ) (sphere C
D
is the drag coefficient in the spherical cap regime, which is well
approximated by:

75
3
8
) ( = sphere C
D
(4.10)
) (distorted C
D
is the drag coefficient in the distorted particle regime given by:
l T
g
D
U
gd
distorted C
ρ
ρ ∆
=
2
3
4
) ( (4.11)
where the terminal velocity U
T
is given by:
) 857 . 0 (
149 . 0
− =

J M
d
U
g l
l
T
ρ
u
(4.12)
M is Morton number and is defined as:
3 2
4
σ ρ
ρ u
c
g
g
M

= (4.13)
and J is given by:

\
|
>
≤ <
=
3 . 59 42 . 3
3 . 59 2 94 . 0
441 . 0
751 . 0
H if H
H if H
J (4.14)
14 . 0 149 . 0
) (
3
4
− −
=
ref
l
EoM H
u
u
(4.15)
number Eotvos
d g
Eo
g
=

=
σ
ρ
2
(4.16)

76
in which, Eo is the Eotvos number, u
ref
= 0.0009 kgm
-1
s
-1
is the reference molecular
viscosity of water (Lo, 2000), g is the gravitational acceleration, ρ ∆ is the density
difference between the phases, σ is the surface tension coefficient and d
g
is the
diameter of the bubble.
The bubble size in ozone contactors is variable in full-scale ozone contactors and is
difficult to determine experimentally. However, previous studies (Langlais et al., 1991;
Wu, 2001) have shown that the average bubble size in ozone contactors is in a narrow
range between 2 mm and 5 mm. Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan (2005) conducted gas-liquid
simulations with different bubble diameters ranging from 2–12 mm, and found that the
change in diameter did not affect the results significantly. The same observation was
made by van Baten et al. (2003) and Sokolichin et al. (2004). Thus, an average bubble
diameter of 3 mm was used in the present simulations. Bubble coalescence and
break-up were not taken into account to simplify the simulation.
The turbulent dispersion force,
TD
M
αβ
, considers the additional dispersion of phases from
high volume fraction regions to low volume fraction regions due to turbulent
fluctuations. The model of Lopez de Bertodano (1991) was used in this study for
describing the turbulent dispersion force:
l l l TD
TD
g
TD
l
r k c M M ∇ − = = ρ (4.17)
where
TD
c is the dispersion coefficient, for which values of 0.1 - 0.5 have been used
successfully for bubbly flow with bubble diameters in the order of a few millimetres.
The dispersion coefficient was taken as 0.1 in this study which is suitable for the bubble
size range utilized (Gobby, 2004);
l
k is the turbulent kinetic energy of liquid phase
which is described below.

77
Volume Conservation Equation
The volume fractions of all phases sum to unity:

=
=
P
N
r
1
1
α
α
(4.18)
4.2.2 Turbulence Model
Fluid flows in full-scale ozone contactors are turbulent because the turbulence Reynold
numbers in these contactors are usually higher than 10
4
. Therefore, turbulence modeling
is of crucial importance for the correct description of multiphase flows in ozonation
systems. In this study, the impact of turbulence on the hydrodynamics was modeled in
both phases by the Boussinesq Eddy Viscosity model which assumes that the effective
viscosity is the sum of the molecular and turbulent viscosities, and diffusion of
momentum in phase α is governed by an effective viscosity:
α α α
u u u
, , t eff
+ = (4.19)

Liquid Phase Turbulence Model
For the liquid phase, the standard k-ε model (Launder & Spalding, 1974) was used to
simulate the turbulent eddy viscosity
t
u . At this point of time the k-ε model is the most
commonly used turbulence model for solving engineering CFD problems (Schugerl and
Bellgardt, 2001; Michele, 2002). Using this model, the value of eddy viscosity
l t ,
u in

78
liquid phase was set by the following equation based on two scales of turbulences: the
turbulent kinetic energy
l
k , and the turbulent energy dissipation rate
l
ε :
l
l
l l t
k
C
ε
ρ u
u
2
,
= (4.20)
where
u
C = 0.09 is the model coefficient, and
l
ρ is the density of liquid flow.
l
k and
l
ε were calculated using additional equations representing their production,
destruction, and transport (Wright and Hargreaves, 2001):
) ( )) ) ( ( (
) (
, , l l k l l
k
tl
l i l l l
l l l
P r k k u r
t
k r
ρ
σ
u
u ρ
ρ
− = ∇ + − • ∇ +


(4.21)
) ( ) ) ( (
) (
2 , 1 , l l l k
l
l
l l
tl
l i l l l
l l l
C P C
k
r u r
t
r
ε ρ
ε
ε
σ
u
u ε ρ
ε ρ
ε ε
ε
− = ∇ + − • ∇ +


(4.22)
where C
ε
, C
ε2
, σ
κ
and σ
ε
are constants (standard values of 1.44, 1.92, 1, and 1.3 were
applied).
l k
P
,
is the turbulence production due to shear and buoyancy forces.
Gas Phase Turbulence Model:
For the dispersed gas phase, a Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model was used. The
Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model is a simple extension of the standard
k-epsilon (k-ε) model and is easy to implement. The turbulent scales from the liquid
phase,
l
k and
l
ε , were assumed to apply to the dispersed gas phase. There is no need to
solve additional turbulence equations for the dispersed phase. This is the recommended

79
algebraic model for a dispersed phase (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan, 2005; ANSYS, 2005).
With this model the eddy viscosity of the gas phase,
g t ,
u , is expressed as:
σ
u
ρ
ρ
u
l t
l
g
g t
,
,
= (4.23)
The parameter σ is a turbulent Prandtl number relating the dispersed phase kinematic
eddy viscosity
g t ,
u to the continuous phase kinematic eddy viscosity
l t ,
u . The Prandtl
Number is specified to be 1 which is appropriate for bubble flows (Lo, 2000).
Turbulence Enhancement Model
In flows with a dispersed phase, large particles in the dispersed phase tend to increase
turbulence in the continuous phase due to the presence of wakes behind the particles.
This is known as Particle Induced Turbulence. The Sato Enhanced Eddy Viscosity
model was used to model this effect in this study. In this model, turbulence
enhancement by air bubbles was modeled using an enhanced continuous phase eddy
viscosity (Sato and Sekoguchi, 1975):
(4.24)
where
l t ,
u′ is the total liquid phase turbulence eddy viscosity;
l t ,
u is the usual Shear
Induced Eddy Viscosity; and
g te,
u is an additional Particle Induced Eddy Viscosity:
l g g g l g g te
u u d r C − = ρ u
u, ,
(4.25)
The variable
g
C
, u

has a value of 0.6 (Lo, 2000).
g te l t l t , , ,
u u u + = ′

80
The total effective viscosity of the liquid phases is:

g te l t l l eff , , ,
u u u u + + = (4.26)


Scalable Wall-Function Model:
As fluid flow approaches a wall, rapid changes in velocity occur in a thin sublayer in
which the flow is influenced by molecular viscous effects and does not depend on free
stream parameters (Versteeg and Malalasekera, 1995; Wright and Hargreaves, 2001).
The sublayer has a substantial influence upon the near wall flow. An adequate
numerical resolution of the solution in the sub-layer requires a very fine mesh because
of the sub-layer thinness and the high gradients in this region. Therefore, such a model
is computationally intensive and often not suitable for industrial applications (Versteeg
and Malalasekera, 1995; Wright and Hargreaves, 2000; Utyuzhnikov, 2005). To avoid
this, the scalable wall-function approach (Grotjans and Menter, 1998) was used for near
wall treatment in this study. This approach is a modified form of the standard wall
function approach (Versteeg and Malalasekera, 1995).
In the wall-function approach, the viscosity affected sublayer region is bridged by
employing empirical formulas to provide near-wall boundary conditions for the mean
flow and turbulence transport equations. The near wall velocity scale u
*
is related to the
wall-shear-stress, τ
ω
, by means of following relations (Grotjans and Menter, 1998):
τ ω
ρ τ u u
*
= (4.27)

81
2 / 1 4 / 1 *
l
k C u
u
= (4.28)
C y
U
u
t
+
=
) ln(
1
*
κ
τ
(4.29)
u ρ / ) (
* *
y u y ∆ = (4.30)
where, u
τ
is the friction velocity scale; τ
ω
represents the wall shear stress; u
*
is the near
wall velocity scale; U
t
is the known velocity tangent to the wall at a distance of ∆y from
the wall, κ is the von Karman constant and C is a log-layer constant depending on wall
roughness (natural logarithms are used).
The scalable wall-function approach limits the y* value by ) 06 . 11 , max(
*
~
*
y y = . The
value of 11.06 is the intersection between the logarithmic and the linear near wall
profile. The computed
~
*
y is therefore not allowed to fall below this limit. This
eliminates fine grid inconsistencies of standard wall functions. The scalable wall
functions thus allow solution on arbitrarily fine near wall grids, which is a significant
improvement over standard wall functions (Grotjans and Menter, 1998).

4.2.3 Sub-Models for Ozone Mass Transfer, Reactions and Microbial Inactivation
The water entering the system contains natural organic matter (NOM) and pathogens.
As the water flows pass through the ozone contactor, ozone diffuses from the gas phase
into the liquid phase where it reacts with the NOM and pathogens as it decays naturally

82
in the water. One undesired consequence of the ozone reactions is the formation of
ozone disinfection by-products, such as bromate, which are transported in the liquid
phase and discharged from the system. In this section, complete transport models of the
gas phase ozone, liquid phase ozone, natural organic matter, pathogens, and bromate
transport and reactions are given.
Regulatory agencies and operators are interested in estimating various system
performance indicators, including: effective ozone exposure CT and tracer residence
times. Models equations for estimating these indicators are also presented here.
General Species Transport Equation
When a species φ exists in phase α, the corresponding field variable is denoted
α
φ . the
transport of this additional variable
α
φ is expressed as:
) ( ) ( ) (
) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
Φ Φ
+ = ∇ + ∇ − • ∇ +


α α α
α
α
φ
α α α α α α α α α α
φ
u
ρ φ ρ φ ρ T S
Sc
D r u r r
t
t
t
(4.31)
where
α
r is the volume fraction of the phase,
α
u is the flow velocity, ρ is the density
of flow,
α
φ is the conserved quantity per unit mass of phase α,
) (φ
α
D is the kinematic
diffusivity for the scalar in phase α,
α t
Sc is the turbulent Schmidt number,
) (Φ
α
S is the
external volumetric source term, with units of conserved quantity per unit volume per
unit time;
) (Φ
α
T represents the total source to φ
α
due to inter-phase transfer across
interfaces with other phases (ANSYS, 2004).
In this study, ozone concentrations in gas/liquid phases, natural organic matter (NOM),
microorganisms, and bromate concentration were all treated as transported scalars

83
(additional variables) and obtained by solving transport equations. Individual transport
balances were distinguished by their respective source processes as described below.
Ozone Mass Transfer
Ozone must be dissolved into the liquid phase before reacting with contaminants
(including pathogens) in water. Based on the well known two film theory (Danckwerts,
1970), the transfer of ozone from gas phase to liquid phase through the phase interface
is due to a concentration gradient, which is caused by a resistance to the mass transfer
developed in each phase. Since ozone is sparingly soluble in water (Beltran, 2005), the
gas phase resistance is usually considered negligible and the concentration gradient on
liquid phase film controls the ozone mass transfer rate in the bulk fluid (Langlais et al.,
1991). Thus, the source term for the interfacial transfer of ozone between gas and the
water can be modeled as follows (Singer and Hull, 2000):
] [
*
, l l tr l tr
C C a k S − = (4.32)

g
g
r
d
a *
6
= (4.33)
where the source term
tr
S represents the rate of interfacial ozone mass transfer between
the two phases;
*
l
C is the saturation concentration of ozone in water;
l
C is the local
ozone residual concentration; k
l,tr
is the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient; a is the
volumetric interfacial area (1/m); r
g
is the local gas phase fraction; and d
g
is bubble size.
The saturation concentration of ozone in water

*
l
C can be calculated according to
Henry’s law (Singer and Hull, 2000):

84
H C C
g l
/
*
= (4.34)
where H is the Henry’s law constant. In this study, an empirical ozone Henry’s law
constant equation, which was reported by Perry (1973), is used. This equation has also
used by other researchers in modeling ozone systems (Marinas et al., 1991; Kim et al.,
2002). The effect of pressure on Henry law constant was not considered in this study.
The formula of the empirical equation is:

≤ ≤ −
≤ ≤ −
=
K T K when
T
K T K when
T
H
303 288
1687
20 . 6
288 278
840
25 . 3
log (4.35)
The liquid phase mass transfer coefficient of ozone
L
k can be determined by batch-scale
experiments (Beltran, 2005) or estimated using some empirical equations proposed by
Higbie (1935), Van Hughmark (1967), and Calderbank (1959). The Higbie model has
been widely used to simulate mass transfer in ozonation system (Cockx et al., 1999;
Masscheleain, 1982; Langlais et al., 1985) and other gas-liquid systems (Rahimi et al.,
2006):
g
B O
L
d
V D
k
π
*
3
2 = (4.36)
where
3 O
D is the molecular diffusivity of ozone in water;
*
B
V is the gas slip velocity,
l g B
u u V − =
*
, which can be estimated from the gas superficial velocity
s
V and gas hold-
up fraction
g
r .

85
g
s
B
r
V
V =
*
(4.37)
The Higbie model was used in this study to estimate liquid phase mass transfer
coefficient. It can also be expresses as (Masscheleain, 1982; Langlais et al., 1985; Chen,
1999):
g
B O
L
d
V D
k
*
3
13 . 1 = (4.38)
Ozone Decomposition Reactions
Once dissolved in water ozone becomes very unstable. Langlais et al. (1991) and
Kim et al. (2002a) indicated that the decomposition of ozone includes two stages:
The first stage is called the initial ozone fast-demand period. In this stage, the reaction
of ozone usually occurs in a few seconds dependent on water quality (Cho et al., 2003).
This is due to the presence of substances (mainly natural organic matter (NOM)) that
radically react with ozone through direct reactions.
The rate of the reaction between dissolved ozone and the fast reacting NOM is usually
too fast to be measurable via batch reactor experiments when source water contains
high concentrations of fast reacting NOM (Kim et al., 2002b,c). To characterize this
phenomenon in the first stage, a concept called instantaneous ozone demand (IOD) is
often used (Bellamy, 1995; Singer et al., 2000), which can be measured as the
transferred ozone dose minus the initial ozone residual. It represents the ozone
concentration that is immediately consumed by ozone demanding substances in water.

86
Based on this definition, IOD represents the initial concentration of fast reacting NOM
([NOM
f
]), and IOD is only exerted if [NOM
f
] is greater than zero.
The IOD concept assumes that the first stage has an infinite reaction kinetic constant.
However, for modelling purposes, second order reaction kinetics can be applied.
Several studies (Lev and Regli, 1992; Chen, 1998; and Kim et al., 2002) applied second
order reaction kinetic models to describe this fast reaction period. Therefore, the source
term corresponding to the reaction in the first stage is:
l f NOM demand
C NOM k S
f
] [ = (4.39)
in which source term
demand
S represents the ozone consumption rate during the first
stage which equals the reaction rate of ] [
f
NOM ; ] [
f
NOM is the concentration of fast
reacting natural organic matter, in unit of [kg[O
3
]/m
3
];
f
NOM
k is a second-order rate
constant (m
3
/kg s); and
l
C represents the liquid ozone concentration (kg/m
3
).
Since the reaction of NOM and ozone is too fast, measurement of
f
NOM
k is often
difficult (Kim, 2002). For the modelling purpose, the reaction rate
f
NOM
k used in this
study was set at 3.20 (L/mg s), based on a study by Hunt and Marinas (1999). Tang et al.
(2005) and Kim et al. (2002) applied the same value in their Axial Dispersion Reactor
Models for modelling of ozone column. This rate constant was acceptable for modelling
purposes because it resulted in 90% completion of the second-order reaction in seconds,
which is consistent with the experimental observations in this study and previous
studies by others (Hunt and Marinas, 1999; Tang et al., 2005; Kim, 2002).

87
The second stage of ozone decomposition is a period of moderate decay consumption,
in which ozone decays more slowly due to reactions with the remaining substances in
water. This second stage is more important for microbial disinfection performance.
The decay rate of ozone during this slower decay stage is commonly expressed by a
pseudo first-order kinetic equation as follows (Langlais et al., 1991):

l d decay
C k S − = (4.40)
where
decay
S is the source term for the decay process, C
l
is the dissolved ozone
concentration, and
d
k is the water quality dependent decay rate constant determined by
laboratory-scale experiments.
Microbial Inactivation
Although pathogens also contribute to ozone demand and decay reactions, the amount
of ozone they consume is negligible due to the extremely low mass concentrations of
pathogens in water. Therefore, the effects of pathogens on ozone reactions were not
considered, and the pathogen inactivation process was modelled separately in this study,
Several classic disinfection kinetics models are commonly used for evaluating
disinfection efficiency of chemical disinfectants, including the Chick’s law model, the
Check-Watson model, the Rennecker-Marinas model, and the Hom-Haas model (MWH,
2005). The Hom-Haas model was found to be more robust than other models (Haas and
Karra, 1984).
m n
l p
t C k
N
N
− = ) ln(
0
(4.41)

88
The Hom-Haas model can also be rearranged to express the kinetics without time (t) as
an independent variable (Haas et al., 1995):
)
1
1 (
0
1
] ln [ ) (
m m
n
l p N
N
N
C k mN
dt
dN
S

|
¹
|

\
|
− ⋅ − = = (4.42)
where
N
S is the source term for microbial inactivation processes, N is the number of
viable microorganisms per unit volume, N
0
is the initial number of viable
microorganisms per unit volume, C
l
is the dissolved ozone concentration, k
p
is a
disinfection kinetic constant depending on the types of pathogens, t is the exposure time
(or residence time) of pathogens in ozonated water, and m and n are constants.
Table 4.1 lists some literature reported constants of various pathogens. These constant
however may change with the change of water quality conditions (Finch et al., 2001).

Table 4.1 Some reported Hom-Haas model constants for ozone disinfection
Microorganism K
p
(min
-1
) n m Source
Cryptosporidium
parvum oocysts
22
68 . 0

×
temp
θ , θ =1.080
0.71 0.73 Gyurek et al. (1999)
Li et al. (2001)
Giardia

) 0723 . 0 exp( 35 . 2 temp × × 1 1 Carlson et al. (2001)
Viruses ) 07 . 0 exp( 90 . 4 temp × × 1 1 Carlson et al. (2001)



89
Disinfection By-Product (Bromate) Formation
Various ozone disinfection models have been discussed in Chapter 2. However, most
models are in complex forms and are not feasible to be integrated within the CFD
model. A simplified linear empirical bromate formation proposed by von Gunten (1994)
has been confirmed by many other researchers in recent years (Tang et al., 2005; Kim,
2002). Such a linear relationship between CT and bromate concentration was applied to
describe bromate formation. The source term for its transport equation is:
l B
B
B
C k
dt
dC
S − = =
(4.43)
where
B
S is the source term for bromate formation process;
B
C is the bromate
concentration in water;
l
C is the dissolved ozone concentration; and
B
k is the water
quality dependent bromate formation kinetic constant.
As discussed above, the ozone mass transfer, reaction and microbial inactivation
processes are highly related to each other. Figure 4.2 shows the kinetics involved in
these complex processes.

90

Figure 4.2 Modelling scheme for simulating ozone mass transfer and reactions
Tracer Residence Time Simulation
Ozone contactor hydraulic performance can be assessed quantitatively by tracer
residence time distribution (RTD). Two approaches were used for modelling tracer
residence time.
One approach was to model steady state “water age” using the transport equation 4.31,
and a source term of 1 [s s
-1
] was used for calculating the residence time at any
locations within the contactor.
Another approach was a transient solution to simulate the tracer residence time
distribution curve. The tracer simulation was run as a pulse injection test as in a full-
Ozone in gas phase (C
g
)
Ozone in liquid phase (C
l
)
Instantaneous
Ozone Demand
Reaction
If [IOD] > 0
Interfacial mass transfer kinetics
(If C* > C
l
)
Bromate formation
kinetics
Ozone decay
kinetics
Microbial
inactivation
kinetics

91
scale tracer study. First, a steady state CFD simulation was performed for calculating
the fluid velocity fields. Then the tracer scalar was defined as an additional variable.
The flow field obtained from the simulation was used as the initial condition and was
frozen when conducting unsteady state simulations to solve the tracer scalar transport
equations. The tracer residence time distributions were obtained by monitoring the
tracer concentration at the outlets of the ozone contactors.
CFD-Based CT
Since the current USEPA and most Canadian provincial drinking water disinfection
regulations (e.g. Ontario and Quebec) employ a CT concept and use CT tables to
calculate disinfection efficiency (MOE, 2006; MENV, 2002), a CFD-based CT was also
developed using an additional variable transport equation. The source term of the
transport equation for CT is derived as follows:
When a parcel of liquid fluid flows from the inlet to the outlet of a contactor, a
cumulative ozone exposure as a function of time is defined as:


outlet
inlet
t
t
parcel l
dt C CT
,
(4.44)
Then it follows that
l
C
Dt
CT D

) (
(4.45)


92
At any instance in the time of the parcel’s travel from inlet to outlet, the total derivative
Dt
CT D ) (
is defined as:
CT
x
u CT
t Dt
CT D
i
i


+


=
) (
(4.46)
Combining the above two equations and multiplying the result by the liquid phase
volume fraction
l
r gives the transport equation for ozone exposure (CT). As with other
additional variable equations, the effects of turbulent diffusion should also be included,
thus the final form of the CT transport equation is:
l l
tl l
tl CT
l l l l l
C r CT
Sc
D r CT U r CT r
t
= ∇ + ∇ − • ∇ +


) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
) (
ρ
u
(4.47)
Thus, the source term for CT is defined as:
l l CT
C r S = (4.48)
where
l
r is volume fraction of water.
Overall Source Process
The CFD model developed in this study included transport equations for all the
important chemical or biological components of an ozone disinfection system including
the fast reacting natural organic matter (NOM
f
), ozone concentration in gas/liquid
phases (C
g
and C
l
), bromate concentration (C
B
), ozone exposure (CT), and pathogen
concentration (N). The source terms for these components are shown in Table 4.2.

93
Table 4.2 Kinetics and source terms of transport equations for modelling ozone processes

Component
(species)

Processes


Source or sink terms for transport equations
Gas phase
ozone
concentration
(C
g
)
Mass transfer:
) (
*
l l
l
C C a k
dt
dC
− =

H C C
g
/
*
=

g
g
r
d
a *
6
=


) (
*
l l tr
C C a k S − − =
Dissolved
ozone
concentration
(C
l
)
Mass transfer:
) (
*
l l
l
C C a k
dt
dC
− =

Ozone decay:
l d
l
C k
dt
dC
− =

Ozone demand
(When ] [IOD > 0):
C NOM k
dt
IOD d
f NOM
f
] [
] [
− = −




¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
− − −

− −
=
0 ] [
] [ ) (
0 ] [
) (
*
*
IOD if
C NOM k C k C C a k
IOD if
C k C C a k
S
l f NOM l d l l
l d l l
l
f

Instantaneous
ozone demand
(IOD)
When ] [IOD >0 and
l
C >0:
l f NOM
C NOM k
dt
IOD d
f
] [
] [
− =

When ] [IOD >0 and
l
C ≤0
*
] [
aC k
dt
IOD d
l
− =

Otherwise:
0
] [
= −
dt
IOD d


¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦

≤ >

> >

=
0 ] [
0
0 0 ] [
0 0 ] [
] [
*
] [
IOD if
C and IOD if
aC k
C and IOD if
C NOM k
S
l
l
l
l f NOM
IOD
f

CT
l
C
Dt
CT D

) (


l CT
C S =
Pathogens (N)
m n
l m
t C k
N
N
− = ) ln(
0


)
1
1 (
0
1
ln ) (
m
m
n
l m N
N
N
C k mN
dt
dN
S

|
¹
|

\
|
− ⋅ − = =

Bromate (C
B
)
l B
B
C k
dt
dC
=

l B B
C k S =
Tracer
0 =
dt
dC
tracer
0

94
4.3 Full-Scale Case Studies
Using the three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model
described in Section 4.2, all the major processes within an ozone disinfection system
(ozone mass transfer, ozone decay, microbial inactivation, and disinfection by-product
formation) can be predicted. The main focuses of this study were to use the CFD model
to investigate ozone contactor hydraulics, mass transfer and reactions. The CFD-based
CT was also simulated and used as an indicator for describing the microbial inactivation
and disinfection by-product formation processes, since no site-specific models of these
two processes were available during the period of this study. This is a reasonable
approach because, as described in Section 4.2, the CT has strong correlation with the
above two processes in ozone systems.
Prior to applying the model, it was essential to test the sensitivity of the results to
various aspects of the CFD algorithm, including mesh density, discretisation scheme,
and turbulence model selection. By doing this, it could be certain that the results were
realistic rather than the product of a numerical artefact (Wright and Hargreaves, 2001).
In addition, the CFD model was validated using experimental data obtained from the
ozone disinfection systems of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in
Montreal, Quebec and the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant in Kitchener, Ontario, so
that the same closure and CFD sub-models could be used to simulate other geometries
and operating conditions with a suitable level of confidence (Vesvikar and Al-dahhan,
2005).
4.3.1 The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant ozone contactor
The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal, Quebec is the second
largest drinking water filtration plant in Canada. The plant was built in 1979 and has a

95
capacity of 1,200 million litres per day (MLD). Raw St. Lawrence River is treated by
filtration and ozonation, followed by chlorination before being discharged into the
distribution system. The DesBaillets WTP has six parallel ozone contactors, each with
two cells, and ozone gas is fed in the first cell of each contactor through 126 porous fine
bubble diffusers. The total length, width, and height of each contactor are 23.8 m, 5.50 m
and 7.16 m respectively.
Meshing
Three dimensional CFD modelling is computationally expensive. Since the DesBaillets
WTP ozone contactor has a symmetric geometric structure, only half of the contactor
was modelled. Thus, the number of meshes and computational time were significantly
reduced. The geometry of the ozone contactor was built by commercial CAD software:
Solidworks
TM
and Ansys Design Modeler
TM
. The geometry model then was imported
into CFX-mesh to generate a mesh. Figure 4.3 shows the geometry and mesh of half of
DesBaillets ozone contactor used in the CFD modeling. Unstructured tetrahedral grids
were used for the CFD modeling and were refined at areas close to the gas diffusers and
baffles. The total element number was about 420,000.

Figure 4.3 Schematic drawing and mesh of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor

96
Boundary conditions
The boundary condition of water and gas inlets were provided by specifying uniform
velocities calculated from water and gas flow rates. For water inlet, the velocity was in
the range of 0.1 to 0.3 m/s and the volume fraction of water was 1. For gas inlets, the
velocity varied from 0.01 to 0.03 m/s and the volume fraction of air was 1. The outlet
was set as a zero pressure gradient boundary condition and the reference pressure was
set as 0 atmosphere (atm). A non-slip boundary condition was used for water at all the
wall boundaries and a free-slip boundary condition was applied for gas phase at the
walls. The free water surface was set as a degassing outlet which assumed that the
surface was flat, frictionless and impervious to liquid to simplify the simulation,
however, gas was allowed to leave at the rate at which it arrived at the surface. Such a
degassing free surface boundary condition has been applied by other researchers (Zhang,
2000; Vesvikar and Al-dahhan, 2005). Since only half of the geometry was modelled, a
symmetric boundary was given for the symmetric plane which was located in the
middle of real ozone contactor.
4.3.2 The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor
The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is operated by the Regional Municipality
of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. It was designed to treat Grand River source water at a
normal production capacity of 72 millions liters per day (MLD). The Grand River
water, which is affected by both agricultural and municipal use, is moderate to high in
hardness and alkalinity and averages an organic carbon concentration of 5 to 7 mg/L.
There are two parallel baffled ozone contactors in the plant. The ozonated gas is
injected into each contactor by fine bubble diffusers in the first two cells, and dissolved
ozone further reacts in the following four cells. The ten year old ozone system has been
modified to include new liquid oxygen (LOX) ozone generators to increase ozone gas

97
concentration and remove some diffusers from the system. The research efforts of the
present study were focused on investigating the change of contactor performance
before and after system modification.

Geometry and Meshing
Figure 4.4 is the three dimensional schematic drawing of one contactor. The geometry
of the ozone contactor consisted of 6 cells with a total volume of 370.5 m
3
. The height
and width of the contactor were respectively 10.3 m and 8.3 m. Before system
modification, there were 44 fine bubble diffusers in the first cell and 22 bubble diffusers
in the second cell. Each of the diffusers was 800 mm (length)×100 mm (diameter).
During modification, 34 diffusers were removed from the contactor, and the remaining
diffusers were changed to be 200 mm (length)×100 mm (diameter).
The unstructured tetrahedral 3-D mesh was used and mesh was refined at areas closing
to the gas diffusers and baffles. Total element number of the mesh was about 680,000,
which was determined based on the mesh sensitivity study, which will be described in
Section 4.5.1.1.

98

Figure 4.4 Schematic drawing of the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor

Boundary conditions
The velocity at water inlet was in the range of 0.45 m/s and the volume fraction of
water was 1. For gas inlets, the velocity varied from 0.022 m/s and the volume fraction
of air was 1. Other boundary conditions were same as those used in the modelling of
DesBaillets ozone contactor.
4.3.3 Numerical Method
The numerical solution of the CFD modeling was carried out with a finite-volume based
program CFX10 (Ansys, 2005). CFX employs an unstructured control volume mesh.
The governing equations for fluid flow, mass transport and decay are discretized in the
computational domain by a finite volume method. Discretization of the non-linear
differential equations yields a system of linear algebraic equations that are solved

99
iteratively. In this study, a second order high-resolution differencing scheme was
applied to all equations. The time step used varied in range between 100s and 0.001s
from the start to the end of a run. For each run, the hydrodynamics was solved first in a
transient manner until steady state was reached. Steady state was indicated by a state
when all the key variables (e.g. local velocities of the two phases and the volume
fraction of the gas phase) remained constant. All the simulations were done on a
Pentium 4 PC with 3.0 GHz CPU and 2G memory. The computational times for
obtaining the converged solutions usually were between 1 days to 4 days. Figure 4.5
shows the procedures for CFD modelling of ozone disinfection processes.


Figure 4.5 Procedures for CFD modelling of ozone disinfection processes


• Flow field
• Tracer simulation
• Ozone profile
• Pathogen inactivation
• Bromate formation
DesignModeler &
Solidworks
(Geometry)
CFX-Mesh & ICEM
(Mesh Generation)
CFX-Pre
(Model Setup)
CFX-Post
(Postprocessing)
CFX-Solver

100
4.4 Results and Discussions
4.4.1 DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study
4.4.1.1 Model Sensitivity Study
Sensitivity to Mesh Density
As the mesh is refined a more accurate solution can be expected, however, the finer the
mesh, the more time is needed for computations. Therefore, the mesh density should be
selected such that an acceptable accurate solution is obtained within a reasonable
simulation time. At the same time, it is necessary that the solution obtained is mesh-
independent (Vesvikar and Al-dahhan, 2005). In this study, the effect of mesh density
on the accuracy of CFD modelling was evaluated by performing a series of tracer
residence time distribution simulations at three different mesh density conditions. The
number of elements for the three meshes were 320,803, 370,982, and 424,891
respectively. Figure 4.6 presents the comparison result which suggests that there was
only a slight difference in tracer RTD prediction under the three mesh density
conditions. One possible reason for such a difference is that uniform flow rates were
defined for gas and water inlet boundary conditions. However, in real situation, the flow
rates may vary across the inlet surfaces. Further reduction of mesh size did not
significantly improve the accuracy of modelling. Therefore, the mesh size of 424,891
was selected for the rest of studies.

101
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Experimental data
Element number=320,830
Element number=370,982
Element number=424,891
Time (S)
C
/
C
0

Figure 4.6 Sensitivity of the mesh density on the simulation of tracer residence time distribution


Sensitivity to Choice of Turbulent Model
The effect of the turbulence model on the tracer RTD was also studied. In addition to
the standard k–ε model, three other commonly used turbulence models including the
RNG k–ε model (Yakhot and Orzag, 1986), the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence
model (Mentor, 2003) and the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) model (Speziale et al.,
1991) were used for comparison purpose. Figure 4.7 shows tracer RTD simulation
results for the different models. In all four cases the tracer curves varied slightly and the
standard k-ε model fit best with the experimental result. This suggested that the k–ε
model was most appropriate and it was deemed sufficiently accurate for the study

102
undertaken here. In addition, the RNG k-ε, SST, and SSG models usually require much
longer computational times. Therefore, the k–ε model was selected for this study.
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Experimental data
K-e model
SST model
SSG model
RNG k-e model
Time (S)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Figure 4.7 Sensitivity of the turbulence model on the simulation of tracer residence time distribution
Sensitivity to the Selection of Air Bubble Size
As discussed previously, previous literature studies (Langlais et al., 1991; Wu, 2001)
have shown that the average bubble size in ozone contactors is in a narrow range
between 2 mm and 5 mm. To simplify the simulation, a constant bubble size was used
in this study. The sensitivity of the bubble size on the modelling was studied to
determine if this is a reasonable assumption. The modelling was run at different bubble
sizes from 2mm to 5mm. The simulated air volume fraction and dissolved ozone
concentrations were compared as presented in Figures 4.8 and 4.9. The results showed
that, in the modelled bubble size range, the volume fractions and dissolved ozone

103
concentration at the 7 monitoring points inside the ozone contactors were not
significantly affected by bubble size selection. This was consistent with the results of
Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan (2005) on the CFD modelling of an anaerobic digester. They
found that, when bubble diameters in the range of 2–12 mm, the change in diameter did
not affect the results significantly. The same observation was made by van Baten et al.
(2003) and Sokolichin et al. (2004). Thus, an average bubble diameter of 3 mm was
used in the present simulations.


104
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 C1 C2
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
2 mm 3 mm 4 mm 5 mm
Monitoring Location
V
o
l
u
m
e

F
r
a
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

A
i
r

Figure 4.8 The simulated air volume fraction at different bubble sizes
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 C1 C2
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2 mm 3 mm 4 mm
5 mm
Monitoring Location
D
i
s
s
o
v
l
e
d

O
z
o
n
e
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
g
/
L
)

Figure 4.9 The simulated dissolved ozone concentration at different bubble sizes

105
4.4.1.2 Model Validation
The CFD model was validated by comparison of the simulated tracer residence time
distribution (RTD) with field tracer test data (El-Baz, 2002) obtained at the DesBaillets
WTP ozone disinfection system at two different flow rates. Figure 4.10 showed the
comparison results at the flow rate of 2.16 m
3
/s for two monitoring points C1 and C2.
The locations of the two points are shown in Appendix A. Good agreement was
observed between the CFD modelling and experimental tracer test results. The
simulated and measured T
10
/T ratios at flow rates of 2.16 m
3
/s were 0.51 and 0.55
respectively; and the simulated and measured T
10
/T ratios at flow rates of 1.47 m
3
/s
were 0.50 and 0.51 respectively.
0 500 1000
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
C1 measured
C1 simulated
C2 measured
C2 simulated
Time (S)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Figure 4.10 Comparison of simulated and experimental tracer curves

106
In addition, local ozone residual concentrations were obtained by solving transport
equations for ozone mass transfer and reactions. The ozone demand and decay kinetics
parametes used were determined by experimental study done by the École
Polytechnique de Montréal (El-Baz, 2002).
Figure 4.11 CFD shows the predicted CFD ozone residual distribution and the locations
of the monitoring points inside the ozone contactor. The modelling conditions include:
water flow rate=2.16 m
3
/s, gas flow rate = 0.25m
3
/s, ozone concentration in gas = 1.4%,
immediate ozone demand (IOD) =0.96 mg/L and ozone first order decay constant =
0.12 1/min. The comparison between the numerical and measured ozone concentrations
at these monitoring points is given in Table 4.3. Although relatively big differences
were observed at a point near the gas diffusers (P4) and a point at the edge of the short
circuiting zone (P2), the predicted ozone concentrations at all other monitoring points
were within 11% of the measured values. It was thus considered that the CFD
modelling could sufficiently accurately predict mass transfer and reactions of ozone
within the contactors.

Figure 4.11 CFD predicted ozone residual distribution

107
Table 4.3 A Comparison between the predicted and measured ozone concentrations at
6 monitoring points
Monitoring points P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Outlet
Predicted ozone
concentration (mg/L)
0.60 0.34 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.64
Measured ozone
concentration (mg/L)
0.54 0.44 0.74 1.03 0.64 0.67
Difference (%) 11 25 10 26 11 5

4.4.1.3 Prediction of Disinfection Performance
The CFD model was applied to investigate the contactor hydraulics under various
operational conditions. Figure 4.12 displays a typical flow field inside the contactor.
From the velocity field, it was observed that large recirculation zones existed in the two
cells and caused short-circuiting and dead zones. The existence of dead zones and short-
circuiting would reduce the contacting opportunities between ozone and pathogens and
make disinfection efficiency significantly less than it otherwise could be.





108


Figure 4.12 Simulated velocity vector field and streamlines of the DesBaillets WTP
ozone contactor
In the present study, a CFD-based CT concept was introduced to characterize ozone
disinfection performance, in which C is the local ozone residual concentration and T is
the local residence time. As described in Section 4.3, this CT was calculated by solving
a species transport equation using C (local ozone residual) as a source term, and it
represented the accumulated CT exposure dose for pathogens that traveled from the
contactor inlet to a specific internal location. The disinfection efficiency of a contactor
could be evaluated by determining the CFD-based CT values at outlet locations.
Figure 4.13 shows the simulated ozone residual distribution and CT value distributions
as well. CFD modeling can also predict log inactivation directly based on the pathogen
inactivation kinetics model. However to be consistent with current regulations, which
are based on the CT approach, only CFD simulated CT values are discussed herein. The
Potential short-circuiting
Inlet
Outlet
Recirculation zones

109
total disinfection efficiency of a contactor could be calculated using the CFD based CT
at the outlet of the contactor.
As shown in Figure 4.13, the flow field could significantly affect the ozone residual and
CT distributions. A portion of the water might experience short-circuiting phenomena
(for example, at the top surface of cell 2) and had a much smaller CT than other
portions of water exiting the contactor. Such phenomena may be a potential risk to safe
drinking water disinfection.

(a) Ozone residual distribution




(b) CT value distribution
Figure 4.13 Simulated ozone residual and CT value profiles within the DesBaillets
WTP ozone contactor
Cell 1 Cell 2
Inlet Outlet
Potential short-circuiting
Inlet
Outlet

110
In Chapter 7 of this thesis, the CFD simulated CT value was also compared with CT
calculated by the traditional CT
10
method. The results showed that, under different
modeling conditions, the CFD simulated CT value could be 80% to 140% higher than
the traditionally calculated CT
10
value. This indicated that the traditional CT
10
method
might significantly underestimate disinfection efficiency, and CFD was a better
alternative for evaluating ozone disinfection treatment performance even though a
safety factor should be considered to account for the uncertainty factors of the CFD
modeling.
4.4.1.4 Effects of Baffling on Contactor Hydraulics and Disinfection Efficiency
To minimize the recirculation in the second cell, an alternative contactor configuration
was modelled. Four additional baffles were placed into cell 2 of the contactor.
Figure 4.14 presents the CFD simulated velocity fields. The results suggested that, after
adding baffles in the second cell, the flow field became more uniform and the dead
zones and short circuiting as described in Figure 4.12 were significantly reduced.

Figure 4.14 Simulated flow field after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor
Figure 4.15 shows the CFD simulated CT after adding baffles inside cell 2. After
modifying the contactor configuration, the upstream pressure propagation from cell 2
Cell 5 Cell 3 Cell 2 Cell 6 Cell 1 Cell 4

111
back baffle wall changes the flow patterns in cell 1 which affects the CT distribution in
cell 1. The CT values after cell 1 were uniform. No obvious surface short-circuiting
occurred and therefore the treatment efficiency was improved. In fact, the average CT at
the contactor outlet has been increased 64% (from 1.78 mg/L*min before adding battles
to 2.79 mg/L* min after adding baffles) after adding baffles. Therefore, using the CFD-
based CT concept, it was possible to quantitatively evaluate ozone disinfection
efficiency and to assist with the design and operation of full-scale ozone contactors.

Figure 4.15 Simulated CT after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor

4.4.1.5 Effects of water quality on ozone contactor performance
As discussed in Chapter 2, the water quality factors, such as temperature, pH, alkalinity,
natural organic matter, and ammonia, can significantly affect the ozone decomposition
and disinfection performance. Previous researchers tried to model the effects of
individual parameters on ozone decay and disinfection efficiency using empirical or
mechanistic models (Amy et al., 2000; Kim, 2002). However, the empirical models are
usually strongly site specific, and the mechanistic models are currently still not feasible
due to the fact that the ozone reactions in the natural waters are too complex to be fully
Inlet
Outlet

112
described (Kim, 2002). To-date, none of these models has been used reported to be used
to assist with the design and operation of full-scale ozonation systems.
However, the above water quality factors can be indirectly described by two water
quality indicators: immediate ozone demand (IOD) and ozone decay kinetic constant (k
d
)
(Langlais et al., 1985; Chen, 1998; Finch et al., 2001). These two parameters therefore
were included in the CFD modelling to characterize the effects of water quality.
Experimental studies of DesBaillets WTP source water were done at different seasonal
conditions, and it was found that the immediate ozone demand of DesBaillets ozone
contactor source water varies from 0.4 to 1.2 mg/L and the ozone decay kinetic constant
k
d
changes in the range of 0.05 to 0.15 min
-1
(El Baz, 2002) .
Figure 4.16 shows the effects of these two parameters on the effective CT predicted by
CFD modelling at a constant operational condition (water flow rate = 2.16 m
3
/s; gas
flow rate =0.34 m
3
/s). It was found that, for the DesBaillets WTP ozone system, the
immediate ozone demand (IOD) had a strong influence on CT prediction. The increase
of the IOD from 0.4 to 1.2 mg/L resulted in the decrease of the CFD-based CT from
4.0 to 2.3 mg/L min. Since the IOD mainly represents the level of natural organic
matters in source water, this result suggested that enhancing pre-treatment for the
removal of NOM was a key approach to improving the DesBaillets ozone contactor
performance.
Figure 4.17 presents the effects of ozone decay kinetics constant on the CFD-based CT.
It could be observed that the influence of ozone decay kinetics constant (k
d
) on ozone
disinfection seemed to be much smaller than the influence of immediate ozone demand.
Increasing k
d
from 0.05 to 0.15 min
-1
only led to a 0.6 mg/L min decrease of CT. This

113
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
0
2
4
6
8
Immediated Ozone Demand (mg/L)
C
F
D
-
B
a
s
e
d

C
T

(
m
g
/
L
*
m
i
n
)

Figure 4.16 Effects of immediate ozone demand on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
0
2
4
6
8
Ozone Decay Constant (1/min)
C
F
D
-
B
a
s
e
d

C
T

(
m
g
/
L
*
m
i
n
)

Figure 4.17 Effects of ozone decay constant on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor

114
was due to the fact that the DesBaillets ozone contactor has a short residence time
(hydraulic retention time is about 5 min). Therefore, the role of ozone decay was
limited compared with that of the immediate ozone demand.
Based on the above analysis, it was suggested that the treatment plant should conduct
routine tests to determine the immediate ozone demand and use this information to
optimize the ozone system operation.

4.4.2 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study
4.4.2.1 Model Validation
For the ozone contactor of the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP), in Waterloo,
Ontario, Canada, the system was undertaking system modifications including installing
liquid oxygen (LOX) diffuser systems and removing some diffusers during this study.
Before the system modification, The CFD hydraulic model was validated through a
comparison between the CFD simulated T
10
and the T
10
values obtained from full-scale
tracer tests results provided by the Regional Municipal of Waterloo previously
performed by others. Figure 4.18 shows a CFD simulated tracer tests for the outlets of
each of the 6 cells at a water flow rate of 16.93 million litres per day (3.72 MIGD or
4.47 MGD). At two different water flow rates (16.93 and 30.58 million litres per day),
the simulated T
10
values were respectively 16.3 and 11.1 minutes, which were in close
agreement with experimental T
10
values of 15.9 and 10.3 minutes. It was also observed
that contactor hydraulics changed greatly with the change of flow rate. Application of

115
the CFD approach allows us to quantify the hydraulic changes to direct the design and
operation of an ozonation process.

0 10 20 30 40 50
0.0000
0.0004
0.0008
0.0012
0.0016
Cell 1
Cell 2
Cell 3
Cell 4
Cell 5
Cell 6
Time (minutes)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

T
r
a
c
e
r

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Figure 4.18 Numerical tracer RTD curves for the outlet of each cell in the Mannheim contactor
After the system modification, experimental and modeling studies were done to further
validate the CFD model. The ozone profiles were simulated using the experimentally
determined ozone demand and decay kinetics. The validation test was done at the
following conditions: water flow rate=0.43 m
3
/s, gas flow rate = 0.007 m
3
/s, ozone
concentration in gas = 7%, water temperature =12 °C, immediate ozone demand (IOD)
=1.21 mg/L and ozone first order decay constant = 0.21 1/min. Figure 4.19 presents a
comparison between the CFD predicted and the on-site tested ozone profiles along the
modified ozone contactor. In general, the predicted ozone residual at most sampling

116
points fitted well with experimental data. The CFD predicted results at the sampling
points of cell 2 and cell 3 showed a relatively larger difference (about 20%) with the
measured values. One possible reason for this was that, in this study, the grab sampling
locations were determined from photos provided by the Regional Municipal of
Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) instead of by measurements. As what will be discussed in
Chapter 5, the ozone residuals might vary significantly at the outlets of the cells
(particularly the cells 2, and 3) following the ozone dissolution cell. Inaccurate
determination of the monitoring locations might make residual measurements and
predictions differ from their actual values.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6
Cell Number
O
z
o
n
e

R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

(
m
g
/
L
)
CFD predicted
Measured

Figure 4.19 A comparison between the CFD predicted and on-site tested ozone profiles
for the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor

117
4.4.2.2 Ozone Contactor Hydraulics Before and After Modification
This 13 year old ozone contactor system of Mannheim WTP was recently modified to
include liquid oxygen (LOX) fed ozone generators to increase ozone concentration in
gas from original 1-1.5 wt. % to 6-10 wt.%. Due to the significant change of ozone
concentration, 28 of the original 44 diffusers in cell 1 were removed from the system.
Likewise, 6 of 22 diffusers in cell 2 and all the 34 diffusers in cell 3 were also removed.
The comparison of the numerical tracer RTD of the ozone contactor before and after
modification is presented in Figure 4.20. The results predict that reducing the number of
diffusers in the contactor and increasing the ozone concentration in the gas has led to an
increase in residence time of the water. Therefore, it was suggested that the Mannheim
WTP should conduct tracer tests for the modified ozone contactor and adjust the T
10
/T
ratio used for disinfection credit calculation to operate the system more economically.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0.0000
0.0004
0.0008
0.0012
Before modification
After modification
Time (minute)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Figure 4.20 Predicted contactor hydraulics before and after system modification

118
4.5 Conclusions
A three-dimensional multiphase CFD model in the Eulerian-Eulerian framework was
developed to fully describe ozone disinfection processes. The model employed all the
major components of ozone disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics, mass transfer,
ozone decomposition, microbial inactivation and bromate formation. The sensitivities of
mesh density, turbulence model selection, and bubble size selection were studied. The
results showed that k-ε model was appropriate for this study. Changing the bubble size
in the rage of 2 to 5 mm did not significantly affect the modelling results, therefore a
constant bubble size 3mm was selected for the modelling.
The CFD model was validated by tracer test data and ozone residual profiles. Numerical
solutions agreed well with the field test data obtained from the Desbaillets and
Mannheim ozone contactors. The results suggested that dead zones and short-circuiting
existed in the investigated contactors and might significantly reduce disinfection
efficiency. Installing additional baffles in the second cell of the DesBaillets contactors
could improve contactor hydraulics and therefore ozone disinfection efficiency. The
effects of water quality on ozone disinfection were also investigated. The results of
DesBaillets case study indicated that immediate ozone demand (IOD) had more
significant influence on disinfection efficiency compared with the ozone decay constant
did. It was therefore suggested that the IOD should be tested routinely to improve the
ozone dosage determination.
This study demonstrated the power of CFD for predicting the performance of full-scale
ozone disinfection processes. The model developed in this study could be used for
ozone contactor design, evaluation, and troubleshooting. It could also be used as a
virtual experimental tool to optimize ozone contactor behaviour under varying water
quality and operational conditions.

119
CHAPTER 5 IMPROVING OZONE RESIDUAL
MONITORING AND TRACER
TESTING STRATEGIES FOR FULL-
SCALE OZONE CONTACTORS
BASED ON CFD MODELING

5.1 Introduction
The USEPA Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual (USEPA, 1991)
recommended that the microbial inactivation credit of an ozone contactor can be
evaluated by a “CT” concept which is defined as the product of ozone concentration
(“C”) in a cell and disinfectant contact time or exposure time (“T”). CT tables relating
Giardia and virus log inactivations with associated ozone CT values were given in the
SWTR Guidance Manual (USEPA, 1991). In the recently released Long Term 2
Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESTR), an additional CT table was
provided to calculate the log inactivation rate of Cryptosporidium parvum by ozone
(USEPA, 2006). Depending on temperature, Cryptosporidium CT values are 15 to

_____________________________________________
Parts of this chapter have been published in: 2006 AWWA Water Quality Technology
Conference and Exposition, American Water Work Association; Proceedings of 12th
Canadian National Conference and 3rd Policy Forum on Drinking Water, Canadian
Water and Wastewater Association.

120
25 times higher than CT values for equivalent Giardia and virus log-inactivation credit.
Similar CT tables have been adopted by some Canadian provincial regulations such as
the Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Ontario (MOE, 2006). The direct
effect of this new CT table is that ozone dose needed for Cryptosporidium parvum
inactivation will be much greater than the dose for Giardia and virus inactivation.
Therefore, to minimize ozone dosage to reduce operational costs and at the same time to
decrease disinfection by-product formation, water suppliers have to accurately
determine CT values.
The ozone residual value, C, can be obtained from on-line ozone residual analyzers or
measured from grab samples (USEPA, 2006). Accurate ozone residual data will allow
the calculation of correct log-inactivation values and allow optimized performance to be
maintained. However, based on previous pilot and full-scale studies, the ozone residual
profile in a contactor may vary significantly depending on the method of operation,
water quality and water flow conditions (Chen, 1998; Bellamy, 1995). The potential
variation of ozone concentration at sampling locations may greatly affect the ozone
concentration monitoring results. One potential efficient way to determine the optimal
sampling locations is through numerical modeling. However, to-date no modelling
studies have been reported to determine the variation of ozone residuals in ozone
contactors and to optimize ozone residual monitoring strategy.
The disinfectant contact time T
10
is usually determined through conducting step-input or
pulse input tracer studies. The accuracy of the tracer test results can be affected by
multiple factors including the stability of water/gas flow, tracer injection method,
sampling location, and tracer detection method. It is therefore not unusual to see
significant differences between two tracer curves obtained under the same testing
conditions. In addition, tracer testing is costly and time-consuming. Thus, there is also

121
a need to optimize tracer test strategies to be used for accurate determination of
contactor hydraulics.
Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to apply a computational fluid
dymanics (CFD) modelling approach to investigate the ozone concentration variation in
ozone cells and to optimize the locations of ozone residual monitoring points. The
second objective was to study the effects of tracer injection methods and tracer
monitoring points on tracer test results and to optimize tracer test strategy.

5.2 CFD Model Description
A multiphase model was developed and validated by comparing with full-scale tracer
test data and ozone profiles obtained from the Desbaillet Water Treatment Plant ozone
contactors (Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2006). The Eulerian-Eulerian approach was
used for simulating bubbles dispersed in water during ozonation processes (Lakehal,
2002; Versteeg and Malalasekera, 1995; Zhang et al., 2005). The interfacial transfer of
ozone between gas and liquid systems were modeled based on the well known two film
theory (Danckwerts, 1970; Singer and Hull, 2000). The ozone reactions were modeled
as two stage reactions: the first stage was instantaneous ozone demand (IOD); the
second stage was ozone decomposition described by a pseudo first-order kinetic
equation (Langlais et al., 1991). All the species were modelled by solving species
transport equations with appropriate source terms as described in Chapter 4 and Zhang
et al. (2006).

122
Ozone contactor hydraulic performance could be assessed from tracer residence time
distribution (RTD) curves. Step or pulse additions of a tracer could be made resulting in
so-called F and E RTD curves (Levenspiel, 1999). Numerical simulation of tracer tests
was conducted in two steps. First the steady state fluid flow was established. In a
second step, the steady state flow field solution was applied as an initial condition. A
tracer was introduced at a source point in the inlet to the tank, and the concentration at
the outlet was tracked by solving the transient tracer scalar transport equation.
Simulations with both step and pulse injections were produced. T
10
values were then
directly obtained from the tracer F curve as described by Teefy (1996).
5.3 Case Study
The CFD model was applied to simulate the ozone disinfection system at the
DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) (1,200 million liters per day/317 million
gallons per day) in Montreal, Canada. The DesBaillets WTP has six parallel ozone
contactors, and each contactor has two cells. Ozone gas is fed in the first cell of each
contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers. The total length, width, and height
of each contactor are 23.8 m, 5.50 m and 7.16 m, respectively. Figure 5.1 shows the
ozone residual monitoring points inside a DesBaillets ozone contactor. The system
initially used two sampling points for measuring ozone residuals: C1 for cell 1 and C2
for cell 2. To improve the accuracy of ozone residual monitoring in cell 1, five
additional sampling ports (P1 to P5) were installed. The average ozone residual from
these five monitoring points are used for CT calculation instead of using the residual at
a single point C1. The contactor hydraulics was previously evaluated using a step
injection of hydrofluorosilic acid as the tracer chemical (El Baz, 2002). As shown in
Figure 5.2, a distribution pipe was installed on the inlet surface to provide uniform

123
injection of the tracer chemicals uniformly across the width of the contactor during the
tracer tests.

Figure 5.1 Ozone residual sampling ports in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor



Figure 5.2 Tracer injection pipe and sampling point in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor

124
5.4 CFD Modelling Results and Discussion
5.4.1 Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration at the Outlet of the Cells
When the effluent CT method is used for microbial inactivation credit calculation, the
dissolved ozone concentration should be measured at the outlet of each cell (USEPA,
1991). However, current regulations do not provide a clear guidance on how to locate
these ozone monitoring points. It is therefore important to investigate the sensitivity of
the sensor locations on ozone residual monitoring to assist with ozone contactor design
and operation.
Figure 5.3 presents the CFD simulated ozone profiles at different planes at the outlet
area of cell 1. As shown in Figure 5.2, the Y axis represents distance along the width of
the contactor from the central symmetric plane and X axis represents the vertical
distance from the bottom of the contactor. It can be observed that the ozone
concentration varied widely at the outlet. The residuals were above 1.0 mg/L at the
centre area of the outlet planes and decreased to 0.2 mg/L at the locations close to the
side walls. The maximum value could be more than one order of magnitude higher than
the average value. The modelling results also indicated that ozone residuals were more
sensitive to the sampling locations at the outlet area of cell 1. Measuring ozone residual
at the upstream or downstream of the baffle may lead to under or over estimation of
outlet ozone concentrations. Under the current regulation framework (MENV, 2002;
USEPA, 2006), C represents the outlet concentration of a cell Therefore, the present
work suggests that the ozone sensor or sampling port should be located within the plane
under the baffle wall.

125
Based on the drinking water regulations of the province of Quebec, Canada (MENV
2002), the CT value of the first cell was calculated based on the residence time T
10
of
the cell multiplied by half of the ozone residual at the outlet of the cell. The above result
indicated that the selection of inappropriate monitoring points would lead to incorrect
calculation of CT values for log inactivation evaluation.

Figure 5.3 Simulated ozone residual distributions around the outlet of cell 1 in the
DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor (only half of the outlet is shown)
Using the CFD modeling approach, it is possible to locate the potential “optimal”
location for ozone residual monitoring under a specific operational condition. The
shaded region in Figure 5.4 shows the area at the outlet of a cell where calculated ozone
concentrations were within ± 20 % of the average outlet ozone concentration calculated
through CFD modeling. The 20% value is chosen as a reasonable one for purpose of
illustration.

126


Figure 5.4 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within
± 20 % of the average value (water flow rate =3.22 m
3
/s; gas flow rate=0.21m
3
/s; ozone
dose=2.2 mg/L)
It would be expected that more representative monitoring results could be obtained
when ozone sampling ports or online sensors were installed within or close to the
shaded area shown in Figure 5.4. However, the ozone residual distributions at the outlet
of cell 1 were strongly affected by the operational parameters.
Figure 5.5 shows the variation of the “optimal” ozone sampling zones at two different
water and air flow rates. Since the shape of the optimal zones changed significantly at
different conditions, it would be difficult to determine a universal optimal point which
could always represent the average ozone residual.
Previous studies showed that other factors, such as ozone dosage and water quality,
might also affect the dissolved ozone concentration distribution (Bellamy, 1995). It was
therefore suggested that multiple ozone monitoring points should be provided at the
outlet of cell 1 to obtain a more representative ozone residual, if possible.

127

Figure 5.5 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within
± 20 % of the average value
Figure 5.6 shows an example of installing three monitoring points (S1 to S3) at the
cell 1 outlet. Table 5.1 presents a comparison of the mass flow averaged calculated
ozone concentration, residual at point C1 (shown in Figure 5.1), and the average ozone
residual calculated from three points. It could be observed that, the residuals at point C1
were higher than the outlet average residuals at the current modeling conditions. The
three point averaged ozone residual agreed reasonably well with the averaged residual
at the outlet of cell 1. Using this multiple points monitoring strategy, one could obtain a
more representative ozone residual for the cell 1 outlet concentrations.

128

Figure 5.6 The location of 3 sampling points at the outlet of cell 1
Table 5.1 A comparison of the mass flow averaged ozone concentration and the
arithmetic average residual calculated from three points at outlet of cell 1
Ozone Residual at Cell 1 (mg/L)
Modeling conditions
Outlet
Average
Residual at
point C 1
Three points
(S1 to S3)
Average*
Water flow rate: 3.22 m
3
/s
Gas flow rate: 0.21 m
3
/s
Ozone concentration in air: 0.015 kg/m
3

Ozone demand:0.60 mg/L
Ozone decay constant:0.10 min
-1



1.09


1.45


1.07
Water flow rate: 2.16 m
3
/s
Gas flow rate: 0.15 m
3
/s
Ozone concentration in air: 0.0167 kg/m
3

Ozone demand:0.53 mg/L
Ozone decay constant: 0.12 min
-1



0.85


1.25


0.94
Water flow rate: 1.37 m
3
/s
Gas flow rate: 0.18 m
3
/s
Ozone concentration in air: 0.016 kg/m
3

Ozone demand: 0.69 mg/L
Ozone decay constant: 0.10 min
-1



0.98


1.01


0.97
* Arithmetic average

129
5.4.2 Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration within Ozone
Contactors
As discussed above, the DesBaillets WTP initially used point C 1 (see Figure 5.1) as the
only monitoring point for the CT calculation. This monitoring point is located behind
the baffle wall and in the region of short-circuiting caused by buoyancy flow. Therefore
it usually over-estimates the ozone residual of Cell 1, and is not appropriate to be used
for CT calculation. To improve the accuracy in monitoring ozone residuals, five
additional monitoring points have been installed in Cell 1 of the DesBaillets ozone
contactor to obtain the average ozone residual in this cell for CT calculation.

Figure 5.7 Spatial ozone residual distributions along the horizontal profile of the
DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor.

130
Figure 5.7 shows the spatial variation of the ozone residual profile at a water flow rate
of 3.25 m3/s, gas flow rate of 0.27 m3/s, and ozone dosage of 2.20 mg/L. The CFD
simulated results suggested that ozone concentrations at the plane closest to the side
wall (Plane A) were much smaller than those at other two locations (Planes B and C).
Therefore installing sampling ports close to, or flush with, the walls should be avoided
to prevent under-estimation of average ozone concentration. It could also be observed
that the dissolved ozone concentrations varied significantly along the contactor which
was caused by the existence of short-circuiting and recirculation zones within the
contactor.
Table 5.2 shows a comparison of the volume averaged residual and average residual
calculated from five points at different planes. The volume averaged residual was
calculated as the integral of ozone concentration in cell 1 divided by the total volume of
cell 1. It could be found that installing the five monitoring points on the middle plane
(plane C) might over-estimate the volume averaged ozone residual, while putting
monitoring points on the plane closest to the wall (Plane A) may under-estimate ozone
residuals. A better prediction of the averaged ozone residual could be done by
installing the monitoring points on the plane 1.2 m away from the middle plane.







131
Table 5.2 A comparison of the volume averaged residual and arithmetic average
residuals calculated from 5 points at different planes
Ozone Residual at Cell 1 (mg/L)
Modeling conditions
Volume
average
5 points
average*
in plane A
5 points
average*
in plane B
5 points
Average*
in plane C
Water flow rate: 0.28 m
3
/s
Gas flow rate: 0.02 m
3
/s
Ozone concentration in air:0.015 kg/m
3

Ozone demand:0.60 mg/L
Ozone Decay constant:0.10 min
-1



0.99


0.69


0.93




1.27
Water flow rate: 0.186 m
3
/s
Gas flow rate: 0.011 m
3
/s
Ozone concentration in air:0.017 kg/m
3

Ozone demand:0.53 mg/L
Ozone Decay constant: 0.12 min
-1



0.69


0.46


0.73


0.86
Water flow rate: 0.127 m
3
/s
Gas flow rate: 0.013 m
3
/s
Ozone concentration in air: 0.016
Ozone demand: 0.69 mg/L
Ozone Decay constant: 0.10 min
-1



0.82


0.53




0.76




0.94



5.4.3 Ozone residual distribution in the contactor after installing additional baffles
To improve the contactor hydraulics in the second cell, an alternative contactor
configuration was modelled. Four additional baffles were placed into cell 2 of the
contactor. Figure 5.8 shows CFD predicted averaged ozone residuals at the outlet of
each cell after installing four additional baffles in the contactor.


132

Figure 5.8 CFD predicted ozone residuals at the outlet of each cell after installing
additional baffles
Figure 5.9 presents a comparison of the volume averaged residual and outlet average
residual for each contactor cell. It could be observed that the volume averaged residuals
were significantly higher than the outlet average residuals in the first two cells. For other
cells, the differences became negligible. The maximum and minimum concentration
values at the outlets of each cell are also shown in Figure 5.9. The large variations of the
ozone concentrations at the outlets of cell 1 to 3 suggested that the residuals would be
very sensitive to the monitoring locations in these cell outlet areas. At the outlets of cell 1
and cell 2, the maximum residuals could be one order of magnitude higher than the
minimum values.
Therefore, the monitoring points should be determined very carefully to be more
representative. It was also suggested that multiple monitoring points at the outlet of
certain cells should used instead of just one point to provide more accurate indicators to
system operators.

133

Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Volume average
Outlet average
Origianl Cell 2
Location
O
z
o
n
e

R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

(
m
g
/
L
)

Figure 5.9 Simulated ozone residuals of each cell after installing additional baffles

5.4.4 Effects of Tracer Injection Points on RTD and T
10

The CFD model was also used to study factors affecting tracer residence time
distribution (RTD). Numerical tracer tests were performed by pulse-injecting a pre-
determined amount tracer in a very short time from the inlet of the contactor and
monitoring the tracer concentration at the outlet of the contactor. Figure 5.10 shows the
simulated tracer residence time distribution curves (E curves) obtained through four
different tracer injections: 1) “tracer 1” was injected at an inlet point close to side wall;
2) “tracer 2” was injected at an inlet point between the side wall and middle symmetric
plane; 3) “tracer 3” was injected at an inlet point on the middle symmetric plane, and

134
4) “tracer inlet” was injected uniformly over the cross-section of the contactor inlet.
These tracer curves were the modelling results at a water flow rate of 3.25 m
3
/s, gas
flow rate of 0.27 m
3
/s, and ozone dosage of 2.20 mg/L. For this specific case, the tracer
injection method only slightly influenced tracer RTDs. Tracer 1 has a maximum T
10

(164 seconds) and Tracer 3 has a minimum T
10
(155 seconds). Only very small
difference (<6%) was observed for different injection points, which might be because
the Desbaillets WTP contactor has two small cells before cell 1. These two cells
allowed the tracer chemicals to be mixed and uniformly distributed before the tracer
entered cell 1.

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
Tracer 1
Tracer 2
Tracer 3
Tracer inlet
Time (s)
E

Figure 5.10 Effects of tracer injection location on tracer residence time distribution


135
5.4.5 Effects of Tracer Monitoring Point Selection on RTD and T
10

The effects of tracer monitoring points on tracer RTD tests were also studied. The
concentration of chemical tracer was monitored at three points located at the contactor
outlet. Figure 5.11 shows the location of the three monitoring points: Point 1 is 0.5m
away from the side wall; point 3 is on the middle symmetric plane; and point 2 is
located between points 1 and 2. Figure 5.12 presents the simulated tracer RTD curves
for the three points. The RTD curve obtained from the numerical monitoring of mass
flow averaged chemical tracer concentrations at the contactor outlet is also shown for
comparison purposes. Significant differences in the tracer RTDs were observed at the
three different tracer monitoring points. The T
10
calculated from these RTD curves
differed by more than

Figure 5.11 Three monitoring points for simulation of tracer residence time distribution


136
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Outlet Average
Time (S)
E

Figure 5.12 Effects of tracer monitoring points on residence time distribution
20% (T
10
values of points 1, 2, 3 and outlet average were 145, 160, 172, 185 seconds
respectively). Since the tracer RTD of monitoring point 2 was close to the average
RTD curve, it might be more appropriate for the contactors studied. This result also
suggested that more accurate tracer RTD and T
10
information could be obtained if
multiple monitoring points were used and the tracer RTD were calculated by averaging
the measured tracer concentrations at different monitoring points.

5.5 Conclusions
This work evaluated a computional fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for
determination of CT values of full-scale ozone contactors. The most significant

137
contribution of this work was that, for the first time, a CFD model was applied to
illustrate and improve an ozone residual monitoring strategy. For the DesBaillets ozone
contactors, the CFD modelling results showed that ozone residuals in the cross section
of the outlet of each cell differed by an order of magnitude. The variation of residuals
was affected by multiple factors, including water/gas flow rate, temperature, baffling
conditions, etc (Bellamy, 1995). Therefore, it was suggested that multiple ozone
residual sampling points should be installed at the outlet of some ozone contactor
chambers to provide more accurate indicators to system operators. Optimum locations
and numbers of ozone sensors could be determined based on CFD modelling and
experimental study. Ultimately, a guideline document could be developed for various
basic contactor designs. The results also suggested that installing five monitoring points
on the middle plane of certain cells (e.g. cell 1) or on a plane close to the side wall
might over- or under-estimate the volume average ozone residual. A better prediction of
the volume average residual could be obtained when the monitoring points are installed
on a plane located 1.2 m away from middle plane. It is suggested that full-scale
experimental studies should be done in future through the measurement of spatial
distribution of ozone residuals inside ozone contactors to further validate the results of
this study.
The CFD model was also used to study the factors affecting the residence time
distribution (RTD). The results suggested that the selection of tracer injection locations
as well as tracer sampling locations could affect the RTD prediction or measurement.
The T
10
values calculated from the CFD predicted that RTD curves at different outlet
locations varied by more than 20% variation. It is therefore recommended that multiple
sampling points be employed during tracer tests. In summary, the CFD approach is an
efficient tool for improving measurement or prediction of CT values, and it can be used
in various ways for operating and designing full-scale ozone disinfection systems.

138
CHAPTER 6 A COMPARISON OF EULERIAN AND
PARTICLE TRACKING
APPROACHES FOR PREDICTION OF
OZONE CONTACTOR
PERFORMANCE
6.1 Introduction
The use of an advanced modelling tool, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to
simulate the flow and reactions in drinking water disinfection reactor processes has
attracted much attention in recent years (Greene, 2002). CFD modeling has been
applied for the simulation of various disinfection processes, including chlorination, UV
radiation and ozonation (Lyn et al., 1999; Do-Quang et al., 1999; Greene, 2002; Ta et
al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). With a CFD modelling approach, the velocity field,
residence time distribution (RTD), disinfectant profiles can be obtained by numerical
solution of the Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes and species transport equations
(Greene, 2002; Zhang, 2005).
Some researchers (Do-Quang et al., 2002; Greene, 2002; Mofidi et al., 2004;
Ducoste et al., 2005) also tried to use CFD modelling to predict the disinfection
efficiencies. In general, two approaches were used to model microbial inactivation
processes: one is the Eulerian approach and another is the Lagrangian approach (also
called particle tracking approach). In the Eulerian approach, the spatial distribution of
viable microorganisms in a reactor is viewed as a continuous field, similar to that of a

139
dissolved species (Greene, 2002). The concentration of microorganisms inside the
reactor is expressed as a function of spatial coordinates and simulated by solving the
species advection-diffusion transport equations with appropriate source terms (Lyn et
al., 1999; Do-Quang et al., 1999). In a Lagrangian approach, microorganisms are
viewed as discrete particles and the motion of individual microorganisms is independent
of each other. The trajectory of each particle is calculated by solving the particles
equations of motion, assuming a known turbulent fluid velocity field. The inactivation
efficiencies of microorganisms are then determined by incorporating the particle
trajectories with microbial inactivation kinetics information through the reactor
(Downey et al., 1998; Chiu et al., 1999).
Several studies had been done to compare the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, in
simulating UV dose for UV disinfection systems. Chiu et al. (1999), Do-Quang et al.
(2002), and Mofidi et al. (2004) used an Eulerian approach to model UV reactors and
their results show that the Eulerian approach slightly overpredicted the inactivation
level. In contrast, the Lagrangian approach was applied by other researchers (Downey
et al., 1998; Ducoste et al., 2005) and the results fit well with experimental data.
However, to-date, no studies have been reported to compare the two different
approaches for modelling ozone disinfection systems. In this study, both the particle
tracking and Eulerian approaches were used to evaluate ozone disinfection performance.
The objective was to compare these two CFD approaches for modeling the tracer
residence time distribution (RTD) and characterizing ozone disinfection performance.

140
6.2 CFD Modelling Methodology
6.2.1 Flow Equations
A two phase three dimensional CFD model has been developed to describe ozonation
processes (Zhang et al., 2005). The hydrodynamics of ozone contactors were based on
continuity and momentum balance equations for the two-phases: water and ozonated
gas. The impact of turbulence on ozone contactor hydrodynamics was modeled in both
phases. For the liquid phase, the standard k-ε model was used (Launder & Spalding
1974). The turbulence of the dispersed gas phase was modeled using a Dispersed Phase
Zero Equation model and bubble induced turbulence was taken into account as per Sato
and Sekogochi (1975).
To model ozone transport and associated reactions, ozone decomposition kinetics and
mass transfer kinetics submodels were included in the form of species transport
equations. The details of the species transport equations and the sink terms used to
describe ozone decomposition and ozone transfer can be found in Chapter 4 and Zhang
et al. (2005). The model was based on the following assumptions:
• Mass transfer resistance for ozone absorption was limited by the liquid side and was
not enhanced by ozone reactions in the liquid phase (Singer and Hull, 2000)
• Henry’s law applied (Beltran, 2004)
• The ozone decay rate in the liquid phase was pseudo first order, whereas it was
negligible in the gas phase (Zhou et al., 1995)


141
• Bubble size was set as a constant (3 mm) based on literature reported ranges
(Langlais et al., 1991; Wu, 2001)
• The free water surface of the contactor was treated as a free slip surface, which had
been demonstrated to be reasonable by other researchers (Greene, 2002)
6.2.2 CFD-based CT
A common approach for determining ozone disinfection efficiency involves the
application of a C×T concept (C is the ozone residual concentration in the contactor at
time (T)) (USEPA, 1991). The CT concept for ozone systems is similar to the UV dose
(intensity × residence time) concept currently used for evaluating UV disinfection
performance (MWH, 2005)
When the CT concept is used to estimate full-scale ozone contactor disinfection
performance, C is usually defined as the ozone residual concentration at the outlet of a
chamber and T is the residence time of microorganisms in the chamber. For T, the
USEPA employs a conservative residence time T
10
which is the residence time of the
earliest 10% of the microorganisms to travel from the contactor inlet to outlet, to ensure
a minimum exposure time for 90% of the water and microorganisms entering a
disinfection contactor (Chen, 1998; US EPA, 1991; Greene, 2002). Because of the
existence of dead zones and short circuiting in full-scale ozone contactors, the
microorganisms that enter the contactor at the same time may encounter significantly
different pathways in the contactor. Therefore, using a single residence time T
10
may
result in inaccurate prediction of contactor hydraulic performance. In addition, ozone
residuals may also vary substantially in a contactor, suggesting that a single ozone
residual value will not be able to characterize ozone distribution within a given
contactor. To accurately predict ozone disinfection efficiency, a CFD-based CT concept

142
was introduced in this study which was defined as the accumulated ozone exposure
(

Cdt ) for all pathogens passing through an ozone reactor. This concept considerd
three dimensional variations of ozone profiles inside ozone contactors and the
differences in residence time of the microorganisms. Such a CFD-based CT value could
be modelled by the Eulerian or Lagrangian approaches.
6.2.2.1 Eulerian Modelling Approach
With the Eulerian approach, ozone contactor hydraulic performance (represented by
tracer residence time distribution) and disinfection efficiency (represented by CT) can
be modelled by solving species transport equations:

) ( ) (
) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
Φ
= ∇ + ∇ − • ∇ +


α α
α
α
φ
α α α α α α α α α α
φ
u
ρ φ ρ φ ρ S
Sc
D r U r r
t
t
t
(6.1)
where φ
α
is the concentration of a species;
α
r is the volume fraction of each phase;
α
U
is the flow velocity;
ρ
is the density of flow;
α
φ is the conserved quantity per unit mass
of phase α:
) (φ
α
D
is the kinematic diffusivity for the species in phase α;
α t
Sc is the
turbulent Schmidt number;
) (Φ
α
S
is the source term for a species transport equation.
To model a tracer residence time distribution (RTD) curve, the tracer was defined as a
nonreacting species and a transient simulation was conducted. First, a steady state CFD
simulation was performed to calculate the fluid velocity fields. The flow field obtained
from the above simulation was then used as the initial condition when conducting
unsteady state simulations to solve the tracer species transport equation. Since the tracer
was non-reacting during transport, the source term of the species transport equation was

143
set as zero. The tracer residence time distributions were obtained by monitoring the
average tracer concentration at outlets of ozone contactors.
A CFD-based CT was also predicted using an additional variable transport equation.
The source term of the transport equation for CT is derived as follows:
When a parcel of liquid fluid flows from the inlet to the outlet of a contactor, a
cumulative ozone exposure as a function of time is defined as:


outlet
inlet
t
t
parcel l
dt C CT
,
(6.2)
It then follows that
parcel l
C
Dt
CT D
,
) (
≡ (6.3)
At any instance in the time of the parcel’s travel from inlet to outlet, the total derivative
Dt
CT D ) (
is defined as:
CT
x
u CT
t Dt
CT D
i
i


+


=
) (
(6.4)
Combining the above two equations, multiplying the result by the liquid phase volume
fraction
l
r gives the transport equation for ozone exposure (CT). As with other
additional variable equations, the effects of turbulent diffusion should also be included,
thus the final form of the CT transport equation is given as:

144
l l
l
tl
l l l l
C r CT
Sc
r CT U r CT r
t
= ∇ ∇ − • ∇ +


) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
ρ
u
(6.5)
As such, the source term for CT was defined as:
l l CT
C r S = (6.6)
where
l
r is the volume fraction of water. In most cases,
l
r is close to 1, therefore:
l CT
C S = (6.7)
For a continuous flow system, the mass flow rate weighted average CT value at the
outlet of a contactor was determined by:


=
dm
CTdm
CT outlet (6.8)
where m is the local mass flow at the outlet of the contactor.
6.2.2.2 Particle Tracking Modelling Approach
In the Lagrangian approach, micro-organisms are treated as discrete particles where
their trajectories are predicted by integrating the force balance on the particles. The
trajectory of a single particle is calculated by solving particle equations of motion,
assuming a known turbulent fluid velocity field. Particle concentration is estimated
from the statistics of a large number of trajectories. This approach is applicable when
the volume fraction of the dispersed phase (gas phase in this study) is small (James et
al., 2003). The conservation equations of the model include:

145
Equations for calculating positions of particles:
t v x x
o
pi
o
i
n
i
σ + = (6.9)
)) exp( 1 ( )) exp( ) (
τ
σ
τ
τ
σ t
F
t
v v v v
all f
o
p f p
− − + − − + = (6.10)
where the superscripts o and n refer to old and new values respectively,
i
x is the
position of a particle, t σ is the time step and
pi
v is the particle velocity.
Momentum transfer:
D
p
p
F
dt
dv
m = (6.11)
In the above equation,
D
F is the drag force acting on the particle. The drag force
between flow and particles need to be considered in particle transport equations:
s s F D D
U U A C F ρ
2
1
= (6.12)
where ρ is the density in the continuum,
F
A is the effective particle cross section area,
s
U
is the slip velocity between the particle and the surrounding fluid and C
D
is a drag coefficient.
C
D
is defined by the Schiller Naumann Drag model (Schiller and Naumann, 1933):
) 44 . 0 ), Re 15 . 0 1 (
Re
24
max(
687 . 0
+ =
D
C (6.13)

146
The particle Reynolds number Re is defined by
u
ρ d U
s
= Re (6.14)
where d is the particle diameter and u is viscosity in the continuum.
In fluids, the random motion of fluid elements (eddies) imparts a continuous random
motion to suspended particles. Repeated eddy interactions cause the particles to
disperse over time. Therefore, the effect of turbulent dispersion should be included in
the particle tracking model. The present work adopted the a classical stochastic
approach of Gosman and Ioannides (1981) for the estimation of fluid velocities. It is
assumed that a particle is always within a single turbulent eddy before entering another
eddy. Each eddy has a characteristic fluctuating velocity
'
f
v . When a particle enters an
eddy, the fluctuating velocity for that eddy is added to the local mean fluid velocity to
obtain the instantaneous fluid velocity used in Equations 6.10 and 6.11. The particle
will stay in the eddy as long as the particle/eddy interaction time is less than the eddy
lifetime
e
τ and the displacement of the particle relative to the eddy is less than the eddy
length
e
l . Otherwise, the particle is assumed to be entering a new eddy with new
characteristic
'
f
v ,
e
τ , and
e
l .
The characteristic fluctuating velocity
'
f
v , the eddy lifetime
e
τ and the eddy length
e
l are calculated based on the following equations (James et al., 2003):
2 / 1 '
) 3 / 2 ( k v
f
Γ = (6.15)

147
ε
u
2 / 3 4 / 3
k C
l
e
= (6.16)
2 / 1
) 3 / 2 /( k l
e e
= τ (6.17)
where k and ε are the local turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation, and C
µ
is a
turbulence constant. The variable Γ is a normally distributed random number which
accounts for the randomness of turbulence about a mean value. A random number
generator creates this distribution. Because of this randomness, each component of the
fluctuating velocity may have a different value in each eddy.
The sizes of these neutrally discrete particles used in this study were between 1 µm and
100 µm, which were within the range of sizes of pathogenic protozoa in water (MWH,
2005). These particles were uniformly injected into the contactor from the inlet in a
very short period time, 0.1 second. A statistically significant number of particles
(10,000 in this study) were used to produce a particle-concentration independent
particle tracking results (Ducoste et al., 2005). The residence time distribution curve
could then be determined from data produced for the particles that leave through the
outlet. The particle trajectories were obtained through a transient particle tracking
solution. The ozone profile and particle tracking time of particle trajectories were then
exported to a Microsoft Excel
®
file to calculate average CT value at the contactor outlet.
Since the particles were injected simulateously from the contactor inlet but exited the
contactor outlet at different time and at different particle number rates, therefore the
average CT was determined based on the particle residence time distribution curve.
First, the CT on each particle trajectory was calculated by integration of ozone
concentration and particle tracking times along the particle trajectory. Then, the average
CT value at the outlet of a contactor was determined by the following equation:

148




=
t E
t E CT
CT
pi
pi i
outlet
) (
(6.18)
where
i
CT) ( is the accumulated CT of ith particle trajectory,
pi
E is the number rate of
the particles that receive the ozone dose
i
CT) ( , t ∆ is the time period over which these
particles exit the contactor outlet.
The procedures for calculating CT via Eulerian and Particle tracking approaches are
summarized in Figure 6.1.

149

Figure 6.1 Procedures for predicting CT through Eulerian and Particle tracking approaches
Solve the fluid hydrodynamics equations
to obtain steady state fluid velocity field
Freeze the flow velocity field, and
solve species transport Equations
for ozone reactions and CT
Eulerian based CT
Freeze the flow velocity field, and
solve species transport equations for
ozone reactions and the particle
tracking model
Export the particle traveling
time and ozone concentration
profiles on a representative
number of particle trajectories
Set up the model and input
boundary and initial conditions
Calculate the
integrated CT values
for each particle
trajectory
Export the particle
residence time
distribution curve
Calculate particle tracking
based CT

150
A finite volume commercial CFD code CFX 10 (Ansys, 2005) was used. Presented in
Table 6.1 is a summary of the comparisons between the Eulerian and Langragian
approaches used in this study.
Table 6.1 A comparison of Eulerian approach vs. Lagrangian approach
Components Eulerian Approach Lagrangian Approach Note

Model
Description
The CT of an ozone
contactor is obtained by
solving species
advection-diffusion
model.

The CT is calculated
based on particle
trajectories, which are
obtained by solving the
particles equations of
motion and momentum
transfer
The Eulerian
approach predict
continuous fields
of species, and
Particle tracking
model gives
discrete solutions

Slip Velocity 0 0 ≠ unless the C
D
is very
big ( ∞ )


Turbulence
Dispersion or
Diffusion
Model
Turbulent diffusion is
based on concentration
gradient with the
turbulence time and
length scales:
ε
τ
k
t

ε
2 / 3
k
l
t

Turbulent dispersion is
based on stochastic
approach.
The turbulence time and
length scales are:
ε
τ
k
e

ε
2 / 3
k
l
e


The turbulent time
scales and length
scales are in the
same order.
Numeric
Solutions
Second-order high
resolution scheme
(HRS) from control
volume node to face

Second order pathline
integration
Second order
discretization
schemes are used
in both approaches
Average CT
at contactor
outlet
Mass flow rate
weighted
Particle mass weighted

151
6.3 Case Studies
6.3.1 Verification Case Study
Two hypothetical ozone reactors were used to examine the difference between the two
CFD modelling approaches: Eulerian and particle tracking. Figure 6.2 presents the
geometries of two reactors designed to emphasize differences and do not necessarily
represent a particular type of ozone reactor. The tetrahedral-based mesh was adopted for
CFD modelling and prism layers were applied to wall surfaces to resolve the effects of
boundary layers. To reduce the computation time, a two dimensional (2D) simulation
was done for the verification case study. The meshes were generated on one fine layer
of the reactor geometries in the Z direction, and both sides of the layer were defined as
the symmetric boundary conditions. All meshes were generated with a commercial
meshing tool: CFX-Mesh (Ansys, 2005). The numbers of the mesh elements of the two
reactors were 10,564 and 19,376 respectively. To simplify the analysis, the systems
were assumed to be single phase reactors. Both dissolved ozone and influent water were
assumed to enter into the systems from the reactor inlets. The inlet velocity of the water
was set to be 0.186 m/s and the influent dissolved ozone was assumed to be 2 mg/L.
The instantaneous ozone demand of influent water and ozone decay kinetics constant
were set as 0 mg/L and 0.05 min
-1
. These are reasonable values for ozone systems, and
the overall conclusions would not be expected to be sensitive to the values chosen.
For the Eulerian approach, the flow conservation equations were solved under steady
state conditions. The obtained flow fields were then “frozen” and the species transport
equations corresponding to the dissolved ozone, chemical tracer, and CT were solved
under transient conditions. In all the simulations, second-order discretization of the
governing equations was applied and the simulations were considered to be converged

152

a) Ozone reactor 1 b) Ozone reactor 2
Figure 6.2 Geometries of two hypothetical ozone reactors
when the root mean square normalised residuals for all the equations were less than
10
-4
and the global imbalance of each species was less than 0.1%.
For the particle tracking model, three different sizes of particles (1, 10, and 100 um)
were injected individually from the reactor inlets during a period of 0.1 second. By trial
and error, the number of each type of injected particles was set as 10000. Further
increase in the population of particles led to computational difficulties due to time or
computer memory limitations. Although the model has the capacity to handle liquid,
gas or solid phase “particles”, the particles were defined as solid particles because the
pathogens are solid. The particle tracking model was solved under transient conditions
using a pre-determined fixed flow field. The data was then exported to an Excel® file to
calculate CT values as described in Section 6.2.2.
Inlet
Outlet
R=6.8m
5m
R=6.8m
Inlet
5 m
5 m
Y
X
Outlet

153
6.3.2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study
A full-scale case study was performed for ozone contactors located at the DesBaillets
Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal, Canada. The DesBaillets WTP has a
capacity of 1,200 million litres per day (317 million gallons per day). The St. Lawrence
River is used as source water. The raw water is treated by filtration and ozonation,
followed by chlorination before entering the distribution system. The DesBaillets WTP
has six parallel ozone contactors each with 2 cells and ozone gas is fed in the first cell
of each contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers. The total length, width, and
height of each contactor are 23.8 m, 5.50 m and 7.16 m respectively. A three
dimensional (3D) CFD model was developed. Figure 6.3 shows the geometry and mesh
of a DesBaillets ozone contactor used in CFD modeling. Unstructured tetrahedral grids
were used for the CFD modelling and were refined at areas close to the gas diffusers
and baffles. The total element number was about 420,000.


Figure 6.3 Mesh used for modelling of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor
Cell 1 Cell 2 Outlet
Bubble Diffusers
Inlet

154
The system was considered as a multiphase reactor. Based on the common range of the
ozone system operational parameters in DesBaillet WTP, the inlet velocity of the water
at the inlet was 0.186 m/s and the velocity of the gas at the diffuser surfaces was set at
0.022 m/s. The concentration of ozone in the gas by weight was 1.4 %. For both
Eulerian and particle tracking approaches, the tracer residence time distributions and
CT values of the ozone contactor were modeled using the same procedures as for
modeling the hypothetical ozone reactors.
6.4 Results and Discussion
6.4.1 Results of Verification Case Study
A CFD model was applied to investigate the hydraulics of the two hypothetical ozone
reactors. Figure 6.4 displays the velocity fields inside the two reactors. As expected,
flow in reactor 1 was essentially uniform throughout the whole domain, while
significant short-circuiting existed in reactor 2. A substantial dead zone could be
observed in the rectangular segment of the reactor 2, which indicated that most of this
rectangular segment can not provide effective contact time for microorganisms and
disinfectant.
Similar phenomena were displayed by the particle tracking results shown in Figure 6.5.
For reactor 1, particles passed smoothly from inlet to outlet without recirculation and
shortcircuiting. For reactor 2, only a very small portion of the particles went into the
“dead zone” and most particles passed through a short “passageway” as shown in the
figure. Thus, reactor 1 was considered to be close to an ideal plug flow system, and
reactor 2 represented a non-ideal system in which flow mixing was more complex, as in
most full-scale ozone contactors.

155


Figure 6.4 Flow velocity distributions in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right)


Figure 6.5 Particle trajectories in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right)

156
Using the methodologies described in Section 6.2, the CT value can be obtained either
by solving a species transport equation (Eulerian approach) directly or by calculating it
from particle tracking modeling results. Figure 6.6 shows the CFD simulated CT value
distributions based on the Eulerian approach. Obviously, the flow field could
significantly affect CT distributions. In reactor 1, CT increased smoothly from inlet to
outlet. However, in reactor 2, much higher CT values were observed in the dead zone
area compared with those in the short-circuiting zone, which was caused by the high
residence time in the dead zone.

Figure 6.6 Eulerian CT distribution in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2(right)
Figure 6.7 shows the velocity and Eulerian-based CT value profiles along the outlets of
the Reactor 1 and 2. It can be observed that both the velocity and CT values were more
uniformly distributed at the outlet of the reactor 1. However, they varied greatly from
one to the other side at the outlet of the reactor 2 which was due to the existence of
strong short-circuiting inside the reactor.

157
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 1 2 3 4 5
Distance Along Outlet (m)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)
Reactor 1
Reactor2

(a) Velocity distribution at outlets of reactors
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 1 2 3 4 5
Distance along outlet
C
T

(
m
g
/
L

m
i
n
)
Reactor 1(Sc=0.9)
Reactor 1(Sc=1000)
Reactor 2 (Sc=0.9)
Reactor 2 (Sc=1000)

(b) CT distribution at outlets of reactors
Figure 6.7 Distribution of velocity and Eulerian based CT at the outlet of
the reactors 1 and 2 ( Sc : Schmidt number)
Distance across outlet (m)
(Zero is at outside edge)
Distance across outlet (m)
(Zero is at outside edge)

158
Table 6.2 compares the results of CFD simulated CT values determined using the
Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. It can be observed that the effects of the
particle size (1, 10, and 100 um) on CT prediction were negligible for both approaches.
Since the size of the main target pathogens (Cryptosporidium and Giardia) for ozone
disinfection treatment fell within the range of the simulated range (MWH, 2005), the
above result suggests that an arbitrary particle size in the range of 1 to 100 um could be
chosen when the particle tracking model was used to simulate ozone disinfection
performance.
Table 6.2 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking
CT at outlet simulated by
Eulerian approach (mg/L min)
Case
Study
Particle
diameter
(um)
CT at outlet simulated
by particle tracking
(mg/L min)
Sc =0.9 Sc =1000
1 7.78
10 7.76 Reactor 1
100 7.76

7.82


7.80

1 10.84
10 10.68 Reactor 2
100 10.83

11.67
11.33

The most important finding from the results in Table 6.2 was that, the CT values
predicted by the two different approaches were very close for reactor 1 but differed
slightly for reactor 2. The reason for the negligible difference for reactor 1 was due to
the fact that the reactor 1 exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior and there was no
short-circuiting or dead zones within the system. Therefore, the residence time (T) and
ozone profiles (C) on particle trajectories can better represent those values in the main
flow. Therefore both approaches could equally characterize the performance of this
reactor.

159
For the reactor 2, the Eulerian approach based ozone exposure CT was slightly higher
than the particle tracking based CT. The possible reasons for this might include: 1) in
the particle tracking model, only limited number of particles (10,000) could be released
from the reactor inlet due to the limitation of the computer power. Therefore, these
particles might not be able to completely represent the particle trajectories of all the
pathogens within the reactor 2; 2) only a relatively small number of particle trajectories
(30 to 50) were used for calculation of CT due to the complexity of the data process
procedures and limitation of computer power. These limited numbers of particles may
not be sufficient to fully represent all the particles. For instance, the selected particle
trajectories as shown in Figure 6.5 might not be able to represent the particles that could
travel through the dead zone, and thus lead to underestimation of the CT values. It was
expected that better CT prediction could be obtained using more particle trajectories for
calculation.
Table 6.2 presents the effect of the Turbulent Schmidt number (Sc) on the Eulerian
approach. The Schmidt number is a measure of the relative strength of turbulent
viscosity and turbulent diffusion (Launder & Spalding, 1974). In most of the
environmental flow, both turbulent viscosity and turbulent diffusion are important,
therefore it usually should be close to 1 (Lakehal, 2002). As shown in Equation 6.5,
when the Schmidt number is much lower than 1, the turbulent diffusion may be
dominant during the CT transport process. When the Schmidt number Sc is much
higher than 1, it means that turbulent diffusion is not important. In this study, the CT
transport equation was simulated at two different Schmidt numbers: one was the default
value 0.9 and another was 1000. The purpose of modeling CT at a larger Schmidt
number (1000) was to “turn off” the turbulent diffusion term and therefore to
investigate the effect of turbulent diffusion on the CT value prediction. Table 6.2 shows
the modeling results at the two different different Schmidt numbers. It was found that
the Schmidt number had a negligible effect on reactor 1 performance but did affect CT

160
predictions for reactor 2, although the impact was less than 10% over the range
simulated. For reactor 2, even with a very high Schmidt number (1000), the Eulerian-
based CT values were still slightly larger than the particle tracking-based CT values.
Similar phenomena were observed by Chiu et al. (1999), Do-Quang et al. (2002), and
Mofidi et al. (2004) in their UV disinfection modelling studies. Ducoste et al. (2005)
explained that the main reason for the difference between the two approaches was that
the pathogens in UV system were actually inactivated instead of being completely
“killed” during the UV disinfection process. The Eulerian approach assumes that the
particle concentrations are reduced after the pathogens are inactivated, thus, as Ducoste
discussed, will result in a bigger concentration gradient in the diffusion term and may
over-estimate disinfection efficiency. Based on their study, Ducoste et al.(2005) suggest
that “turning off” the diffusion term may make the Eulerian approach fit better with
the Lagrangian approach. However, this conclusion is doubtful, because: 1) the
pathogens inside non-ideal reactors always exhibit a certain level of concentration
gradient due to the existence of short-circuiting or dead zones. Therefore, it is
inappropriate to completely shut off the diffusion term in the Eulerian approach; 2) it is
also questionable to turn off the diffusion term in the Eulerian approach but use the
dispersion model in the Lagrangian approach.
The results of this study however suggested that the main reason for the differences of
the Eulerian and Particle tracking models was due to the limitations of the injected
particle numbers and the particle tracking data processing procedures. It was expected
that the particle tracking modeling results could fit better with Eulerian approach if
sufficiently large number of particles were tracked and used for CT predictions.

161
6.4.2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study
The two CFD modeling approaches were also applied to simulate the hydraulics and CT
of the ozone contactors in the Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant. Figure 6.8 displays
typical particle trajectories inside the contactor. It was observed that large recirculation
zones existed in the two cells and caused short-circuiting and dead zones. The existence
of dead zones and short-circuiting might reduce the contacting opportunities between
ozone and pathogens and make disinfection efficiency significantly less than it
otherwise could be.

Figure 6.8 Particle trajectories of the Desbaillets ozone contactor
The effects of particle size on the prediction of flow hydraulics, represented by particle
residence time distributions (RTDs), were studied for three particle sizes (1, 10, and 100
um). Figure 6.9 shows that the effect of particle size was negligible with respect to
particle RTD prediction.

162
Particle 1 (1um)
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0 170 290 410 530 650 770 890 1010 1130
Time (s)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
particle 2 (10um)
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0 170 290 410 530 650 770 890 1010 1130
Time (s)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

particle 3 (100um)
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0 170 290 410 530 650 770 890 1010 1130
Time (s)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n


Figure 6.9 Effect of particle size on particle tracer residence time distribution

163
Figure 6.10 presents a comparison of the tracer RTD curves simulated by the Eulerian
and particle tracking approaches. The Eulerian approach-based RTD results fit better
with experimental data while the particle tracking method provided shorter residence
time than the experimental values. The different tracer RTD predictions were also
mainly caused by the limited numbers of particles used in particle tracking modelling.
Since the particles passed the contactor in a discrete way, the particle tracking method
might miss some important residence time distribution information, leading to an
underestimation of the residence time. In the contrast, the Eulerian approach provided
continuous tracer residence time information. The Eulerian approach also assumed that
the tracer was a dissolved chemical species, which was usually the case for full-scale
contactor hydraulics studies. It was therefore suggested that the Eulerian approach
might be a better method for prediction of the chemical tracer residence time
distribution and T
10
values.

0 200 400 600 800
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Particle Trackiing
Eulerian Approach
Experimental Data
Time (S)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Figure 6.10 Comparison of tracer curves: particle tracking vs. Eulerian approach

164
100 300 500 700 900
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
Particle 1
Particle 2
Particle 3
Particle Residence Time (S)
C
T

V
a
l
u
e

f
o
r

I
n
v
i
d
i
u
a
l

P
a
r
t
i
c
l
e
(
m
g
/
L

m
i
n
)

Figure 6.11 Particle tracking-based CT vs. particle residence time for the ozone contactor
Figure 6.11 presents the relationship between the particle tracking time and particle
tracking based CT for individual particles in the ozone contactor. Generally, the two
parameters had a linear relationship but with some variations. This was due to the
existence of the strong recirculation zones inside the contactor, and particles might be
exposed to different dosage even though when their particle tracking time is the same.
The CFD model was also used to estimate the CT values for the Desbailets WTP ozone
contactor. Table 6.3 shows the average CT value at the contactor outlet calculated by
the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. Again it could be seen that the particle
size had negligible effects on the particle tracking-based CT. The results also showed
that the Eulerian approach-based CT was slightly higher than the particle tracking-based
CT. This was consistent with the results of the verification case studies.

165
Table 6.3 also shows the Eulerian based CT values simulated at two different Schmidt
numbers (0.9 and 1000). As with the comparison done for reactor 2, the Eulerian-based
CT value was smaller at higher Schmidt numbers. However, even when the Schmidt
number was set at an unreasonably high value of 1000 (when turbulent diffusion is
negligible), the Eulerian-based CT value was still larger than particle tracking-based CT
values.
Since the full-scale ozone contactors are non-ideal reactors, particles may have much
more complex trajectories compared to that in an ideal reactor. Therefore, more
accurate CT prediction results should be able to be obtained through particle tracking
model using more powerful computers and tracking more particles.
Table 6.3 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking
CT at contactor outlet simulated by
the Eulerian approach (mg/L min)
Case study
Particle
diameter
(um)
CT at contactor
outlet simulated by
particle tracking
(mg/L min)
Sc
=0.9
Sc
=1000
1 0.92.
10 0.97
BesBaillets
WTP Ozone
Contactor
100 0.88

1.07


1.02

* Sc : Schmidt number

166
6.5 Conclusions
In the present study, the disinfection performance of two hypothetical ozone reactors
and a full-scale contactor has been simulated using a computational fluid dynamics
model. For the first time, the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches, two commonly
utilized methods for study of the ozone disinfection process, have been compared.
Several important conclusions can be drawn from the current results:
• For ozone reactors with plug flow characteristics, either approach could be used to
evaluate contactor hydraulics and disinfection efficiency (CT value).
• For reactors with non-ideal hydraulic performance, the particle tracking model
predicted slightly smaller CT than the Eulerian approach does. This was mainly due
to the complex particle trajectories in the non-ideal reactors. To further improve the
accuracy of the particle tracking modelling, it was suggested to use more powerful
computers which allow tracking a larger number of the particles.
• For the full scale contactor investigated, the tracer residence time distribution curve
predicted by the Euerlian approach provided a better fit to the experimental results,
which indicated that the Eulerian approach might be more suitable for the
simulation of chemical tracer performance.
• The effect of particle size (1 µm to 100 µm) used in this study on the particle
tracking method was negligible.
• The results of this work provide important insight in understanding the complex
performance of multiphase ozonation systems and may play an important role in
further improving CFD modelling approaches for full-scale ozone disinfection

167
systems. Further investigation should be done to study the effects of model inputs
on the two modelling approaches and to compare the two approaches for full-scale
ozone contactors with different flow patterns.

168
CHAPTER 7 A COMPARISON BETWEEN CT
10
,
IDDF-BASED CT, AND CFD-BASED
CT FOR EVALUATION OF DRINKING
WATER OZONE DISINFECTION
PERFORMANCE

7.1 Introduction
The concept of regulating disinfection treatment through CT, the product of the residual
disinfectant concentration (C) and a characteristic time of pathogen exposure to the
disinfectant (T), was introduced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
in the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) (USEPA, 1991). Using an appropriate
CT calculation method to determine ozone dosage is important since low ozone dosages
may not be able to provide sufficient credit for inactivation of pathogens and high
dosages can lead to increased concentration of disinfection byproducts. The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface
Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) in January 2006 which included a new CT table
for evaluation of log inactivation credit of Cryptosporidium by ozone (USEPA, 2006).
These CT values are one order of magnitude higher than the values required for Giardia
inactivation (Rakness, 2005). Therefore, it becomes more important to accurately
calculate the CT of ozone systems to reduce capital and operating costs and minimize

169
the concentrations and therefore the associated risk of disinfection by-product in
finished water.
Various methods have been proposed for calculation of the CT of ozone systems. The
most commonly used is the CT
10
methodology (USEPA, 1991), in which C is ozone
residual concentration and the T
10
is the length of time at which 90% of the water
passing through the unit is retained within the basin or treatment unit (USEPA, 1991).
This method is a simple way to evaluate disinfection efficiency. However, it has been
well documented that the CT
10
approach may result in under-estimation of the
disinfection efficiency (Bellamy et al., 1998; Greene, 2002; Carlson et al. 2001; Zhang
et al., 2005).
Alternatively, the Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) (Bellamy, 2000)
and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches (Murrer et al., 1995; Do-Quang et
al., 1999; Huang, 2002; Zhang et al., 2005) have been studied for evaluating full-scale
ozone disinfection systems. Both approaches incorporate all the major components of
ozone disinfection processes within the models although the two approaches have
fundamental differences.
Limited studies had been previously done to compare the different CT approaches.
Barbeau et al. (2003) compared the IDDF approach with the CT
10
method and found
that the CT values calculated by the IDDF are usually about 2 times higher than those
determined by the traditional CT
10
method. Greene et al. (2004) performed a study to
compare the IDDF approach with a CFD modelling approach in predicting disinfection
efficiencies of a pilot scale chlorination reactor consisting of long channels. Their
results show that the CFD-predicted disinfection efficiencies fit better with
experimental results. However, to date, no studies have been reported to compare the

170
CFD design approaches with CT
10
and IDDF methods for either pilot-scale or full-scale
ozonation systems.
The objective of this study was to perform a full-scale assessment to compare the above
three disinfection design approaches. To be consistent with the current CT-table based
regulations (USEPA, 2006), the three approaches were compared based on their
prediction of CT values which are used to represent the disinfection efficiencies of
ozone disinfection processes. The comparison was done based on the study of a full-
scale ozone contactor at the DesBaillet Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal,
Canada. In addition, the CT values obtained by three approaches were compared with
bioassay test results conducted by Broséus et al. (2005) to determine the most
appropriate method for design and operation of full-scale ozone systems.
7.2 Case Study
The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) has a capacity of 1,136 million litres per
day (MLD) and it is the largest facility in the province of Quebec and the second largest
water treatment plant in Canada. The St. Lawrence River is used as a source for the
production of drinking water. Due to good raw water quality of the source water, a
relatively simple treatment is used, including direct sand filtration without coagulant,
post-ozonation, and chlorination.
The WTP ozonation process has six parallel ozone contactors. The total length and
depth of each contactor are 11 m and 6.5 m respectively. Each contactor consists of two
large cells in series. The first cell is operated in the counter-current mode, and the
second cell is co-current. Ozone gas (1-2% by weight in air) is injected through porous
media bubble diffusers located at the bottom of the first cell (Broséus et al., 2005). All
the contactors have the same geometry and operational characteristic parameters

171
therefore, only one was studied. Figure 7.1 shows the schematic drawing of the
contactor.


Figure 7.1 Schematic drawing of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor

7.3 Theoretical Background and Methodologies
The CT concept was originally based on the assumption that the inactivation kinetics of
pathogens follows the Chick-Watson model (MWH, 2005). For ozone systems, this
model can be expressed as:
] [ ] [
] [
3
O N k
dt
N d
p
⋅ − = (7.1)

172
where [N] is the pathogen concentration, ] [
3
O is ozone residual concentration and k
p
is
the pathogen inactivation rate constant.
Equation 7.1 can be integrated to the following form:


× − = dt O k
N
N
p
] [ 4343 . 0
] [
] [
log
3
0
(7.2)
Equation 7.2 indicates that the log inactivation is determined by the inactivation rate
constant, the ozone concentration, and the pathogen inactivation reaction time.
The term

dt O ] [
3
in Equation 7.2 is often called the ozone-exposure, or ozone CT
value, as it is the integral form of the ozone residual concentration times time:
CT k
N
N
p
× × − = 4343 . 0
] [
] [
log
0
(7.3)
The CT tables published by USEPA for various pathogens were based on the model
shown in Equation 7.3 and the CT requirements in the table were determined by
performing a statistical analysis of literature data related to pathogen inactivation by the
disinfectants under various conditions (Crozes, 1999). Since most of the literature data
were based on completely mixed batch reactor studies in which the ozone residuals and
residence times are constant, the CT table can accurately relate CT to the log
inactivation ratio of pathogens. For full-scale ozone contactors, however, estimation of
the CT value can be accomplished in different ways. Three different CT calculation
methods for the characterization of the ozone contactor performance are discussed in
this thesis as follows.

173
7.3.1 CT
10

For multiple chamber ozone contactors, an integrated CT
10
approach is commonly
adopted to calculate the CT
10
values (Rakness, 2005). The total CT of the ozone
contactor is determined by summing up the CT values of all individual chambers using
the following equation:

=
i i
T C CT
10 10
(7.4)
where i is the number of ozone cells (or chambers), T
10i
is derived from tracer tests. C
i

is the ozone residual concentration at the outlet of each cell (mg/L). The ozone residual
(‘‘C’’ in the CT product) is the ozone concentration at the exit of a chamber.
The DesBaillets contactor consists of two cells. All the diffusers are located at the
bottom of cell 1, therefore cell 1 is called the dissolution cell and cell 2 is called the
reactive cell. Based on the drinking water regulations in the province of Quebec,
Canada (MENV 2002, Broséus et al. 2005), the following expression is used for
calculation of the CT
10
for porous diffuser ozone contactors with counter-current
dissolution:

× × + × × =
i
i i res
res
T
T
T
C T
T
T C
CT
10
1
10
10
2
(7.5)
where
res
C is the ozone residual in the first cell, T
10
is the time of 10% of a tracer to
have appeared in the effluent and T is the total theoretical retention time in the contactor,
T
i
is the theoretical retention time of the cell i, and
i res
C is the ozone residual of cell i.

174
7.3.2 IDDF-based CT
The Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is an alternative approach for
designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et al., 1998; Carlson et al., 2000). The IDDF
approach assumes that the flows in ozone contactors are segregated. Each discrete
element of incoming fluid is assumed to take a different route and a different length of
time to pass through the vessel. The IDDF approach incorporates four components in
one model, including a contactor hydraulic module, disinfectant decay kinetics module,
pathogen inactivation module and a DBP formation module (Bellamy et al. 1998;
Carlson et al. 2001; Ducoste et al. 2001; Rakness 2001). The original IDDF approach
utilizes mathematical relationships for each of the components (Bellamy et al. 1998).
The integrated model can be solved with a complex integral (Bellamy, 2000). Carlson et
al. (2001) further developed the IDDF approach by introducing an IDDF spreadsheet
method, which allows the use of a tracer-test RTD directly as an input to the hydraulics
module.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the IDDF approach with other CT
calculation methods. Therefore, the pathogen inactivation module were not integrated in
the CT calculation. CTs were calculated by incorporating a tracer E curve, obtained
from tracer tests or CFD simulation, and the ozone residual profile calculated based on
the first-order decay kinetic model.
∑ ∑

=

=
− ∆ = ∆ =
0 0
)] exp( [
j
j d o j j j
j
j j i
t k C t E t C E CT (7.6)
where, i is the number of the cell of contactor, j is the integration step number; C
o
is the
influent disinfectant concentration, C
j
is the residual ozone concentration calculated by
assuming that ozone decay follows first-order kinetics as discussed in Chapter 4, k
d
is

175
the ozone decay kinetic constant,
j
t ∆ is the time step,
j
E is the normalized tracer
concentration at time step j on a tracer E curve (Levenspiel 1999).
As described above, the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor has two cells. In this study,
the IDDF-based CT of each cell was predicted through integration of tracer residence
time distribution curves and ozone profiles along the cell. The tracer RTD curves were
obtained from CFD modelling. The ozone profile was determined by the ozone decay
kinetics obtained from an experimental study done by the École Polytechnique de
Montréal. It was assumed that, ozone residuals in cell 1 increased linearly until reaching
the average concentration at the outlet of cell 1, and the ozone profiles in cell 2 were
simulated based on a first-order decay kinetics (Benbeau et al., 2003; Broséus et al.,
2005). All the calculations were performed using a Microsoft Excel tabular format. A
similar IDDF-based CT calculation method was used by Benbue et al. (2003).
7.3.3 CFD-based CT
A two phase, three dimensional, CFD model has been developed to describe ozonation
processes (Chapter 4 of this thesis and Zhang et al., 2005). The hydrodynamic
behaviour of ozone contactors was modelled based on continuity and momentum
balance equations for the two-phases: water and ozonated gas (Versteeg and
Malalasekera, 1995; Podowski, 2003). For the liquid phase, the standard k-ε model was
used (Launder and Spalding 1974). The turbulence of the dispersed gas phase was
modeled using a Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model. Bubble induced turbulence was
taken into account as per Sato and Sekogochi (1975). To model ozone transport and
associated reactions, ozone decomposition kinetics and mass transfer kinetics sub-
models were included in the form of species transport equations. The details of the
species transport equations and the sink terms used to describe ozone decomposition
and ozone transfer can be found in Chapter 4.

176
The results in Chapter 6 of this thesis showed that both the Eulerian and particle
tracking approaches could be used for quantification of microbial disinfection
efficiency of full-scale ozone contactors. Since the Eulerian approach is easier to
implement and is computationally economic, it was used in this study for predicting
CFD-based CT. A finite volume commercial CFD code CFX 10 (Ansys, 2005) was
used. The additional variable transport equation for solving the CFD-based CT is as
follows:
CT
tl l
tl
l l l l
S CT
Sc
r CT U r CT r
t
= ∇ ∇ − • ∇ +


) ) ( ( ) ( ) (
ρ
u
(7.7)
where
l
r is volume fraction of water,
l
u is the water flow velocity;
l
ρ is the density of
flow;
α t
Sc is the turbulent Schmidt number.
The source term
CT
S was defined as:
l l CT
C r S = (7.8)
where
l
C is the dissolved ozone concentration
7.3.4 Bioassy-based CT
To validate the CT calculation methods and determine the best approach for predicting
ozone contactor disinfection performance, bioassays were conducted by the Ecole
Polytechnique de Montréal (Broséus et al., 2005) using indigenous aerobic spore-
formers as a biodosimetric tracer. Indigenous aerobic spore formers (ASF) are usually
abundant in surface waters and resistant to ozone (Nieminski et al. 2000; Facile et al.

177
2000; Craik et al. 2002). They also typically exhibit a linear inactivation with respect to
CT. Therefore, it is possible to use the ASF to validate the CT of full-scale ozone
contactors (Broséus et al., 2005).
The bioassay-based CT was obtained by conducting pilot-scale and full-scale tests.
First, experiments were performed on a continuous-flow ozone pilot system to obtain
the correlation between the microbial inactivation and effective CT. The ASF was
injected into the inlet of the pilot ozone contactor at different ozone dosages. At each
dosage condition, the ASF concentrations at inlet and outlet, ozone concentration
profiles and the residence times were measured. Thus a reference CT curve could be
generated for describing the inactivation ratio and effective CT. Second, the ASF
concentrations at the full-scale ozone contactor inlet and outlet at the DesBaillets WTP
were measured. By measuring the ASF inactivation ratio during full-scale validations, it
was possible to link it to the CT measured in the pilot contactor (Broséus et al., 2005).
The detailed experimental method can be found in Broséus et al. (2005). This validation
process is similar to the bioassay tests for validation of UV reactors using reference
curves developed with MS2 phages (USEPA 2003).
7.4 Results
In Chapter 4, the CFD model was validated using tracer experimental data and
monitored ozone profiles. In this Chapter, CFD-based CT values under varying
conditions, as shown in Table 7.1, were simulated using the validated model. These
modelling conditions are the same as the operational conditions for the bioassay tests
conducted by the Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Broséus et al., 2005)

178
7.4.1 Comparison of CT
10
, IDDF-based CT, CFD-based CT and Bioassy-based CT
The CT values at the above four operational conditions (see Table 7.1) were modelled
Table 7.1 Summary of the modeling conditions for comparison of different CT
calculation methods
Gas flow rate
(Nm
3
/s)
Ozone dose
(mg/L)
Immediate O
3

demand (mg/L)
O
3
decay kinetic
constant (min
-1
)
O
3
/air
(% by wt)
Run 1 0.15 0.98 0.45 0.11 1.16
Run 2 0.20 1.46 0.67 0.08 1.30
Run 3 0.25 1.83 0.84 0.06 1.30
Run 4 0.30 2.03 0.94 0.05 1.22

using the CFD, CT
10
, and IDDF approaches and also compared with the bioassay-based
CT. Figure 7.2 presents the comparison results of the four CT prediction methods under
various operating conditions. The results showed that, among the three CT prediction
methods, the CFD-based CT values fitted best with the bioassay-based CT values
obtained from bioassay experiments.
Figure 7.2 also showed that the CT
10
method gave the lowest prediction of CT. In all
the conditions, the CT
10
values were lower than the bioassay-based CT values. At
higher ozone dose conditions, the bioassay-based CT values could be 1.0 to 1.5 times
higher than the CT
10
values. This indicated that the traditional CT
10
method may

179
significantly underestimate disinfection efficiency which may lead to over-dosing of
ozone and an excessive production of disinfection by-products, such as bromate.
It was also found that, at current modelling conditions, the IDDF-based CT values were
higher than the CFD-based CT values and the bioassay-based CT values. This
suggested that the IDDF-based CT may over-estimate the CT for the Desbaillet ozone
contactors and the CFD approach may be a better option for evaluating Desbaillet WTP
ozone disinfection treatment performance.

0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
CT10
IDDF-based CT
CFD based CT
Bioassy-based CT
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

C
T

(
m
g
/
L

m
i
n
)

Figure 7.2 Comparison of the four CT prediction methods under various operating conditions


180
7.4.2 Comparison of Three Approaches for Alternative Contactor Configurations
Considering the fact that the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor had only two chambers
which exhibited relatively poor mixing behaviours, two additional comparisons were
conducted at alternative contactor configurations as shown in Figure 7.3. The case 1
configuration included 4 additional baffles in the cell 1 of the original ozone contactor
and the case 2 configuration had 6 additional chambers in the contactor. The purpose of
modelling these two additional cases was to study the effect of contactor hydraulics on
the different CT methods.

(a) Alternative contactor configuration: Case 1

(b) Alternative contactor configuration: Case 2
Figure 7.3 Two alternative contactor configurations for studying the CT approaches


181


Figure 7.4 and Figure 7.5 present the comparison of the flow fields and the tracer
residence time (RTD) curves inside the contactor configurations. Obviously, the case 2
scenario provided best mixing performance. In contrast to the strong recirculation and
shot-circuiting existed in the original contactor, the case 2 contactor had the most
uniform flow field and minimum short-circuiting and dead zones. It was therefore
closer to plug flow. The T
10
/T ratio of the original contactor and cases 1 and 2 were
0.55, 0.78, and 0.82, respectively.

Figure 7.4 Comparison of the flow velocity fields (m/s) at different contactor configurations
Original
Case 1
Case 2

182
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
Original
Case 1
Case 2
Time (S)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Figure 7.5 Comparison of the predicted tracer residence time distributions at different contactor
configurations
Figure 7.6 provides a comparison of the CT values of three alternative contactors using
different calculation methods: CT
10
, IDDF-based CT and CFD-based CT. As with
previous results, the CT
10
values were smaller than the CT values predicted by the two
other approaches, and the CFD-based CT was smaller than IDDF-based CT. However,
the difference between CFD and IDDF approaches became smaller from the original
case to case 1 and then case 2. This indicated that the degree of the difference among
the IDDF and CFD approaches was sensitive to the contactor configuration. Smaller
difference could be obtained in larger T
10
/T systems. One possible reason for this
observation is that, at higher T
10
/T conditions, the flows were more segregated (Greene,
2002). The IDDF concept, which assumes that the flow is completely segregated, is
therefore acceptable at such conditions for prediction of disinfection performance. On
the contrary, at lower T
10
/T conditions, the effects of micromixing become stronger and

183
the IDDF may over-estimate system performance. The CFD model developed in this
study does not employ an assumption of mixing state and thus it may provide better
description of disinfection efficiency for any types of full-scale ozone contactors.
Original Case Case 1 Case 2
1
2
3
4
5
CT
10
IDDF-based CT
CFD-based CT
Case of Study
C
T

(
m
g
/
L

m
i
n
)

Figure 7.6 Comparison of CT calculation methods at different contactor configuration conditions

7.5 Discussion
In the above study, it was found that CT
10
–based CT values were usually much less
than the CT simulated by the two other modelling approaches and were lower than the
real dose as described by the bioassay-based CT. This demonstrated that the traditional
CT
10
method might significantly underestimate disinfection efficiency. The potential

184
reasons or this included: 1) the CT
10
approach used a very conservative residence time
T
10
to represent the residence time of all pathogens; 2) this approach essentially
assumed that all the reactive chambers were CSTR reactors, in which the effluent
concentration is used to represent the concentrations inside the contactor. However, the
ozone concentration varied significantly in most chambers, especially when there were
few chambers and mixing was poor.
It was also observed that the IDDF-based CT was higher than the calculated CT
10
. This
was due to the fact that the IDDF approach integrates the tracer residence time
distribution curves with the ozone profiles along the ozone contactor. However, in all
the results, the IDDF-based CT over-estimated the performance represented by the
biodosimetric CT. The potential reasons for this were that the IDDF assumes that the
fluid in the contactor is completely segregated, which means that the fluid mixing
occurs on a macroscopic level (Greene et al. 2004; Craik, 2005). Under this assumption,
molecules move in groups, and molecules in one group do not interact with molecules
in another group. The IDDF approach does not take into account micro-mixing effects
or molecular interactions. However, real fluids in contactors are usually partially
segregated fluids in which microscopic level mixing may significantly affect the
macroscopic level mixing. In addition, the IDDF uses a tracer residence time
distribution curve to represent the contactor hydraulics. However, residence time
distribution alone does not precisely characterize the degree of separation, and different
reactor geometries may exhibit a similar residence time distribution (Levenspiel 1999).
Therefore, the IDDF approach may lead to over- or under-estimation of disinfection
performance. The CFD modelling approach, however, does not rely on assumptions of
fluid mixing levels. Given accurate modelling conditions, the CFD-based CT can be
obtained based on detailed information for ozone concentrations and residence times of
all micro-organisms, thus it is possible to provide better prediction of ozone disinfection
performance in either small or large scale ozone disinfection systems.

185
Table 7.2 Key differences of CT
10
, IDDF and CFD methodologies
Major
components in the
models
CT
10
IDDF-based CT CFD-based CT
Contactor
Hydraulics
Each contactor
chamber is assumed
to be a CSTR
reactor. A very
conservative
parameter T
10
is
used to represent the
contactor hydraulics

Assumes the flows
are segregated.
Tracer Residence
Time Distribution
(RTD) is used to
represent contactor
hydraulics.
Predicted by Navier-
stokes equation based
fluid equations
Ozone mass
transfer
Not included Not included The two-film
interfacial mass
transfer model used
and implemented by
solving species
transport equations

Ozone demand
and decay
Not available.
The ozone
concentrations are
monitored at the
outlet of the ozone
chambers and used
as representative
parameters for a
whole chamber
The ozone profiles
are simulated
based on site-
specific ozone
decay kinetics.
The ozone
concentrations at any
location in the
contactor are
simulated based on
site-specific ozone
demand and decay
kinetics by solving
species transport
equations

Microbial
inactivation
kinetics
Not available The site-specific
microbial
inactivation
kinetics can be
integrated into the
model
The site-specific
microbial inactivation
kinetics can be
integrated into the
model by solving
species transport
equations


186
The simulation results also suggested that the differences between the IDDF and CFD
approaches were sensitive to contactor mixing performance. When a contactor shows
poor mixing performance and has substantial dead zones or short-circuiting, the CFD
modelling approach is a better option for predicting CT values. However, when
contactor hydraulics is close to plug flow, the IDDF and CFD may provide similar CT
prediction results.
The key differences between the three CT prediction methods are summarized in
Table 7.2.
7.6 Conclusions
The CT of ozone disinfection processes was studied using different CT prediction
methods: CT
10
, IDDF-based CT, and CFD-based CT. The following conclusions can be
drawn from the comparison studies:
• The CT
10
approach uses only two simplified, overly conservative parameters (ozone
residual C and residence time T
10
) to describe the ozone disinfection performance.
Therefore, it may underestimate ozone disinfection efficiency and result in over-
dosing of ozone.
• The IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the contactors are completely
segregated. It ignores the effects of micro-scale mixing of fluids. Based on the
comparison results presented in this chapter, this approach is questionable in
situations when the contactors have substantial short-circuiting and dead zones.
However, it may be suitable for use when ozone contactors have high T
10
/T ratios
because the flows were more segregated at such conditions and the IDDF concept,
which assumes that the flow is completely segregated, is therefore more acceptable.

187
• The CFD approach employs a three-dimensional multiphase CFD model to address
all the major components of ozone disinfection processes. Current results showed
that, for various modelling conditions, the predicted CFD-based CT values fitted
well with the bioassay-based CT values. Since the CFD approach does not rely on
knowledge of the contactor mixing state, it can be effectively used for predicting
disinfection performance in various types of full-scale or pilot-scale ozone
contactors.
• The accuracy of CFD modelling can be affected by some uncertainty factors
including geometry information, mesh quality, boundary conditions, flow regimes
(e.g. laminar or turbulent; steady or unsteady), and numerical description of the flow
field. Therefore, appropriate safety factors should be included in the CFD based
design. In the future, CFD validation studies should be done for ozone contactors
with different geometries under varying water quality and operational conditions.
Ultimately, a guideline of safety factors could be developed for various ozone
contactor designs.

188
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

This thesis has described the development of a comprehensive three dimensional (3D)
multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to predict components of ozone
disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics, ozone mass transfer, ozone demand and
decay, and microbial inactivation. The model has been validated using full-scale
experimental data, including tracer test results, ozone profiles, and bioassay tests from
full-scale ozone contactors in two Canadian drinking water treatment plants (WTPs):
the DesBaillets WTP in Montréal, Quebec and the Mannheim WTP in Kitchener,
Ontario. In addition, the Eulerian and particle tracking (or Lagriangian) approaches
have been compared for prediction of microbial inactivation efficiency (represented by
the effective CT) of ozone contactors; the CFD model has been used to improve ozone
monitoring and tracer test strategies to assist with ozone contactor operation and ozone
disinfection efficiency prediction; and the different CT prediction approaches have been
compared for evaluation of ozone disinfection performance based on full-scale
investigations.
8.1 Conclusions
The following conclusions can be drawn regarding the development and validation of a
multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for ozone processes:

189
• An Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model had been developed to model the
hydrodynamics of complex gas-liquid ozone contacting systems. Using the CFD
model, flow structures in two full-scale ozone contactors were simulated. A mesh
density dependence study was conducted. The sensitivity of modelling to the
turbulence models was also investigated and the k-ε model was found to be more
appropriate for the modelling. Good agreement was observed between the numerical
tracer simulation and experimental tracer test data from ozone contactors at the
DesBaillets WTP in Montreal, Quebec and the Mannheim WTP in Kitchner,
Ontario. This suggested that the Eulerian-Eulerian modelling approach developed in
this study was capable of predicting multiphase ozone contactor hydraulic
performance with a fair degree of accuracy.
• All the main components of ozone disinfection processes, including ozone mass
transfer between two phases, ozone demand and decay kinetics, tracer transport,
microbial inactivation kinetics, and bromate formation kinetics, were integrated
within the CFD model through the use of species transport equations with
appropriate source terms. The simulated dissolved ozone concentration profiles
agreed well with the monitored ozone profiles of the ozone contactors at the
DesBaillets and Mannheim WTPs. This further validated the CFD model for
predicting the performance of full-scale ozone disinfection processes. The results of
this study revealed that by combining the CFD hydrodynamics model with the
transport models, the ozone mass transfer and reactions could be predicted
reasonably well without any pre-assumption about flow characteristics (e.g.
continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) or plug flow reactor (PFR)) or dispersion
level).
• The CFD model was applied to investigate ozone contactor performance at the
DesBaillets WTP. The CFD-predicted flow fields showed that recirculation zones

190
and short circuiting existed in the DesBaillets contactors. The simulation results
suggested that the installation of additional baffles would increase the residence
time and improve disinfection efficiency. The CFD model was also applied to
simulate ozone contactor performance at the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant
before and after the installation of new liquid oxygen (LOX) ozone generators to
increase the ozone gas concentration and removal of some diffusers from the system.
The modelling results suggested that such changes led to an increase in effective
residence time and adjusting operational parameters was required after system
modification.
• The effects of bubble size on the CFD modelling were studied. The results
suggested that changing bubble size from 2 mm to 5 mm, which was the typical
range of the bubble size in full-scale bubble diffuser ozone contactors, did not
significantly affect the prediction of gas hold-up and dissolved ozone residuals.
The developed CFD model is expected to provide an efficient tool to balance microbial
inactivation and bromate formation in full-scale ozone bubble diffuser contactors. Once
the site-specific model inputs (kinetics of ozone decomposition, microbial inactivation
and bromate formation) are determined by bench-scale experiments, the CFD model
can be used to predict optimal ozone dosage in order to reduce the concentrations of
disinfection by-products and therefore the associated risk, and to be cost effective.
Conclusions from the comparison between the Eulerian and particle tracking
approaches for the prediction of microbial inactivation efficiency of ozone contactors
are the following:
• To the author’s knowledge, for the first time, the Eulerian and particle tracking
approaches, two commonly utilized methods for predicting microbial inactivation

191
efficiency, have been compared for the study of ozone disinfection processes. The
modelling results of two hypothetical ozone reactors suggested that, for ozone
reactors with plug flow characteristics, either approach could be used to evaluate
contactor hydraulics and disinfection efficiency (CT value). For reactors with non-
ideal hydraulic performance, the particle tracking model predicts slightly smaller
CT than the Eulerian approach does. This was mainly due to the complex particle
trajectories in the non-ideal reactors. To further improve the accuracy of the particle
tracking modelling, it is suggested to use more powerful computers which allow
tracking larger amounts of the particles.
• For the full scale contactor investigated, the particle tracking-based CT values are
slightly lower than the CT values predicted by the Eulerian approach, but the
difference between the two approaches are within 10%. It was also observed that the
tracer residence time distribution curve predicted by the Euerlian approach provided
a better fit to the experimental results. It was suggested that the Eulerian approach
may be more suitable for the simulation of chemical tracer performance due to the
facts that: 1) it more closely reflects the actual physical behaviour of the chemical
tracers; and 2) it was much more computationally economical than the particle
tracking approach.
• It was also found that the effect of particle size (1 µm to 100 µm) used in this study
on particle tracking method was negligible.
• The results of this work is useful in understanding the complex performance of
multiphase ozonation systems and may play an important rule in further refining
CFD modelling approaches for full-scale ozone disinfection systems.

192
The important findings and conclusions from using the CFD modelling to improve
ozone monitoring and tracer test strategies include the following:
• The most significant contribution of this part of the work was that a CFD model was
applied to illustrate and improve an ozone residual monitoring strategy. For the
DesBaillets ozone contactors, the CFD modelling results showed that ozone
residuals in the cross section of the outlets of some cells differed by an order of
magnitude. The variation of residuals was affected by multiple factors, including
water/gas flow rate, temperature, and baffling conditions etc. Therefore, it was
suggested that multiple ozone residual sampling points should be installed at the
outlets of certain cells to provide more accurate indicators to system operators.
• The CFD model was also used to study the factors affecting the residence time
distribution (RTD). The results suggested that the selection of tracer injection
locations as well as tracer sampling locations could affect the RTD prediction or
measurement. The CFD calculated T
10
values predicted that RTD curves at different
outlet locations varied by more than 10%. It was therefore recommended that
multiple sampling points be employed during tracer tests.
In addition, the investigation regarding the comparison of different CT prediction
approaches lead to the following conclusions:
• The CT
10
approach use only two simplified, overly conservative parameters (ozone
residual C and residence time T
10
) to describe ozone disinfection performance.
Therefore, it may underestimate ozone disinfection efficiency and result in over-
dosing of ozone.
• The IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the contactors are completely
segregated. It ignores the effects of micro-scale mixing of fluids. Based on the

193
comparison results presented in Chapter 7, this approach is questionable in
situations when the contactors have strong short-circuiting and dead zones.
However, it may be suitable for use when the ozone contactors have high T
10
/T
ratios and exhibiting behaviour close to plug flow reactors.
• The CFD approach employs a three-dimensional multiphase CFD model to address
all the major components of ozone disinfection processes. Current results showed
that, at various modelling conditions, the predicted CFD-based CT values fit well
with the bioassay-based CT values. Since the CFD approach does not rely on the
assumption of the contactor mixing state, it can be effectively used for predicting
disinfection performance in various types of full-scale or pilot-scale ozone
contactors.

8.2 Recommendations for Future Research
• The main focus of this study was to develop and apply a computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) modelling approach to predict the disinfection performance of the
ozonation processes in drinking water treatment systems. In the drinking water
industry, ozone is also widely used as a powerful oxidizing agent for the removals
of colour, taste and odour. In addition, ozone can also be used in conjunction with
other oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide (H
2
O
2
) and high energy light
(ultraviolet), to improve the removal of some pollutants. In such advanced oxidation
processes (AOP), the chemical reactions are more complex and faster. In the future,
it would be valuable to use the developed CFD model to investigate and optimize
the ozonation performance for these alternative ozone applications.

194
• To further improve the CFD modelling of full-scale ozone bubble diffuser
contactors, the effects of bubble size distribution, bubble break-up and bubble
coalescence need to be experimentally verified and included into the CFD model to
provide more accurate prediction of mass transfer between the continuous and
dispersed phases.
• The factors affecting the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches for the prediction
of disinfection efficiency should be further investigated. The main factors may
include: different turbulence diffusion/dispersion model selection, operational
parameters, microbial inactivation kinetics, and contactor geometry.
• The current CFD model sets the water surfaces of the ozone contactors as a rigid
wall for water and a degassing free-slip wall for air. In reality, the water surface
may move dynamically, especially when the water passes the outlet weirs and the
baffle walls. It is suggested that the two-phase free surface modelling method for
modelling of water surfaces be investigated to better characterize ozone contactor
performance.
• The strategies for improving ozone monitoring and tracer test for the DesBaillets
water treatment plant were investigated in this thesis. It is suggested that more CFD
modelling and experimental studies should be done for different types of ozone
contactors to develop technical guidance on determining ozone residual monitoring
points and tracer test method. It is also recommended that such guidance should be
considered in future drinking water regulations.
• Research on the development of experimental protocols for quickly determining
site-specific ozone reaction and microbial inactivation kinetics is required to
provide more accurate inputs for CFD modelling. It is expected that such research

195
along with the development of more advanced computer technology will allow the
use of CFD to assist with the real-time control of ozone disinfection processes in the
future.
• The accuracy of CFD modelling can be affected by the uncertainties of model inputs
including inadequately defined geometry, inadequately defined boundary conditions,
lack of knowledge of the flow regimes (which may be laminar, turbulent, steady, or
unsteady), and inappropriate numerical description of the flow field. Therefore,
appropriate safety factors should be included in the CFD based design. In the future,
CFD validation studies should be done for ozone contactors with different
geometries under varying water quality and operational conditions. Ultimately, a
guideline of safety factors could be developed for various ozone contactor designs.

196
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Appendix A
Geometry and Sampling Points of the DesBaillets Water
Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor




Width of the contactor (Z direction) is 5.5m



221
Appendix B
Arrangement of Bubble Diffusers in the Cell 1 of the DesBaillets
Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor




Diffuser diameter: 0.35 m





222
Appendix C
Geometry of the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone
Contactor

1. Cell 1 and Cell 2


Width of Cell 1 to 2 (Z direction) is 2.40 m



223



2. Cells 3 to 6

Width of Cell 3 to 6 (Z direction) is 4.50 m






224
Appendix D
Arrangement of Bubble Diffusers in the Cell 1 of the Mannheim
Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor










225
Appendix E
Tracer Test Conditions and Results of the DesBaillets Water
Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor
1. Tracer test 1
Water Flow rate (m
3
/s): 2.16 Temperature (°C): 24
Gas Flow rate (m
3
/s): 0.15
Tracer dose Concentration (mg/L): 2.10
Background Concentration (mg/L): 0.13

Time (s)
Measured
Concentration
(mg/L)
Adjusted
Concentration
(mg/L) C/C
0
18 0.11 -0.03 -0.01
78 0.12 -0.02 -0.01
128 0.12 -0.02 0.00
178 0.12 -0.02 0.00
188 0.11 -0.03 -0.01
198 0.22 0.08 0.04
208 0.3 0.16 0.08
218 0.25 0.11 0.06
228 0.37 0.23 0.12
238 0.29 0.15 0.08
248 0.46 0.32 0.16
258 0.44 0.3 0.15
268 0.43 0.29 0.15
278 0.52 0.38 0.2
288 0.54 0.4 0.2
298 0.69 0.55 0.28
308 0.68 0.54 0.27
318 0.73 0.59 0.3
328 0.79 0.65 0.33
348 0.91 0.77 0.39
368 1.19 1.05 0.53
388 1.32 1.18 0.59
408 1.51 1.37 0.69
428 1.59 1.45 0.73
448 1.54 1.4 0.7
478 1.64 1.5 0.76
508 1.81 1.67 0.84
548 1.94 1.8 0.9
608 2 1.86 0.94

226

2. Tracer test 2
Water Flow rate (m
3
/s): 1.47
Gas Flow rate (m
3
/s): 0.18
Temperature (°C): 24
Tracer dose concentration (mg/L): 2.10
Background Concentration (mg/L): 0.18

Time (s)
Measured
Concentration
(mg/L)
Adjusted
Concentration
(mg/L) C/C
0

167.5 0.21 0.03 0.01
182.5 0.22 0.04 0.02
197.5 0.17 -0.01 0
212.5 0.21 0.03 0.01
232.5 0.22 0.04 0.02
252.5 0.32 0.14 0.07
272.5 0.36 0.18 0.09
292.5 0.44 0.26 0.12
312.5 0.55 0.37 0.18
342.5 0.56 0.38 0.19
372.5 0.6 0.42 0.21
402.5 0.61 0.43 0.21
432.5 0.95 0.77 0.38
462.5 1.23 1.05 0.52
492.5 1.46 1.28 0.63
522.5 1.53 1.35 0.67
552.5 1.62 1.44 0.71
582.5 1.67 1.49 0.74
612.5 1.85 1.67 0.83
652.5 1.92 1.74 0.86
702.5 1.98 1.8 0.89
762.5 2.11 1.93 0.96
822.5 2.07 1.89 0.94
882.5 2.07 1.89 0.94
942.5 2.15 1.97 0.98
1002.5 2.09 1.91 0.95
1092.5 2.16 1.98 0.98
1182.5 2.13 1.95 0.97




227
Appendix F
Turbulence Model Sensitivity Tests: Simulation Condition and
Results
The sensitivity tests were done by simulation of the DesBaillets WTP Ozone Contactor
using four different turbulence models: the standard k–ε model, the shear stress transport
(SST) model, the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) model and the RNG k–ε model.
Simulation Conditions and Results:
Water Flow rate (m
3
/s): 2.16
Gas Flow rate (m
3
/s): 0.15
Temperature (°C): 24

Normalized Concentration
Time (s)

k-ε model SST model SSG model
RNG k-ε
Model
0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
100 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
110 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02
120 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.03
130 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.05
140 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.07
150 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.10
160 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.13
170 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.15
180 0.06 0.12 0.14 0.18
190 0.08 0.15 0.17 0.21
200 0.10 0.18 0.20 0.23
210 0.13 0.21 0.23 0.26
220 0.15 0.24 0.25 0.29

228
continued
230 0.18 0.27 0.28 0.31
240 0.21 0.30 0.31 0.34
250 0.24 0.33 0.33 0.37
260 0.27 0.35 0.36 0.39
270 0.30 0.38 0.39 0.41
280 0.33 0.40 0.41 0.43
290 0.36 0.42 0.43 0.46
300 0.39 0.45 0.46 0.48
310 0.42 0.47 0.48 0.50
320 0.45 0.49 0.50 0.52
330 0.47 0.51 0.52 0.54
340 0.50 0.53 0.54 0.55
350 0.52 0.55 0.56 0.57
360 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.59
370 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.61
380 0.59 0.60 0.62 0.62
390 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64
400 0.63 0.63 0.65 0.65
410 0.65 0.65 0.67 0.67
420 0.67 0.66 0.68 0.68
430 0.69 0.68 0.70 0.69
440 0.70 0.69 0.71 0.70
450 0.72 0.70 0.72 0.72
460 0.74 0.72 0.74 0.73
470 0.75 0.73 0.75 0.74
480 0.76 0.74 0.76 0.75
490 0.78 0.75 0.77 0.76
500 0.79 0.76 0.78 0.77
510 0.80 0.77 0.79 0.78
520 0.81 0.78 0.80 0.79
530 0.82 0.79 0.81 0.80
540 0.83 0.80 0.82 0.81
550 0.84 0.81 0.83 0.81
560 0.85 0.82 0.84 0.82
570 0.86 0.83 0.85 0.83
580 0.87 0.83 0.85 0.84
590 0.88 0.84 0.86 0.84
600 0.88 0.85 0.87 0.85
610 0.89 0.85 0.87 0.86
620 0.90 0.86 0.88 0.86
630 0.90 0.87 0.89 0.87
640 0.91 0.87 0.89 0.87
650 0.91 0.88 0.90 0.88
660 0.92 0.88 0.90 0.88
670 0.92 0.89 0.91 0.89
680 0.93 0.89 0.91 0.89
690 0.93 0.90 0.92 0.90


229
continued
700 0.94 0.90 0.92 0.90
710 0.94 0.91 0.92 0.91
720 0.94 0.91 0.93 0.91
730 0.95 0.92 0.93 0.92
740 0.95 0.92 0.93 0.92
750 0.95 0.92 0.94 0.92
760 0.96 0.93 0.94 0.93
770 0.96 0.93 0.94 0.93
780 0.96 0.93 0.95 0.93
790 0.96 0.94 0.95 0.94
800 0.97 0.94 0.95 0.94
810 0.97 0.94 0.95 0.94
820 0.97 0.94 0.96 0.95
830 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.95
840 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.95
850 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.95
860 0.98 0.95 0.97 0.96
870 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.96
880 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.96
890 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.96
900 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.96
910 0.98 0.96 0.97 0.97
920 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.97
930 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.97
940 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.97
950 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.97
960 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.97
970 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.98
980 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.98
990 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
1000 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
1010 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
1020 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1030 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1040 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1050 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1060 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1070 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1080 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1090 0.99 0.98 0.99 0.98
1100 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
1110 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
1120 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1130 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1140 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1150 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1160 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99


230
continued
1170 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1180 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1190 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1200 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1210 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
1220 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
1230 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
1240 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
1250 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
1260 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
1270 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00



231
Appendix G
Mesh Density Sensitivity Tests: Simulation Condition and
Results
The tests were done by simulation of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant ozone
contactor using different mesh densities.
Contactor The simulation condition and data are as following:
Water Flow rate (m
3
/s): 2.16
Gas Flow rate (m
3
/s): 0.15
Temperature (°C): 24


Mesh element
number: 320,803
Messh element
number: 370,982
Mesh element
number: 424,891
Time (s)
Normalized
Concentration Time (s)
Normalized
Concentration Normalized Concentration
0.00 0.00 0 0.00 0.00
1.00 0.00 30 0.00 0.00
10.00 0.00 60 0.00 0.00
20.00 0.00 90 0.01 0.01
30.00 0.00 120 0.03 0.03
40.00 0.00 150 0.07 0.06
50.00 0.00 180 0.12 0.13
60.00 0.00 210 0.19 0.21
70.00 0.00 240 0.27 0.31
80.00 0.00 270 0.36 0.40
90.00 0.00 300 0.43 0.48
100.00 0.00 330 0.50 0.55
110.00 0.00 360 0.57 0.60
120.00 0.01 390 0.62 0.65
130.00 0.01 420 0.68 0.69
140.00 0.02 450 0.72 0.73
150.00 0.03 480 0.76 0.77
160.00 0.04 510 0.80 0.80
170.00 0.06 540 0.83 0.82
180.00 0.08 570 0.86 0.85
190.00 0.10 600 0.88 0.87

232
continued
200.00 0.13 630 0.90 0.89
210.00 0.15 660 0.92 0.90
220.00 0.18 690 0.93 0.92
230.00 0.21 720 0.94 0.93
240.00 0.24 750 0.95 0.94
250.00 0.27 780 0.96 0.95
260.00 0.30 810 0.97 0.95
270.00 0.33 840 0.97 0.96
280.00 0.36 870 0.98 0.97
290.00 0.39 900 0.98 0.96
300.00 0.42 930 0.98 0.97
310.00 0.45 960 0.99 0.97
320.00 0.47 990 0.98 0.98
330.00 0.50 1020 0.98 0.98
340.00 0.52 1050 0.98 0.98
350.00 0.55 1080 0.98 0.98
360.00 0.57 1110 0.99 0.99
370.00 0.59 1140 1.00 1.00
380.00 0.61
390.00 0.63
400.00 0.65
410.00 0.67
420.00 0.69
430.00 0.70
440.00 0.72
450.00 0.74
460.00 0.75
470.00 0.76
480.00 0.78
490.00 0.79
500.00 0.80
510.00 0.81
520.00 0.82
530.00 0.83
540.00 0.84
550.00 0.85
560.00 0.86
570.00 0.87
580.00 0.88
590.00 0.88
600.00 0.89
610.00 0.90
620.00 0.90

233

continued
630.00 0.91
640.00 0.91
650.00 0.92
660.00 0.92
670.00 0.93
680.00 0.93
690.00 0.94
700.00 0.94
710.00 0.94
720.00 0.95
730.00 0.95
740.00 0.95
750.00 0.96
760.00 0.96
770.00 0.96
780.00 0.96
790.00 0.97
800.00 0.97
810.00 0.97
820.00 0.97
830.00 0.97
840.00 0.97
850.00 0.98
860.00 0.98
870.00 0.98
880.00 0.98
890.00 0.98
900.00 0.98
910.00 0.98
920.00 0.98
1100.00 1.00




234
Appendix H
Evaluation of a CFD Modelling Approach for Prediction of
Flocculation Mixing Performance at the City of Toronto’s R.L.
Clark Water Treatment Plant
Abstract
In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used for evaluating flocculation
treatment performance. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed to predict
potential impacts of a change in equipment on flocculation mixing performance at the
R.L. Clark Water Treatment Plant in Toronto. A new parameter, Local G value
(velocity gradient) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate local mixing intensities.
The CFD-simulated flow fields identified the locations of potential dead zones and
short-circuiting that might affect flocculation efficiency. The results also indicated that
local G values varied by orders of magnitude at different locations and changed
significantly with impeller speed. At an impeller speed of 5 rpm, the local G values
might change from 1000 s
-1
at locations around the impellers to lower than 20 s
-1
at
locations closer to the walls. When impeller speeds increased to between 20 to 30 rpm,
the local G values at most of the areas in the tank were higher than 80 s
-1
, a typically
recommended upper limit of the G value for flocculators with vertical-shaft turbines.
The effects of baffling conditions on flocculation efficiency were also studied. The
results to date suggested that a single baffle at the inlet location might be a better option
than baffling in the middle of the tank. The indications of behaviour obtained from this
modelling need to be validated by pilot- or full-scale testing.

_____________________________________________
This paper has been published in: Proceedings of 2006 OWWA/OMWA Joint Annual
Conference, Ontario Water Works Association. It is attached herein to illustrate an
alternative application of CFD for full-scale drinking water treatment processes.

235
1. Introduction
Flocculation is instrumental for the removal of particulate contaminants in conventional
drinking water treatment systems. It is a physical process of agglomerating small
particles into larger ones that can be more easily removed from suspension (AWWA,
1999). To insure maximum particle removal, proper mixing conditions and energy
input must be provided in the flocculation tank. The mixing performance of mechanical
mixers depends on the impeller type, impeller speed, reactor geometry, and the
hydraulic residence time. The effects of these factors on full-scale flocculators are
usually complicated and difficult to be predicted via traditional calculation approaches
or lab-scale experiments.
In recent years, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has come into use for evaluating
water and wastewater treatment processes, such as disinfection contactors, air flotation
units, sedimentation, coagulation and flocculation units (Lyn et al. 1999; Greene, 2002;
Zhang et al., 2005). CFD is the science of predicting fluid flow, mass transfer, chemical
reactions and related phenomena by solving the mathematic equations governing these
processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al., 2001). The use of CFD enables
designers to obtain solutions for problems with complex geometry and boundary
conditions. For flocculation processes, Luo (1997) applied the particle tracking method
to predict mixing intensity of flocculation vessels. Essemiani and Traversay (2002) used
the Eulerian approach to study mixing performance and residence time distribution of
an experimental stirred vessel. However the majority of the previous CFD studies on
flocculation treatment have focused on its applications on single impeller laboratory
scale mixers.
The purpose of this research was to develop a three-dimensional CFD model and apply
it to provide indications of the mixing performance of a complex full-scale flocculator

236
with a vertical shaft impeller mixer, which was being installed for the upgrading of the
secondary flocculation process at the City of Toronto’s R.L. Clark Water Treatment
Plant. Because detailed design information was not available at the time of modelling
and validation of the modelling results could not be performed, this research was
considered to provide indications of expected behaviour, rather than quantitative
predictions.
2. The CFD Modelling Approach
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) works by solving the equations of fluid flow (the
Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence transport equations) over a
region of interest, with specified (known) conditions at the boundaries of that region.
The commercial software CFX5.7.1 (ANSYS Canada Inc., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada)
was chosen for this study. Using this software, the region of interest was divided into
small elements, called control volumes. The equations were discretised and solved
iteratively for each control volume. As a result, an approximation of the value of each
variable at specific points throughout the domain could be obtained. In this way, a full
picture of the behaviour of the flow could be derived (ANSYS, 2004).
2.1 Multiple Reference Frames (MRF) Model
To model impeller performance accurately, a 3D simulation was performed. The
multiple frame of reference (MFR) model was used to simulate the impeller rotation. In
the MFR modelling, the geometry of the flocculator was divided in two domains: a
rotating frame was used for the region containing the rotating components (impellers)
and a stationary frame was used for the regions that were stationary (tank walls and
baffles). There are two commonly used models for connecting the two frames and
incorporating the motion of the impellers. The first is called the frozen rotor interface

237
model, which produces a “steady state” solution to the multiple frame of reference
problems. The two frames of reference connect in such a way that they each have a
fixed relative position throughout the calculation, and the solution proceeds with steady
transfer of information across the interface between the two frames. The second option
is the transient rotor-stator model. With this model, the two grids slide past each other
in a time-dependent manner, exchanging information at the cylindrical interface. The
transient rotor-stator model is useful for examining start-up transients, or to accurately
predict the periodic flow pattern in stirred reactors. The penalty is calculation time,
which can be an order of magnitude longer than that needed for steady state calculations
(Essemiani and Traversay, 2002). In this study, the frozen rotor interface model was
chosen to be computationally effective.
2.2 Turbulence Models
Turbulence modeling is of crucial importance when describing flows in CFD modeling.
The Shear Stress Transport (SST) model was used in this study. The SST model works
by automatically applying the k-ε model in the bulk flow and the k-ω model at the walls.
Previous research has shown that this model is superior to standard models in view of
separation, lift and drag predictions (Gobby, 2004).
2.3 Local Velocity Gradient G
The performance of a flocculation vessel is commonly described by the global velocity
gradient G (s
-1
). This parameter is defined as:
G = [(P/volume)/ µ]
(1/2)
(1)
Where P/volume is the power dissipated per unit volume and µ is the dynamic viscosity
(Pa﹒s). This approach gives an average value; however, it does not provide any

238
information about the local shear rate distribution in the vessel. The rate of floc
formation is directly proportional to the local velocity gradient distribution. The local G
distribution is important as it controls particle suspension, distribution, coalescence and
break-up efficiency.
In the present study, the local velocity gradient G was defined as:

2
,
2
] [ ) ( 2 ) / (
∑ ∑


+


+


=
i j i i
j
j
i
i
i
t
x
u
x
u
x
u
G u u (2)
Where, µ
t
is the dynamic turbulent viscosity.
The local G value was calculated in CFX-POST using the simulated turbulence,(?)
viscosity and flow velocity gradient data. It was used as a key parameter for evaluation
of mixing performance of impeller mixers in this study.
2.4 Tracer Test Simulation
For flocculation processes, adequate residence time must be provided to allow
generation of particles sufficiently large to allow their efficient removal in subsequent
treatment processes. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves were simulated by
solving scalar transport equations. First, a steady state CFD simulation was performed
for calculating the fluid velocity fields. Then the tracer scalar was defined as an
additional variable. The flow field obtained from the above simulation was used as the
initial condition and was frozen when conducting unsteady state simulations to solve
the tracer scalar transport equations.


239
2.5 CFD Modelling Procedures
The CFD modelling involves four sequential steps (ANSYS, 2004):
(1) Geometry and mesh generation
The geometry of the flocculator and impellers was built using a commercial CAD
software: Solidworks
TM
(SolidWorks Corporation, Massachusetts, USA). The geometry
model then was imported into CFX-mesh to generate the mesh.
(2) CFD model setup
The flows in the flocculator were assumed to be isothermal. The frozen rotor model was
used for the multiple frames of reference. The influent flow rate for the modelling was
2.55 m
3
/s. The walls of the flocculation tank were set as no-slip walls and the top
surface of the water was set as a free-slip wall. Impeller rotating speed were varied
between 5 and 30 rpm. For steady state simulation, the time step was set at 0.1 to 10 s.
The RMS (root mean square) normalised values of the equation residuals were set as
1×10
-4
. For transient simulation, the total simulation time was 1200s. The time step was
set between 1s and 20s.
(3) Simulation runs
In CFX 5.7, the governing equations for fluid flow and species transport are discretized
in the computational domain by a finite volume method. Discretization of the non-linear
differential equations yields a system of linear algebraic equations that are solved
iteratively. A second order differencing scheme was applied to all equations to obtain
high accuracy of computation.

240
(4) Post-processing
After a simulation has finished, CFX5.7 allows the presentation of results either
graphically or numerically.
3. Case Study
The R. L. Clark Water Treatment Plant is a conventional treatment plant which treats
water from Lake Ontario and has a rated capacity of 615,000 m
3
/d. The treatment
process consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, fluoridation and
disinfection. This plant has three parallel coagulation/flocculation trains. After adding
alum prior to rapid mixers, water flows through over-and-under hydraulic mixing
chambers in series for coagulation, followed by flocculators. Each flocculation tank
consists of a primary cell and a secondary cell. Currently, the primary flocculation tanks
have been retrofitted with impeller-type mixers. The City of Toronto was replacing the
old walking beam mixing equipment in the secondary cells with impeller mixers for
flocculation. The current walking beam mixing system has functioned adequately to
date but serious corrosion of moving parts and increased maintenance requirements
necessitated the replacement of the mixing equipment.
3.1 Design of the Upgraded Flocculator
In the upgrading design, four impellers are being installed in each secondary flocculator.
Each impeller has three hydrofoil blades, each being 2000 mm in diameter, with a
minimum blade thickness of 12.7 mm and width of 300 mm with a tapered leading edge.
Figure 1 shows the configurations of a flocculator and an impeller.


241

Figure 1 Three dimensional drawing of the existing flocculator (a) and impeller (b)

As mentioned previously, each flocculator consists of a primary flocculation cell and a
secondary flocculation cell. Since the primary and secondary cells are separated by a
wall, the effects of upstream mixing on downstream mixing can be considered to be
negligible. Only the secondary flocculation cell was modelled in this study, and the
modeling does not consider the upstream (primary cell) mixing conditions.
3.2 Geometry and Mesh Generation
In the actual secondary flocculation cell, there are four existing pillars for structural
support. Preliminary modelling studies showed that the pillars have significant effects
on the flow field in the flocculation tank. Therefore, the pillars were taken into account
in the CFD modeling. Four impellers are being added beside each pillar. However,
modelling the whole reactor is time consuming and computationally intensive. In this
study, only half of the tank was modeled to reduce the computational time. Two
geometry domains were set up via Solidworks. One is a stationary domain, and another
is a moving domain. Fine tetrahedral three dimensional (3D) meshes were then created
in CFX-mesh. For the stationary domain, meshing was done on multiple blocks to
Inlet
Outlet

242
obtain fine meshes at locations close to the moving domains. The mesh element
numbers of the stationary domain and moving domain were 754,658 and 589,470×2
(two moving domains), respectively. The total number of elements for the flocculator
was 1,933,598.


(a) Stationary domain (b) Moving domain
Figure 2 Mesh of two domains used in the frozen rotor interface model

4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Impact of Impeller Speed on Flow Fields
Figure 3 shows the simulated velocity fields when the rotating speed of both impellers
was set at 5 rpm. The figure shows the locations of the potential dead zones and short-
circuiting zones in the tank.

243
It was observed that the velocity of the incoming water could significantly influence the
flow field and lead to serious short-circuiting and dead zone problems. This may be
caused by the relatively low elevation of impeller A. Since the impeller and the inlet are
at different heights, impeller A has reduced efficiency in mixing the incoming water in
this configuration.



Figure 3 Velocity vectors inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 5 rev/min)

Figures 4 and 5 show the velocity fields simulated at higher rotating speeds (20 rpm and
30 rpm). It was observed that the impeller speed could significantly affect the flow
fields. At higher impeller speed, the effects of influent water became smaller. However,
local swirls were observed at the lower level of the tank. The existence of these swirls
might reduce the mixing efficiency of the impellers.


Potential dead zones

Potential short-circuiting

244

Figure 4 Velocity vectors inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 20 rev/min)


Figure 5 Velocity vectors inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 30 rev/min)

4.2 Residence Time Distribution
Figure 6 shows the effects of the impeller speed on the tracer residence time. The
current results suggested that the flocculator had longer residence times at lower
impeller speeds.

245
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0 10 20 30
Time (minutes)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

t
r
a
c
e
r

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
5 rpm
20 rpm
30 rpm

Figure 6 CFD predicted tracer residence time distribution curves

4.3 Local Velocity Gradient G
As discussed earlier, the local velocity gradient G was introduced in this study to
describe local mixing intensity inside the flocculator. Figures 7, 8 and 9 show the local
G value distributions inside the flocculator at different impeller speeds.




246


Figure 7 Local velocity gradient (G) distribution inside the flocculator (impeller speed =
5 rpm)


Figure 8 Local velocity gradient (G) distribution inside the flocculator (impeller speed =
20 rpm)


247

Figure 9 Local velocity gradient (G) distribution inside the flocculator (impeller speed =
30 rpm)
From the above figures, it could be observed that local G value varied with the
monitoring location. When the impeller speed equalled to 5 rpm, the local G values at
locations around the two impellers were in the range of 100 to 1000 s
-1
and became
significantly lower (less than 30 s
-1
) at locations close to the walls. When impeller
speeds equalled to 20 and 30 rpm, the local G values in most areas in the tank were
higher than 100 s
-1
. Based on drinking water treatment flocculation principles, mixing
intensity values (average G values) for flocculators with vertical-shaft turbines should
be in the range of 10 to 80 s
-1
(MWH, 2005). The results suggested that for this
flocculator configuration a more appropriate range of G values could be obtained at
lower impeller speeds. Keeping in mind the fact that the modelled flocculators were in
fact secondary flocculators, average G values in the lower part of the range cited would
be more appropriate. This would also assist in minimizing breakup of flocs previously
formed in the primary flocculation tank. However, at lower G values short-circuiting
potentially existed near the inlet locations, as mentioned earlier, and this might reduce
flocculation efficiency.


248
4.4 Effects of Baffle Walls on Impeller Mixing Performance
To obtain better G value distribution and reduce swirling in the flocculator, research
was also conducted to study the benefits of installing baffle walls in the tank. Figure 10
shows the CFD simulation results of the flocculator with a baffle positioned in the
middle of the tank. The length and width of the baffle wall was 4.7 m and 0.25 m
respectively. The rotating speeds of impeller A and impeller B were 10 rpm and 5 rpm
respectively. The higher speed for impeller A was chosen to reduce short-circuiting near
the inlet. From the velocity profiles, it was found that the flow in the region downstream
of the baffle had been improved; however the region upstream of the baffle was still
poorly mixed. Therefore, installing a baffle wall in the middle of the flocculator might
not be sufficient to improve the mixing efficiency.


a) Flow field b) Local G value distribution
Figure 10 CFD simulation results of a baffled flocculator (baffle located at the middle
of the tank, speeds of impeller A and impeller B are 10 rpm and 5 rpm, respectively)


249
Figure 11 shows the CFD simulation results of the flocculator with an alternative baffle
location. A 3 m high baffle wall was located 1.5 m away from the inlet. The rotating
speeds of impeller A and impeller B were 10 rpm and 5 rpm respectively, as for the
other baffle location. This analysis suggested that the inlet baffle wall could
substantially improve mixing. The inlet baffle could improve the G value distribution
along the tank (decreasing from high to low). Under the current modelling conditions,
the average G value of the half flocculator at the outlet side was 11.7 s
-1
, which was in
the range of 10 to 30 s
-1
. At the inlet side, the average G value was relatively high (94.3
s
-1
), which was caused by high G values in a small area around the impeller. The
average G of the total tank was 43.8 s
-1
which was in middle of the suggested G value
range (10 to 80 s
-1
) (MWH, 2005).


a) Flow field b) Local G value distribution
Figure 11 CFD simulation results of a baffled flocculator (baffle is close to the inlet,
speeds of impeller A and impeller B are 10 rpm and 5 rpm, respectively)


250

4.5 Prediction of the G*t Value
A key design factor in a flocculation basin is the value of G*t (velocity gradient ×
detention time). From the CFD based tracer RTD and local G value analysis, it is
possible to roughly predict the G*t value for the flocculator. For example, in Figure 11,
the flocculation tank was divided into two regions by a middle plane between the two
impellers. The spatial average G values of region 1 and region 2 were 94.3 s
-1
and 11.7
s
-1
, respectively. From tracer test simulation, it was found that the average residence
times T
50
for the two regions were 3.9 min and 4.6 min, respectively. Therefore, the G*t
value of region 1 equaled 22066 (94.3 s
-1
× 3.9 min), and G*t of region 2 was 3229
(11.7 s
-1
× 4.6 min). The total G*t therefore was 25,295 (22,066 + 3,229), which was
within the typically range (10,000 to 150,000), as cited by Qasim et al. (2000).


Figure 12 Method for prediction of the G*t value


Region 2 Region 1

251
5. Limitations of CFD Modelling and Future Work
Despite the significant advantages of CFD as a tool for predicting impeller mixing
behaviour, it should be pointed out that current CFD techniques still have some
limitations. CFD has to be used carefully and responsibly. The main sources of CFD
error include the incorrect selection of numerical discretisation methods, improper
turbulence model selection, incomplete description of geometry, computer round off, or
poor definition of boundary conditions.
In the present research, the main uncertainty factor is the geometry of the impellers
because limited information was available during the modelling work. A more refined
prediction of system performance could be attempted if accurate design information is
available for simulations and some sample results could be validated by full-scale or
pilot scale testing. It is suggested that the sensitivity of mesh density, turbulence model
selection, and boundary condition definitions should also be further studied to
potentially improve the accuracy of prediction of mixing performance in the
flocculation process. As with all CFD modelling, predictions should be validated with
actual measured data. For the flocculators modelled, a comparison of actual tracer test
results to model predictions would be the minimum level of validation that should occur.
The validated model would then be able to be used in the future design and retrofit of
similar flocculation systems.
In conducting further work it should be kept in mind the discrepancies between the
global G values and CFD predicted local G values. A study of a laboratory-scale
flocculator conducted by Essemiani and Traversay (2002) showed that the mean G
value calculated from the local G distribution predicted by CFD was much higher than
the one calculated by power input (Equation 1). This may be due to that, the local G
value calculation (Equation 2) integrates turbulence effects through including a

252
turbulent viscosity term, however the global G value is derived based on a laminar shear
flocculation rate equation and it is not a valid representation of the average velocity
gradient in a turbulent fluid (AWWA, 1999, p 6.48; MWH, 2005, p 700). It would be
necessary to conduct further studies to obtain an appropriate range for the CFD-
predicted local G values and use this range to evaluate flocculation performance.

6. Conclusions
The mixing of a flocculator is affected by multiple factors including impeller speed,
flocculator configuration, and inlet velocity. The CFD model described in this paper
provided an efficient tool for understanding impeller mixing performance under various
conditions and assists with the optimization of its design and operation. The application
of the Local G values provided more detailed information for describing impeller
mixing behaviour, compared with the use of the global G value.
This study demonstrated the potential of CFD as an efficient tool for understanding
impeller mixing performance and may provide useful information for the design and
operation of flocculation treatment processes. Because detailed design information was
not available at the time of modelling and validation of the modelling results could not
be performed, this research was considered to provide indications of expected
behaviour, rather than quantitative predictions.
Initial CFD simulation results suggested that dead zones and short-circuiting might exist
in the secondary flocculation tank after installing vertical shaft turbine impellers at the
R.L. Clark Water Treatment Plant. These zones might influence flocculation efficiency.
Installing baffles in the tanks might improve mixing performance in the flocculator.
CFD simulation showed that installing a single baffle at the inlet location might be a

253
better choice than positioning a baffle in the middle of the tank. It was also suggested
that experimental studies should be done in the future to validate the CFD modelling.
7. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the City of Toronto. Funding
for this project was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research
Council of Canada (NSERC) in the form of an Industrial Research Chair at the
University of Waterloo. The current Chair partners include: American Water Canada
Corp., Brightwell Technologies Inc., the cities of Brantford, Guelph, Hamilton, Ottawa
and Toronto, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates Limited, EPCOR Water Services, the
Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA), PICA USA Inc., RAL Engineering Ltd., the
Region of Durham, the Regional Municipalities of Niagara and Waterloo, Stantec
Consulting Ltd., and Zenon Environmental Inc.
8. References
ANSYS (2004). CFX User manual, Ansys Europe Ltd.
American Water Works Association (1999). Water quality and treatment: a handbook
of community water supplies. 5th Edition, Mcgraw-Hill, New York, USA.
MWH (2005). Water treatment: principles and design. 2th edition, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New Jersy, USA.
Crozes G.F., Hagstrom J.P., Clark M.M., Ducoste J. and Burns C. (1999). Improving
clearwell design for ct compliance. AWWARF and AWWA, Denver, Co.

254
Essemiani K. and Traversay C. (2002). Optimization of flocculation process using
computational fluid dynamics. Chemical Water And Wastewater Treatment Vii.
Proceedings of the 10
th
Gothenburg Symposium 2002, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Gobby D. (2004). Mixing of newtonian and non-newtonian fluids in a agitated baffled
tank. CFX Validation Report, Ansys Europe Ltd.
Luo C. (1997). Distribution of velocities and velocity gradients in mixing and
flocculation vessels: comparison between LDV data and CFD predictions. Ph.D Thesis,
New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey, USA.
Qasim S.R., Motley E.M. and Zhu G. (2000). Water work engineering planning, design
and operation. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersy, USA.
Versteeg, H.K. and Malalasekera W. (2002). An introduction to computational fluid
dynamics: the finite volume method. Longman Scientific & Technical Inc., Longman,
UK.
Zhang, J., Anderson W.B., Smith E.F., Barbeau B., Desjardins R. and Huck P.M.
(2005). Development, validation and implementation of a multiphase cfd model for
optimization of full-scale ozone disinfection processes. AWWA Water Quality
Technology Conference and Exposition (WQTC), Quebec City, Quebec. November 6-
10, 2005, paper Mon14-3.

AUTHOR'S DECLARATION
I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis, including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners. I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public.

ii

ABSTRACT
Ozonation is currently considered as one of the most effective microbial disinfection technologies due to its powerful disinfection capacity and reduction in levels of chlorinated disinfection by-products (DBP). However, ozonation of waters containing bromide can produce bromate ion above regulated levels, leading to tradeoffs between microbial and chemical risks. In efforts to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations and to be cost-effective, water suppliers are required to optimize ozone dosage. Therefore, there is a need to develop a robust and flexible tool to accurately describe ozone disinfection processes and contribute to their design and operation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has come into use recently for evaluating disinfection systems. However, the focus of its application has been largely on modelling the hydraulic behaviour of contactors, which is only one component of system design. The significance of this dissertation is that a fully comprehensive three dimensional (3D) multiphase CFD model has been developed to address all the major components of ozone disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics, ozone mass transfer, ozone decay, and microbial inactivation. The model was validated using full-scale experimental data, including tracer test results and ozone profiles from full-scale ozone contactors in two Canadian drinking water treatment plants (WTPs): the DesBaillets WTP in Montréal, Quebec and the Mannheim WTP in Kitchener, Ontario. Good agreement was observed between the numerical simulation and experimental data. The CFD model was applied to investigate ozone contactor performance at the DesBaillets WTP. The CFD-predicted flow fields showed that recirculation zones and short circuiting existed in the DesBaillets contactors. The simulation results suggested that additional baffles could be installed to increase the residence time and improve disinfection efficiency. The CFD model was also used to simulate ozone contactor performance at the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant before and after installing new liquid oxygen (LOX) ozone generators and removing some diffusers from the system. The modelling results indicated that such changes led to an increase in effective residence time, and therefore an adjustment to operational parameters was required after system modification. Another significant contribution is that, for the first time, the Eulerian and Lagrangian (or particle tracking) approaches, two commonly utilized methods for predicting microbial inactivation efficiency have been compared for the study of ozone disinfection processes. The modelling results of two hypothetical ozone reactors and a full scale contactor suggested that the effective CT values predicted by the Lagriangian approach were slightly lower than iii

those obtained from the Eulerian approach but their differences were within 10%. Therefore, both approaches can be used to predict ozone disinfection efficiency. For the full scale contactor investigated, the tracer residence time distribution predicted by the Euerlian approach provided a better fit to the experimental results, which indicated that the Eulerian approach might be more suitable for the simulation of chemical tracer performance. The results of this part of work provided important insight in understanding the complex performance of multiphase ozonation systems and played an important role in further improving CFD modelling approaches for full-scale ozone disinfection systems. The third significant contribution of this work is that a CFD model was applied to illustrate the importance of ozone residual monitoring locations and suggest an improved strategy for ozone residual monitoring. For the DesBaillets ozone contactors, the CFD modelling results showed that ozone residuals in the cross section of the outlets of some contactor chambers differed by an order of magnitude. The “optimal” area of monitoring locations however varied at different operational conditions. Therefore, it was suggested that multiple ozone residual sampling points should be installed based on CFD analysis and experimental studies, to provide more accurate indicators to system operators. The CFD model was also used to study the factors affecting the residence time distribution (RTD). The results suggested that the selection of the tracer injection locations as well as tracer sampling locations might affect the RTD prediction or measurement. The CFD-predicted T10 values at different outlet locations varied by more than 10% variation. It is therefore recommended that CFD modelling be used to determine tracer test strategy before conducting a full-scale tracer test, and multiple sampling points should be employed during tracer tests, if possible. In addition, a research based on full-scale investigation has also been done to compare the three different CT prediction approaches: CT10, integrated disinfection design framework (IDDF), and CFD, to determine the most appropriate method for design and operation of ozone systems. The CFD approach yielded more accurate predictions of inactivation efficacy than the other two approaches. The current results also suggested that the differences in the three approaches in CT predictions became smaller at higher contactor T10/T ratios conditions as the contactors performed more closely to ideal plug flow reactors. This study has demonstrated that the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is an efficient tool for improving ozone disinfection performance of existing water treatment plants and designing new ozonation systems. The model developed in this study can be used for ozone contactor design, evaluation, and troubleshooting. It can also be used as a virtual experimental tool to optimize ozone contactor behaviour under varying water quality and operational conditions.

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my supervisors Dr. Peter Huck and Dr. Gordon Stubley, for their knowledge and guidance to my research. Over the past four years, Dr. Huck has been providing me strong continuous support both scientifically and personally. This dissertation would have been impossible without his great efforts, encouragement, trust, and patience. I also thank him for teaching me not only drinking water treatment principles but also the great skills in producing a quality work. Dr. Stubley’s creativity, inquisitive nature and incredible dedication to his work are all qualities to which I aspire. I greatly appreciate his strong support, patience and speedy replies to my numerous computational fluid dynamics queries. His expertise, feedback and guidance were crucial to the completion of my thesis. I would also like to express my special and great thanks to Dr. William B. Anderson for his valuable advice and friendship throughout my study. I appreciate his important suggestions and countless patient hours spent on my thesis work. His unrelenting support and outstanding work ethic also made the work much enjoyable. My sincere thanks are extended to the other members of my advisory committee for their constant interest in my work and for many useful comments during this research. They are: Dr. Susan Andrews, Dr. Neil Thomson, Dr. William Anderson and Dr. Hans van Dijk. I would also like to gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Dr. Benoit Barbeau, Mr. Franklyn Smith, and Mr. Abhay Tadwalkar for their continuous support with respect to data collection and field investigation of the DesBaillets, Mannheim and City of Toronto Water Treatment Plants. I am very thankful for the exceptional technical support afforded by Mark Sobon and Bruce Stickney in the laboratory to this research project. I appreciated their patience and strong problem solving ability.

v

My great thanks also go to all of the Water Resources Civil and Environmental Engineering Graduate students for their help. and the Canadian Water Network. for their unconditional encouragement. and that to which I aspire. Finally.The financial support of the following organizations for this research is greatly acknowledged: the partners of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) chair in Water Treatment at the University of Waterloo. I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my parents. vi . Their love and support is the foundation for all that I am. my wife and my son. and the memories. the laughs. do. inspiration and support to my research.

to Shujun and Andrew vii .To my parents.

......... 6 1........................................ V CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ......... 1 1....2......................................................................................... 10 2.............1 Regulations for Disinfection and Disinfection By-products..........................................................................2 Regulations in Canada.... 16 2...3 Effects of Water Quality on Ozone Decay and DBP Formation...................................2 Research Objectives ......................1............……………………………………………...........................2............4 Significant Contributions of This Work................................1 Regulations in the United States ......3 Overview of the Ozone Disinfection Process . 11 2.......................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND....1........... 24 viii ......................................................................................................... 7 1.... 16 2.........................1.........3 Scope of Thesis ...................................... 19 2............................TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT…................2 Aqueous Chemistry of Ozone ............................... 14 2........................................................................................................................................................2 Pathways and Reactions of the DBP Formation ............................1 Reactions of Ozone in Water......................………………………………...............................................III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................. 20 2...... 10 2................... 1 1......................................................................2.........1 Research Motivation ..3 Effects of Current Regulations on Application of Ozone Disinfection Treatment 15 2...........................................................................

.........................5....... 27 2........................... 37 2................................................4......... 54 3..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 2...............................3..............................................2 Factors Affecting Ozone Disinfection Performance ..........1 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors .....1.........................................................................3 CFD Software Packages...............2 Fundamentals of Multiphase CFD Modelling....................................................................................4 Existing Models for Simulation of Non-ideal Ozone Reactor Performance.......1 Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) ...........................................3................................2 Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors ...4 Example Studies in the Literature .. 39 2..............................................................................................................5.............. 44 2.4................. 41 2.........2 Determination of Ozone Demand and Decay Kinetics ...............4..........................1 Process Description ........ 48 2..........1...............1 Two Case Studies...............6 Summary ....... 45 2.........................................................2................................. 52 CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS... 56 ix ..................2 Complete Micro-Mixing Models ..1 Computational Fluid dynamics ..................................... 24 2..................... 48 2..............3 CT Concept... 42 2..............................................................5.......5 CFD Modeling of the Ozonation Process ...... 44 2..............3.......... 54 3..... 55 3................. 54 3...................................3 Axial Dispersion Model (ADM) .....................5............

................1 Introduction ......................... 64 CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT......... 71 4..........2........................ 69 4.....................4 Ozone Residual Profile Testing ....................................3 Sub-Models for Ozone Mass Transfer..........................6 Analytical Methods .................................. 62 3. 81 4............................. 66 4..........2.......................................3 Numerical Method...1 DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study........................................................ VALIDATION......................................................................................3...............3 Tracer Test Methodology...............................1 The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant ozone contactor .............. 96 4.......... 66 4............................. 94 4..................................... 100 4....... Reactions and Microbial Inactivation..........................................................................4 Results and Discussions ....................................2 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study..2 Turbulence Model ...............................2 The Multiphase CFD Model For Ozone Disinfection Processes ......... 114 x ....................... 98 4.........4............................................ 63 3.........................3........................3............ 94 4.............................4................... AND APPLICATION OF A MULTIPHASE CFD MODEL FOR OZONE DISINFECTION PROCESSES................3 Full-Scale Case Studies........................1 Governing Equations.......3................................................................................................5 Biodosimetry Test using Indigenous Aerobic Spore Formers ................................................................. 100 4..................... 60 3............... 77 4............................2........................................2 The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor....

...1 Introduction .................................................... 131 5............................................ 138 6................................................................................................ 138 6...............................5 Conclusions ....................................................................4.............. 122 5.....................3 Case Study. 140 xi ......................... 124 5...... 129 5.......................5 Conclusions ............... 118 CHAPTER 5 IMPROVING OZONE RESIDUAL MONITORING AND TRACER TESTING STRATEGIES FOR FULL-SCALE OZONE CONTACTORS BASED ON CFD MODELING....................... 136 CHAPTER 6 A COMPARISON OF EULERIAN AND PARTICLE TRACKING APPROACHES FOR PREDICTION OF OZONE CONTACTOR PERFORMANCE ...... 133 5.................................................................5 Effects of Tracer Monitoring Point Selection on RTD and T10 ....................................................................................................... 119 5........... 135 5............. 119 5...............4..........2 Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration within Ozone Contactors .....................................................................................................................4.................................................4...................... 121 5......................2 CFD Model Description......................................................2 CFD Modelling Methodology.....4 Effects of Tracer Injection Points on RTD and T10 ...................4.............3 Ozone residual distribution in the contactor after installing additional baffles ......4..................................................................................................................... 124 5...1 Introduction ...........................4 CFD Modelling Results and Discussion ...........................................................................................................1 Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration at the Outlet of the Cells ..

.......................................... 175 7.........3............................. 154 6.................................................. 161 6.3................ 140 6.....................1 Introduction .................................. 170 7........2.............................................2................................2 CFD-based CT.......................6...........................................3................ 153 6................................................................ 166 CHAPTER 7 A COMPARISON BETWEEN CT10....................1 Results of Verification Case Study .4...2 Case Study.................................................................................2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study...3......................................... 171 7....3 Theoretical Background and Methodologies ........................................................... IDDF-BASED CT.....................1 Flow Equations...................................... AND CFDBASED CT FOR EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER OZONE DISINFECTION PERFORMANCE ...............................................................................................3 Case Studies ......... 151 6......................................4 Results and Discussion.................. 151 6................... 168 7................................3.................2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study.......................4.1 CT10 ........................................................................................................................................................3 CFD-based CT................ 168 7............................................3............................................. 173 7................................................................................................... 154 6..................... 141 6.....................2 IDDF-based CT ............................................................4 Bioassy-based CT............1 Verification Case Study.................................................................................................................... 176 xii ............................................5 Conclusions ............. 174 7....................

........................................7............................................................ 188 8.......4........................................................ 222 APPENDIX D ARRANGEMENT OF BUBBLE DIFFUSERS IN THE CELL 1 OF THE MANNHEIM WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE CONTACTOR ............................. 188 8................. 221 APPENDIX C GEOMETRY OF THE MANNHEIM WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE CONTACTOR................................. .. IDDF-based CT..............2 Comparison of Three Approaches for Alternative Contactor Configurations ................................................. 220 APPENDIX B ARRANGEMENT OF BUBBLE DIFFUSERS IN THE CELL 1 OF THE DESBAILLETS WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE CONTACTOR ...........................................4 Results ..............................1 Conclusions .........5 Discussion .................................................................................................................................................................... 186 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................... 193 REFERENCES.................................... CFD-based CT and Bioassy-based CT .................................................................................................. 178 7... 180 7.. 183 7.................................................................2 Recommendations for Future Research ....................................1 Comparison of CT10.............................................. 224 xiii .4......................... 196 APPENDIX A GEOMETRY AND SAMPLING POINTS OF THE DESBAILLETS WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE CONTACTOR...6 Conclusions ........................ 177 7.............................................................

.... 225 APPENDIX F TURBULENCE MODEL SENSITIVITY TESTS: SIMULATION CONDITION AND RESULTS........................................................... 234 xiv .. CLARK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ........ 231 APPENDIX H EVALUATION OF A CFD MODELLING APPROACH FOR PREDICTION OF FLOCCULATION MIXING PERFORMANCE AT THE CITY OF TORONTO’S R..............................................L........... 227 APPENDIX G MESH DENSITY SENSITIVITY TESTS: SIMULATION CONDITION AND RESULTS..................................................................................................................................................................APPENDIX E TRACER TEST CONDITIONS AND RESULTS OF THE DESBAILLETS WATER TREATMENT PLANT OZONE CONTACTOR ...............................

....2 Modelling scheme for simulating ozone mass transfer and reactions ..................1 Three dimensional schematic drawing of Mannheim WTP ozone contactor55 Figure 3.......... 98 Figure 4.............. 56 Figure 3............................... 25 Figure 2..............2 Three dimensional schematic drawing of DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor ............................ 40 Figure 3..5 Tracer injection and monitoring points for the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor (El-Baz............................................3 A typical ozone decomposition curve........... 90 Figure 4............ 58 Figure 3.......3 Experimental setup for ozone generation ....................... 31 Figure 2....... 95 Figure 4...............4 Schematic drawing of the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor ..................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2........ 70 Figure 4....................................4 Flowchart for development of mathematical models for Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (Source: Bellamy 1998) ..... 20 Figure 2..........................1 A typical bubble diffuser ozone contactor .2 Three typical types of ozone contactors (adapted from USEPA..... 57 Figure 3.......... 60 Figure 4........4 Bench scale experimental ozone system.......3 Schematic drawing and mesh of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor ....................................................5 Procedures for CFD modelling of ozone disinfection processes ................. 1999) ............................... 2002) ........................1 Bromate formation pathways (von Gunten and Pinkernell.......................... 99 xv ......... 2000) ....................

.................... 106 Figure 4.......................................................... 105 Figure 4........................................ 115 xvi ....11 CFD predicted ozone residual distribution ..........16 Effects of immediate ozone demand on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor ................................... 102 Figure 4..............................................................................13 Simulated ozone residual and CT value profiles within the DesBaillets................17 Effects of ozone decay constant on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor ........................... 111 Figure 4......................................9 The simulated dissolved ozone concentration at different bubble sizes ......................................................... 109 Figure 4...............7 Sensitivity of the turbulence model on the simulation of tracer residence time distribution...........................14 Simulated flow field after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor .............................................................................Figure 4................................... 101 Figure 4....... 113 Figure 4................. 108 Figure 4................................................................................. 110 Figure 4...........18 Numerical tracer RTD curves for the outlet of each cell in the Mannheim contactor ............15 Simulated CT after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor ..............................10 Comparison of simulated and experimental tracer curves ............... 113 Figure 4...................... 104 Figure 4.....................................................................12 Simulated velocity vector field and streamlines of the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor......................................8 The simulated air volume fraction at different bubble sizes............................. 104 Figure 4........................................6 Sensitivity of the mesh density on the simulation of tracer residence time distribution.............................

........ 116 Figure 4................. 117 Figure 5.2 mg/L) ........................................5 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within ± 20 % of the average value ....4 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within ± 20 % of the average value (water flow rate =3...................................6 The location of 3 sampling points at the outlet of cell 1.......................8 CFD predicted ozone residuals at the outlet of each cell after installing additional baffles ...9 Simulated ozone residuals of each cell after installing additional baffles ............. 125 Figure 5. 123 Figure 5.....................1 Ozone residual sampling ports in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor............................................. 127 Figure 5............. 126 Figure 5................Figure 4... gas flow rate=0..3 Simulated ozone residual distributions around the outlet of cell 1 in the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor (only half of the outlet is shown) ..................7 Spatial ozone residual distributions along the horizontal profile of the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor............................................................2 Tracer injection pipe and sampling point in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor ....19 A comparison between the CFD predicted and on-site tested ozone profiles for the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor .............................................................21m3/s..................... 128 Figure 5. 133 Figure 5......22 m3/s....... ozone dose=2.10 Effects of tracer injection location on tracer residence time distribution ..... 129 Figure 5. 123 Figure 5................. 132 Figure 5........................... 134 xvii .............20 Predicted contactor hydraulics before and after system modification .......

.. 163 Figure 6.............. 161 Figure 6........... 171 Figure 7... 162 Figure 6............. particle residence time for the ozone contactor ..............3 Mesh used for modelling of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor .... 156 Figure 6.............................................. 152 Figure 6.....................................................6 Eulerian CT distribution in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2(right) .........................................11 Particle tracking-based CT vs.......7 Distribution of velocity and Eulerian based CT at the outlet of the reactors 1and 2 .............Figure 5........................... 149 Figure 6............... 157 Figure 6....................................10 Comparison of tracer curves: particle tracking vs......8 Particle trajectories of the Desbaillets ozone contactor ..........2 Comparison of the four CT prediction methods under various operating conditions… . 153 Figure 6.........................1 Schematic drawing of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor ............ 135 Figure 5. 155 Figure 6............................................ 164 Figure 7...........................................................................................................................12 Effects of tracer monitoring points on residence time distribution...........................1 Procedures for predicting CT through Eulerian and Particle tracking approaches ...........9 Effect of particle size on particle tracer residence time distribution ..............................................2 Geometries of two hypothetical ozone reactors... 179 xviii ................................................. 136 Figure 6.....5 Particle trajectories in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right) ...................... 155 Figure 6.... Eulerian approach ...............................11 Three monitoring points for simulation of tracer residence time distribution ..4 Flow velocity fields in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right) ............

........5 Comparison of the tracer residence time distributions at different contactor configurations.................... 181 Figure 7..............4 Comparison of the flow velocity fields (m/s) at different contactor configurations...............................3 Two alternative contactor configurations for studying the CT approaches 180 Figure 7..................Figure 7.......................................6 Comparison of CT calculation methods at different contactor configuration conditions ......................................................................................... 182 Figure 7................................... 183 xix .......................................

131 Table 6..................... 23 Table 2..................... Lagrangian approach..............1 A comparison of the mass flow averaged ozone concentration and the arithmetic average residual calculated from three points at outlet of cell 1 128 Table 5......................... USEPA................ 158 xx .......4 Guidelines for prediction of ozone residual concentration based on chamber inlet and outlet ozone concentrations (USEPA............1 Mechanisms of ozone decomposition in water ..... 93 Table 4.................... 1991..........3 A Comparison between the predicted and measured ozone concentrations at 6 monitoring points ....... 38 Table 2.5 USEPA recommended CT (mg/L min) values for inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (USEPA............................ 107 Table 5.............. 2003) ..2 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking ............... 48 Table 4.... 150 Table 6.1 A comparison of Eulerian approach vs........1 Some reported Hom-Haas model constants for ozone disinfection ..........................2 A comparison of the volume averaged residual and arithmetic average residuals calculated from 5 points at different planes ............................ 33 Table 2.........2 Kinetics and source terms of transport equations for modelling ozone processes............6 Example of commercial CFD packages ...................................................................................... 2006)..........................LIST OF TABLES Table 2......................... 37 Table 2.................... 18 Table 2....................3 Summary of microbial inactivation kinetic model of ozone ... 88 Table 4.............2 Effects of water quality parameters on ozonation..........................

...........................Table 6.................. 165 Table 7.....1 Summary of the modeling conditions for comparison of different CT calculation methods.................3 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking . 185 xxi ...... 178 Table 7............................. IDDF and CFD methodologies.............2 Key differences of CT10...............................

1991). Ozone is a strong oxidant and a powerful disinfectant.. water suppliers are required to optimize ozone dosage. where C is the ozone residual concentration in the contactor and T is usually represented by T10. 2005). leading to tradeoffs between microbial and chemical risks (Amy et al. The 1 . the application of ozone as a disinfectant has become increasingly common because of its effectiveness in treating pathogens such as oocysts of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. 2000.. Ozonation of waters containing bromide however can produce other types of DBPs (including bromate. Bellamy et al. aldehydes. 2001. ozone has been identified as an effective alternative to free and combined chlorine (Finch et al. which is defined as the detention time for ten percent of the water to pass through a disinfection contactor (USEPA.. and carboxylic acids) above regulated levels. In recent years.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. due to stringent regulations for trihalomethanes and other halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). To meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations and to be cost-effective.1 Research Motivation The primary goal of drinking water treatment is to protect public health by supplying water with acceptably low concentrations of microbial and chemical contaminants. The current commonly used design approaches for ozone disinfection processes involve application of a CT concept. which are resistant to free chlorine and monochloramine at concentrations used in drinking water treatment. 1998). 2005).. Rakness et al. In addition. It has been used in drinking water treatment for close to one hundred years (Rakness.

It has been shown that the IDDF method is more accurate than the CT method in predicting ozone disinfection efficiency (Carlson et al. 1998). Additionally. However. the IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the disinfection contactor are completely segregated. Such a simple parameter cannot reveal all the underlying factors governing hydrodynamic behaviour (Greene.CT approach is a simple way to evaluate disinfection treatment efficiency.. microbial inactivation. The more recently developed Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is a somewhat more sophisticated approach for designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et al. including ozone mass transfer.or under-estimate disinfection efficiency (Greene 2002). such as continuous stirred-tank 2 . T10. a pathogen inactivation module and a DBP formation module. there is a need to develop a more accurate approach to contribute to the design and operation of ozone disinfection processes. it has two important drawbacks. 2002). and bromate formation kinetics. 1998). One is that the effect of ozone contactor hydraulics is described by a single parameter. This assumption may over. Other reported studies have concentrated on modeling the hydrodynamics and disinfection performance using reactor theory models. The other significant drawback is that the CT approach ignores the details of other important components which may affect the efficiency of ozone disinfection. Previous research has demonstrated that application of the CT approach may result in inaccurate estimation of the ozone disinfection efficiency (Bellamy et al.. ozone demand and decay. including a contactor hydraulic module. the use of the RTD ignores the complex three dimensional flow behaviour within a contactor. 2001). The IDDF approach incorporates four components in one model. Therefore. however.. The IDDF approach employs the tracer residence time distribution (RTD) together with a disinfectant decay kinetic model to predict disinfection efficiency in a chemical disinfection process. a disinfectant decay kinetics module.

and optimization of design parameters for flocculators and sedimentation tanks (Grayman et al. and operating conditions (Cockx et al. 2002).. the aerospace industry. mass transfer. The advantage of these models is their simplicity and hence eases of solving. 2002). 2006e). Kim. 1997). 1998. Thus. CFD is now being 3 . backflow cell. These empirical inputs are case dependent and cannot be extrapolated to other geometries. Chen. Roustan et al. Zhang et al. 2005). 1998. and related phenomena by solving the mathematic equations governing these processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al. including study of mixing in reservoirs. and in the medical/biological/chemical research field. 1999).. plug flow reactor (PFR). they do rely on empirical inputs. design of clearwells and contact tanks. scales. and to find rapid design solutions for optimization (Do-Quang et al..reactor (CSTR). 1995). CFD has gained large popularity during the last two decades due to the development of advanced commercial CFD codes and increasing power of computational resources. the predictions of the CFD tool can be used to obtain more accurate information about the performance of the process units. CSTR cascade. One of the main advantages of CFD is its ability to test a large number of variables at a much lower cost than with experimental models (Hossain. there is a need to develop a more robust and flexible modelling tool to fully describe ozone disinfection processes and contribute to their design.. axial dispersion reactor. Applications of CFD are common in industries as diverse as the auto industry.. such as axial dispersion coefficients (Chen. However. Kim. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow. Therefore. and various combinations of these models (Zhou and Smith. chemical reactions. 1999.. It also has been used somewhat sporadically in the drinking water field for the past decade or so. 1994. 2003. Another advantage of the CFD approach is its ability to resolve small scale phenomena and its efficiency to simulate both small scale (laboratory pilot units) and large scale (full-scale reactors) facilities without the use of particular scale-up laws.

Several researchers (Murrer et al... These models did not consider the effects of the gas phase on contactor hydraulics.. such as interphase mass transfer.used to evaluate disinfection systems. 2002) tried to simplify the problem by developing mono-phase CFD models to simulate the ozone contactors and apply their models to optimize the ozone contactor hydraulics. Greene.. etc. the photochemical reaction process and the O3/UV reaction process. 2001. ultraviolet (UV). 2005). Ta and Hague (2004) used similar approach in a three dimensional (3D) CFD modelling of full-scale contactor.. The focus of their study is only on contactor hydraulics. The mono-phase fluid dynamics model is combined with a complex radical reaction model. Do-Quang et al. and Huang et al. corner fillets and wall foils were analyzed to optimize the contactor design. No attempt was performed to simulate ozone profile and pathogen inactivation performance. A tracer test simulation was conducted using a transient advection-diffusion analysis and the simulation results were validated by tracer tests. Kamimura et al. 1995. (2002) developed a mono-phase CFD model for an O3/UV reactor based on CFD analysis. reactions. Peltier et al. 2002.. Henry and Freeman (1995) provided a two-phase two dimensional (2D) CFD model to track ozone bubble trajectories and their influence on the velocity and pressure distribution of the mean flow field. The validity 4 . and ozonation processes (Lyn et al.e. including chlorination. Zhang et al. 1999. multiphases. i. gas concentration. so they are not capable of predicting the effects of gas flow rate. CFD modelling of ozonation processes appears more complicated than modelling of chlorination and UV processes. The effects of the gas/liquid ratio and addition of vanes. because the ozonation processes include more complicated phenomena. and gas injection locations on the contactor flow patterns. 1999. This radical model consists mainly of two processes.

Such information is difficult to obtain at site-specific conditions. (1999) formulated an ozone disinfection model for a two-phase ozone disinfection system. No model has been reported to compare the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches for predicting ozone disinfection efficiency. however the focus of its application has been largely on modelling the hydraulic behaviour of contactors. to reduce the ozone demand required for decomposing TOC. Once the radical reaction model was validated. No reported 5 . which is only one component of system design. H2O2. Eulerian flow sub-model. There are few studies considering the effects of water quality on the CFD model and there is limited information on applying a CFD model to optimize the operation of ozone contactors at varying operational conditions. previous researchers have demonstrated the capabilities of CFD. CFD simulation was executed to obtain the distribution of the concentration of TOC. However. OH· and other substances in the reactor. and dissolved ozone with experimental data obtained from a bench-scale CSTR. Water velocity and ozone gas hold-up fields were numerically estimated from a two phase. It was reported that predicted reactor ozone concentrations correlated well with experimental results. Do-Quang et al. The CFD model was used for optimizing the reactor configuration and operational conditions.of the radical reaction model was evaluated by comparing the simulated concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC). turbulence model slection and bubble size) on the modelling. No attempt was performed to use Lagrangian approach to simulate pathogen inactivation. The weaknesses of this model include that it is a single phase model and the model relies on details of very complex ozone reaction kinetics. ozone. the authors did not investigate the sensitivity of some important factors (such as mesh density. Ozone concentrations in the water phase were then predicted by solution of coupled mass transfer and first-order ozone decay expressions. As discussed above.

ozone profiles.) on ozone disinfection performance based on CFD modelling. including tracer testing results. (4) improve ozone monitoring and tracer test strategies based on CFD analysis to assist with ozone contactor operation and ozone disinfection efficiency prediction. Ontario. and microbial inactivation tests of full scale ozone contactors in two Canadian water treatment plants: the DesBaillets WTP in Montréal. Quebec and the Mannheim WTP in Kitchener. decay kinetic constants and temperature etc. ozone demand and decay.studies have compared the CFD approach with two commonly used disinfection design approaches: CT10 and IDDF approaches. (5) investigate the effects of water quality (represented by ozone demand. ozone mass transfer. The specific objectives of this research were to: (1) develop a comprehensive multiphase CFD model to address all the major components of ozone disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics.2 Research Objectives The goal of this thesis was to develop an integrated CFD model to predict ozone disinfection performance and to assist with the design and operation of full-scale ozone contactors. and disinfection by-product formation kinetics. (2) validate the CFD model using full-scale experimental data. (3) compare the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches for the prediction of microbial inactivation efficiency of ozone contactors. 6 . microbial inactivation. 1.

and discusses the historical CFD modelling studies for predicting the performance of drinking water treatment units. and also provides relevant background that shaped this investigation.(6) use the model to predict the effective CT of ozone disinfection processes and compare the results with the results calculated from conventional design approaches. 1. Presents and discusses the results including model validation and applications through two case studies. ozone profile monitoring. Chapter 4 Development and validation of CFD model: summarizes the mathematical equations and inputs of the multiphase CFD model for ozone processes. and microbial inactivation determination experiments performed by the École Polytechnique de Montréal and the author. (5) and (6) are original contributions in the field of numerical modelling of ozone disinfection processes. 7 .3 Scope of Thesis This thesis consists of seven additional chapters. as follows. ozone demand and decay kinetics testing. Objectives (1) and (2) include significant improvements over previous CFD modelling approaches. Chapter 2 Background and Literature Review: examines the most important factors affecting ozone disinfection performance. including CT10 and IDDF approaches. (4). reviews the pros and cons of currently used design approaches for ozone disinfection processes. Chapter 3 Experimental approach: presents the experimental methodologies for tracer testing. Objectives (3).

Discusses the effects of tracer input methods and sampling strategy on residence time distributions and T10 predictions. IDDF. a fully comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed. Chapter 8 Conclusions and future work: provides the conclusions from the research and presents the recommendations for future work. Chapter 7 A comparison of CT10. the CFD modelling approach was used to assist with the optimization of the locations of ozone monitoring points to provide more accurate information for system operators. compares and discusses the predicted disinfection results.Chapter 5 Improving ozone residual monitoring and tracer test strategies: presents the results of the sensitivity study of ozone residuals corresponding to monitoring locations and proposed ozone monitoring strategy. Other contributions include: the Lagrangian approach was introduced to the modelling of ozone disinfection performance and compared the results with that of Eulerian 8 . Another significant contribution of this work is that. validated and applied to quantitatively evaluate the effects of water quality and operational parameters on ozone disinfection and bromate formation. CFD approaches: presents and discusses the prediction results of disinfection performance by three different approaches. for the first time.4 Significant Contributions of This Work The most significant contribution of this work is that. Chapter 6 Comparison of Eulerian and Particle tracking methods in prediction of disinfection efficiency: presents the two CFD modelling approaches. 1.

approach. Conducted investigation to compare CT10. IDDF and CFD approach. The work has demonstrated that the CFD approach is an efficient tool for improving the ozone disinfection performance of existing water treatment plants and designing new ozonation systems. and the effects of water quality and operational parameters on ozone disinfection performance were studied. 9 .

However.1 Regulations for Disinfection and Disinfection By-products Disinfection can effectively reduce the health risks caused by pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water. 2) ozone chemistry. disinfectants themselves can react with naturally-occurring materials in water to form unintended organic and inorganic byproducts which may pose health risks. Each of these items is addressed in the following literature review. and 5) the background of multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and previous studies on CFD modelling of water treatment processes especially disinfection treatment systems. Therefore. 1994. 3) components of ozonation processes and factors affecting ozone disinfection processes 4) current design and modelling approaches.CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND Modelling ozone disinfection processes requires some understanding of background information including: 1) drinking water regulatory issues regarding disinfection and disinfection by-product (DBP) requirements. 10 . the major purpose of current drinking water regulations related to disinfection is to ensure that drinking water is microbiologically safe for drinking purposes while at the same time reducing health risks resulting from the consumption of disinfectant residuals and disinfection byproducts (USEPA. USEPA. 2. 1996).

iii) it lowered filtered water turbidity requirements. 1991).2. These USEPA regulations include: The Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR): The SWTR was promulgated in 1989 and made effective in December 1990 (USEPA. which is similar in concept to chlorine CT (Rakness. or ground water under the direct influence of surface water that serve 10. 2005). and iv) it included disinfection benchmark provisions to assure continued levels of 11 . Ozone CT is defined as ozone residual times contact time.000 or more persons. It applies to systems using surface water.1. ii) it set 2-log Cryptosporidium removal requirements for systems that filter.1 Regulations in the United States In the United States. The SWTR guideline manual discussed ozone CT values for inactivation of Giardia and viruses.99%) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia cysts and viruses. 2005). regulations for drinking water treatment by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have directly affected the use of ozone (Rakness. It applies to all public water systems using surface water sources or ground water sources under the direct influence of surface water.9%) and four logs (99. the SWTR is based on the approach of specifying treatment requirements instead of the regulatory approach used in some other conditions of establishing maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for target pathogenic microorganisms. 1991). The rule built upon the treatment technique requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule with the following key additions and modifications: i) it introduced a maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) of zero for Cryptosporidium. 1999). The SWTR requires that treatment plants should achieve a minimum of three logs (99. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR): The IESWTR was promulgated in December 1998 and made effective in February 1999 (USEPA. respectively (USEPA. Consequently.

Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 1 DBPR): The final Stage 1 DBPR was promulgated in December 1998 and made effective in February 1999 (USEPA. The purpose of the LT2 ESWTR is to reduce disease incidence 12 . and set two inorganic disinfection byproducts (chlorite (1. It applies to community water systems and non-transient noncommunity systems.000 persons.0 mg/L]. haloacetic acids (HAA5) to 0.010 mg/L)). 2006a).000 persons. 2006 (USEPA. and ii) it lowered maximum contaminant level (MCLs) for total trihalomethanes to 0. The final Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule included the following key provisions: i) it set maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDLs) for three disinfectants (chlorine [4. The purpose of the LT1ESWTR is to improve the control of microbiological pathogens such as Cryptosporidium in public drinking water systems serving fewer than 10. and chlorine dioxide [0. 2002). Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 ESWTR): The LT2 ESWTR was promulgated in January. chloramines [4. including those serving fewer than 10.0 mg/L) and bromate (0. The rule was developed based on the IESWTR. 1999). but has been modified to reduce the burden on small systems.microbial protection while facilities take the necessary steps to comply with new DBP standards. 2006 and made effective in March. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR): The Rule was promulgated in January 2002 and made effective in January 2005 (USEPA.0 mg/L].080 mg/L. that add a disinfectant to the drinking water during any part of the treatment process.060 mg/L.8 mg/L]). It also protects the public against increases in risk from such pathogens in cases where systems alter their disinfection practices to meet new disinfection byproduct standards promulgated under the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR).

Consequently. The CT values for Cryptosporidium inactivation credits are 15 to 25 times higher than for Giardia. a larger ozone dose is needed to meet Cryptosporidium inactivation credit.0 to 2. 2005). This rule applies to all community water systems and nontransient noncommunity water systems that add a primary or residual disinfectant other than ultraviolet (UV) light or deliver water that has been disinfected by a primary or residual disinfectant other than UV. Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (Stage 2 DBPR): The Stage 2 DBPR was proposed in August 2003 and promulgated on December 15. The USEPA also published the draft LT2ESWTR Implementation Guidance Manual and Draft LT2 ESWTR Toolbox Guidance Manual (USEPA. The LT2 ESWTR introduced Cryptosporidium log inactivation CT tables for ozone disinfection treatment. the LT2 ESWTR will increase operating costs.associated with Cryptosporidium and other pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water. depending on the bin. which can form in water through disinfectants used to control microbial pathogens. Therefore. All unfiltered water systems must provide at least 99% or 99. The Stage 2 DBP rule focuses on public health protection by limiting exposure to DBPs. depending on monitoring results.5-log). 2003).9% (2 or 3-log) inactivation of Cryptosporidium. 2006b). The rule applies to all public water systems that use surface water or ground water that is under the direct influence of surface water. specifically total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5). The LT2 ESWTR classified filtered water systems into one of four treatment categories (bins) based on actual monitoring results.7% (1. which included alternative inactivation credit calculation methods to assist with design and operation of full-scale ozone disinfection systems. Systems classified in higher bins must provide additional water treatment to further reduce Cryptosporidium levels by 90% to 99. and may increase ozone disinfection by-product formation (Rakness. 13 . 2005 (USEPA.

a treatment and distribution regime and a watershed or wellhead protection plan (where feasible) or other measures known to reduce the risk of illness should be implemented.2 Regulations in Canada In Canada.100 mg/L for TTHMs and an IMAC of 0. Viruses and protozoa are under review for potential regulations in the next revision of the guidelines (Health Canada. 2006). humaninfectious cysts or oocysts is known or suspected in source waters. For disinfection by-products. 2006). Coli of zero per 100 mL. 1999). The drinking water guidelines are established by health Canada (Health Canada. 2006).1. However. drinking water regulations are developed through a federal-provincialterritorial consultative process. Treatment technologies in place should achieve at least a 3-log reduction in and/or inactivation of cysts and oocysts. the Guidelines state: "If the presence of viable. the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) requires that 14 .01 mg/L for Bromate (Health Canada. For example. the Guidelines specify an interim maximum acceptable concentration (IMAC) of 0. however no numerical guidelines exist to monitor and control the concentrations of viruses and resistant protozoa such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium parvum. or if Giardia or Cryptosporidium has been responsible for past waterborne outbreaks in a community. however does not provide CT tables for different disinfectants. The current Guidelines outline a standard for total coliforms and E. Some water treatment plants are voluntarily using the USEPA's SWTR approach to ensure that the treated water is microbiologically safe for drinking purposes by minimizing the waterborne concentration of viruses and Guardia lamblia (Bdantyne. The guidance suggests the use of CT concept to design drinking water disinfection systems. The detailed disinfection requirements are given in many Canadian provincial regulations.2. unless source water quality requires a greater log reduction and/or inactivation". each province adopts fully or partially the guidelines set forth by Health Canada and enforces them legally. However.

the CT tables for inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts. it is expected that Canadian regulations will follow a similar path to those stipulated in the United States.1.5log removal or inactivation of Giardia cysts and 2-log removal or inactivation of viruses must be provided through the disinfection portion of the overall water treatment process. 2. It also stated that “The treatment processes must be designed and always operated to achieve the required removal or inactivation of pathogens as a priority with the minimization of disinfection by products formation as a secondary objective”. Giardia cysts and viruses by different chemical disinfectants have been provided. At least 0. 1999). The stricter requirements for removal/inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms especially 15 . It is therefore necessary to consider American regulations when designing new treatment plants or when altering disinfection practices at existing treatment plants in order to ensure that new treatment processes meet forecasted future Canadian regulations (Bdantyne. In “Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Ontario” (MOE.drinking water systems that obtain water from a raw water supply which is surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water must achieve a minimum a 2-log (99%) removal or inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts.3 Effects of Current Regulations on Application of Ozone Disinfection Treatment The American and Canadian drinking water regulations have been and will continue to be more and more stringent to ensure that drinking water is microbiologically safe and at the same time minimize health risks resulting from disinfection by-products. However. Generally.99%) removal or inactivation of viruses before the water is delivered to the first consumer. American regulations are more stringent than those in Canada.9%) removal or inactivation of Giardia cysts and a 4-log (99. 2006). a 3-log (99.

al. and carboxylic acids) above regulated levels. leading to tradeoffs between microbial and chemical risks (Amy et al. water suppliers are required to optimize ozone dosage.. ii) to partially replace chlorine to reduce the formation of the chlorinated DBPs such as TTHM and HAA5. 2000). ozone disinfection is currently a more expensive technique than chlorination and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. In efforts to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations and to be cost-effective. aldehydes. 2005).Cryptosporidium and the lower limits for chlorinated disinfection by-products are major drive forces for many water utilities to choose ozone as a primary disinfectant. However.2.. 1992. Therefore. The purpose of this study is to develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to fully describe ozone disinfection systems and to use CFD as an effective tool to balance between the microbial inactivation requirements and DBPrelated health risks. ozonation of waters containing bromide can produce other types of DBPs (including bromate.. Bryant et al. aqueous ozone engages in complex chemistry that includes 16 .2 Aqueous Chemistry of Ozone 2. Ozone has been proven to be an excellent alternative disinfectant in many cases: i) to enhance Cryptosporidium and Giardia inactivation treatment. Bellamy et. 2000. 1998). Once dissolved. Singer and Hull.1 Reactions of Ozone in Water Ozone is a gas of limited solubility that must first be dissolved into water to be effective against microorganisms(Langlais et al. it is expected that the application of ozonation will continue to grow in the water industry.. 2. In addition. 1991. and iii) to be used in treatment plants without filtration systems meeting disinfection requirement by ozone alone (Rakness.

Bryant et al.. as cited by Urfer et al. In the case of disinfection. 1992). 17 . and therefore the reaction of OH radicals with such components is of importance (Urfer et al.. either pathway may be relevant. Aqueous ozone may react with various species via two pathways: direct reaction by molecular ozone and/or indirect reaction by the radical species that are formed when ozone decomposes in water (Langlais et al.. in addition to reaction with microorganisms (Langlais et al. 1994. 2001. The evidence that is available also suggests that ozone achieves disinfection largely through oxidation reactions that damage and destroy critical components of micro-organisms (Finch et al. For the oxidation of certain micropollutants in the waters..g. the kinetics of the direct reaction of molecular ozone is too slow. 1999). 1991). 1991).. 1991.. the direct reaction pathway of molecular ozone is relevant because the reaction of molecular ozone with different constituents of natural water sources is relatively slow and selective (Langlais et al... The two most widely accepted mechanisms for decomposition of the ozone in water are shown in Table 2. 1991).auto-decomposition and reaction with various constituents of the water. This has been demonstrated experimentally using Giardia muris cysts (Labatiuk et al.1. The mechanism of ozone reaction and decomposition has been the subject of numerous studies (e. Singer and Hull. Depending on the treatment objectives. 1999). whereas OH radicals react rapidly with many types of dissolved species and are therefore scavenged before they encounter particles such as microorganisms.. 2000). Langlais et al.

1991) (1) (1' ) − O3 + OH − → HO2 + O2 k1 Gordan. 1991) (9 ) (10 ) (11 ) O 3 + OH HO HO 2 − 2 − Initiation Step → HO k 10 k9 − 2 − + O2 2 HO2 → O2 + H + k1 ' − + O3 → O3 − + HO + OH → O ka − 2 + H 2O Propagation/ termination step ( 2) (3) ( 4) (5) (6) (7) (8) O3 + O2− → O3 + O2 O3 + H + → HO3 HO3 → OH + O2 OH + O3 → HO4 HO4 → HO2 + O2 HO4 + HO4 → H 2O2 + 2O3 HO4 + HO3 → H 2O2 + O3 + O2 k6 k5 k4 − k3 k2 − ( 2) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) − O3 + O2 → O3 + O2 k2 − O3 + H 2 O → OH + O2 + HO − − OH + O3− → O2 + HO2 k 13 − k 12 OH + O3− → O3 + HO − OH + O3 → HO2 + O2 OH + CO32 − → OH − + CO3− − CO3− + O3 → products (CO2 + O2 + O2 ) k16 k 15 k 14 In natural water. and are called promoters. 1992.. These species provide a stabilizing effect on the ozone molecule in the water. 1988. There are also some species that are capable of consuming hydroxyl radical but do not generate the superoxide ions.. these species promote ozone decomposition. and are called inhibitors. Some other species may react with the hydroxyl radical (OH·) and regenerate the superoxide anion (O2.Table 2. Aqueous ozone chemistry is still the subject of research.or HO2-). the reaction and decomposition of ozone are strongly dependent on water quality. 1996). which then initiate the ozone chain reaction. But the precise description of 18 . These species are called initiators. Westerhoff et al. Some species may induce the formation of a superoxide ion (O2-) from an ozone molecule. Chelkowska et al. Staeholin and Bader mechanisms (Langlais et al. Some researchers have tried to develop kinetic-based mechanistic models to predict ozone reactions (Yuteri and Gurol.1 Mechanisms of ozone decomposition in water Steps Hoigne. Tomiyasn and Fukuton mechanisms (Langlais et al.

19 .. 2002).ozone reactions is still difficult at the present time because of the complexity of ozone reactions and limited information on kinetic constants. 1998). and reactions of intermediate species with some water matrix components are shown in this figure. 2. Future regulations for bromate may be lowered since 10 µg/L currently represents a 10-4 excess cancer risk level and is higher than the normal regulatory level of 10-6 (Westerhoff. which further react with bromine species to produce BrO3-. Drinking water regulations in the U. the dissolved ozone plays an indirect role by decomposing ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals. Br.1 shows the possible chain reactions for bromate formation during ozonation treatment. OH radical reactions.2 Pathways and Reactions of the DBP Formation Bromate (BrO3-) is the main ozone disinfection byproduct of human health concern. Figure 2. Bris first oxidized by dissolved ozone to form the hypobromite ion (OBr-) which is then further oxidized to BrO3.. O3 O3 O3 Br − → BrO − → BrO2 → BrO3 − − Via the hydroxyl radical pathway. and pH of the source water (Siddiqui et al.2.S.content. Bromate can form through both a molecular ozone pathway and a hydroxyl radical pathway. Molecular ozone. depending on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. 1998). have specified a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 µg/l for the bromate ion (USEPA et al.as shown below. In the molecular ozone pathway.

and temperature etc. or inhibitors of the reactions of ozone decomposition and bromate formation. natural organic matter (NOM).1 Bromate formation pathways (von Gunten and Pinkernell.3 Effects of Water Quality on Ozone Decay and DBP Formation Many aqueous species can function as the initiators. 2. Temperature Temperature influences the solubility of the ozone as well as its chemical reaction-rate coefficients. 2000) Previous research (Hofmann and Andrews. the rate of ozone decomposition may greatly affect bromate formation. including pH. the ozonation process highly depends on water quality parameters. In other word. promoters. the rate constants of the ozone molecular pathway reactions are much lower than those for the hydroxyl radical pathway reactions. the ratio of the O3/OH will have great influence on the reactions of bromate formation. alkalinity. 2001) indicated that.Figure 2. The Henry’s Law coefficient increases in the temperature range typical for 20 . Therefore. Therefore.2.

such as the hydroxyl radical (OH·) (Gorden. activation energies for the reactions of ozone with specified reactants at ambient temperature typically are in the range 35 to 50 kJ/mol. 2000). As the pH is elevated. it does not react with water and is present as molecular O3. Since the concentration of hydroxyl radicals increases with increasing temperature. The decomposition of ozone in natural water. 2000). pH also has great influence on the bromate formation (von Gunten and Pinkernell. Therefore.water treatment by about 5% /˚C. 1994). (2) Decrease of the rate of OH radical formation from ozone decomposition which results in a decrease of the rate of the oxidation of HOBr. It was reported that when ozone dissolves in aqueous solutions at pH levels below 7.is the main initiator of the chain reaction for ozone decomposition. however occurs by chain reactions and their temperature effects vary for different types of waters (Hoigne. Also. bromate formation will be accelerated at higher temperatures. 1995). Decreasing pH can change the bromate formation in two ways: (1) Shift of HOBr/OBr– equilibrium to HOBr to prevent further oxidation by ozone. spontaneous decomposition of ozone occurs to ultimately produce a variety of very reactive free radials. pH OH. an increase in pH will promote ozone decomposition and influence the oxidation reactions of ozone with other species. though some researchers agree that temperature has a relatively small effect on bromate formation relative to pH and ammonia concentration (von Gunten and Pinkernell. 21 . however.

5. 22 . the formation of bromate can be inhibited in ammonia-containing water. 1995). Ammonia Ammonia (NH3) reacts with ozone very slowly. which otherwise would act as chain carriers in the radical-type reactions decomposing ozone in water. bromate formation in ozonation processes may be controlled by the method of pH depression. As a result. bicarbonate and carbonate may become the dominant scavengers for OH radicals and thereby protect micropollutants from being oxidized. in the presence of the bromide ion. However. ammonia can mask the hypobromate ion formed during ozonation and thereby delay the formation of bromate. alkalinity species may reduce the decomposition rate of the dissolved ozone and inhibit the hydroxyl radical pathway of bromate formation or other ozone consumption reactions. the effect of alkalinity becomes pH dependent because carbonate ions scavenge OH radicals with rate constant much larger than that of bicarbonate ion (Hoigne. bromoform and further bromo-organic compounds (Langlais et al. Alkalinity Carbonate and bicarbonate ions can scavenge the hydroxyl radicals formed during the ozone decomposition. As a result. in waters with low dissolved organic matter (DOC).. 1994). In addition.Therefore. and does not significantly affect ozone decomposition due to its slow reaction with ozone and OH·. 1991). Above pH 8. This means that a water with high alkalinity may have better disinfection performance and lower DBP formation (Fabian.

Summary of the effects of water parameters The effects of the above water quality parameters on ozone decomposition and bromate formation are summarized in Table 2. Natural organic matter (NOM) The stability of ozone largely depends on the type and content of natural organic matter (NOM). (2) affecting OH· concentrations. 2002).2 (adapted from Westerhoff. The presence of NOM inhibits the formation of bromate especially at the initial period of ozonation (Song. the presence of the NOM in water will lower the stability of ozone through direct reaction with molecular ozone and consumption of OH radicals. (b) indirectly by scavenging of OH radicals (OH·) and leading to an accelerated ozone decomposition. NOM is involved in bromate formation in several ways by (1) influencing ozone demand and rate of ozone decay.Addition of ammonia may be used as a bromate control method.2 Effects of water quality parameters on ozonation 23 . (3) reacting with HOBr/OBr and (4) potentially reacting with brominated radicals. Generally. 1996). bromate removal by ammonia addition is not efficient for waters that have a low pH and/or already contain high ammonia levels (Westerhoff. Table 2. 2002). NOM can affect the ozone stability in two ways: (a) directly through reacting with ozone. However.

In the arc. “_”: decreasing concentration or value) 2.2 shows the typical arrangement for three types of ozone contactor. Therefore ozone must be generated on-site and cannot be shipped to water treatment plants. Ozone is very unstable and reverts back to O2 within minutes. part of the O2 is converted into O3.Parameters Temperature + pH+ Bromide + Alkalinity + NOM + Ammonia + Disinfection efficiency + _ _ Decomposition rate + + + _ Bromate formation rate + + + _ _ _ + _ + unchanged unchanged (“+”: increasing concentration or value.1 Process Description In drinking water treatment. The feed gas can be either air or pure oxygen. ozone is produced by an ozone generator. Figure 2. For the ozone to perform disinfection and oxidation it must be brought into the water and dispersed as finely as possible. 24 .3 Overview of the Ozone Disinfection Process 2.3. or in a turbine type contactor. A high voltage (6-20 KV) is applied to two electrodes and the high voltage produces an arc. This is accomplished generally through fine bubble diffusers located in baffle chambers.

(a) Baffled chamber (b) Turbine Diffuser (c) Side-stream ozone system Figure 2.2 Three typical types of ozone contactors (adapted from USEPA. 1999) 25 .

such as: no moving parts. and their operation differ from plant to plant and are subject to the experience of the design engineers. low hydraulic headloss. cell numbers. e. 1999). Singer and Hull. The chambers are covered to prevent the escape of ozone and to increase the partial pressure of the ozone in the contactor. and number of baffles Diffuser placement Range in water flow rates Gas/liquid flow ratio (dose and feed gas concentration) • • • • 26 . and operational simplicity (USEPA. Research has shown that the following design and operational variables may have a significant impact on the ozone contactor performance (Bellamy. The number of chambers. their geometry. countercurrent. 2000): • Geometry of the ozone contactor (configuration. and turbine (completely mixed) Placement. This is needed to calculate the product of concentration and detention time to get the required CT value.g. 1995. Additional chambers follow to guarantee a contact time between the ozone and the water.Baffled chamber diffusers seem to be most prevalent because of its multiple advantages. the diffuser systems. cocurrent. effective ozone transfer.. Each of the chambers has sampling ports so that the ozone concentration in each chamber can be determined. shape. A typical ozone contactor usually has several compartments in series with bubble diffusers at the bottom. inlet/outlet arrangement) • Mode of contacting.

Two types of tracer studies are typically performed.3. while the step tracer test is performed via a step changes in concentrations of a tracer added to the influent of the reactor. 2. however still has not been defined (Bellamy. The pulse tracer test involves the injection of a mass of tracer solute instantaneously into the reactor influent. pulse tracer tests or step tracer tests.2. ozone mass transfer.3. and DBP formation kinetics (Bellamy. 2. 1995). To date. 1995).1 Ozone Contactor Hydraulics Contactor hydrodynamic conditions are of primary importance in ozonation systems since mixing conditions significantly affect the observed gas and liquid concentration profiles. microbial inactivation kinetics. no single model (either mathematical or empirical) or approach has been developed to account for all above factors in the design and operation of ozone processes. Tracer studies have long been used to determine mixing in disinfection contactors. The residence time distribution (RTD) is measured by applying a conservative tracer to the inlet of an ozone contactor and measuring the effluent concentration as a function of time. 1995). ozone chemistry. Ozone contactors should be designed to provide adequate residence time for the microbial inactivation.All of these factors relate to the disinfection objective. The relationship between these factors and the efficiency of disinfection. and can greatly affect disinfection efficiency (Bellamy.2 Factors Affecting Ozone Disinfection Performance The efficiency of the ozone disinfection process is governed by several key components including contactor hydraulics. The effluent tracer concentration as a function of time is recorded during the tracer testing 27 .

According to the two-film theory developed by Lewis and Whitman (1924) as cited by Singer and Hull (2000). 1999. Due to the complexity of ozone contactor mixing. 2002). ozone mass transfer occurs across the gas and liquid films. 1991).and the residence time distribution curve can be obtained from tracer test data (Levenspiel. the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor model (n-CSTR). 1998. the Axial Dispersion model or a combination of one or more of these models. Kim. the transfer of ozone from gas phase to the liquid phase is of central importance in the study of ozonation systems applied for drinking water treatment. The most commonly used models are Plug Flow with Dispersion model (PFD). 1999. the gas-phase resistance becomes negligible compared with the liquid-phase resistance. The rate of ozone mass transfer according to the two-film model is given by the following equation: dC l * = K l a (C l − C l ) dt where (2.1) 28 . For relatively insoluble gases such as ozone. Application of these models is not feasible under varying operational conditions. Modelling of the ozone contactor hydrodynamics has been well addressed in some previous studies (Bellamy. such as change of gas/liquid flow rates and water level. Cheng. Ozone Mass Transfer Since ozone gas has limited solubility and it must first be dissolved into water to be effective against microorganisms. USEPA. these models are questionable to be used for accurately prediction of hydraulic performance.

g O3/m3 t = time. Several studies (Yurteri.2) where. 1995.3 (Singer and Hull. and it is an acceptable approach to model mass transfer and ozone reactions as separate processes. m2/m3 Cl = saturation liquid phase ozone concentration.3 at different ozone reaction conditions.C l = liquid phase ozone concentration g O3/m3 K l = liquid-phase ozone transfer coefficient. 29 . DO3 is the diffusion coefficient of ozone in water (m2/min). Singer and Hull. 1988. 2000) have demonstrated that the Hatta number is much less than 0. the Hatta number must be greater than 0. It is therefore important to consider if the liquid film reactions can increase the concentration gradient in the film to enhance mass transfer (Singer and Hull. 2000). Zhou and Smith. min For a gas-liquid ozone system. For significant reactions in the liquid phase to produce enhanced mass transfer. Therefore the enhancement of mass transfer by liquid film reactions is negligible. k l is the first-order rate constant with ozone (min-1). the reactions in liquid phase (water) are quite fast. m/min a = interfacial area per unit volume. and K l is the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient (m/min). even at high pH values where ozone decomposition is rapid. 2000). A dimensionless Hatta number can be used to calculate the enhancement factor. The Hatta number (Ha) is expressed as: * Ha = (k l ⋅ DO3 )1 / 2 / K l (2.

2002). Previous ozonation studies have showed that for water containing natural organic matter there is a rapid initial consumption of ozone followed by a slower period of decay (Zhou and Smith. 1999. 30 . 2005). 1999. its transfer efficiency is mainly controlled by such physical parameters as temperature. the experimental results of Kim (2002) show that the IOD is almost constant at different dosages. the IOD value is strongly water quality dependent and should be determined for site-specific conditions. Wu and Masten.3 shows a conceptual ozone decomposition curve plotting log concentration versus time. 2001. water quality and type of diffusers (Zhou and Smith. The difference between the applied ozone dose and the initial ozone residual is termed as the immediate ozone demand (IOD). 2001. Therefore. 1995. Marinas. Figure 2. Singer and Hull. 2005). However. 2000. Cin is the applied ozone dosage (mg/L) and C0 is the initial ozone residual (mg/L). the IOD is usually a function of ozone dosage (El-Baz. gaseous flow rate. and can be expressed as: IOD = Cin – C0 (2.As ozone is a sparingly soluble gas.3) where. Wu and Masten. Additional details of the empirical model selection for mass transfer coefficient will be discussed in Chapter 4. The Decomposition Kinetics of Ozone Once dissolved in water ozone becomes very unstable. For a specific water. In this study. Beltran. Beltran. 1995. Marinas. the mass transfer coefficient was estimated from literature correlations.

Dissolved Ozone Concentration (mg/L)

2.5

2.0

Cin
Immediate Ozone Demand

1.5

C0
1.0 First Order Decay 0.5

0.0 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Time (min)
Figure 2.3 A typical ozone decomposition curve Following the fast initial demand period, the slower decay period of ozone residual can typically be characterized with a pseudo first-order kinetics model as follows (Langlais et al., 1991):

dC l = −k d Cl dt

(2.4)

where k d = water quality dependent decay rate constant (min-1) and C l is dissolved ozone concentration (mg/L), t = time (min) The decomposition of ozone is also highly dependent on water quality parameters. Previous studies have been conducted to develop models for predicting the effects of water quality factors on ozone decay kinetics (Chen et al., 1999; Chelkowska et al., 1992; Westerhoff et al., 1996; Yuteri and Gurol, 1988; Siddiqui et al., 1998; Urfer et al., 31

1999). Two types of models have been employed, one is a numerical model, and the other is an empirical model. The numerical models were based on ozone chemistry. Such models can be more widely used under varying water quality conditions. This approach includes many intermediate reactions and detailed information on the reaction kinetics is currently still limited. Different numerical models have resulted in completely different predicted results (Chelkowska et al., 1992; Westerhoff et al., 1996; Yuteri and Gurol, 1988). Empirical decomposition models have used data from bench or full scale experiments (Chen et al., 1999; Siddiqui et al., 1998; Urfer et al., 1999). Since most current empirical models are obtained for limited numbers of synthetic waters or natural waters, these models are site-specific. Hoigne (1995) indicated that, for a given water, the sensitivity of ozone decomposition with respect to small changes in chemical composition can be estimated from empirical correlation, however, correlation including varying types of waters is highly uncertain. Therefore, empirical models are site-specific, unless a model is validated with a wide range of water sources.

Microbial Inactivation Kinetics
Numerous studies have been performed to describe the kinetics of microbial inactivation by ozone for batch systems (Finch et al., 2001). Table 2.3 summarizes reported models.

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Table 2.3 Summary of microbial inactivation kinetic model of ozone Model Chick-Watson Hom Rational Hom-power law Multiple target Series-event Survival ratio − kC nT − kC nT m
− 1 ln[ 1 + N x − 1 − 1 ln[ 1 + N x − 1
x −1 0

( x − 1 ) kC ( x − 1 ) kC

n

T ] T
m

x −1 0

n

]

ln[1 − (1 − e − kCT ) nc ]

− kCT + ln[∑

(kCT )κ ] κ! κ =0 x −1
l −1

(Source: Adapted from Finch et al., 2001) The Chick-Watson model is a pseudo first order rate model that predicts a linear log survival plot. However, ozone disinfection systems rarely display first order kinetics. Typical log survival plots exhibit “shoulders” or “tailing”. The presence of a

“shoulder” has been attributed to inadequate mixing, delays in diffusion of the disinfectant to target sites on microorganisms, or the condition of multiple target sites required for microbial inactivation. “Tailing” has been attributed to the presence of distinct sub-populations with varying resistance to a disinfectant or a distributed inactivation resistance within one population (Gyurek, 1998). The Hom model accounts for derivations from the Chick-Watson model. The intrinsic kinetics aer assumed to be pseudo first-order. The Hom model, however predicts derivations from first-order kinetic behaviour due to non-ideal conditions in a batch reactor. For m=1, the disinfection kinetics follow a pseudo-first order relationship
33

(Chick-Watson model). For m>1, the presence of “shoulders” is predicted; for m<1, “tailing” is predicted. The Rational model employs the power law to describe disinfection kinetics. Similar to the Hom model, the rational model can predict “shoulders” and “tailings” for x>1 and x<1, respectively. The Multiple target model states that each microorganism possesses multiple “target sites”, all of which must be contacted by the disinfectant to inactivate individual or grouped microorganisms. Multiple target models are thought to be unsuitable to accurately describe disinfection kinetics because microorganism clumps are of unequal size and consequently it is unlikely that cell damage will be randomly distributed across the microbial community. The Series event model considers that an organism has an infinite number of targets, and that a finite number of lethal events are required for inactivation. Series event models assume that each lethal event is first-order with respect to disinfectant concentration. Since this assumption is not valid for most ozone disinfection systems, series event models are generally thought to be unsuitable to describe ozone disinfection behaviour. Furthermore, series-event models are not well suited to predict “tailing” behaviour. Finch et al. (1992) performed Giardia inactivation studies using ozone and found that the Chick-Watson model was not appropriate in describing the inactivation of Giardia muris cysts since ozone competing reactions and demands significantly affected the residual concentration thereby increasing the survival of Giardia cysts. In a later study, Finch et al. (1994) reconfirmed that the Hom-type kinetic model more accurately represented the ozone inactivation of parasite cysts and oocysts, including Giardia and

34

Cryptosporidium, than other models. Thus, the Hom model has been more commonly used for ozone disinfection processes in recent ozone studies (Finch et al., 1994; Gyurek, 1998; Bellamy et al., 1998; Carlson et al., 2001; Kim, 2002).

Bromate Formation Kinetics
Bromate formation is also highly dependent on water quality parameters and some operational conditions such as ozone dosage and residence time. Similar to the ozone decomposition kinetics, bromate formation kinetics also have two types of models: empirical models and kinetic based models. Most of the empirical bromate formation models permit predictions based on water quality conditions (DOC, [Br-], pH, alkalinity, and temperature) and on treatment conditions reflected by transferred ozone dose and contact time (Song et al., 1996; Ozekin and Amy, 1997; Siddiqui et al., 1994). Transferred ozone dose is defined as the amount of aqueous ozone consumed by the water matrix (Buffle, 2005). These models are based on true-batch ozonation experiments using synthetic waters or raw waters containing bromide. Carlson recommended using the models developed by Amy and coworkers (Carlson et al., 2001) to predict bromate formation. The equations are as follows: When NH3 is not present in the source water:
[ BrO3− ] = 1.55 × 10 −6 × ( DOC ) −1.26 ( pH ) 5.82 (O3dose)1.57 ( Br − ) 0.73 (t ) 0.28 When NH3 is present in the source water: [ BrO3− ] = 1.63 × 10 −6 × ( DOC ) −1.3 ( pH )5.79 (O3dose)1.59 ( Br − ) 0.73 (t ) 0.27 ( NH 3 − N ) −0.033 (2.6) (2.5)

35

Tang et al.. pH and alkalinity). 1994).035)(T -20) where [BrO3-]@temp T = bromate concentration at temperature T.. in some cases. 36 . [BrO3-]@temp T = [BrO3-]@temp 20oC (1.7) C B = k B ∫ C l dt = k B CT 0 t (2. If natural organic matter (NOM) or other species are involved in the reaction. For a constant water quality condition. 2005). 2005. Manassis and Constantinos. More recently. Accordingly. the formation of bromate tends to increase linearly with ozone exposure for various synthetic and natural waters under conditions relevant to drinking water disinfection (Kim. the detailed reactions and accurate kinetic constants must be known and validated.8) in which CB is the bromate concentration (mg/L) and C l is the dissolved ozone concentration (mg/L). kB is constant and can be obtained by linear regression analysis of bromate data obtained from batch experiments plotted against the corresponding CT values (Tang et al... Tyrovola and Diamadopoulos. and kB is the rate constant for bromate formation (min-1) which is water quality dependent (e. 2003. To set up a kinetic based model. several researchers have reported that. the following empirical expression could be used: (2. As an alternative approach. 2002. 2005). the model will be more complex. the kinetic-based bromate formation model incorporates the reaction kinetics of the main reactions involved (Siddiqui et al. These factors will greatly affect the accuracy and feasibility of the models.g.Amy also gave the following equations to adjust for the effect of the temperature on bromate formation.

1998). T is the residence time which is usually prescribed as T10. Table 2. 2002).4 Guidelines for prediction of ozone residual concentration based on chamber inlet and outlet ozone concentrations (USEPA. 1991.5 presents the CT values required by US EPA used to determine Cryptosporidium log inactivation credit for ozone or chlorine dioxide at different water temperature (USEPA.3. USEPA. Table 2.3 CT Concept The current commonly used approach for estimation of ozone disinfection performance involves application of a CT concept.4. but certain inactivation credit can be granted for Giardia and virus provided that the ozone residual at the outlet of the first contact chamber met minimum concentration levels Reactive Co-Current Dissolution Ceff Max ( Ceff . The USEPA employs this conservative T10 value to ensure a minimum exposure time for ninety percent of the water and microorganisms entering a disinfection contactor to disinfectants (Chen. [ C inf + C eff 2 ]) Counter-Current Dissolution C eff 2 37 .2. the residence time of the earliest ten percent of microorganisms to travel from the contactor inlet to outlet. 1991. Greene. C is defined as average ozone residual concentration at the outlet of a contactor chamber evaluated by direct measurement through contactor sampling ports or estimated from Table 2. 2006). 2003) Type of Chamber First Dissolution Concentration C for CT product Not applicable for Cryptosporidium. as determined from a tracer residence time distribution (RTD) (USEPA.

Carlson et al.4 30 0.5 4. and for the same sampling port. A previous study by Bellamy (1995) demonstrated the variability of ozone concentrations in dissolution cells. Such a simple parameter is over conservative and can not reveal all the underlying 38 .0 Temperature °C ≤0. T10.8 12 25 0.8 5.0 2.39 0.5 3.0 5.5 3.5 19 29 38 48 57 5 4.3 12 16 19 20 1.0 7.8 9. However the ozone system is a gas/liquid system with complex mixing condition and reactions.9 15 20 25 30 15 1.7 The CT approach is the simplest way to evaluate disinfection treatment efficiency.2 9.6 3.2 7.5 USEPA recommended CT (mg/L min) values for inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst (USEPA.5 1 2 6.9 5.5 13 20 26 33 39 10 2.0 3. 2006) Log credit 0.2 2.9 6.9 7. Thus. the variations in the operational conditions induced a three-fold variation in ozone concentration.3 6.0 1. using a single ozone residual concentration value to calculate the inactivation ratio of a whole chamber could over or under estimate ozone disinfection efficiency.9 9. and the ozone concentrations may vary very significantly in space. The effect of ozone contactor hydraulics is also described by a single parameter.5 1.5 2. (2001) found that the measured ozone residual concentrations differed four-fold from one sampling port to another.1 6.Table 2.9 4.2 12 12 10 24 23 21 36 35 31 48 46 42 60 58 52 72 69 63 3 4.6 2.78 1.0 2.8 9. but it has some significant drawbacks: The CT approach uses the ozone residual concentrations measured at certain ports to represent the average ozone concentration in whole chamber.25 0.7 4.9 16 24 32 40 47 7 3.6 1.1 3.4 3.

In addition. The IDDF approach incorporates three components in one model. including a contactor hydraulic module. Previous research has demonstrated that application of the CT approach may result in inaccurate estimation of ozone disinfection efficiency (Bellamy et al. microbial inactivation. ozone demand and decay. 1998). in which C(t) is the disinfectant 39 . the integrated model can be solved with the complex integral shown in Figure 2. 1998).4. 2. 2002).1 Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) The Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is another approach for designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et al. which are time-consuming and expensive to perform for existing full-scale reactors. Therefore.. Through this approach. disinfectant decay kinetics module. The current CT approach ignores the details of other important components which may affect the design of ozone disinfection systems.4 Existing Models for Simulation of Non-ideal Ozone Reactor Performance 2. and a pathogen inactivation module. including ozone mass transfer. there is a need to develop a robust and flexible tool to fully describe ozone disinfection processes and contribute to their design. It is a completely segregated fluid model which assumes that molecules are grouped together in aggregates of a larger number of molecules. It utilizes mathematical relationships for each of the three disinfection components.factors governing hydrodynamic behaviours (Greene. T10 values are usually obtained from tracer tests.4.. and bromate formation kinetics.

(2001) further developed the IDDF approach by introducing an IDDF spreadsheet method. However.4 Flowchart for development of mathematical models for Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (Source: Bellamy 1998) It has been shown that the IDDF method is more accurate than the CT method in predicting ozone disinfection efficiency (Bellamy 1998. No is the initial number of viable microorganisms per unit volume. Carlson et al. m and n are constants for Hom inactivation kinetics model. Co is the initial disinfectant concentration. and d is the dispersion coefficient. It ignores the 40 . k* is the first-order disinfectant decay constant. 5    dt )]   τ          Figure 2. Determine contactor hydraulics Characterize disinfectant Determine inactivation kinetics Assess DBP formation RTD function C(t) = C ⋅ exp( − k* ⋅ t ) 0 n m N ln( N ) = KC t 0 Example IDDF model  m n ∞  ln( N ) = ) m KC [ 1 − exp( ( N0 0 0  nk ∗  ∫ − nk ∗ t m 2    1   exp  − ( 1 − θ )    4d m  ⋅ 2 ( π d ) 0 . Carlson et al. N is the number of viable microorganisms per unit volume. 2002). θ is the ratio of residence time to mean residence time (T10/T). the IDDF model makes the assumption that fluids in the disinfection reactor are completely segregated which is not true for real fluids (Greene. which allows the use of the RTD data determined from tracer tests directly as an input to the hydraulics module.concentration. No is the initial number of viable microorganisms per unit volume. K is the microbial inactivation rate constant.. 2001).

E(λ) is the life expectancy density distribution function and F(λ) is the life expectancy cumulative distribution function. 2005). The general equation for the complete micro-mixing model is: dc E (λ ) = −r (C ) + (C − C in ) dλ 1 − F (λ ) (2. Cout. λ is the residence time. into the general equation for complete micro-mixing to yield the following two differential equations (Craik. A mathematical description of a completely micromixed reactor was derived by substituting ozone concentration.detailed hydrodynamic characteristics that affect process efficiency. 2. The concentration at the outlet of the reactor. was proposed by Zwietering (1959). This assumption may result in an over estimation of ozone disinfection efficiency (Craik. 2005): 41 . E(λ) and F(λ) are related to the tracer resident time distribution E(t) and are determined from tracer information (Craik. C is the local concentration within the reactor.9) where Cin is the reactant concentration at the inlet of the reactor. A method for determining conversion for the case of complete micro-mixing based on the concept of life expectancy of an element of fluid within the reactor. r(C) is the local rate of reaction at reactant concentration C. and the respective rate expressions for ozone decay and inactivation kinetics.λ. live parasite concentration.4. can be determined by solving the differential equation with boundary conditions of λ = 0 at the outlet and λ = 1 at the inlet.2 Complete Micro-Mixing Models The perfectly micro-mixed model assumes that complete mixing and exchange of reacting material occurs between adjacent elements of a fluid on a molecular scale as they travel through the reactor. 2005).

dc E (λ ) = − k d C + (C − C in ) dλ 1 − F (λ )
and

(2.10)

dN E (λ ) = − kCN + ( N − N 0 ) dλ 1 − F (λ )

(2.11)

The above equations can be solved simultaneously to determine dissolved ozone concentration and the live parasite concentration at different positions in the reactor from inlet to outlet. According to the modeling results of Craik (2005), calculations of inactivation based on the assumption of complete micro-mixing may tend to underestimate microbial inactivation. In addition, computations for micro-mixed analysis are somewhat more complex than those required for segregated flow analysis. Therefore this approach has seldom been used by previous researchers and in real engineering design.

2.4.3 Axial Dispersion Model (ADM)

The axial dispersion flow model (ADM) is a common modeling approach for prediction of bubble column ozone reactors. An application of the axial dispersion flow model concept for modeling two phase ozone reactors usually assumes that the liquid phase is in axial dispersion and the gas phase is in plug flow. The ADM model expressions representing the steady-state dissolved and gas-phase ozone concentrations in a bubble column contactor are as follows (Kim, 2002):

d 2 C L dC L C d ± + N L ( G − CL ) − N GCL = 0 2 dz m dz
42

(2.12)

d(

CG ) m − N L ( CG − C ) = 0 L S m dz

(2.13)

in which CL is the liquid phase ozone concentrations; CG is the gas phase ozone concentrations; z is the normalized downward distance from the top of the contactor in the axial direction; d is the dispersion number; NL is the Stanton number; ND is the Damköhler number; S is the stripping factor; m is the Henry’s law constant. The axial dispersion model was applied by Marinas et al. (1993), Zhou et al., (1994), and Singer and Hull (2000) to predict hydrodynamics and ozone residual profiles in bubble diffuser contactors. Chen (1998) and Kim (2002) extended the ADM model by integrating microbial inactivation kinetics models for prediction of the profiles of microorganisms in ozone bubble columns. Their modelling results were validated by pilot experimental data. As concluded by Chen (1998), the ADM model appears to be a good approach for representing the distribution of dissolved ozone concentration and the disinfection efficiency in bubble-diffuser ozone columns. The advantages of the ADM models are their simplicity and hence ease of solving. However, they do rely on empirical input, such as axial dispersion coefficients (Chen, 1998; Kim, 2002). The empirical inputs of the axial dispersion model are case dependent and cannot be extrapolated to other geometries, scales, and operating conditions (Cockx et al., 1997). Marinas et al. (1993) developed an empirical model to describe axial dispersion coefficient for a pilot ozone bubble diffuser contactor. The effects of operating conditions on dispersion efficiency were considered. However, such a model can only be used for bubble columns with similar geometry (Kim, 2002). Thus, this modelling approach is difficult to apply for prediction of full scale ozone contactor performance. Such a shortcoming can be overcome by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as discussed in following section.
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2.5 CFD Modeling of the Ozonation Process
2.5.1 Computational Fluid dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions and related phenomena by solving the mathematic equations that governing these processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al., 1995). The fluid hydrodynamics governing equations are known as the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. These are partial differential equations which were derived in the early nineteenth century. They have no known general analytical solution but can be discretized and solved numerically. CFD has increased in popularity during recent years due to the development of advanced commercial CFD codes and the increasing power of computational resources. There are many advantages to using CFD including low cost and quick solutions. One of the main advantages of CFD is its ability to test a large number of variables at a much lower cost than with experimental models (Hossain, 2005). Another advantage of the CFD approach is its efficiency to simulate both small scale (laboratory pilots) and large scale (full-scale) facilities without the use of particular scale-up laws. Thus, CFD can be used to obtain more accurate information about the performance of water treatment processes and find rapid design solutions for improvement (Do-Quang et al., 1999). Applications of CFD are common in industries as diverse as the auto industry, the aerospace industry, and in the medical/biological/chemical research field. It also has been used somewhat sporadically in the drinking water field for the past decade or so; including the study of mixing in reservoirs, design of clearwells and contact tanks, and

44

optimization of design parameters for flocculation and sedimentation tanks (Grayman et al., 2003). The potential for CFD is clearly being recognized by the water industry.

2.5.2 Fundamentals of Multiphase CFD Modelling

For multiphase flow, two main CFD approaches can be applied. While most models compute the flow field of the continuous phase using the Navier-Stokes equations, the dispersed phases can either be calculated as semi-continuous phases where all phases are regarded as interpenetrating continua (Eulerian–Eulerian approach) or as discrete entities (bubbles, particles or clusters) in the eulerian-Lagrangian approach (Schugerl and Bellgardt, 2001; Lakehal, 2002; Michele, 2002; Ansys, 2005).

The Eulerian–Eulerian approach
The Eulerian–Eulerian approach is commonly adopted for the prediction of interpenetrating media situations, including gas–liquid mixtures such as bubbly flows. This approach can be employed in two distinctive forms: the one-fluid formulation and the two-fluid approach. In the one-fluid formulation, the particle concentrations are assumed to be a continuous phase. In the two-fluid formulation, also known as the six equation model approach, the phases are treated as two interpenetrating continua evolving within a single system: each point in the mixture is occupied simultaneously (in variable proportions) by both phases. Each phase is then governed by its own conservation and constitutive equations; these are then coupled through interphase interaction properties. Eulerian/Eulerian methods are suitable for large phase density ratios and if body forces are important (Hossian, 2005).

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Eulerian-Lagrangian approach
In the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach (also known as the particle tracking approach), individual particles or clouds of particles are treated in a discrete way. The fluid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the time-averaged Navier-stokes equations, while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles, bubbles or droplets through the calculated flow field. The dispersed phase can exchange momentum, mass and energy with the fluid phase (Hossain, 2005). This model is usually suitable when the dispersed phase occupies a low volume fraction. The particle trajectories are computed individually at specified intervals during the fluid phase calculation. (Greene, 2002; Lakehal, 2002; Ansys, 2005; Hossain, 2005). Treating particles via the Lagrangian approach is in essence natural because their motion is tracked as they move through the flow field, which preserves their actual noncontinuum behaviour and accounts for their historical effects in a natural way (Schugerl and Bellgardt, 2001; Lakehal, 2002). However, the most important disadvantage of a Eulerian-Lagrangian model is its relatively high computational load . The Eulerian-Eulerian approach for simulating turbulent dispersion has its own advantages as compared to Eulerian-Lagrangian methods. For flow laden with a large number of particles the quantitative description of the variation in particle concentration is much simpler by means of the Eulerian-Eulerian method since, for the same purpose, statistical sampling is required with the Eulerian-Lagrangian description. In addition, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach allows both phases to be computed over a single grid, whereas the Eulerian-Lagrangian methods require the interpolation of quantities between the fixed grid nodes (Lakehal, 2002). When overall information about the particulate phase is required, rather than the individual behavior of distinct particles or bubbles, the flows are more effictively

46

modelled using the Eulerian-Eulerain multiphase model (Delnoij et al., 1997). For the studies of the large-scale industrial flow structures, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach shows more significant benefit in its computational efficiencies. Therefore, in this research, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach was selected to model gas-liquid flow behaviour, the dissolution and reactions of ozone, chemical tracer tests, and bromate formation in ozone contactors. Because micro-organisms are physically unlike a molecular ozone or chemical tracer, but rather are discrete, a Lagrangian approach to determining disinfection is more intuitive (Lyn and Blatchley, 2005). Many previous studies in modeling drinking water UV disinfection reactor employed the Lagrangian approach (Chiu et al. 1999; Lyn and Blatchley 2005; Ducoste 2005). However, the Eulerian-Eulerian approach has also been successfully used in predicting microbial inactivation of UV, chlorine, and ozone disinfection systems (Do-Quang et al, 1999; Green 2002; Lyn and Blatchley 2005; Ducoste 2005). Lyn et al. (1999) and Lyn and Blatchley (2005) conducted numerical studies using both Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to predict UV disinfection efficiency. Consistent results were obtained showing that the disinfection efficiency predicted by the Lagrangian approach is slightly lower than that by the Eulerian approach but the results of the predictions were close. Therefore, Lyn and Blatchley (2005) suggest that both approaches could be applied for UV disinfection. However, to date, no study has been reported using the Lagrangian approach for simulating microbial inactivation of ozone contactors. In the present research, both the Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Larangian approaches were implemented in the CFD modeling of ozone processes and the results from the two approaches were compared.

47

ANSYS.5. Table 2. which provides substantial stability and run-time benefits.fluent.2.3 CFD Software Packages In recent years. CHAM The CD adapco Group Flow Science.ansys.co. Multiple phases (fluids) can be solved simultaneously with the coupled solver in a robust and efficient manner.com www.com/cfx/ www. Therefore.uk www.com www. A sample of such packages is provided in Table 2. 48 .6 Example of commercial CFD packages CFD package Fluent & Fidap CFX Phonics Star-CD Flow-3D Estet Astrid Disinfex Company FLUENT.cham.co.uk Group CFX is one of the most powerful commercial CFD codes. the CFX code was chosen for this study. It has a wide range of physical models available for solving industrial problems.simulog.com www. there have been many commercial CFD packages available that may be applied to solve complex multiphase and multi dimensionality flow problems.cd-adapco. Both Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase are supported in CFX.6.bhrgroup.flow3d. Inc.fr British Hydromechanics Research www. Inc Simulog Technologies Website www. Inc. such as ozone contactors.

The main efforts of their research were to investigate the contactor hydraulics. Greene. and UV irradiation. (2002) and Crozes et al. mass transport. 2001. The 49 . CFD modelling of chlorination processes has been conducted by numerous researchers (Do-Quang et al. model was attributed to differences in the flow sub-models (Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurement versus numerical simulation) rather than the inactivation model algorithms. CFD application for UV disinfection has also drawn the focus of many researchers in recent years. (1999) which exhibited poor correlation at high UV doses for the same data set.. (1999) model accurately predicted experimental inactivation levels over a range of UV dose levels. and microbial inactivation). (1999) developed two-dimensional (2D) Eulerian-Eulerian disinfection models for UV reactors.4 Example Studies in the Literature The CFD modelling approach has been applied to simulate various disinfection processes including chlorination. 1998). Crozes et al. Downey et al.5. chlorine decay. Peplinski et al. in contrast the Eulerian-Eulerian model of Lyn et al. 2002. The Chiu et al. In contrast to chlorine disinfection processes. (1998) studied the sensitivity/uncertainty of the CFD modelling. model over the Lyn et al. The improved performance of the Chiu et al. Lyn et al.2. Greene (2002) set up a more comprehensive three dimensional (3D) CFD model to address all major components of chlorine disinfection processes in continuous flow systems (flow structure. (1999) and Chiu et al. mainly because the disinfection performance of full-scale UV systems is hard to be empirically validated. the disinfectant field in a UV reactor has fixed position and intensity gradient independent of the flow field. Ducoste. 1999. ozonation. Such a model was found to be more accurate for predicting disinfection performance than the traditional CT approach and IDDF approach. (1998) utilized an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to simulate microbial transport in a UV reactor.

1995. such as interphase mass transfer. and gas injection locations on the contactor flow patterns. Huang et al. The focus of their study was only on contactor hydraulics. Henry and Freeman (1995) provided a two-phase 2D CFD model to track ozone bubble trajectories and their influence on the velocity and pressure distribution of the mean flow field. etc. Simulation RTDs correlated with experimentally derived tracer curves.reactor flow field was established by numerical simulation with an Eulerian model. (2002) developed a mono-phase CFD model for an O3/UV reactor based on CFD analysis. The mono-phase fluid dynamics model is combined with a 50 . so they are not capable of predicting the effects of gas flow rate. corner fillets and wall foils were analyzed to optimize the contactor design. because the ozonation process includes more complicated problems. CFD modelling of ozonation processes is more complicated than modelling of chlorination and UV processes. Ta and Hague (2004) used similar approach in a 3D CFD modelling of full-scale contactor. Kamimura et al.. multiphase. 2001. Particle travel times were estimated for a pulse input of 100 particles at the reactor inlet. reactions. and plotted to develop reactor RTD curves.. These models did not consider the effects of the gas phase on contactor hydraulics. microbial transport was then simulated with a Newtonian particle model. Several researchers (Murrer et al.. A tracer test simulation was conducted using a transient advection-diffusion analysis and the simulation results were validated by tracer tests. Peltier et al. gas concentration. The effects of the gas/liquid ratio and addition of vanes. No attempt was performed to simulate ozone profile and pathogen inactivation performance. 2002) tried to simplify the problem by developing mono-phase CFD models to simulate the ozone contactors and apply their models to optimize the ozone contactor hydraulics.

to reduce the ozone demand required for decomposing TOC. The validity of the radical reaction model was evaluated by comparing the simulated concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC). Eulerian flow sub-model. however the focus of its application has been largely on modelling the hydraulic behaviour of contactors. It was reported that predicted reactor ozone concentrations correlated well with experimental results. This radical model consists mainly of two processes. the photochemical reaction process and the O3/UV reaction process. i. 51 . and dissolved ozone with experimental data obtained from a bench-scale CSTR. There are few studies considering the effects of water quality on CFD model and there is limited information on applying CFD model to optimize the operation of ozone contactors at varying operational conditions. previous researchers have demonstrated the capabilities of CFD. Water velocity and ozone gas hold-up fields were numerically estimated from a two phase. As discussed above. No model has been reported to compare the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches for predicting ozone disinfection efficiency. which is only one of the components of the system design. Ozone concentrations in the water phase were then predicted by solution of coupled mass transfer and first-order ozone decay expressions.e.complex radical reaction model. However. CFD simulation was executed to obtain the distribution of the concentration of TOC. Once the radical reaction model was validated. Do-Quang et al. The CFD model was used for optimizing the reactor configuration and operational conditions. (1999) formulated an ozone disinfection model for a two-phase ozone disinfection system. the model did not consider the effects of water quality on model parameters and no attempt was performed to use Lagriangian approach to simulate pathogen inactivation. H2O2. ozone.. OH· and other substances in the reactor. Such information is difficult to obtain at site-specific conditions. The weaknesses of this model include that it is a single phase model and the model relies on details of very complex ozone reaction kinetics.

It is needed to develop a three dimensional multiphase model for improving the design and operation of ozonation systems. ozone mass transfer. the factors affecting ozone disinfection performance. and the status of using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique for describing ozonation systems were reviewed. 2. a more accurate modeling method should be developed which can fully integrate contactor hydraulics. these models are not capable of accurately predicting contactor performance. ozone reactions and microbial inactivation within the model • Most of previous CFD studies applied two dimensional or single phase CFD models to describe ozone contactors.6 Summary In this chapter. the different approaches for modeling of ozonation process. Therefore.No reported studies have compared the CFD approach with two commonly used disinfection design approaches: CT10 and Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF). IDDF and other common modeling approaches may overestimate or underestimate ozone disinfection efficiency. • No previous researchers compared the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with the Eulerian-Langrangian modeling approach in predicting disinfection efficiency of 52 . It is also required to fully validate the CFD model by full-scale experimental data. A number of areas were identified herein that would require further research. Because of the complex of ozonation process. These included: • The CT10.

ozone systems. there is a strong need to compare them and find a better approach for predicting ozone disinfection efficiency. • No previous CFD modelling studies have been done to investigate the effects of ozone monitoring points and tracer test methods on ozone disinfection efficiency calculation. To accurately determine ozone dosage and predict CT values. IDDF and CFD approaches for full-scale ozonation systems. Since the two approaches have fundamental differences. It would be very necessary to conduct such a comparison study to determine the best approach for the design and operation of full-scale ozone disinfection processes. Previous studies focused on investigating the effects of individual factors or parameters based on bench-scale experimental studies. it would be important to optimize ozone monitoring points and tracer test strategies • No previous research works have ever compared the CT10. There is a research need to select more appropriate parameters and utilize CFD modeling to quickly evaluate the effects of water quality on ozone disinfection performance. • Many water quality factors can significantly affect ozone disinfection efficiency. 53 .

Canada. 3. The lab-scale ozone decay kinetics experiments and full-scale ozone profile testing for the Mannheim WTP ozone contactors were conducted at the University of Waterloo by the author. A summary of the experimental methodologies for the two case studies are presented in this chapter. and dissolved ozone further 54 . and another was at Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant located at Montréal.1 Two Case Studies 3.1 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is operated by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario. Quebec. Canada. A series of lab-scale and full-scale experimental studies were undertaken for two full-scale ozone contactors.CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS The objective for conducting the experiments as described in this chapter is to provide model inputs for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of ozone contactors and to validate the modelling results. one was at the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP) located at Kitchener. The ozonated gas is injected into each contactor by fine bubble diffusers in the first two cells. It was designed to treat Grand River source water at a nominal production capacity of 72 millions liters per day (MLD). The three-dimensional schematic drawing of one of the contactors is shown in Figure 3. There are two parallel ozone contactors in this plant. Other experimental data were kindly provided by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo and the École Polytechnique de Montréal. Canada.1.1. Ontario.

Lawrence River’s water.2 Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactors The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is the largest facility in the province of Quebec.13 million gallons per day (MGD)). The treatment process is composed of a direct sand filtration (5 meter/hour (m/h)) without precoagulation. The 13 year old Mannheim ozone system has recently been modified to include new liquid oxygen fed ozone generators in order to enhance operational flexibility and remove some diffusers from the system.1. This plant has a capacity of 1. Figure 3.1 Three dimensional schematic drawing of Mannheim WTP ozone contactor 3.92 million imperial gallons per day (MIGD) or 300.2 shows the geometry 55 . Canada. post-ozonation followed by a final chlorination. The DesBaillets WTP has six parallel ozone contactors each with 2 cells and ozone gas is fed in the first cell of each contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers.reacts in the following four cells.136 million litres per day (249. Figure 3. and treats the St. which is of good quality.

56 . Ma) to produce ozone stock solution.2 Determination of Ozone Demand and Decay Kinetics The experimental approaches for investigating ozone demand and decay kinetics of Mannheim WTP ozone system are described in this section. Ozone Production Ozone gas was generated from pure oxygen by a water cooled laboratory scale ozone generator (Hankin Atlas Ozone Systems Ltd.of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor. while the cell 2 is run at co-current mode. and then was bubbled through a small gas washing bottle (volume of 1 L) containing deionized (DI) distilled water (Milli-Q.. The cell 1 of the contactor is operated in the counter-current mode. OzoneTM type S model 2).2 Three dimensional schematic drawing of DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor 3. Millipore Corp. Bedford. Figure 3.

The stock solution was then kept in amber bottle with ice bath and used within 2 hour.5 hours to obtaining a typical ozone concentration in stock solution of 20 to 30 mg/L.The ozone generation experimental apparatus is shown in Figure 3. the ozone concentration in this ozone stock solution was measured on a UV spectrophotometer (HP8453. To obtain higher dissolved ozone concentration. the bottle was immersed in an ice bath. 1981). Before conducting each decay kinetics test. Polo Alto. Hewlett-Pakard. Figure 3.3.3 Experimental setup for ozone generation 57 . Milli-Q water was ozonated in semi-batch model for about 1 to 1. A fritted glass diffuser was used to generate fine bubbles within the gas washing bottle. CA) by setting the absorbance at the wavelength of 258 nm (Bader and Hiogne.

The reactor was made of a 2 L beaker. Mixing of the reactor was accomplished by using a magnetic stir bar. The experimental temperature was controlled to be the same as the onsite temperature at the Mannheim WTP by immersing the batch reactor in a large glass water container.Ozone Demand and Decay Tests A bench scale ozone reactor was used to study ozone demand and decay kinetics of the source water of the Mannheim ozone system. covered by a floating plate to make the reactor headspace free.4 Bench scale experimental ozone system 58 .4 shows the experimental setup. The floating plate was wrapped with Teflon tape. Figure 3. The water in the container was circulated from a water bath. All glassware was made ozone-demand free before experiments by adding high concentration ozonated DI water and allowing sufficient contacting time between ozone and potential contaminants on glassware. Figure 3.

By measuring the ozone residual at various time intervals until no dissolved ozone was detectable. the reactor was charged with known volumes of water samples and ozone stock solution based on the desired ozone dosage. and m = reaction order of ozone decomposition. the ozone residuals of the samples were detected by a Hach DR/2400 spectrophotometer. 2001). The immediate ozone demand was calculated by determining the intercept of the firstorder regression line extended to time zero. an ozone decay curve for the relation between ozone residual and the reaction time can be generated. k = decomposition rate constant.The water samples were taken from a Mannheim WTP sampling port located between the sedimentation tank and ozone contactor. The ozone demands and decay testing was accomplished in the above batch mode. The intercept is the natural logarithm of the initial ozone concentration. Samples were then withdrawn from the sampling port of the reactor using a 50 mL O3 demand free glass syringe at predetermined time intervals (Kim. Before starting a test.1) where. 2002a). the time was set as zero. 59 . The values of k can be calculated by integrating the above differential equation and plotting a semi-log line from the experimental data of dissolved ozone versus time (Wu. The rate of dissolved ozone decomposition in water can be expressed as: d [O3 ] = k[O3 ] m dt − (3. Samples were collected in 50 mL beakers and immediately reacted with the indigo reagent contained in the Hach accuvac vials. 2002). The immediate ozone demand equals the ozone dose minus the initial concentration (Kim. After having taken all the samples. When the ozone stock solution was added.

5 Tracer injection and monitoring points for the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor (El-Baz. (2003). 2003).3 Tracer Test Methodology In this study. 2002) 60 . Tracer data for the Desbaillets WTP ozone contactors was kindly provided by the École Polytechnique de Montréal (El-Baz. DesBaillets WTP Ozone Contactors Tracer tests at the Desbaillets WTP were conducted using a step injection of hydrofluorosilic acid (El-Baz. Figure 3. Tracer test data of the Mannheim WTP ozone contactors before system modification was kindly provided by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. 2002. Shown in this section are tracer test methodologies used in the two case studies..Ozone demand and decay testing for the Desbaillets WTP ozone contactors was done by the École Polytechnique de Montréal and the experimental method could be found in El-Baz (2002) and Barbeau et al.5 shows the tracer injection and monitoring locations. Barbeau et al. the tracer test results were used to validate the CFD model. 3. 2002). Figure 3.

The dosage of tracer was set as 2 mg/L during the tests. and 0. Canada) and used for CFD model validation. 2002). A pulse injection method was employed and hydrofluosilic acid (HFS) was utilized since it was readily available in the plant. 2. The concentrations of tracer were continuously detected using an automatic fluorometer (Hach Company) at the location C1 and C2 respectively. Mannheim WTP Ozone Contactors: Tracer tests at the Mannheim WTP ozone contactors before system modification were conducted by Dillon Consulting Limited (Ontario. Tracer tests were performed at three flow rates (1.29.The stock tracer solution was made by mixing 79% of hydrofluorosilic acid (purity 24% by weight) and 21% of water. the ozone contactor effluent was blended with the water in storage tanks to meet the regulation requirement (El-Baz.24 m3/s) to characterize the hydrodynamics of the contactor.5.19.16 and 3. The tests were run at three flow rates (0. as shown in Figure 3. The stock tracer solutions was pumped into the contactor through a spray nozzle system and uniformly distributed through the spray nozzles. The T10/T values for each test were provided by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo (Ontario. Since such a dosage led to effluent fluoride concentration above the regulated level (1. Tracer data were entered into an EXCEL spreadsheet for analysis.38 m3/s). 0.5 mg/L).47. T10/T value and normalized tracer residence time distribution (RTD) curves were generated from this spreadsheet. Canada). The results were used to validate the CFD model. 61 .

The locations of these sampling points are shown in Figure 3. 2001).5. The ozone residual profile data were used for validation of the CFD simulation results and for the study of optimizing ozone-sampling point with the CFD approach.05 mg/L. The indigo trisulfonate method. The flow rates of the sampling lines were adjusted at 3 litres per minutes and overflowed in a 250 mL beaker. gas/liquid flow rates. Duplicated samples were collected from the beakers using a syringe and slowly injected into the 62 .3. gas concentration and water temperature were also recorded..). Loveland. B).. Since ozone in water is generally not very stable. as described in standard methods (APHA et al. The ozone residuals were measured using the indigo colometric method (Method 4500-O3. Duplicate samples were collected and detected for each sampling point. was utilized to determine ozone concentrations and the samples were measured onsite. a third sample was taken to repeat the test. the operational parameters including ozone dose. If the residual difference between the duplicate samples was greater than 0. Colo. When conducting ozone residual profile testing. all the analysis was performed soon after sampling. These parameters were used as the CFD model inputs. with AccuVac ampoules (Hach Co. DesBaillets WTP Ozone Contactor The Desbaillets ozone contactor has five sampling points taps (P1 to P5) installed in the first cell and two sampling points (C1 and C2) located at the outlet of cell 1 and cell 2.4 Ozone Residual Profile Testing Mannheim WTP Ozone Contactor Water samples were taken from ozone concentration monitoring points located at the outlet of each cell of the Mannheim ozone contactors to obtain full-scale ozone residual profiles.

Full-scale validation tests were performed the day following the pilot test for biodosimetric reference curves. Facile et al.. Before conducting each full-scale validation test.. 2002) and typically exhibit a linear inactivation with respect to CT. They are also highly resistant to ozone (Nieminski et al. 2000. CT-IDDF.. This process is similar to what is currently being done to validate UV reactors. and CFD) for prediction of ozone disinfection efficiency. It is therefore suggested that ASF may be a potential way to validate the disinfection efficiencies of full-scale ozone contactors (Benoit. The biodosimetry tests for the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactors were conducted by the École Polytechnique de Montréal (Broséusa et al. 1997. The tests were performed at different operational conditions to capture the effects of temperature. using reference curves developed with MS2 phages (USEPA 2003). 2000. 3.. pilot scale biodosimetry tests were performed onsite to create reference curves for the corresponding source waters. 2005). ASFs have the advantage of being fairly abundant in surface waters. 2005).. (2005). They were used to calculate the corresponding Biodosimetric CT for full-scale ozone contactors. The details of pilot scale testing were described by Broséusa et al. Broséusa et al. These reference curves provided the relationships between the effective CT and disinfection efficiencies of ASF by ozone. water flow rates and applied dosage. Craik et al.5 Biodosimetry Test using Indigenous Aerobic Spore Formers The purpose of the biodosimetry tests was to use indigenous aerobic spore formers (ASFs) as indicators of disinfection efficiency and to validate the various approaches (CT10. Each of the full-scale validations was performed by 63 .indigo reagent for measurement.

2005).applying four increasing ozone doses and maintaining a constant flow rate. The ozone concentration was calculated by: [O3 ] = 48. 1981).000 × A258 Mo (3. 0. A258 was the sample absorbance at 258nm. A previous study by Coffey et al.01%) respectively. Loveland CO) used for ozone residual testing is based on the indigo methods (Bader and Hiogne. 1981). The data obtained from fullscale testing was used for the comparison of CT10. influent and ozonated waters were sampled in one-liter sterile bottles (analysis done in triplicate) and ten liter carboys (analysis done in duplicate) containing sodium thiosulfate (final concentration.2) where. HewlettPakard. 64 . The concentrations of the ozone stock solutions were measured on a UV spectrophotometer (HP8453. 3.6 Analytical Methods Dissolved Ozone Concentration Measurement The Hach ozone method (Hach Company. During the tests. which will be further described in Chapter 7. CFD based CT and Biodosimetric CT.. CA) by setting the absorbance at the wavelength of 258 nm. (1995) has shown good agreement between the Hach method and the standard indigo method (Method 4500-O3) by APHA et al. ASF measurement in ozonated water was performed using a larger water sample volume because of the lower concentration of surviving ASF (Broséusa et al. (2001). IDDF based CT. and Mo was the molar absorptivity of gaseous ozone which was set as 2900 M-1 CM-1 in this study to convert absorbance to mg O3/L (Bader and Hiogne. Polo Alto.

pasteurized at 75°C for 15 minutes and incubated at 35°C for 22-24 h. large volumes of water (10 L) were filtered through large diameter (142 mm) 0. Masterflex).Analysis of Indigenous Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) For influent water samples. and then incubated at 35°C for 22-24h. Due to the relatively low concentrations expected in ozonated waters.45 m filters (HAWP 14250. Millipore) using a pressure filter holder (YY30 14236.45 m filters (HAWG047S1. Filtering 1 L of influent water (N0) and 10 L of ozonated water (N) eliminated the potential effect of the filtration cake on the ASF count. Preliminary assays indicated that ASF recovery in large volumes of water was statistically equivalent to ASF enumeration in a large number of 100 mL samples (Broséusa et al. The filter holder was autoclaved at 121°C during 15 minutes before all experiments and disinfected between each type of water to be filtered. USA). a different technique was developed using the approach proposed by Hijnen et al. 2006). Millipore).5 mL of Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB). Millipore. (1997). 1 liter (L) of influent water samples from the ozonation process were filtered through 0. 65 . saturated with 1. pasteurized at 75°C for 15 minutes. (2000). Filters were then placed in Petri dishes containing 25 ml of Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA). spore measurements were done following the method developed by Barbeau et al. Millipore) and a peristaltic pump (Model 7521-40. In order to improve the method detection limit. placed on pads (AP10047S1..

American Water Work Association. Proceedings of 12th Canadian National Conference and 3rd Policy Forum on Drinking Water. International Ozone Association. as well as the potential formation of bromate in waters containing appreciable levels of bromide. it is of special interest to optimize ozone dosage levels to balance disinfection requirements and costs. VALIDATION. 66 . A manuscript related to this chapter has also been submitted to the Journal of Ozone: Science & Engineering. London. 2005 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition. 2004 International Ozone Association-Pan American Group Conference. ISBN 1 84339 068X. _____________________________________________ Parts of this chapter have been published in: Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment VIII. such as bromate. operating and maintenance costs. However.CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT. Canadian Water and Wastewater Association. For water treatment plants with ozonation treatment processes or those planning to use such processes.1 Introduction Ozone treatment of drinking water has been used for decades and is currently considered one of the most effective microbial disinfection technologies. AND APPLICATION OF A MULTIPHASE CFD MODEL FOR OZONE DISINFECTION PROCESSES 4. as well as the formation of ozone disinfection by products (DBPs). the application of ozonation processes has been limited due to high capital. IWA Publishing.

In this approach.. The more recently developed Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is a somewhat more sophisticated approach for designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et al. it is usually assumed that the average concentration is equal to the contactor-effluent concentration C (ozone residual) although in some cases an integrated CT is calculated which takes into account ozone decay. etc. the use of the RTD ignores the complex three dimensional (3D) flow behaviour within a contactor. including a contactor hydraulic module. It has been shown that the IDDF method is more accurate than the CT method in predicting ozone disinfection efficiency (Carlson et al. a disinfectant decay kinetics module. the current CT concept gives little consideration to the effects of water qualities (other than temperature and pH) and operational parameters (e. ozone dose. The IDDF approach employs the tracer residence time distribution (RTD) together with a disinfectant decay kinetic model to predict disinfection efficiency in a chemical disinfection process. there is a need to develop a robust tool to describe ozonation processes and contribute to their design and operation.The commonly used approach for calculating ozone disinfection efficiency and ozone dosage involves application of the CT concept. T is usually represented by T10. gas concentration.g.) on ozone disinfection efficiency. Additionally. the IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the disinfection contactor are completely segregated. Furthermore. gas/liquid flow rates.. This assumption may over or under-estimate 67 . 2001). The CT concept is conservative because the average ozone concentration is actually higher than the residual and the residence time of 90% of the water is longer than T10. which is the detention time at which 10% of the water has passed through the contactor (USEPA. 1991). 1998). However. In an effort to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations and to be cost-effective. a pathogen inactivation module and a DBP formation module. therefore it is not flexible for optimizing system performance under changing water quality conditions. The IDDF approach incorporates four components in one model.

However. It also has been used somewhat sporadically in the drinking 68 . plug flow reactor (PFR). Other literature reported studies concentrated on modeling the hydrodynamics and disinfection performance using reactor theory models. rapid design solutions to improve it (Do-Quang et al. if necessary. Roustan et al. 1999. Kim.. Applications of CFD are common in industries as diverse as the auto industry. CFD has gained large popularity during the last two decades due to the development of advanced commercial CFD codes and increasing power of computational sources. However. Thus. such as axial dispersion coefficients (Chen. such a shortcoming can be overcome by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore. 1998. the aerospace industry. backflow cell.. and in the medical. biological. such as continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). 1997. there is a need to develop a more accurate approach to contribute to the design and operation of ozone disinfection processes. The main advantage of the CFD approach is its ability to catch small-scale phenomena and its efficiency to simulate both small-scale (laboratory pilots) and large-scale (fullscale reactor) facilities without the use of particular scale-up laws. 1994. 1997). and various combinations of these models (Zhou and Smith. The advantages of these models are their simplicity and hence ease of solving. 1998. These empirical inputs are case dependent and cannot be extrapolated to other geometries. and chemical research field. 1995). and find. scales. Kim. CSTR cascade. axial dispersion reactor... mass transfer. 2002). 2002). they do rely on empirical input. 1999). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow. Chen. the predictions of the CFD tool can be used to obtain more accurate information about the performances of the industrial plant. Reddy et al. and operating conditions (Cockx et al..disinfection efficiency (Greene. 2002). chemical reactions and related phenomena by solving the mathematic equations governing these processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al.

Chambers in which ozone is added through porous medium diffusers are usually called dissolution chambers. and ozonation processes (Lyn et al. Quebec and the Manheim Water Treatment Plant in Kitchener. Figure 4. The second injective was to validate and apply the CFD approach to optimize the hydraulics and disinfection performance of full-scale ozone contactors in the Desbaillets Water Treatment Plants (WTP) in Montreal. 4.. and disinfection by-product formation kinetics. However the focus of its previous application in drinking water disinfection treatment has been largely on modeling the hydraulic behaviour of contactors. 2005).. 2002). including chlorination. 2002. 1991. microbial inactivation. Chambers in which no ozone is added to but ozone residual is present are called reaction chambers (Langlais et al. Do-Quang et al.2 The Multiphase CFD Model For Ozone Disinfection Processes Bubble-diffuser ozone contactors are commonly used in drinking water and wastewater treatment processes (Rakness. 69 . ultraviolet (UV). 1999.water field for the past decade or so. Rakness. including study of mixing in reservoirs. CFD has come into use recently for evaluating disinfection systems. 2005). ozone decay. Greene. Ontario. which is only one component of system design (Greene. This new approach employed a three-dimensional multiphase CFD model to address all the major components of ozone disinfection processes: ozone mass transfer. 2003).1 shows a typical over-under baffled ozone contactor.. design of clearwells and contact tanks. 1999). and optimization of design parameters for flocculator and sedimentation tank (Grayman et al. The preliminary objective of this research was to develop a CFD based integrated disinfection design approach for full-scale ozone disinfection processes.

ozone diffuses into the liquid phase (water) where it reacts with contaminants or decomposes until leaving the system. and microbial inactivation efficiencies in full-scale bubble diffuser ozone contactors.1 A typical bubble diffuser ozone contactor Ozone disinfection system involves multi-component transport and reactions within two phases. The numerical simulation models are described in detail in this section. As the ozonated air or oxygen is transported through the system.Influent Effluent Bubble diffusers Figure 4. tracer residence time distribution (RTD). ozone mass transfer. ozone demand and decay reactions. ozone and pathogen concentrations in the liquid water and air are sufficiently small that their effects on the bulk macroscopic properties of the liquid and air are negligible. The numerical models are capable of predicting fluid fields. air. Typically. ozone and pathogens. The system has four principle components: water. 70 . The computational fluid dynamics models have been developed for simulation of the multiphase ozone disinfection process.

Green.1) (4. and physical properties. 71 . and uα . 2002. Each phase had its own velocity. subscript g denotes the gas phase. The flow was considered to be isothermal in this work so the energy equation was ignored.i ) = 0 ∂t ∂xi ∂ ∂ ( ρ g rg ) + ( ρ g rg u g . A comparison of Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian –Lagrangian approaches was described in Chapter 2.i ) = 0 ∂t ∂xi (4. momentum conservation and volume conservation equations (Michele. In the present work an Eulerian-Eulerian approach (Lakehal. rα is its volume fraction. For a given phase α . The two phases were treated as interpenetrating continua coexisting in the flow domain. 2005).i is its flow velocity in the i-direction.2. Lyn. The share of the flow domain each phase occupies was given by the volume fraction.2) where. subscript l denotes the liquid phase. 2002) was used to model the turbulent hydrodynamics of the liquid phase (continuous phase) and gas phase (dispersed phase). The multiphase CFD model for ozone disinfection process included mass conservation. 2002. 2002) as described below. temperature. Mass Conservation Equations The transport equations representing mass conservation for liquid and gas phases are: ∂ ∂ ( ρ l rl ) + ( ρ l rl u l . ρ α is its density.4.1 Governing Equations Eulerian–Eulerian and Eulerian–Lagrangian methods have been extensively used to simulate multiphase problems (Lakehal.

the amount of ozone mass transfer between air and water is sufficiently small compared with the bulk masses of the air and water phases. M αβ . D L LUB VM TD M α . Therefore. i ∂t ∂x j ∂x i ∂x i ∂x j ∂x i (4.i represents the interfacial force in the i-direction acting on phase α due to the presence of phase β .i ∂u g .For ozone systems.3) ∂u l . 2000). j ∂u ∂ ∂ ∂p ∂ ( ρ l rl u l .4) where p is pressure and it is assumed that the gas and liquid phase have a shared pressure field (Lo.i ) + ( ρ l rl u l . j ∂ ∂ ∂p ∂ ( ρ g rg u g . β = M α . j ) = − rl + rl µ l ( l . mass transfer and source terms were not included in mass conservation equations in this study. j ) = − rg + rg µ g ( + ) + M gl . thus the mass that is carried from one phase into another is negligible.i + ) + M lg.i u g . Momentum Conservation Equations The momentum balances in multiphase formation for gas and liquid phases are: ∂u g . β + M αβ + M αβ + M αβ + M αβ (4.i ) + ( ρ g rg u g .i ∂t ∂x j ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi (4. The total interfacial force acting between two phases (α and β phases) may arise from several independent physical effects.5) 72 . Additionally. the ozone concentrations in water and air are also small enough that the effects of ozone transfer on the bulk macroscopic properties of the liquid and air are also negligible.i u l .

1994. Lo. because the effects of other non-drag forces became less significant in large gas-liquid phase columns (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan. wall lubrication force. Sokolichin et al. 2000. ANSYS. 2004).. 73 .. 2005. M αβ .6) Appropriate models were required to account for these forces (Kuipers and Swaaij. 1998. accounts for the force acting perpendicularly on the direction of the rising dispersed phase due to vorticity or shear in the continuous phase nonuniform flow field. Hence. and turbulence dispersion force. 2002. M αβ . considers the additional dispersion of phases from high volume fraction regions to low volume fraction regions due to turbulent fluctuations (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan.The terms indicated in the right hand side of above equation represent the interphase drag force. The virtual mass force. accounts for force experienced by the dispersed phase L due to the relative motion of the continuous phase. 1999). M αβ . Sokolichin and Eigenberger. The wall lubrication LUB force. respectively (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan. Do-Quang et al. virtual mass force. 2005. Rafique et al. appears when a dispersed phase accelerates relative to the continuous phase. M αβ . the net interfacial forces sums to zero: M αβ = − M βα (4.’’ The turbulent dispersion force. M αβ . 2004. Ranade. D The interphase drag force. Only the interphase drag force and turbulence dispersion force were considered in the present model. 2004). accounts for the force when the dispersed phase is moving in the vicinity VM of the wall. some part of the surrounding continuous phase is also accelerated with the dispersed phase—this extra acceleration of the continuous phase TD has the effect of added inertia or ‘‘virtual mass. Note that the interfacial forces between two phases are equal and opposite. 2005).. The lift force. lift force.

7) where. Previous studies done by Lo (2000) and Gobby (2004) showed that dense bubble effects can be represented by P = 4 in the above equation. C D∞ is determined by: C D∞ = max(C D ( sphere). C D (distorted )) (4. therefore it was appropriate for modelling ozone disinfection processes which consisted of air and water phases.9) where C D (sphere) is the drag coefficient in the spherical cap regime. M αβ . 2005). This model was developed using air–water data and hence produces better results for air–water systems (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan. which is well approximated by: 74 .D The interphase drag force. d g is the gas bubble diameter. u g and u l are the gas and liquid velocities. was modeled with the Grace Drag model (Clift et al.8) where C D∞ is the single bubble Grace drag coefficient. P is a correction factor for dense bubble effects (or bubble swarm effect). The Grace Drag model is expressed as: rg 3 ρl C D (u g − u l ) u g − u l 4 dg D M g ..l = (4.1978). and C D is the drag coefficient given by: C D = rl P C D∞ (4.

751 J =  3.94 H 0.15) Eo = σ = Eotvos number (4.3 H > 59.11) where the terminal velocity UT is given by: UT = µl M −0.C D ( sphere) = 8 3 (4.3 (4.14) H= µ 4 EoM − 0.12) M is Morton number and is defined as: 4 µ g g∆ρ M = ρ c2σ 3 (4.441  if if 2 < H ≤ 59.13) and J is given by:  0.149 ( J − 0.14 3 µ ref 2 g∆ρd g (4.149 ( l ) −0.10) C D (distorted ) is the drag coefficient in the distorted particle regime given by: 4 gd g ∆ρ 2 3 U T ρl C D (distorted ) = (4.857) ρl d g (4.42 H 0.16) 75 .

previous studies (Langlais et al. M αβ . g is the gravitational acceleration. 76 . The bubble size in ozone contactors is variable in full-scale ozone contactors and is difficult to determine experimentally. Wu.1 in this study which is suitable for the bubble size range utilized (Gobby.in which. 1991.17) where cTD is the dispersion coefficient. σ is the surface tension coefficient and dg is the diameter of the bubble.0009 kgm-1 s-1 is the reference molecular viscosity of water (Lo. 2000).5 have been used successfully for bubbly flow with bubble diameters in the order of a few millimetres. However. The same observation was made by van Baten et al. ∆ρ is the density difference between the phases. The model of Lopez de Bertodano (1991) was used in this study for describing the turbulent dispersion force: TD M lTD = M g = −cTD ρl kl ∇rl (4. for which values of 0. Bubble coalescence and break-up were not taken into account to simplify the simulation. TD The turbulent dispersion force. µref = 0. (2003) and Sokolichin et al. Thus. The dispersion coefficient was taken as 0. k l is the turbulent kinetic energy of liquid phase which is described below.. 2001) have shown that the average bubble size in ozone contactors is in a narrow range between 2 mm and 5 mm. and found that the change in diameter did not affect the results significantly. (2004).0. Eo is the Eotvos number. considers the additional dispersion of phases from high volume fraction regions to low volume fraction regions due to turbulent fluctuations. 2004). Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan (2005) conducted gas-liquid simulations with different bubble diameters ranging from 2–12 mm.1 . an average bubble diameter of 3 mm was used in the present simulations.

turbulence modeling is of crucial importance for the correct description of multiphase flows in ozonation systems.α = µα + µ t .19) Liquid Phase Turbulence Model For the liquid phase. the impact of turbulence on the hydrodynamics was modeled in both phases by the Boussinesq Eddy Viscosity model which assumes that the effective viscosity is the sum of the molecular and turbulent viscosities. the standard k-ε model (Launder & Spalding.Volume Conservation Equation The volume fractions of all phases sum to unity: NP ∑ rα α =1 =1 (4. the value of eddy viscosity µ t . Therefore. In this study.2 Turbulence Model Fluid flows in full-scale ozone contactors are turbulent because the turbulence Reynold numbers in these contactors are usually higher than 104.2.l in 77 . At this point of time the k-ε model is the most commonly used turbulence model for solving engineering CFD problems (Schugerl and Bellgardt.18) 4. 1974) was used to simulate the turbulent eddy viscosity µ t . 2001. 2002). and diffusion of momentum in phase α is governed by an effective viscosity: µ eff . Michele.α (4. Using this model.

Pk . σκ and σε are constants (standard values of 1.l − Cε 2 ρ l ε l ) σε ∂t kl (4. The Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model is a simple extension of the standard k-epsilon (k-ε) model and is easy to implement.20) where C µ = 0. The turbulent scales from the liquid phase. Gas Phase Turbulence Model: For the dispersed gas phase.21) ε ∂ (rl ρ l ε l ) µ + ∇ • (rl ρ l u l .3 were applied). and the turbulent energy dissipation rate ε l : 2 µ t .09 is the model coefficient. Cε2 .l = ρ l C µ kl εl (4. k l and ε l .44. There is no need to solve additional turbulence equations for the dispersed phase. This is the recommended 78 .22) where Cε .l − ρ l ) σk ∂t (4. and ρ l is the density of liquid flow.liquid phase was set by the following equation based on two scales of turbulences: the turbulent kinetic energy k l . and transport (Wright and Hargreaves.l is the turbulence production due to shear and buoyancy forces. destruction. were assumed to apply to the dispersed gas phase.92. 1. 1.i ε l − ( µ + tl )∇ε l ) = rl l (Cε 1 Pk . 2001): ∂ (rl ρ l k l ) µ + ∇ • (rl ( ρ l u l . a Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model was used. k l and ε l were calculated using additional equations representing their production.i k l − ( µ + tl )∇k l )) = rl ( Pk . and 1.

23) The parameter σ is a turbulent Prandtl number relating the dispersed phase kinematic eddy viscosity µ t . 2000). large particles in the dispersed phase tend to increase turbulence in the continuous phase due to the presence of wakes behind the particles. ANSYS. µt . 79 . 1975): µ t′. 2000). The Sato Enhanced Eddy Viscosity model was used to model this effect in this study.l . and µte.algebraic model for a dispersed phase (Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan. g .6 (Lo. g (4.l ρl σ (4. g to the continuous phase kinematic eddy viscosity µ t . g = C µ . With this model the eddy viscosity of the gas phase. l is the usual Shear Induced Eddy Viscosity.24) where µt′. µt . turbulence enhancement by air bubbles was modeled using an enhanced continuous phase eddy viscosity (Sato and Sekoguchi. 2005.l = µ t . This is known as Particle Induced Turbulence. The Prandtl Number is specified to be 1 which is appropriate for bubble flows (Lo. l is the total liquid phase turbulence eddy viscosity. g ρ l rg d g u g − u l (4. Turbulence Enhancement Model In flows with a dispersed phase. In this model. g has a value of 0. g is an additional Particle Induced Eddy Viscosity: µ te. is expressed as: µt . 2005).l + µ te . g = ρ g µ t .25) The variable Cµ .

rapid changes in velocity occur in a thin sublayer in which the flow is influenced by molecular viscous effects and does not depend on free stream parameters (Versteeg and Malalasekera. In the wall-function approach. An adequate numerical resolution of the solution in the sub-layer requires a very fine mesh because of the sub-layer thinness and the high gradients in this region. such a model is computationally intensive and often not suitable for industrial applications (Versteeg and Malalasekera. To avoid this. The sublayer has a substantial influence upon the near wall flow. 1995). the viscosity affected sublayer region is bridged by employing empirical formulas to provide near-wall boundary conditions for the mean flow and turbulence transport equations. Utyuzhnikov. 1995. Therefore. Wright and Hargreaves. 1998): τ ω = ρu *uτ (4. τω. by means of following relations (Grotjans and Menter. This approach is a modified form of the standard wall function approach (Versteeg and Malalasekera. l = µl + µt .The total effective viscosity of the liquid phases is: µeff .l + µte . 2005). 1995. the scalable wall-function approach (Grotjans and Menter. Wright and Hargreaves. 2000. The near wall velocity scale u*is related to the wall-shear-stress. 2001). 1998) was used for near wall treatment in this study.27) 80 .26) Scalable Wall-Function Model: As fluid flow approaches a wall. g (4.

uτ is the friction velocity scale. τω represents the wall shear stress. ozone diffuses from the gas phase into the liquid phase where it reacts with the NOM and pathogens as it decays naturally 81 . κ is the von Karman constant and C is a log-layer constant depending on wall roughness (natural logarithms are used). The scalable wall functions thus allow solution on arbitrarily fine near wall grids. Reactions and Microbial Inactivation The water entering the system contains natural organic matter (NOM) and pathogens.28) uτ = Ut 1 (4.1 u * = C µ/ 4 k l 1/ 2 (4. which is a significant improvement over standard wall functions (Grotjans and Menter. ~ The scalable wall-function approach limits the y* value by y * = max( y * .06 is the intersection between the logarithmic and the linear near wall ~ profile. 1998). u* is the near wall velocity scale. This eliminates fine grid inconsistencies of standard wall functions. The computed y * is therefore not allowed to fall below this limit. Ut is the known velocity tangent to the wall at a distance of y from the wall. As the water flows pass through the ozone contactor.29) κ ln( y ) + C * y * = ( ρ u * ∆y ) / µ (4.2.3 Sub-Models for Ozone Mass Transfer.06) . The value of 11.11.30) where. 4.

In this study. complete transport models of the gas phase ozone. and bromate concentration were all treated as transported scalars 82 . Sα is the external volumetric source term. including: effective ozone exposure CT and tracer residence times. natural organic matter (NOM). such as bromate. pathogens. the transport of this additional variable φα is expressed as: ∂ µ (φ ) (Φ) (Φ) (rα ραφα ) + ∇ • (rαuα ραφα ) − ∇(rα (ρα Dα + tα )∇φα ) = Sα + Tα ∂t Sctα (4. ozone concentrations in gas/liquid phases. microorganisms. liquid phase ozone. which are transported in the liquid phase and discharged from the system. One undesired consequence of the ozone reactions is the formation of ozone disinfection by-products. Regulatory agencies and operators are interested in estimating various system performance indicators. Sctα is the turbulent Schmidt number. and bromate transport and reactions are given. 2004). Models equations for estimating these indicators are also presented here. General Species Transport Equation When a species φ exists in phase α. In this section.in the water.31) where rα is the volume fraction of the phase. ρ is the density of flow. natural organic matter. uα is the flow velocity. the corresponding field variable is denoted φα . with units of conserved quantity per unit volume per unit time. φα is the conserved quantity per unit mass of phase α. Tα (Φ ) represents the total source to φα due to inter-phase transfer across interfaces with other phases (ANSYS. Dα (φ ) is the kinematic (Φ ) diffusivity for the scalar in phase α.

2000): S tr = k l .. Thus. the gas phase resistance is usually considered negligible and the concentration gradient on liquid phase film controls the ozone mass transfer rate in the bulk fluid (Langlais et al. and dg is bubble size.33) where the source term S tr represents the rate of interfacial ozone mass transfer between the two phases. Individual transport balances were distinguished by their respective source processes as described below.tr a[C l − C l ] * (4. a is the volumetric interfacial area (1/m). the transfer of ozone from gas phase to liquid phase through the phase interface is due to a concentration gradient. Ozone Mass Transfer Ozone must be dissolved into the liquid phase before reacting with contaminants (including pathogens) in water. which is caused by a resistance to the mass transfer developed in each phase.32) a= 6 * rg dg (4. 2005). Based on the well known two film theory (Danckwerts. 1991). rg is the local gas phase fraction. 1970). kl. the source term for the interfacial transfer of ozone between gas and the water can be modeled as follows (Singer and Hull. * * The saturation concentration of ozone in water C l can be calculated according to Henry’s law (Singer and Hull.tr is the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient.(additional variables) and obtained by solving transport equations. C l is the local ozone residual concentration. 2000): 83 . Since ozone is sparingly soluble in water (Beltran. C l is the saturation concentration of ozone in water.

. and Calderbank (1959). In this study. is used. 84 . 1991..35) 288 K ≤ T ≤ 303K The liquid phase mass transfer coefficient of ozone k L can be determined by batch-scale experiments (Beltran. 2002). The effect of pressure on Henry law constant was not considered in this study.. which was reported by Perry (1973). 2006): kL = 2 D O 3V B* πd g (4. V B* = u g − u l . 2005) or estimated using some empirical equations proposed by Higbie (1935). The Higbie model has been widely used to simulate mass transfer in ozonation system (Cockx et al.25 − T log H =  6. Langlais et al.. Masscheleain. Van Hughmark (1967).20 − 1687  T  when when 278 K ≤ T ≤ 288 K (4.Cl = C g / H * (4.34) where H is the Henry’s law constant. an empirical ozone Henry’s law constant equation.. 1999. This equation has also used by other researchers in modeling ozone systems (Marinas et al.36) where DO 3 is the molecular diffusivity of ozone in water. VB* is the gas slip velocity. which can be estimated from the gas superficial velocity Vs and gas holdup fraction rg . Kim et al. 1985) and other gas-liquid systems (Rahimi et al. 1982. The formula of the empirical equation is: 840  3.

This is due to the presence of substances (mainly natural organic matter (NOM)) that radically react with ozone through direct reactions. (1991) and Kim et al. 85 . 2003). 2002b. It can also be expresses as (Masscheleain. Singer et al. Langlais et al. 1995. To characterize this phenomenon in the first stage... 1999): k L = 1 .37) The Higbie model was used in this study to estimate liquid phase mass transfer coefficient. (2002a) indicated that the decomposition of ozone includes two stages: The first stage is called the initial ozone fast-demand period.V B* = Vs rg (4. Chen. The rate of the reaction between dissolved ozone and the fast reacting NOM is usually too fast to be measurable via batch reactor experiments when source water contains high concentrations of fast reacting NOM (Kim et al.. It represents the ozone concentration that is immediately consumed by ozone demanding substances in water. 13 D O 3V B* dg (4. the reaction of ozone usually occurs in a few seconds dependent on water quality (Cho et al.. a concept called instantaneous ozone demand (IOD) is often used (Bellamy. 2000).38) Ozone Decomposition Reactions Once dissolved in water ozone becomes very unstable. 1982. which can be measured as the transferred ozone dose minus the initial ozone residual.c). 1985. In this stage. Langlais et al.

20 (L/mg s).Based on this definition. Tang et al. Several studies (Lev and Regli. 1992. Chen. 2002). second order reaction kinetics can be applied. the reaction rate k NOM f used in this study was set at 3. (2005) and Kim et al. 1999. in unit of [kg[O3]/m3]. the source term corresponding to the reaction in the first stage is: S demand = k NOM f [ NOM f ]Cl (4. However. IOD represents the initial concentration of fast reacting NOM ([NOMf]). and C l represents the liquid ozone concentration (kg/m3). measurement of k NOM f is often difficult (Kim. 1998. and Kim et al. Therefore. 2005.39) in which source term S demand represents the ozone consumption rate during the first stage which equals the reaction rate of [ NOM f ] . 86 . Since the reaction of NOM and ozone is too fast. based on a study by Hunt and Marinas (1999).. This rate constant was acceptable for modelling purposes because it resulted in 90% completion of the second-order reaction in seconds. which is consistent with the experimental observations in this study and previous studies by others (Hunt and Marinas. (2002) applied the same value in their Axial Dispersion Reactor Models for modelling of ozone column. and IOD is only exerted if [NOMf] is greater than zero. 2002) applied second order reaction kinetic models to describe this fast reaction period. Tang et al. Kim. For the modelling purpose. 2002). k NOM f is a second-order rate constant (m3/kg s).. The IOD concept assumes that the first stage has an infinite reaction kinetic constant. for modelling purposes. [ NOM f ] is the concentration of fast reacting natural organic matter.

the amount of ozone they consume is negligible due to the extremely low mass concentrations of pathogens in water.40) where S decay is the source term for the decay process. and the pathogen inactivation process was modelled separately in this study. in which ozone decays more slowly due to reactions with the remaining substances in water. and k d is the water quality dependent decay rate constant determined by laboratory-scale experiments. The decay rate of ozone during this slower decay stage is commonly expressed by a pseudo first-order kinetic equation as follows (Langlais et al. 1991): S decay = − k d C l (4. the effects of pathogens on ozone reactions were not considered. the Check-Watson model. This second stage is more important for microbial disinfection performance. 2005). The Hom-Haas model was found to be more robust than other models (Haas and Karra. Therefore. Several classic disinfection kinetics models are commonly used for evaluating disinfection efficiency of chemical disinfectants. the Rennecker-Marinas model.41) 87 .The second stage of ozone decomposition is a period of moderate decay consumption. 1984). Microbial Inactivation Although pathogens also contribute to ozone demand and decay reactions. including the Chick’s law model. and the Hom-Haas model (MWH. N n ) = −k p Cl t m N0 ln( (4. Cl is the dissolved ozone concentration..

2001)..1 lists some literature reported constants of various pathogens.07 × temp) 1 1 Carlson et al..0723 × temp ) 1 1 Carlson et al.68 × θ temp − 22 . (1999) Li et al.71 m 0. Table 4. θ =1. Table 4. kp is a disinfection kinetic constant depending on the types of pathogens. These constant however may change with the change of water quality conditions (Finch et al.1 Some reported Hom-Haas model constants for ozone disinfection Microorganism Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts Giardia Kp (min-1) 0.The Hom-Haas model can also be rearranged to express the kinetics without time (t) as an independent variable (Haas et al. Cl is the dissolved ozone concentration. 1995): 1 1 SN = (1− ) dN n = −mN ⋅ (k pCl ) m [− ln N ] m  N  0  dt (4. N is the number of viable microorganisms per unit volume. t is the exposure time (or residence time) of pathogens in ozonated water. (2001) 2.90 × exp(0.73 Source Gyurek et al.42) where S N is the source term for microbial inactivation processes.080 n 0. and m and n are constants.35 × exp(0. N0 is the initial number of viable microorganisms per unit volume. (2001) 88 . (2001) Viruses 4.

Such a linear relationship between CT and bromate concentration was applied to describe bromate formation. Figure 4. 89 .Disinfection By-Product (Bromate) Formation Various ozone disinfection models have been discussed in Chapter 2. the ozone mass transfer. As discussed above.. C l is the dissolved ozone concentration. However. most models are in complex forms and are not feasible to be integrated within the CFD model. and k B is the water quality dependent bromate formation kinetic constant. The source term for its transport equation is: dC B = −kBCl dt SB = (4.43) where S B is the source term for bromate formation process. reaction and microbial inactivation processes are highly related to each other.2 shows the kinetics involved in these complex processes. 2002). A simplified linear empirical bromate formation proposed by von Gunten (1994) has been confirmed by many other researchers in recent years (Tang et al. C B is the bromate concentration in water. Kim. 2005.

Another approach was a transient solution to simulate the tracer residence time distribution curve. Two approaches were used for modelling tracer residence time.31.2 Modelling scheme for simulating ozone mass transfer and reactions Tracer Residence Time Simulation Ozone contactor hydraulic performance can be assessed quantitatively by tracer residence time distribution (RTD). One approach was to model steady state “water age” using the transport equation 4.Ozone in gas phase (Cg) Interfacial mass transfer kinetics (If C* > Cl) Ozone in liquid phase (Cl) If [IOD] > 0 Instantaneous Ozone Demand Reaction Ozone decay kinetics Bromate formation kinetics Microbial inactivation kinetics Figure 4. and a source term of 1 [s s-1] was used for calculating the residence time at any locations within the contactor. The tracer simulation was run as a pulse injection test as in a full- 90 .

2006. a steady state CFD simulation was performed for calculating the fluid velocity fields. Then the tracer scalar was defined as an additional variable. parcel dt (4. The tracer residence time distributions were obtained by monitoring the tracer concentration at the outlets of the ozone contactors. First. The source term of the transport equation for CT is derived as follows: When a parcel of liquid fluid flows from the inlet to the outlet of a contactor. MENV.44) Then it follows that D (CT ) ≡ Cl Dt (4. CFD-Based CT Since the current USEPA and most Canadian provincial drinking water disinfection regulations (e. 2002). a cumulative ozone exposure as a function of time is defined as: t outlet CT ≡ t inlet ∫C l . a CFD-based CT was also developed using an additional variable transport equation.scale tracer study. The flow field obtained from the simulation was used as the initial condition and was frozen when conducting unsteady state simulations to solve the tracer scalar transport equations.g.45) 91 . Ontario and Quebec) employ a CT concept and use CT tables to calculate disinfection efficiency (MOE.

the effects of turbulent diffusion should also be included. The source terms for these components are shown in Table 4. 92 . bromate concentration (CB). ozone concentration in gas/liquid phases (Cg and Cl).47) Thus. ozone exposure (CT). the source term for CT is defined as: S CT = rl C l (4. and pathogen concentration (N). thus the final form of the CT transport equation is: µ ∂ ( CT ) (rl CT ) + ∇ • (rl U l CT ) − ∇(rl ( Dl + tl )∇CT ) = rl Cl ∂t ρ l Sctl (4.46) Combining the above two equations and multiplying the result by the liquid phase volume fraction rl gives the transport equation for ozone exposure (CT). Overall Source Process The CFD model developed in this study included transport equations for all the important chemical or biological components of an ozone disinfection system including the fast reacting natural organic matter (NOMf). As with other additional variable equations. the total derivative D (CT ) is defined as: Dt D (CT ) ∂ ∂ = CT + u i CT Dt ∂t ∂xi (4.At any instance in the time of the parcel’s travel from inlet to outlet.48) where rl is volume fraction of water.2.

2 Kinetics and source terms of transport equations for modelling ozone processes Component (species) Gas phase ozone concentration (Cg) Processes Mass transfer: Source or sink terms for transport equations dCl = kl a(C * − Cl ) dt Str = −kl a(C* − Cl ) C* = Cg / H a = 6 * rg dg Dissolved ozone concentration (Cl) Mass transfer: dCl = kl a(C* − Cl ) dt Ozone decay: dC l = −kdCl dt  k l a (C *   Sl =  *  k l a (C   − Cl ) − kd Cl if if [ IOD ] ≤ 0 f − C l ) − k d C l − k NOM f [ NOM [ IOD ] > 0 ]C l Ozone demand (When [IOD ] > 0): − d [ IOD ] = − k NOM f [ NOM f ]C dt Instantaneous ozone demand (IOD) When [IOD] >0 and Cl >0: d [ IOD] = −k NOM f [ NOM f ]Cl dt When [IOD] >0 and Cl ≤0 * S [ IOD ] d [ IOD ] = − k l aC dt Otherwise: − d [ IOD ] = 0 dt l  − k NOM f [ NOM f ]C l  if [ IOD ] > 0 and   − k aC *  = l if [ IOD ] > 0 and  0   if [ IOD ] ≤ 0  Cl > 0 Cl ≤ 0 CT Pathogens (N) D ( CT ) ≡ C Dt S CT = C l dN n   SN = = − mN ⋅ ( k m C l ) m  − ln  N  N  dt 0    1 (1− 1 ) m ln( N n ) = −k mCl t m N0 Bromate (CB) Tracer dCB = k BCl dt dC tracer S B = k BCl 0 dt = 0 93 .Table 4.

Quebec and the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant in Kitchener. it could be certain that the results were realistic rather than the product of a numerical artefact (Wright and Hargreaves.3. as described in Section 4.2. it was essential to test the sensitivity of the results to various aspects of the CFD algorithm. The main focuses of this study were to use the CFD model to investigate ozone contactor hydraulics. all the major processes within an ozone disinfection system (ozone mass transfer. and turbulence model selection. since no site-specific models of these two processes were available during the period of this study. the CT has strong correlation with the above two processes in ozone systems. microbial inactivation. The CFD-based CT was also simulated and used as an indicator for describing the microbial inactivation and disinfection by-product formation processes.2. ozone decay. 4. including mesh density.4. Quebec is the second largest drinking water filtration plant in Canada. mass transfer and reactions. Prior to applying the model. In addition. the CFD model was validated using experimental data obtained from the ozone disinfection systems of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal. so that the same closure and CFD sub-models could be used to simulate other geometries and operating conditions with a suitable level of confidence (Vesvikar and Al-dahhan. 2005).3 Full-Scale Case Studies Using the three-dimensional multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model described in Section 4. By doing this.1 The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant ozone contactor The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal. This is a reasonable approach because. Ontario. The plant was built in 1979 and has a 94 . discretisation scheme. 2001). and disinfection by-product formation) can be predicted.

Thus. Lawrence River is treated by filtration and ozonation. The total length. width.capacity of 1.200 million litres per day (MLD). and height of each contactor are 23. and ozone gas is fed in the first cell of each contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers.000. Figure 4.3 Schematic drawing and mesh of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor 95 . The geometry of the ozone contactor was built by commercial CAD software: SolidworksTM and Ansys Design ModelerTM. The DesBaillets WTP has six parallel ozone contactors. only half of the contactor was modelled. Unstructured tetrahedral grids were used for the CFD modeling and were refined at areas close to the gas diffusers and baffles. each with two cells. Since the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor has a symmetric geometric structure. 5. Meshing Three dimensional CFD modelling is computationally expensive.16 m respectively. Raw St. The geometry model then was imported into CFX-mesh to generate a mesh. the number of meshes and computational time were significantly reduced.8 m. Figure 4.50 m and 7.3 shows the geometry and mesh of half of DesBaillets ozone contactor used in the CFD modeling. followed by chlorination before being discharged into the distribution system. The total element number was about 420.

3. however. Since only half of the geometry was modelled. For water inlet. a symmetric boundary was given for the symmetric plane which was located in the middle of real ozone contactor. Vesvikar and Al-dahhan. and dissolved ozone further reacts in the following four cells. The ten year old ozone system has been modified to include new liquid oxygen (LOX) ozone generators to increase ozone gas 96 .2 The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor The Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is operated by the Regional Municipality of Waterloo.3 m/s and the volume fraction of water was 1. is moderate to high in hardness and alkalinity and averages an organic carbon concentration of 5 to 7 mg/L.Boundary conditions The boundary condition of water and gas inlets were provided by specifying uniform velocities calculated from water and gas flow rates. The free water surface was set as a degassing outlet which assumed that the surface was flat. 2000.1 to 0. Canada. The Grand River water. The ozonated gas is injected into each contactor by fine bubble diffusers in the first two cells. frictionless and impervious to liquid to simplify the simulation. 4. Such a degassing free surface boundary condition has been applied by other researchers (Zhang. which is affected by both agricultural and municipal use. A non-slip boundary condition was used for water at all the wall boundaries and a free-slip boundary condition was applied for gas phase at the walls. For gas inlets. Ontario. 2005). The outlet was set as a zero pressure gradient boundary condition and the reference pressure was set as 0 atmosphere (atm). It was designed to treat Grand River source water at a normal production capacity of 72 millions liters per day (MLD). gas was allowed to leave at the rate at which it arrived at the surface.03 m/s and the volume fraction of air was 1. the velocity was in the range of 0.01 to 0. There are two parallel baffled ozone contactors in the plant. the velocity varied from 0.

The unstructured tetrahedral 3-D mesh was used and mesh was refined at areas closing to the gas diffusers and baffles. Geometry and Meshing Figure 4.3 m.5. The research efforts of the present study were focused on investigating the change of contactor performance before and after system modification.concentration and remove some diffusers from the system.1. which will be described in Section 4. The height and width of the contactor were respectively 10. Each of the diffusers was 800 mm (length)×100 mm (diameter).3 m and 8. there were 44 fine bubble diffusers in the first cell and 22 bubble diffusers in the second cell. 97 . which was determined based on the mesh sensitivity study. Total element number of the mesh was about 680.5 m3.1. 34 diffusers were removed from the contactor. Before system modification.000. The geometry of the ozone contactor consisted of 6 cells with a total volume of 370. During modification.4 is the three dimensional schematic drawing of one contactor. and the remaining diffusers were changed to be 200 mm (length)×100 mm (diameter).

the velocity varied from 0. For gas inlets.3 Numerical Method The numerical solution of the CFD modeling was carried out with a finite-volume based program CFX10 (Ansys. 2005). 4. Discretization of the non-linear differential equations yields a system of linear algebraic equations that are solved 98 . CFX employs an unstructured control volume mesh.Figure 4.4 Schematic drawing of the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor Boundary conditions The velocity at water inlet was in the range of 0.3. The governing equations for fluid flow.022 m/s and the volume fraction of air was 1.45 m/s and the volume fraction of water was 1. mass transport and decay are discretized in the computational domain by a finite volume method. Other boundary conditions were same as those used in the modelling of DesBaillets ozone contactor.

DesignModeler & Solidworks (Geometry) CFX-Mesh & ICEM (Mesh Generation) CFX-Pre (Model Setup) CFX-Solver CFX-Post (Postprocessing) • • • • • Flow field Tracer simulation Ozone profile Pathogen inactivation Bromate formation Figure 4. For each run. a second order high-resolution differencing scheme was applied to all equations.5 Procedures for CFD modelling of ozone disinfection processes 99 . Figure 4. The time step used varied in range between 100s and 0. Steady state was indicated by a state when all the key variables (e.001s from the start to the end of a run. In this study. The computational times for obtaining the converged solutions usually were between 1 days to 4 days.iteratively. the hydrodynamics was solved first in a transient manner until steady state was reached.5 shows the procedures for CFD modelling of ozone disinfection processes. All the simulations were done on a Pentium 4 PC with 3.g. local velocities of the two phases and the volume fraction of the gas phase) remained constant.0 GHz CPU and 2G memory.

1 Model Sensitivity Study Sensitivity to Mesh Density As the mesh is refined a more accurate solution can be expected. and 424.891 was selected for the rest of studies. Therefore.803. At the same time. the mesh size of 424. Therefore.891 respectively. The number of elements for the three meshes were 320. the finer the mesh. 100 . Figure 4. in real situation. the mesh density should be selected such that an acceptable accurate solution is obtained within a reasonable simulation time. 2005). it is necessary that the solution obtained is meshindependent (Vesvikar and Al-dahhan. One possible reason for such a difference is that uniform flow rates were defined for gas and water inlet boundary conditions.982. the more time is needed for computations.4.4.4 Results and Discussions 4.1. However. In this study. the effect of mesh density on the accuracy of CFD modelling was evaluated by performing a series of tracer residence time distribution simulations at three different mesh density conditions. however. Further reduction of mesh size did not significantly improve the accuracy of modelling. 370. the flow rates may vary across the inlet surfaces.4.1 DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study 4.6 presents the comparison result which suggests that there was only a slight difference in tracer RTD prediction under the three mesh density conditions.

6 Element number=320.891 Experimental data 0. This suggested that the k–ε model was most appropriate and it was deemed sufficiently accurate for the study 101 . Figure 4. In addition to the standard k–ε model. 1991) were used for comparison purpose. 1986).982 0.830 Element number=370.7 shows tracer RTD simulation results for the different models. 2003) and the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) model (Speziale et al.2 0. the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model (Mentor.4 Element number=424.8 C/C0 0. In all four cases the tracer curves varied slightly and the standard k-ε model fit best with the experimental result.1.6 Sensitivity of the mesh density on the simulation of tracer residence time distribution Sensitivity to Choice of Turbulent Model The effect of the turbulence model on the tracer RTD was also studied.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Time (S) Figure 4.0 0.. three other commonly used turbulence models including the RNG k–ε model (Yakhot and Orzag.

the k–ε model was selected for this study.undertaken here. Wu.7 Sensitivity of the turbulence model on the simulation of tracer residence time distribution Sensitivity to the Selection of Air Bubble Size As discussed previously. and SSG models usually require much longer computational times. The results showed that.9.6 0. the RNG k-ε. The modelling was run at different bubble sizes from 2mm to 5mm. 1.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Time (S) Figure 4.8 Experimental data K-e model SST model SSG model 0.2 0. The sensitivity of the bubble size on the modelling was studied to determine if this is a reasonable assumption. Therefore. 1991. previous literature studies (Langlais et al. a constant bubble size was used in this study. 2001) have shown that the average bubble size in ozone contactors is in a narrow range between 2 mm and 5 mm. In addition. To simplify the simulation.8 and 4.0 Normalized concentration 0. SST.4 RNG k-e model 0.. The simulated air volume fraction and dissolved ozone concentrations were compared as presented in Figures 4. the volume fractions and dissolved ozone 102 . in the modelled bubble size range.

The same observation was made by van Baten et al. Thus. (2003) and Sokolichin et al. They found that.concentration at the 7 monitoring points inside the ozone contactors were not significantly affected by bubble size selection. an average bubble diameter of 3 mm was used in the present simulations. when bubble diameters in the range of 2–12 mm. This was consistent with the results of Vesvikar and Al-Dahhan (2005) on the CFD modelling of an anaerobic digester. the change in diameter did not affect the results significantly. (2004). 103 .

04 0.4 0.08 3 mm 4 mm 5 mm 0.9 The simulated dissolved ozone concentration at different bubble sizes 104 .8 The simulated air volume fraction at different bubble sizes 1.10 Volume Fraction of Air 2 mm 0.0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 C1 C2 Monitoring Location Figure 4.2 0.06 0.8 0.0.00 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 C1 C2 Monitoring Location Figure 4.02 0.6 2 mm 3 mm 4 mm 5 mm Dissovled Ozone Concentration (mg/L) 1.

16 m3/s for two monitoring points C1 and C2.4.2 0. Good agreement was observed between the CFD modelling and experimental tracer test results. 1.10 showed the comparison results at the flow rate of 2.4.55 respectively.16 m3/s were 0.8 C1 measured 0.0 Normalized concentration 0.10 Comparison of simulated and experimental tracer curves 105 . Figure 4.50 and 0. 2002) obtained at the DesBaillets WTP ozone disinfection system at two different flow rates. and the simulated and measured T10/T ratios at flow rates of 1. The simulated and measured T10/T ratios at flow rates of 2.47 m3/s were 0. The locations of the two points are shown in Appendix A.4 C2 simulated 0.6 C1 simulated C2 measured 0.2 Model Validation The CFD model was validated by comparison of the simulated tracer residence time distribution (RTD) with field tracer test data (El-Baz.0 0 500 1000 Time (S) Figure 4.1.51 respectively.51 and 0.

16 m3/s. The ozone demand and decay kinetics parametes used were determined by experimental study done by the École Polytechnique de Montréal (El-Baz.4%.In addition.11 CFD predicted ozone residual distribution 106 .96 mg/L and ozone first order decay constant = 0. The comparison between the numerical and measured ozone concentrations at these monitoring points is given in Table 4. gas flow rate = 0.3. immediate ozone demand (IOD) =0. ozone concentration in gas = 1. It was thus considered that the CFD modelling could sufficiently accurately predict mass transfer and reactions of ozone within the contactors. Although relatively big differences were observed at a point near the gas diffusers (P4) and a point at the edge of the short circuiting zone (P2). Figure 4.11 CFD shows the predicted CFD ozone residual distribution and the locations of the monitoring points inside the ozone contactor.12 1/min. Figure 4. the predicted ozone concentrations at all other monitoring points were within 11% of the measured values. 2002).25m3/s. The modelling conditions include: water flow rate=2. local ozone residual concentrations were obtained by solving transport equations for ozone mass transfer and reactions.

64 11 Outlet 0.03 26 P5 0.64 0.44 25 P3 0.60 concentration (mg/L) Measured ozone 0. Figure 4.1.81 0.3 Prediction of Disinfection Performance The CFD model was applied to investigate the contactor hydraulics under various operational conditions.67 5 Predicted ozone 0.12 displays a typical flow field inside the contactor.4.74 10 P4 0. From the velocity field.54 concentration (mg/L) Difference (%) 11 4.34 0.76 1. The existence of dead zones and shortcircuiting would reduce the contacting opportunities between ozone and pathogens and make disinfection efficiency significantly less than it otherwise could be.Table 4.71 0. it was observed that large recirculation zones existed in the two cells and caused short-circuiting and dead zones.3 A Comparison between the predicted and measured ozone concentrations at 6 monitoring points Monitoring points P1 P2 0. 107 .

a CFD-based CT concept was introduced to characterize ozone disinfection performance.3. only CFD simulated CT values are discussed herein. However to be consistent with current regulations. in which C is the local ozone residual concentration and T is the local residence time. this CT was calculated by solving a species transport equation using C (local ozone residual) as a source term.12 Simulated velocity vector field and streamlines of the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor In the present study. As described in Section 4. and it represented the accumulated CT exposure dose for pathogens that traveled from the contactor inlet to a specific internal location. Figure 4.13 shows the simulated ozone residual distribution and CT value distributions as well. CFD modeling can also predict log inactivation directly based on the pathogen inactivation kinetics model. which are based on the CT approach. The 108 . The disinfection efficiency of a contactor could be evaluated by determining the CFD-based CT values at outlet locations.Inlet Potential short-circuiting Outlet Recirculation zones Figure 4.

Inlet Cell 1 Cell 2 Outlet (a) Ozone residual distribution Potential short-circuiting Inlet Outlet (b) CT value distribution Figure 4. As shown in Figure 4. at the top surface of cell 2) and had a much smaller CT than other portions of water exiting the contactor. A portion of the water might experience short-circuiting phenomena (for example. the flow field could significantly affect the ozone residual and CT distributions.13 Simulated ozone residual and CT value profiles within the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor 109 .13.total disinfection efficiency of a contactor could be calculated using the CFD based CT at the outlet of the contactor. Such phenomena may be a potential risk to safe drinking water disinfection.

This indicated that the traditional CT10 method might significantly underestimate disinfection efficiency.1.4. the flow field became more uniform and the dead zones and short circuiting as described in Figure 4.14 Simulated flow field after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor Figure 4. Figure 4. under different modeling conditions. The results suggested that.12 were significantly reduced. the CFD simulated CT value could be 80% to 140% higher than the traditionally calculated CT10 value. The results showed that.4 Effects of Baffling on Contactor Hydraulics and Disinfection Efficiency To minimize the recirculation in the second cell. Four additional baffles were placed into cell 2 of the contactor. 4.In Chapter 7 of this thesis. an alternative contactor configuration was modelled. After modifying the contactor configuration. after adding baffles in the second cell. Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Figure 4. the CFD simulated CT value was also compared with CT calculated by the traditional CT10 method. and CFD was a better alternative for evaluating ozone disinfection treatment performance even though a safety factor should be considered to account for the uncertainty factors of the CFD modeling.15 shows the CFD simulated CT after adding baffles inside cell 2. the upstream pressure propagation from cell 2 110 .14 presents the CFD simulated velocity fields.

In fact. 2002).15 Simulated CT after installing four baffles in a DesBaillets ozone contactor 4. 2000.5 Effects of water quality on ozone contactor performance As discussed in Chapter 2. Kim. Previous researchers tried to model the effects of individual parameters on ozone decay and disinfection efficiency using empirical or mechanistic models (Amy et al.4. such as temperature. it was possible to quantitatively evaluate ozone disinfection efficiency and to assist with the design and operation of full-scale ozone contactors. using the CFDbased CT concept.79 mg/L* min after adding baffles) after adding baffles. No obvious surface short-circuiting occurred and therefore the treatment efficiency was improved. and the mechanistic models are currently still not feasible due to the fact that the ozone reactions in the natural waters are too complex to be fully 111 .1. Inlet Outlet Figure 4.78 mg/L*min before adding battles to 2.. pH. The CT values after cell 1 were uniform. natural organic matter.back baffle wall changes the flow patterns in cell 1 which affects the CT distribution in cell 1. alkalinity. can significantly affect the ozone decomposition and disinfection performance. and ammonia. the water quality factors. the empirical models are usually strongly site specific. However. Therefore. the average CT at the contactor outlet has been increased 64% (from 1.

16 shows the effects of these two parameters on the effective CT predicted by CFD modelling at a constant operational condition (water flow rate = 2. The increase of the IOD from 0.15 min-1 (El Baz. none of these models has been used reported to be used to assist with the design and operation of full-scale ozonation systems.2 mg/L resulted in the decrease of the CFD-based CT from 4. 1998.described (Kim.17 presents the effects of ozone decay kinetics constant on the CFD-based CT. Chen.4 to 1.16 m3/s. 1985. this result suggested that enhancing pre-treatment for the removal of NOM was a key approach to improving the DesBaillets ozone contactor performance.34 m3/s).. Figure 4.0 to 2. 2001). This 112 .15 min-1 only led to a 0. Figure 4. However.05 to 0.2 mg/L and the ozone decay kinetic constant kd changes in the range of 0. It was found that.6 mg/L min decrease of CT. It could be observed that the influence of ozone decay kinetics constant (kd) on ozone disinfection seemed to be much smaller than the influence of immediate ozone demand. the immediate ozone demand (IOD) had a strong influence on CT prediction.. gas flow rate =0. for the DesBaillets WTP ozone system.05 to 0. Experimental studies of DesBaillets WTP source water were done at different seasonal conditions. Increasing kd from 0.3 mg/L min. and it was found that the immediate ozone demand of DesBaillets ozone contactor source water varies from 0. 2002).4 to 1. To-date. the above water quality factors can be indirectly described by two water quality indicators: immediate ozone demand (IOD) and ozone decay kinetic constant (kd) (Langlais et al. Finch et al. These two parameters therefore were included in the CFD modelling to characterize the effects of water quality. 2002) . Since the IOD mainly represents the level of natural organic matters in source water.

10 0.8 1.17 Effects of ozone decay constant on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor 113 .15 0.16 Effects of immediate ozone demand on the CT of DesBaillet ozone contactor 8 CFD-Based CT (mg/L*min) 6 4 2 0 0.20 Ozone Decay Constant (1/min) Figure 4.0 1.2 0.2 1.8 CFD-Based CT (mg/L*min) 6 4 2 0 0.0 0.4 Immediated Ozone Demand (mg/L) Figure 4.00 0.4 0.6 0.05 0.

was due to the fact that the DesBaillets ozone contactor has a short residence time (hydraulic retention time is about 5 min).93 million litres per day (3. the simulated T10 values were respectively 16.3 and 11.2.72 MIGD or 4.3 minutes. in Waterloo. Figure 4. Application of 114 .1 minutes.9 and 10. The CFD hydraulic model was validated through a comparison between the CFD simulated T10 and the T10 values obtained from full-scale tracer tests results provided by the Regional Municipal of Waterloo previously performed by others.93 and 30.2 Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Study 4. It was also observed that contactor hydraulics changed greatly with the change of flow rate. Therefore.58 million litres per day). Canada. Before the system modification.1 Model Validation For the ozone contactor of the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant (WTP). it was suggested that the treatment plant should conduct routine tests to determine the immediate ozone demand and use this information to optimize the ozone system operation. At two different water flow rates (16.47 MGD). the system was undertaking system modifications including installing liquid oxygen (LOX) diffuser systems and removing some diffusers during this study. 4. the role of ozone decay was limited compared with that of the immediate ozone demand.4. Based on the above analysis.18 shows a CFD simulated tracer tests for the outlets of each of the 6 cells at a water flow rate of 16. Ontario. which were in close agreement with experimental T10 values of 15.4.

The validation test was done at the following conditions: water flow rate=0.0008 0.007 m3/s. Figure 4. In general. gas flow rate = 0.0000 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (minutes) Figure 4.43 m3/s. Normalized Tracer Concentration 0.18 Numerical tracer RTD curves for the outlet of each cell in the Mannheim contactor After the system modification.21 mg/L and ozone first order decay constant = 0.21 1/min.19 presents a comparison between the CFD predicted and the on-site tested ozone profiles along the modified ozone contactor.0004 0. experimental and modeling studies were done to further validate the CFD model. immediate ozone demand (IOD) =1. water temperature =12 °C. The ozone profiles were simulated using the experimentally determined ozone demand and decay kinetics.0012 0. ozone concentration in gas = 7%.the CFD approach allows us to quantify the hydraulic changes to direct the design and operation of an ozonation process.0016 Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 0. the predicted ozone residual at most sampling 115 .

in this study. As what will be discussed in Chapter 5. 0.points fitted well with experimental data. Inaccurate determination of the monitoring locations might make residual measurements and predictions differ from their actual values. the ozone residuals might vary significantly at the outlets of the cells (particularly the cells 2. Canada) instead of by measurements.4 CFD predicted Measured Ozone Residual (mg/L) 0.19 A comparison between the CFD predicted and on-site tested ozone profiles for the Mannheim WTP ozone contactor 116 .2 0.1 0 Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell Number Figure 4. the grab sampling locations were determined from photos provided by the Regional Municipal of Waterloo (Ontario.5 0. One possible reason for this was that. The CFD predicted results at the sampling points of cell 2 and cell 3 showed a relatively larger difference (about 20%) with the measured values.3 0. and 3) following the ozone dissolution cell.

0000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minute) Figure 4.0004 0. it was suggested that the Mannheim WTP should conduct tracer tests for the modified ozone contactor and adjust the T10/T ratio used for disinfection credit calculation to operate the system more economically. 28 of the original 44 diffusers in cell 1 were removed from the system. 0.4. Likewise.0008 0.4.20 Predicted contactor hydraulics before and after system modification 117 .%.20. 6 of 22 diffusers in cell 2 and all the 34 diffusers in cell 3 were also removed. Due to the significant change of ozone concentration. % to 6-10 wt.0012 Normalized Concentration Before modification After modification 0. The comparison of the numerical tracer RTD of the ozone contactor before and after modification is presented in Figure 4.2. Therefore.5 wt. The results predict that reducing the number of diffusers in the contactor and increasing the ozone concentration in the gas has led to an increase in residence time of the water.2 Ozone Contactor Hydraulics Before and After Modification This 13 year old ozone contactor system of Mannheim WTP was recently modified to include liquid oxygen (LOX) fed ozone generators to increase ozone concentration in gas from original 1-1.

The sensitivities of mesh density. mass transfer. The results of DesBaillets case study indicated that immediate ozone demand (IOD) had more significant influence on disinfection efficiency compared with the ozone decay constant did.4. It could also be used as a virtual experimental tool to optimize ozone contactor behaviour under varying water quality and operational conditions. and bubble size selection were studied. The model employed all the major components of ozone disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics. It was therefore suggested that the IOD should be tested routinely to improve the ozone dosage determination. ozone decomposition. and troubleshooting. The effects of water quality on ozone disinfection were also investigated. 118 .5 Conclusions A three-dimensional multiphase CFD model in the Eulerian-Eulerian framework was developed to fully describe ozone disinfection processes. Numerical solutions agreed well with the field test data obtained from the Desbaillets and Mannheim ozone contactors. turbulence model selection. The results suggested that dead zones and short-circuiting existed in the investigated contactors and might significantly reduce disinfection efficiency. The model developed in this study could be used for ozone contactor design. therefore a constant bubble size 3mm was selected for the modelling. This study demonstrated the power of CFD for predicting the performance of full-scale ozone disinfection processes. microbial inactivation and bromate formation. The results showed that k-ε model was appropriate for this study. Changing the bubble size in the rage of 2 to 5 mm did not significantly affect the modelling results. evaluation. Installing additional baffles in the second cell of the DesBaillets contactors could improve contactor hydraulics and therefore ozone disinfection efficiency. The CFD model was validated by tracer test data and ozone residual profiles.

Depending on temperature. CT tables relating Giardia and virus log inactivations with associated ozone CT values were given in the SWTR Guidance Manual (USEPA. 1991).CHAPTER 5 IMPROVING OZONE RESIDUAL MONITORING AND TRACER TESTING STRATEGIES FOR FULLSCALE OZONE CONTACTORS BASED ON CFD MODELING 5. 2006). Cryptosporidium CT values are 15 to _____________________________________________ Parts of this chapter have been published in: 2006 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition. Canadian Water and Wastewater Association. In the recently released Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESTR). Proceedings of 12th Canadian National Conference and 3rd Policy Forum on Drinking Water. 1991) recommended that the microbial inactivation credit of an ozone contactor can be evaluated by a “CT” concept which is defined as the product of ozone concentration (“C”) in a cell and disinfectant contact time or exposure time (“T”). American Water Work Association. an additional CT table was provided to calculate the log inactivation rate of Cryptosporidium parvum by ozone (USEPA.1 Introduction The USEPA Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual (USEPA. 119 .

Therefore. The accuracy of the tracer test results can be affected by multiple factors including the stability of water/gas flow.25 times higher than CT values for equivalent Giardia and virus log-inactivation credit. to-date no modelling studies have been reported to determine the variation of ozone residuals in ozone contactors and to optimize ozone residual monitoring strategy. However. can be obtained from on-line ozone residual analyzers or measured from grab samples (USEPA. Bellamy. 1998. However. 1995). tracer testing is costly and time-consuming. The potential variation of ozone concentration at sampling locations may greatly affect the ozone concentration monitoring results. In addition. The disinfectant contact time T10 is usually determined through conducting step-input or pulse input tracer studies. water quality and water flow conditions (Chen. sampling location. It is therefore not unusual to see significant differences between two tracer curves obtained under the same testing conditions. water suppliers have to accurately determine CT values. 2006). Accurate ozone residual data will allow the calculation of correct log-inactivation values and allow optimized performance to be maintained. 2006). the ozone residual profile in a contactor may vary significantly depending on the method of operation. based on previous pilot and full-scale studies. The direct effect of this new CT table is that ozone dose needed for Cryptosporidium parvum inactivation will be much greater than the dose for Giardia and virus inactivation. there is also 120 . Thus. to minimize ozone dosage to reduce operational costs and at the same time to decrease disinfection by-product formation. and tracer detection method. The ozone residual value. One potential efficient way to determine the optimal sampling locations is through numerical modeling. Similar CT tables have been adopted by some Canadian provincial regulations such as the Procedure for Disinfection of Drinking Water in Ontario (MOE. C. tracer injection method.

121 . the second stage was ozone decomposition described by a pseudo first-order kinetic equation (Langlais et al. All the species were modelled by solving species transport equations with appropriate source terms as described in Chapter 4 and Zhang et al. Therefore. 1995. The second objective was to study the effects of tracer injection methods and tracer monitoring points on tracer test results and to optimize tracer test strategy. Versteeg and Malalasekera. 2005. 1970. The interfacial transfer of ozone between gas and liquid systems were modeled based on the well known two film theory (Danckwerts. 2005).. Singer and Hull. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach was used for simulating bubbles dispersed in water during ozonation processes (Lakehal. The ozone reactions were modeled as two stage reactions: the first stage was instantaneous ozone demand (IOD). Zhang et al. 2002.a need to optimize tracer test strategies to be used for accurate determination of contactor hydraulics.. 1991).. Zhang et al. the primary objective of this study was to apply a computational fluid dymanics (CFD) modelling approach to investigate the ozone concentration variation in ozone cells and to optimize the locations of ozone residual monitoring points. 2000). (2006).. 2006).2 CFD Model Description A multiphase model was developed and validated by comparing with full-scale tracer test data and ozone profiles obtained from the Desbaillet Water Treatment Plant ozone contactors (Zhang et al. 5.

and each contactor has two cells. Step or pulse additions of a tracer could be made resulting in so-called F and E RTD curves (Levenspiel.Ozone contactor hydraulic performance could be assessed from tracer residence time distribution (RTD) curves. 5.16 m. respectively. a distribution pipe was installed on the inlet surface to provide uniform 122 . In a second step. Numerical simulation of tracer tests was conducted in two steps. As shown in Figure 5. A tracer was introduced at a source point in the inlet to the tank. Canada. The DesBaillets WTP has six parallel ozone contactors.8 m. width. The contactor hydraulics was previously evaluated using a step injection of hydrofluorosilic acid as the tracer chemical (El Baz. Figure 5.2. The total length. 5. The average ozone residual from these five monitoring points are used for CT calculation instead of using the residual at a single point C1. T10 values were then directly obtained from the tracer F curve as described by Teefy (1996). the steady state flow field solution was applied as an initial condition. and height of each contactor are 23. First the steady state fluid flow was established.50 m and 7. Simulations with both step and pulse injections were produced.200 million liters per day/317 million gallons per day) in Montreal. 2002). To improve the accuracy of ozone residual monitoring in cell 1. and the concentration at the outlet was tracked by solving the transient tracer scalar transport equation. The system initially used two sampling points for measuring ozone residuals: C1 for cell 1 and C2 for cell 2.1 shows the ozone residual monitoring points inside a DesBaillets ozone contactor. Ozone gas is fed in the first cell of each contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers.3 Case Study The CFD model was applied to simulate the ozone disinfection system at the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) (1. five additional sampling ports (P1 to P5) were installed. 1999).

2 Tracer injection pipe and sampling point in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor 123 .1 Ozone residual sampling ports in a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor Figure 5. Figure 5.injection of the tracer chemicals uniformly across the width of the contactor during the tracer tests.

2.4 CFD Modelling Results and Discussion 5. the present work suggests that the ozone sensor or sampling port should be located within the plane under the baffle wall. Figure 5. current regulations do not provide a clear guidance on how to locate these ozone monitoring points. Measuring ozone residual at the upstream or downstream of the baffle may lead to under or over estimation of outlet ozone concentrations. However. the Y axis represents distance along the width of the contactor from the central symmetric plane and X axis represents the vertical distance from the bottom of the contactor. 2002. 1991).0 mg/L at the centre area of the outlet planes and decreased to 0. The residuals were above 1. 124 . It can be observed that the ozone concentration varied widely at the outlet. The maximum value could be more than one order of magnitude higher than the average value. As shown in Figure 5.3 presents the CFD simulated ozone profiles at different planes at the outlet area of cell 1.1 Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration at the Outlet of the Cells When the effluent CT method is used for microbial inactivation credit calculation. C represents the outlet concentration of a cell Therefore. Under the current regulation framework (MENV. 2006). The modelling results also indicated that ozone residuals were more sensitive to the sampling locations at the outlet area of cell 1. It is therefore important to investigate the sensitivity of the sensor locations on ozone residual monitoring to assist with ozone contactor design and operation.5.4. USEPA. the dissolved ozone concentration should be measured at the outlet of each cell (USEPA.2 mg/L at the locations close to the side walls.

125 .Based on the drinking water regulations of the province of Quebec. The shaded region in Figure 5. The above result indicated that the selection of inappropriate monitoring points would lead to incorrect calculation of CT values for log inactivation evaluation. Canada (MENV 2002).4 shows the area at the outlet of a cell where calculated ozone concentrations were within ± 20 % of the average outlet ozone concentration calculated through CFD modeling. Figure 5.3 Simulated ozone residual distributions around the outlet of cell 1 in the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor (only half of the outlet is shown) Using the CFD modeling approach. the CT value of the first cell was calculated based on the residence time T10 of the cell multiplied by half of the ozone residual at the outlet of the cell. The 20% value is chosen as a reasonable one for purpose of illustration. it is possible to locate the potential “optimal” location for ozone residual monitoring under a specific operational condition.

However. Previous studies showed that other factors. 126 . gas flow rate=0.Figure 5.21m3/s.22 m3/s.5 shows the variation of the “optimal” ozone sampling zones at two different water and air flow rates.2 mg/L) It would be expected that more representative monitoring results could be obtained when ozone sampling ports or online sensors were installed within or close to the shaded area shown in Figure 5. the ozone residual distributions at the outlet of cell 1 were strongly affected by the operational parameters. might also affect the dissolved ozone concentration distribution (Bellamy. Figure 5. 1995). if possible. ozone dose=2.4. Since the shape of the optimal zones changed significantly at different conditions. it would be difficult to determine a universal optimal point which could always represent the average ozone residual. It was therefore suggested that multiple ozone monitoring points should be provided at the outlet of cell 1 to obtain a more representative ozone residual. such as ozone dosage and water quality.4 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within ± 20 % of the average value (water flow rate =3.

1). and the average ozone residual calculated from three points. It could be observed that. The three point averaged ozone residual agreed reasonably well with the averaged residual at the outlet of cell 1. residual at point C1 (shown in Figure 5. Table 5.5 The area at the outlet of cell 1 where ozone concentrations are within ± 20 % of the average value Figure 5. 127 . the residuals at point C1 were higher than the outlet average residuals at the current modeling conditions. one could obtain a more representative ozone residual for the cell 1 outlet concentrations.Figure 5.6 shows an example of installing three monitoring points (S1 to S3) at the cell 1 outlet.1 presents a comparison of the mass flow averaged calculated ozone concentration. Using this multiple points monitoring strategy.

69 mg/L Ozone decay constant: 0.94 0.53 mg/L Ozone decay constant: 0.10 min-1 * Arithmetic average 1.6 The location of 3 sampling points at the outlet of cell 1 Table 5.07 0.12 min-1 Water flow rate: 1.Figure 5.10 min-1 Water flow rate: 2.97 128 .09 1.1 A comparison of the mass flow averaged ozone concentration and the arithmetic average residual calculated from three points at outlet of cell 1 Ozone Residual at Cell 1 (mg/L) Modeling conditions Outlet Average Residual at point C 1 Three points (S1 to S3) Average* Water flow rate: 3.98 1.21 m3/s Ozone concentration in air: 0.0167 kg/m3 Ozone demand:0.22 m3/s Gas flow rate: 0.45 1.60 mg/L Ozone decay constant:0.01 0.15 m3/s Ozone concentration in air: 0.37 m3/s Gas flow rate: 0.016 kg/m3 Ozone demand: 0.16 m3/s Gas flow rate: 0.015 kg/m3 Ozone demand:0.18 m3/s Ozone concentration in air: 0.25 0.85 1.

Therefore it usually over-estimates the ozone residual of Cell 1.5. To improve the accuracy in monitoring ozone residuals.4.1) as the only monitoring point for the CT calculation. Figure 5. This monitoring point is located behind the baffle wall and in the region of short-circuiting caused by buoyancy flow. five additional monitoring points have been installed in Cell 1 of the DesBaillets ozone contactor to obtain the average ozone residual in this cell for CT calculation. the DesBaillets WTP initially used point C 1 (see Figure 5. and is not appropriate to be used for CT calculation.2 Spatial Distribution of Dissolved Ozone Concentration within Ozone Contactors As discussed above. 129 .7 Spatial ozone residual distributions along the horizontal profile of the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor.

A better prediction of the averaged ozone residual could be done by installing the monitoring points on the plane 1.2 shows a comparison of the volume averaged residual and average residual calculated from five points at different planes.2 m away from the middle plane. Therefore installing sampling ports close to.20 mg/L. and ozone dosage of 2. Table 5.7 shows the spatial variation of the ozone residual profile at a water flow rate of 3.Figure 5. The CFD simulated results suggested that ozone concentrations at the plane closest to the side wall (Plane A) were much smaller than those at other two locations (Planes B and C). It could be found that installing the five monitoring points on the middle plane (plane C) might over-estimate the volume averaged ozone residual.25 m3/s. The volume averaged residual was calculated as the integral of ozone concentration in cell 1 divided by the total volume of cell 1. It could also be observed that the dissolved ozone concentrations varied significantly along the contactor which was caused by the existence of short-circuiting and recirculation zones within the contactor.27 m3/s. gas flow rate of 0. while putting monitoring points on the plane closest to the wall (Plane A) may under-estimate ozone residuals. 130 . or flush with. the walls should be avoided to prevent under-estimation of average ozone concentration.

82 0.69 0. Figure 5.93 1.Table 5.53 0.4.011 m3/s Ozone concentration in air:0.10 min-1 0.86 0.016 Ozone demand: 0.3 Ozone residual distribution in the contactor after installing additional baffles To improve the contactor hydraulics in the second cell. 131 .53 mg/L Ozone Decay constant: 0.10 min-1 Water flow rate: 0.017 kg/m3 Ozone demand:0.186 m3/s Gas flow rate: 0.76 0.99 0.46 0.69 mg/L Ozone Decay constant: 0.02 m3/s Ozone concentration in air:0.69 0.127 m3/s Gas flow rate: 0.015 kg/m3 Ozone demand:0.27 0.94 5.60 mg/L Ozone Decay constant:0.73 0.12 min-1 Water flow rate: 0.8 shows CFD predicted averaged ozone residuals at the outlet of each cell after installing four additional baffles in the contactor.2 A comparison of the volume averaged residual and arithmetic average residuals calculated from 5 points at different planes Ozone Residual at Cell 1 (mg/L) Modeling conditions Volume average 5 points 5 points 5 points average* average* Average* in plane A in plane B in plane C Water flow rate: 0. an alternative contactor configuration was modelled.28 m3/s Gas flow rate: 0. Four additional baffles were placed into cell 2 of the contactor.013 m3/s Ozone concentration in air: 0.

132 .Figure 5. Therefore.9. At the outlets of cell 1 and cell 2.9 presents a comparison of the volume averaged residual and outlet average residual for each contactor cell. For other cells. The maximum and minimum concentration values at the outlets of each cell are also shown in Figure 5. It was also suggested that multiple monitoring points at the outlet of certain cells should used instead of just one point to provide more accurate indicators to system operators. the monitoring points should be determined very carefully to be more representative. It could be observed that the volume averaged residuals were significantly higher than the outlet average residuals in the first two cells. the differences became negligible. the maximum residuals could be one order of magnitude higher than the minimum values.8 CFD predicted ozone residuals at the outlet of each cell after installing additional baffles Figure 5. The large variations of the ozone concentrations at the outlets of cell 1 to 3 suggested that the residuals would be very sensitive to the monitoring locations in these cell outlet areas.

4.10 shows the simulated tracer residence time distribution curves (E curves) obtained through four different tracer injections: 1) “tracer 1” was injected at an inlet point close to side wall.4. and 133 . Figure 5.5 2.4 Effects of Tracer Injection Points on RTD and T10 The CFD model was also used to study factors affecting tracer residence time distribution (RTD). 3) “tracer 3” was injected at an inlet point on the middle symmetric plane.0 1.5 1. 2) “tracer 2” was injected at an inlet point between the side wall and middle symmetric plane.0 Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Origianl Cell 2 Volume average Outlet average Cell 5 Cell 6 Location Figure 5.9 Simulated ozone residuals of each cell after installing additional baffles 5. Numerical tracer tests were performed by pulse-injecting a predetermined amount tracer in a very short time from the inlet of the contactor and monitoring the tracer concentration at the outlet of the contactor.0 0.0 Ozone Residual (mg/L) 3.5 3.0 2.5 0.

002 0. which might be because the Desbaillets WTP contactor has two small cells before cell 1.003 Tracer 1 Tracer 2 Tracer 3 Tracer inlet E 0.10 Effects of tracer injection location on tracer residence time distribution 134 . the tracer injection method only slightly influenced tracer RTDs.000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Time (s) Figure 5. Tracer 1 has a maximum T10 (164 seconds) and Tracer 3 has a minimum T10 (155 seconds).001 0. and ozone dosage of 2.004 0. 0. Only very small difference (<6%) was observed for different injection points.25 m3/s.20 mg/L. gas flow rate of 0. These two cells allowed the tracer chemicals to be mixed and uniformly distributed before the tracer entered cell 1.4) “tracer inlet” was injected uniformly over the cross-section of the contactor inlet. For this specific case. These tracer curves were the modelling results at a water flow rate of 3.27 m3/s.

Significant differences in the tracer RTDs were observed at the three different tracer monitoring points. Figure 5.5 Effects of Tracer Monitoring Point Selection on RTD and T10 The effects of tracer monitoring points on tracer RTD tests were also studied. and point 2 is located between points 1 and 2. Figure 5.11 Three monitoring points for simulation of tracer residence time distribution 135 . The concentration of chemical tracer was monitored at three points located at the contactor outlet.5.5m away from the side wall. point 3 is on the middle symmetric plane. The T10 calculated from these RTD curves differed by more than Figure 5.11 shows the location of the three monitoring points: Point 1 is 0.12 presents the simulated tracer RTD curves for the three points.4. The RTD curve obtained from the numerical monitoring of mass flow averaged chemical tracer concentrations at the contactor outlet is also shown for comparison purposes.

001 0.12 Effects of tracer monitoring points on residence time distribution 20% (T10 values of points 1. 185 seconds respectively). 172.5 Conclusions This work evaluated a computional fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for determination of CT values of full-scale ozone contactors.005 0.003 Point 2 Point 3 Outlet Average 0. This result also suggested that more accurate tracer RTD and T10 information could be obtained if multiple monitoring points were used and the tracer RTD were calculated by averaging the measured tracer concentrations at different monitoring points.002 E 0. 2. Since the tracer RTD of monitoring point 2 was close to the average RTD curve. The most significant 136 . 160. 3 and outlet average were 145.0. 5.000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Time (S) Figure 5. it might be more appropriate for the contactors studied.004 Point 1 0.

The CFD model was also used to study the factors affecting the residence time distribution (RTD). it was suggested that multiple ozone residual sampling points should be installed at the outlet of some ozone contactor chambers to provide more accurate indicators to system operators. A better prediction of the volume average residual could be obtained when the monitoring points are installed on a plane located 1. 137 . a guideline document could be developed for various basic contactor designs. In summary. The results also suggested that installing five monitoring points on the middle plane of certain cells (e. the CFD modelling results showed that ozone residuals in the cross section of the outlet of each cell differed by an order of magnitude. The T10 values calculated from the CFD predicted that RTD curves at different outlet locations varied by more than 20% variation. a CFD model was applied to illustrate and improve an ozone residual monitoring strategy. The variation of residuals was affected by multiple factors. cell 1) or on a plane close to the side wall might over. It is therefore recommended that multiple sampling points be employed during tracer tests.or under-estimate the volume average ozone residual.contribution of this work was that.2 m away from middle plane. For the DesBaillets ozone contactors. baffling conditions. temperature.g. Therefore. The results suggested that the selection of tracer injection locations as well as tracer sampling locations could affect the RTD prediction or measurement. 1995). the CFD approach is an efficient tool for improving measurement or prediction of CT values. and it can be used in various ways for operating and designing full-scale ozone disinfection systems. for the first time. etc (Bellamy. It is suggested that full-scale experimental studies should be done in future through the measurement of spatial distribution of ozone residuals inside ozone contactors to further validate the results of this study. Optimum locations and numbers of ozone sensors could be determined based on CFD modelling and experimental study. Ultimately. including water/gas flow rate.

2002. 2004. 2002... similar to that of a 138 . 2002).. Ducoste et al. 1999. to simulate the flow and reactions in drinking water disinfection reactor processes has attracted much attention in recent years (Greene. disinfectant profiles can be obtained by numerical solution of the Reynolds-averaged. In the Eulerian approach.1 Introduction The use of an advanced modelling tool. Navier-Stokes and species transport equations (Greene. Zhang et al. the spatial distribution of viable microorganisms in a reactor is viewed as a continuous field. In general. 2002. With a CFD modelling approach. computational fluid dynamics (CFD).. Do-Quang et al. Some researchers (Do-Quang et al. 2004.CHAPTER 6 A COMPARISON OF EULERIAN AND PARTICLE TRACKING APPROACHES FOR PREDICTION OF OZONE CONTACTOR PERFORMANCE 6. residence time distribution (RTD). Ta et al. Zhang.. Greene. CFD modeling has been applied for the simulation of various disinfection processes. 2005) also tried to use CFD modelling to predict the disinfection efficiencies.. Mofidi et al. 2005). UV radiation and ozonation (Lyn et al. 2005).. 1999. Greene. 2002. the velocity field. including chlorination. two approaches were used to model microbial inactivation processes: one is the Eulerian approach and another is the Lagrangian approach (also called particle tracking approach).

1998.. 2002). 1999). The objective was to compare these two CFD approaches for modeling the tracer residence time distribution (RTD) and characterizing ozone disinfection performance.dissolved species (Greene. Chiu et al. Chiu et al. both the particle tracking and Eulerian approaches were used to evaluate ozone disinfection performance. Do-Quang et al. (2004) used an Eulerian approach to model UV reactors and their results show that the Eulerian approach slightly overpredicted the inactivation level. In contrast. assuming a known turbulent fluid velocity field. to-date.. However. 139 .. The inactivation efficiencies of microorganisms are then determined by incorporating the particle trajectories with microbial inactivation kinetics information through the reactor (Downey et al. Do-Quang et al. no studies have been reported to compare the two different approaches for modelling ozone disinfection systems. The concentration of microorganisms inside the reactor is expressed as a function of spatial coordinates and simulated by solving the species advection-diffusion transport equations with appropriate source terms (Lyn et al. the Lagrangian approach was applied by other researchers (Downey et al. 2005) and the results fit well with experimental data. 1999). (1999). in simulating UV dose for UV disinfection systems. microorganisms are viewed as discrete particles and the motion of individual microorganisms is independent of each other... (2002). Several studies had been done to compare the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches. 1999. In this study. In a Lagrangian approach.. The trajectory of each particle is calculated by solving the particles equations of motion. 1998. Ducoste et al. and Mofidi et al.

1 Flow Equations A two phase three dimensional CFD model has been developed to describe ozonation processes (Zhang et al. the standard k-ε model was used (Launder & Spalding 1974).6. The hydrodynamics of ozone contactors were based on continuity and momentum balance equations for the two-phases: water and ozonated gas.. whereas it was negligible in the gas phase (Zhou et al. ozone decomposition kinetics and mass transfer kinetics submodels were included in the form of species transport equations. 2000) • Henry’s law applied (Beltran. 2005)..2 CFD Modelling Methodology 6.2. The impact of turbulence on ozone contactor hydrodynamics was modeled in both phases. 1995) • • 140 . The model was based on the following assumptions: • Mass transfer resistance for ozone absorption was limited by the liquid side and was not enhanced by ozone reactions in the liquid phase (Singer and Hull. (2005). The details of the species transport equations and the sink terms used to describe ozone decomposition and ozone transfer can be found in Chapter 4 and Zhang et al. The turbulence of the dispersed gas phase was modeled using a Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model and bubble induced turbulence was taken into account as per Sato and Sekogochi (1975). For the liquid phase. 2004) The ozone decay rate in the liquid phase was pseudo first order. To model ozone transport and associated reactions.

• Bubble size was set as a constant (3 mm) based on literature reported ranges (Langlais et al. 2002). The CT concept for ozone systems is similar to the UV dose (intensity × residence time) concept currently used for evaluating UV disinfection performance (MWH. In addition.2 CFD-based CT A common approach for determining ozone disinfection efficiency involves the application of a C×T concept (C is the ozone residual concentration in the contactor at time (T)) (USEPA. the USEPA employs a conservative residence time T10 which is the residence time of the earliest 10% of the microorganisms to travel from the contactor inlet to outlet. To accurately predict ozone disinfection efficiency. 2001) • The free water surface of the contactor was treated as a free slip surface. 2002) 6. Therefore. 1991. suggesting that a single ozone residual value will not be able to characterize ozone distribution within a given contactor.. Because of the existence of dead zones and short circuiting in full-scale ozone contactors. ozone residuals may also vary substantially in a contactor. a CFD-based CT concept 141 . which had been demonstrated to be reasonable by other researchers (Greene. the microorganisms that enter the contactor at the same time may encounter significantly different pathways in the contactor. using a single residence time T10 may result in inaccurate prediction of contactor hydraulic performance. 1991. 1991). C is usually defined as the ozone residual concentration at the outlet of a chamber and T is the residence time of microorganisms in the chamber. For T. 2005) When the CT concept is used to estimate full-scale ozone contactor disinfection performance. to ensure a minimum exposure time for 90% of the water and microorganisms entering a disinfection contactor (Chen.2. Greene. Wu. 1998. US EPA.

ozone contactor hydraulic performance (represented by tracer residence time distribution) and disinfection efficiency (represented by CT) can be modelled by solving species transport equations: ∂ µ (φ ) (Φ) (rα ραφα ) + ∇ • (rαUα ραφα ) − ∇(rα (ρα Dα + tα )∇φα ) = Sα ∂t Sctα (6.was introduced in this study which was defined as the accumulated ozone exposure ( ∫ Cdt ) for all pathogens passing through an ozone reactor. This concept considerd three dimensional variations of ozone profiles inside ozone contactors and the differences in residence time of the microorganisms. Sc tα is the turbulent Schmidt number. the source term of the species transport equation was 142 . U α is the flow velocity.2. rα is the volume fraction of each phase. The flow field obtained from the above simulation was then used as the initial condition when conducting unsteady state simulations to solve the tracer species transport equation. To model a tracer residence time distribution (RTD) curve. Dα (φ ) is the kinematic diffusivity for the species in phase α. Since the tracer was non-reacting during transport.1) where φα is the concentration of a species. First.2. φα is the conserved quantity per unit mass of phase α. a steady state CFD simulation was performed to calculate the fluid velocity fields. ρ is the density of flow. Such a CFD-based CT value could be modelled by the Eulerian or Lagrangian approaches. the tracer was defined as a nonreacting species and a transient simulation was conducted.1 Eulerian Modelling Approach With the Eulerian approach. Sα (Φ ) is the source term for a species transport equation. 6.

4) Combining the above two equations. the total derivative D (CT ) is defined as: Dt D (CT ) ∂ ∂ = CT + u i CT ∂xi Dt ∂t (6. a cumulative ozone exposure as a function of time is defined as: t outlet CT ≡ t ∫C inlet l .2) It then follows that D (CT ) ≡ C l . thus the final form of the CT transport equation is given as: 143 . A CFD-based CT was also predicted using an additional variable transport equation. The source term of the transport equation for CT is derived as follows: When a parcel of liquid fluid flows from the inlet to the outlet of a contactor. The tracer residence time distributions were obtained by monitoring the average tracer concentration at outlets of ozone contactors. parcel Dt (6. parcel dt (6.3) At any instance in the time of the parcel’s travel from inlet to outlet. the effects of turbulent diffusion should also be included. As with other additional variable equations.set as zero. multiplying the result by the liquid phase volume fraction rl gives the transport equation for ozone exposure (CT).

the mass flow rate weighted average CT value at the outlet of a contactor was determined by: CT outlet = ∫ CTdm ∫ dm (6. This approach is applicable when the volume fraction of the dispersed phase (gas phase in this study) is small (James et al. rl is close to 1. The conservation equations of the model include: 144 .µ ∂ (rl CT ) + ∇ • (rlU l CT ) − ∇(rl ( tl )∇CT ) = rl Cl ∂t ρ l Sc (6. micro-organisms are treated as discrete particles where their trajectories are predicted by integrating the force balance on the particles. The trajectory of a single particle is calculated by solving particle equations of motion.2 Particle Tracking Modelling Approach In the Lagrangian approach.2. therefore: S CT = C l (6. the source term for CT was defined as: S CT = r l C l (6. In most cases.2. Particle concentration is estimated from the statistics of a large number of trajectories. 6.7) For a continuous flow system.8) where m is the local mass flow at the outlet of the contactor. 2003).6) where rl is the volume fraction of water.. assuming a known turbulent fluid velocity field.5) As such.

12) where ρ is the density in the continuum. Us is the slip velocity between the particle and the surrounding fluid and CD is a drag coefficient. AF is the effective particle cross section area.44) Re 145 C D = max( (6.15 Re 0.13) .Equations for calculating positions of particles: x in = x io + v o σ t pi (6.0.9) v p = v f + ( v o − v f ) exp( − p σt σt )) + τ F all (1 − exp( − )) τ τ (6.11) In the above equation. σ t is the time step and v pi is the particle velocity.10) where the superscripts o and n refer to old and new values respectively.687 ). 1933): 24 (1 + 0. x i is the position of a particle. CD is defined by the Schiller Naumann Drag model (Schiller and Naumann. The drag force between flow and particles need to be considered in particle transport equations: 1 ρC D AF U s U s 2 FD = (6. Momentum transfer: dv p dt mp = FD (6. FD is the drag force acting on the particle.

In fluids. the effect of turbulent dispersion should be included in the particle tracking model.11. the particle is assumed to be entering a new eddy with new characteristic v 'f . the eddy lifetime τ e and the eddy length le are calculated based on the following equations (James et al. The particle will stay in the eddy as long as the particle/eddy interaction time is less than the eddy lifetime τ e and the displacement of the particle relative to the eddy is less than the eddy length le . When a particle enters an eddy. the fluctuating velocity for that eddy is added to the local mean fluid velocity to obtain the instantaneous fluid velocity used in Equations 6. It is assumed that a particle is always within a single turbulent eddy before entering another eddy. and le . Therefore. Repeated eddy interactions cause the particles to disperse over time. The characteristic fluctuating velocity v 'f .10 and 6.14) where d is the particle diameter and µ is viscosity in the continuum.15) 146 . Each eddy has a characteristic fluctuating velocity v 'f . 2003): v 'f = Γ ( 2 k / 3 ) 1 / 2 (6. τ e . The present work adopted the a classical stochastic approach of Gosman and Ioannides (1981) for the estimation of fluid velocities. Otherwise.The particle Reynolds number Re is defined by Re = ρUs d µ (6.. the random motion of fluid elements (eddies) imparts a continuous random motion to suspended particles.

which were within the range of sizes of pathogenic protozoa in water (MWH. A random number generator creates this distribution. and C is a turbulence constant.16) τ e = l e /( 2 k / 3 ) 1 / 2 (6.17) where k and ε are the local turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The particle trajectories were obtained through a transient particle tracking solution. The sizes of these neutrally discrete particles used in this study were between 1 m and 100 m. These particles were uniformly injected into the contactor from the inlet in a very short period time. 2005). The residence time distribution curve could then be determined from data produced for the particles that leave through the outlet.000 in this study) were used to produce a particle-concentration independent particle tracking results (Ducoste et al.le = 3 C µ/4k 3/2 ε (6. Since the particles were injected simulateously from the contactor inlet but exited the contactor outlet at different time and at different particle number rates. Then. The variable Γ is a normally distributed random number which accounts for the randomness of turbulence about a mean value. the CT on each particle trajectory was calculated by integration of ozone concentration and particle tracking times along the particle trajectory. the average CT value at the outlet of a contactor was determined by the following equation: 147 . 0..1 second. First. A statistically significant number of particles (10. Because of this randomness. 2005). The ozone profile and particle tracking time of particle trajectories were then exported to a Microsoft Excel® file to calculate average CT value at the contactor outlet. therefore the average CT was determined based on the particle residence time distribution curve. each component of the fluctuating velocity may have a different value in each eddy.

1.18) pi where (CT )i is the accumulated CT of ith particle trajectory. E pi is the number rate of the particles that receive the ozone dose (CT )i . The procedures for calculating CT via Eulerian and Particle tracking approaches are summarized in Figure 6. ∆t is the time period over which these particles exit the contactor outlet. 148 .CT outlet = ∑ ( CT ) ∑E i E pi ∆ t ∆t (6.

and solve species transport equations for ozone reactions and the particle tracking model Export the particle traveling time and ozone concentration profiles on a representative number of particle trajectories Calculate the integrated CT values for each particle trajectory Export the particle residence time distribution curve Eulerian based CT Calculate particle tracking based CT Figure 6.1 Procedures for predicting CT through Eulerian and Particle tracking approaches 149 .Set up the model and input boundary and initial conditions Solve the fluid hydrodynamics equations to obtain steady state fluid velocity field Freeze the flow velocity field. and solve species transport Equations for ozone reactions and CT Freeze the flow velocity field.

Table 6.1 is a summary of the comparisons between the Eulerian and Langragian approaches used in this study. Lagrangian approach Components Model Description Eulerian Approach The CT of an ozone contactor is obtained by solving species advection-diffusion model.A finite volume commercial CFD code CFX 10 (Ansys. and Particle tracking model gives discrete solutions Slip Velocity 0 Turbulence Dispersion or Diffusion Model Turbulent diffusion is based on concentration gradient with the turbulence time and length scales: k τt ∝ ε ε lt ∝ Numeric Solutions k 3/2 ε le ∝ k 3/2 ε Second order discretization schemes are used in both approaches Second-order high resolution scheme (HRS) from control volume node to face Mass flow rate weighted Second order pathline integration Average CT at contactor outlet Particle mass weighted 150 .1 A comparison of Eulerian approach vs. Lagrangian Approach The CT is calculated based on particle trajectories. The turbulence time and length scales are: k τe ∝ The turbulent time scales and length scales are in the same order. which are obtained by solving the particles equations of motion and momentum transfer ≠ 0 unless the CD is very big ( ∞ ) Turbulent dispersion is based on stochastic approach. Presented in Table 6. 2005) was used. Note The Eulerian approach predict continuous fields of species.

The meshes were generated on one fine layer of the reactor geometries in the Z direction.1 Verification Case Study Two hypothetical ozone reactors were used to examine the difference between the two CFD modelling approaches: Eulerian and particle tracking. second-order discretization of the governing equations was applied and the simulations were considered to be converged 151 . The numbers of the mesh elements of the two reactors were 10.564 and 19.05 min-1. Figure 6. The tetrahedral-based mesh was adopted for CFD modelling and prism layers were applied to wall surfaces to resolve the effects of boundary layers. In all the simulations. Both dissolved ozone and influent water were assumed to enter into the systems from the reactor inlets.186 m/s and the influent dissolved ozone was assumed to be 2 mg/L. The inlet velocity of the water was set to be 0. the systems were assumed to be single phase reactors. These are reasonable values for ozone systems. For the Eulerian approach. The instantaneous ozone demand of influent water and ozone decay kinetics constant were set as 0 mg/L and 0. 2005). All meshes were generated with a commercial meshing tool: CFX-Mesh (Ansys. To reduce the computation time. and CT were solved under transient conditions.2 presents the geometries of two reactors designed to emphasize differences and do not necessarily represent a particular type of ozone reactor. the flow conservation equations were solved under steady state conditions.3 Case Studies 6. chemical tracer.376 respectively. and the overall conclusions would not be expected to be sensitive to the values chosen.6. To simplify the analysis.3. and both sides of the layer were defined as the symmetric boundary conditions. a two dimensional (2D) simulation was done for the verification case study. The obtained flow fields were then “frozen” and the species transport equations corresponding to the dissolved ozone.

the particles were defined as solid particles because the pathogens are solid.2 Geometries of two hypothetical ozone reactors when the root mean square normalised residuals for all the equations were less than 10-4 and the global imbalance of each species was less than 0. The data was then exported to an Excel® file to calculate CT values as described in Section 6. the number of each type of injected particles was set as 10000. 10.2.1%.Inlet 5m Outlet R=6. and 100 µm) were injected individually from the reactor inlets during a period of 0. Further increase in the population of particles led to computational difficulties due to time or computer memory limitations.1 second. By trial and error.8m Outlet Inlet 5m R=6.2. The particle tracking model was solved under transient conditions using a pre-determined fixed flow field.8m Y 5m X a) Ozone reactor 1 b) Ozone reactor 2 Figure 6. 152 . For the particle tracking model. Although the model has the capacity to handle liquid. three different sizes of particles (1. gas or solid phase “particles”.

The DesBaillets WTP has a capacity of 1.3.2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study A full-scale case study was performed for ozone contactors located at the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal.8 m.16 m respectively.50 m and 7. The raw water is treated by filtration and ozonation. 5. A three dimensional (3D) CFD model was developed.200 million litres per day (317 million gallons per day). followed by chlorination before entering the distribution system.000. Figure 6. The St.6. and height of each contactor are 23. width. Lawrence River is used as source water.3 Mesh used for modelling of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor 153 .3 shows the geometry and mesh of a DesBaillets ozone contactor used in CFD modeling. Inlet Cell 1 Cell 2 Outlet Bubble Diffusers Figure 6. The total element number was about 420. The total length. Canada. The DesBaillets WTP has six parallel ozone contactors each with 2 cells and ozone gas is fed in the first cell of each contactor through 126 porous fine bubble diffusers. Unstructured tetrahedral grids were used for the CFD modelling and were refined at areas close to the gas diffusers and baffles.

particles passed smoothly from inlet to outlet without recirculation and shortcircuiting. 154 . the tracer residence time distributions and CT values of the ozone contactor were modeled using the same procedures as for modeling the hypothetical ozone reactors.4. Figure 6. Based on the common range of the ozone system operational parameters in DesBaillet WTP.4 Results and Discussion 6. as in most full-scale ozone contactors. only a very small portion of the particles went into the “dead zone” and most particles passed through a short “passageway” as shown in the figure. For reactor 2.1 Results of Verification Case Study A CFD model was applied to investigate the hydraulics of the two hypothetical ozone reactors. As expected.186 m/s and the velocity of the gas at the diffuser surfaces was set at 0. while significant short-circuiting existed in reactor 2.022 m/s. the inlet velocity of the water at the inlet was 0. 6. flow in reactor 1 was essentially uniform throughout the whole domain.4 %. For both Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. reactor 1 was considered to be close to an ideal plug flow system.The system was considered as a multiphase reactor.4 displays the velocity fields inside the two reactors. A substantial dead zone could be observed in the rectangular segment of the reactor 2. Thus.5. which indicated that most of this rectangular segment can not provide effective contact time for microorganisms and disinfectant. Similar phenomena were displayed by the particle tracking results shown in Figure 6. For reactor 1. and reactor 2 represented a non-ideal system in which flow mixing was more complex. The concentration of ozone in the gas by weight was 1.

5 Particle trajectories in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right) 155 .4 Flow velocity distributions in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2 (right) Figure 6.Figure 6.

which was caused by the high residence time in the dead zone. It can be observed that both the velocity and CT values were more uniformly distributed at the outlet of the reactor 1. CT increased smoothly from inlet to outlet. the CT value can be obtained either by solving a species transport equation (Eulerian approach) directly or by calculating it from particle tracking modeling results. 156 . Figure 6. in reactor 2. In reactor 1. they varied greatly from one to the other side at the outlet of the reactor 2 which was due to the existence of strong short-circuiting inside the reactor. However.2.Using the methodologies described in Section 6. Figure 6.6 Eulerian CT distribution in reactor 1 (left) and reactor 2(right) Figure 6. However.7 shows the velocity and Eulerian-based CT value profiles along the outlets of the Reactor 1 and 2.6 shows the CFD simulated CT value distributions based on the Eulerian approach. the flow field could significantly affect CT distributions. Obviously. much higher CT values were observed in the dead zone area compared with those in the short-circuiting zone.

0.3 Velocity (m /s) 0.7 Distribution of velocity and Eulerian based CT at the outlet of the reactors 1 and 2 ( Sc : Schmidt number) 157 .1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 DistanceDistanceOutlet (m) (m) Along across outlet (Zero is at outside edge) (a) Velocity distribution at outlets of reactors 50 Reactor 1(Sc=0.4 Reactor 1 Reactor2 0.9) Reactor 2 (Sc=1000) 3 4 5 Distance along outlet Distance across outlet (m) (b) CT distribution at outletsedge) (Zero is at outside of reactors Figure 6.2 0.9) 40 CT (m m g/L in) 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 Reactor 1(Sc=1000) Reactor 2 (Sc=0.

The reason for the negligible difference for reactor 1 was due to the fact that the reactor 1 exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior and there was no short-circuiting or dead zones within the system.2 was that. Therefore both approaches could equally characterize the performance of this reactor. Therefore.76 10.76 7.78 7. 158 .80 Reactor 2 11. 2005). the residence time (T) and ozone profiles (C) on particle trajectories can better represent those values in the main flow.33 The most important finding from the results in Table 6.Table 6.2 compares the results of CFD simulated CT values determined using the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. Since the size of the main target pathogens (Cryptosporidium and Giardia) for ozone disinfection treatment fell within the range of the simulated range (MWH. and 100 µm) on CT prediction were negligible for both approaches. 10. the CT values predicted by the two different approaches were very close for reactor 1 but differed slightly for reactor 2.68 10.84 10. the above result suggests that an arbitrary particle size in the range of 1 to 100 µm could be chosen when the particle tracking model was used to simulate ozone disinfection performance. It can be observed that the effects of the particle size (1.82 7. Table 6.2 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking Case Study Particle diameter (µm) 1 10 100 1 10 100 CT at outlet simulated by particle tracking (mg/L min) 7.9 Sc =1000 Reactor 1 7.83 CT at outlet simulated by Eulerian approach (mg/L min) Sc =0.67 11.

the Eulerian approach based ozone exposure CT was slightly higher than the particle tracking based CT.2 shows the modeling results at the two different different Schmidt numbers. It was expected that better CT prediction could be obtained using more particle trajectories for calculation. and thus lead to underestimation of the CT values. both turbulent viscosity and turbulent diffusion are important. The purpose of modeling CT at a larger Schmidt number (1000) was to “turn off” the turbulent diffusion term and therefore to investigate the effect of turbulent diffusion on the CT value prediction. For instance. As shown in Equation 6.000) could be released from the reactor inlet due to the limitation of the computer power. These limited numbers of particles may not be sufficient to fully represent all the particles. the turbulent diffusion may be dominant during the CT transport process. Therefore. it means that turbulent diffusion is not important. 2002). 1974). only limited number of particles (10. the selected particle trajectories as shown in Figure 6. When the Schmidt number Sc is much higher than 1. Table 6.5 might not be able to represent the particles that could travel through the dead zone. the CT transport equation was simulated at two different Schmidt numbers: one was the default value 0.For the reactor 2. In most of the environmental flow. In this study.9 and another was 1000. these particles might not be able to completely represent the particle trajectories of all the pathogens within the reactor 2. when the Schmidt number is much lower than 1. Table 6. 2) only a relatively small number of particle trajectories (30 to 50) were used for calculation of CT due to the complexity of the data process procedures and limitation of computer power. It was found that the Schmidt number had a negligible effect on reactor 1 performance but did affect CT 159 .5. The Schmidt number is a measure of the relative strength of turbulent viscosity and turbulent diffusion (Launder & Spalding.2 presents the effect of the Turbulent Schmidt number (Sc) on the Eulerian approach. The possible reasons for this might include: 1) in the particle tracking model. therefore it usually should be close to 1 (Lakehal.

this conclusion is doubtful. 160 . Do-Quang et al. The Eulerian approach assumes that the particle concentrations are reduced after the pathogens are inactivated. as Ducoste discussed. because: 1) the pathogens inside non-ideal reactors always exhibit a certain level of concentration gradient due to the existence of short-circuiting or dead zones. although the impact was less than 10% over the range simulated. Ducoste et al. It was expected that the particle tracking modeling results could fit better with Eulerian approach if sufficiently large number of particles were tracked and used for CT predictions. However. Based on their study. and Mofidi et al. the Eulerianbased CT values were still slightly larger than the particle tracking-based CT values. The results of this study however suggested that the main reason for the differences of the Eulerian and Particle tracking models was due to the limitations of the injected particle numbers and the particle tracking data processing procedures. it is inappropriate to completely shut off the diffusion term in the Eulerian approach. 2) it is also questionable to turn off the diffusion term in the Eulerian approach but use the dispersion model in the Lagrangian approach. Ducoste et al. Similar phenomena were observed by Chiu et al. For reactor 2. even with a very high Schmidt number (1000). (2004) in their UV disinfection modelling studies.(2005) suggest that “turning off” the diffusion term may make the Eulerian approach fit better with the Lagrangian approach. (2002). thus. (2005) explained that the main reason for the difference between the two approaches was that the pathogens in UV system were actually inactivated instead of being completely “killed” during the UV disinfection process.predictions for reactor 2. will result in a bigger concentration gradient in the diffusion term and may over-estimate disinfection efficiency. Therefore. (1999).

10. represented by particle residence time distributions (RTDs).8 displays typical particle trajectories inside the contactor.6. were studied for three particle sizes (1. and 100 µm).8 Particle trajectories of the Desbaillets ozone contactor The effects of particle size on the prediction of flow hydraulics.4. It was observed that large recirculation zones existed in the two cells and caused short-circuiting and dead zones. Figure 6. The existence of dead zones and short-circuiting might reduce the contacting opportunities between ozone and pathogens and make disinfection efficiency significantly less than it otherwise could be. Figure 6.2 Full-scale Ozone Contactor Study The two CFD modeling approaches were also applied to simulate the hydraulics and CT of the ozone contactors in the Desbaillets Water Treatment Plant. Figure 6. 161 .9 shows that the effect of particle size was negligible with respect to particle RTD prediction.

04 0.05 0.06 0.9 Effect of particle size on particle tracer residence time distribution 162 .03 0.05 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.01 0 0 170 290 410 530 650 770 890 1010 1130 particle 2 (10um ) Time (s) Normalized Concentration 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.07 Normalized Concentration 0.01 0 0 170 290 410 530 650 770 890 1010 1130 Particle 1 (1um) Time (s) 0.07 0.04 0.01 0 0 170 290 410 530 650 770 890 1010 1130 particle 3 (100um) Time (s) Figure 6.04 0.Normalized Concentration 0.

leading to an underestimation of the residence time. The Eulerian approach-based RTD results fit better with experimental data while the particle tracking method provided shorter residence time than the experimental values.10 presents a comparison of the tracer RTD curves simulated by the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. The Eulerian approach also assumed that the tracer was a dissolved chemical species. the Eulerian approach provided continuous tracer residence time information.2 0.10 Comparison of tracer curves: particle tracking vs.4 0.0 Normalized Concentration 0.0 0 200 400 600 800 Time (S) Figure 6.Figure 6.6 Particle Trackiing Eulerian Approach Experimental Data 0. 1.8 0. Eulerian approach 163 . The different tracer RTD predictions were also mainly caused by the limited numbers of particles used in particle tracking modelling. the particle tracking method might miss some important residence time distribution information. which was usually the case for full-scale contactor hydraulics studies. Since the particles passed the contactor in a discrete way. In the contrast. It was therefore suggested that the Eulerian approach might be a better method for prediction of the chemical tracer residence time distribution and T10 values.

The results also showed that the Eulerian approach-based CT was slightly higher than the particle tracking-based CT.15 Particle 3 0.0. This was consistent with the results of the verification case studies. and particles might be exposed to different dosage even though when their particle tracking time is the same.10 0.00 100 300 500 700 900 Particle Residence Time (S) Figure 6. The CFD model was also used to estimate the CT values for the Desbailets WTP ozone contactor. Again it could be seen that the particle size had negligible effects on the particle tracking-based CT. particle residence time for the ozone contactor Figure 6. Table 6. This was due to the existence of the strong recirculation zones inside the contactor.11 Particle tracking-based CT vs.20 CT Value for Invidiual Particle (mg/L min) Particle 1 Particle 2 0.3 shows the average CT value at the contactor outlet calculated by the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches.05 0. Generally.11 presents the relationship between the particle tracking time and particle tracking based CT for individual particles in the ozone contactor. 164 . the two parameters had a linear relationship but with some variations.

92.9 Sc =1000 BesBaillets 1 WTP Ozone Contactor 10 100 * Sc : Schmidt number 165 .9 and 1000). Table 6. However.88 1. the Eulerian-based CT value was still larger than particle tracking-based CT values. 0.97 0.07 1. the Eulerian-based CT value was smaller at higher Schmidt numbers.3 also shows the Eulerian based CT values simulated at two different Schmidt numbers (0. Since the full-scale ozone contactors are non-ideal reactors. Therefore. even when the Schmidt number was set at an unreasonably high value of 1000 (when turbulent diffusion is negligible).3 Comparison of CT values: Eulerian vs particle tracking Particle diameter (µm) CT at contactor outlet simulated by particle tracking (mg/L min) 0.02 CT at contactor outlet simulated by the Eulerian approach (mg/L min) Case study Sc =0. particles may have much more complex trajectories compared to that in an ideal reactor. As with the comparison done for reactor 2.Table 6. more accurate CT prediction results should be able to be obtained through particle tracking model using more powerful computers and tracking more particles.

m to 100 m) used in this study on the particle • The results of this work provide important insight in understanding the complex performance of multiphase ozonation systems and may play an important role in further improving CFD modelling approaches for full-scale ozone disinfection 166 . For the first time. • The effect of particle size (1 tracking method was negligible. This was mainly due to the complex particle trajectories in the non-ideal reactors. Several important conclusions can be drawn from the current results: • For ozone reactors with plug flow characteristics. • For reactors with non-ideal hydraulic performance. • For the full scale contactor investigated. the disinfection performance of two hypothetical ozone reactors and a full-scale contactor has been simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model. the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. it was suggested to use more powerful computers which allow tracking a larger number of the particles. the tracer residence time distribution curve predicted by the Euerlian approach provided a better fit to the experimental results.6. To further improve the accuracy of the particle tracking modelling.5 Conclusions In the present study. either approach could be used to evaluate contactor hydraulics and disinfection efficiency (CT value). have been compared. the particle tracking model predicted slightly smaller CT than the Eulerian approach does. two commonly utilized methods for study of the ozone disinfection process. which indicated that the Eulerian approach might be more suitable for the simulation of chemical tracer performance.

167 .systems. Further investigation should be done to study the effects of model inputs on the two modelling approaches and to compare the two approaches for full-scale ozone contactors with different flow patterns.

Using an appropriate CT calculation method to determine ozone dosage is important since low ozone dosages may not be able to provide sufficient credit for inactivation of pathogens and high dosages can lead to increased concentration of disinfection byproducts. 2005). was introduced by the U. 2006).S. AND CFD-BASED CT FOR EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER OZONE DISINFECTION PERFORMANCE 7. 1991). The U. Therefore.CHAPTER 7 A COMPARISON BETWEEN CT10.S. These CT values are one order of magnitude higher than the values required for Giardia inactivation (Rakness. it becomes more important to accurately calculate the CT of ozone systems to reduce capital and operating costs and minimize 168 . IDDF-BASED CT. the product of the residual disinfectant concentration (C) and a characteristic time of pathogen exposure to the disinfectant (T).1 Introduction The concept of regulating disinfection treatment through CT. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) in January 2006 which included a new CT table for evaluation of log inactivation credit of Cryptosporidium by ozone (USEPA. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) (USEPA.

no studies have been reported to compare the 169 .the concentrations and therefore the associated risk of disinfection by-product in finished water. Do-Quang et al.. 1998.. Barbeau et al. Greene. The most commonly used is the CT10 methodology (USEPA. However.. 1991). 2005) have been studied for evaluating full-scale ozone disinfection systems. Zhang et al. Alternatively. (2004) performed a study to compare the IDDF approach with a CFD modelling approach in predicting disinfection efficiencies of a pilot scale chlorination reactor consisting of long channels.. 2005). 2002. in which C is ozone residual concentration and the T10 is the length of time at which 90% of the water passing through the unit is retained within the basin or treatment unit (USEPA. Both approaches incorporate all the major components of ozone disinfection processes within the models although the two approaches have fundamental differences. 1991). it has been well documented that the CT10 approach may result in under-estimation of the disinfection efficiency (Bellamy et al.. 2001. Their results show that the CFD-predicted disinfection efficiencies fit better with experimental results. Huang. to date. Various methods have been proposed for calculation of the CT of ozone systems. Carlson et al. Limited studies had been previously done to compare the different CT approaches. This method is a simple way to evaluate disinfection efficiency. However. 1999. 2000) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches (Murrer et al. 2002. Greene et al. the Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) (Bellamy. Zhang et al. 1995. (2003) compared the IDDF approach with the CT10 method and found that the CT values calculated by the IDDF are usually about 2 times higher than those determined by the traditional CT10 method.

The WTP ozonation process has six parallel ozone contactors. 2006). the three approaches were compared based on their prediction of CT values which are used to represent the disinfection efficiencies of ozone disinfection processes. Lawrence River is used as a source for the production of drinking water. The first cell is operated in the counter-current mode. the CT values obtained by three approaches were compared with bioassay test results conducted by Broséus et al. The total length and depth of each contactor are 11 m and 6.2 Case Study The DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant (WTP) has a capacity of 1. Each contactor consists of two large cells in series. To be consistent with the current CT-table based regulations (USEPA.CFD design approaches with CT10 and IDDF methods for either pilot-scale or full-scale ozonation systems. Ozone gas (1-2% by weight in air) is injected through porous media bubble diffusers located at the bottom of the first cell (Broséus et al. a relatively simple treatment is used. In addition. and the second cell is co-current.136 million litres per day (MLD) and it is the largest facility in the province of Quebec and the second largest water treatment plant in Canada.5 m respectively. and chlorination. Due to good raw water quality of the source water. The comparison was done based on the study of a fullscale ozone contactor at the DesBaillet Water Treatment Plant (WTP) in Montreal. including direct sand filtration without coagulant.. Canada. All the contactors have the same geometry and operational characteristic parameters 170 . 2005). (2005) to determine the most appropriate method for design and operation of full-scale ozone systems. 7. The St. The objective of this study was to perform a full-scale assessment to compare the above three disinfection design approaches. post-ozonation.

Figure 7. this model can be expressed as: d[ N ] = −k p [ N ] ⋅ [O3 ] dt (7. 2005). only one was studied.therefore. For ozone systems.1) 171 .1 Schematic drawing of a DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor 7.3 Theoretical Background and Methodologies The CT concept was originally based on the assumption that the inactivation kinetics of pathogens follows the Chick-Watson model (MWH.1 shows the schematic drawing of the contactor. Figure 7.

The term ∫ [O3 ]dt in Equation 7.2 is often called the ozone-exposure. For full-scale ozone contactors. the ozone concentration.2 indicates that the log inactivation is determined by the inactivation rate constant. or ozone CT value. 1999). as it is the integral form of the ozone residual concentration times time: [N ] = −0.4343 × k p × CT [N0 ] log (7.4343 × k p ∫ [O3 ]dt [N0 ] log (7.3) The CT tables published by USEPA for various pathogens were based on the model shown in Equation 7. and the pathogen inactivation reaction time. Three different CT calculation methods for the characterization of the ozone contactor performance are discussed in this thesis as follows.2) Equation 7.3 and the CT requirements in the table were determined by performing a statistical analysis of literature data related to pathogen inactivation by the disinfectants under various conditions (Crozes.1 can be integrated to the following form: [N ] = −0. Equation 7. estimation of the CT value can be accomplished in different ways. Since most of the literature data were based on completely mixed batch reactor studies in which the ozone residuals and residence times are constant. [O3 ] is ozone residual concentration and kp is the pathogen inactivation rate constant. the CT table can accurately relate CT to the log inactivation ratio of pathogens. however. 172 .where [N] is the pathogen concentration.

and C res i is the ozone residual of cell i. 173 . an integrated CT10 approach is commonly adopted to calculate the CT10 values (Rakness. Ci is the ozone residual concentration at the outlet of each cell (mg/L). Broséus et al. T10i is derived from tracer tests. T10 is the time of 10% of a tracer to have appeared in the effluent and T is the total theoretical retention time in the contactor.5) where C res is the ozone residual in the first cell. Ti is the theoretical retention time of the cell i.7.3. All the diffusers are located at the bottom of cell 1. 2005). 2005). The DesBaillets contactor consists of two cells.1 CT10 For multiple chamber ozone contactors. The ozone residual (‘‘C’’ in the CT product) is the ozone concentration at the exit of a chamber. therefore cell 1 is called the dissolution cell and cell 2 is called the reactive cell. Based on the drinking water regulations in the province of Quebec. The total CT of the ozone contactor is determined by summing up the CT values of all individual chambers using the following equation: CT10 = ∑ C i T10i (7. Canada (MENV 2002.4) where i is the number of ozone cells (or chambers). the following expression is used for calculation of the CT10 for porous diffuser ozone contactors with counter-current dissolution: CT10 = C res T10 T × × T1 + ∑ C res i × 10 × Ti 2 T T i (7.

obtained from tracer tests or CFD simulation. Each discrete element of incoming fluid is assumed to take a different route and a different length of time to pass through the vessel.. the pathogen inactivation module were not integrated in the CT calculation. Cj is the residual ozone concentration calculated by assuming that ozone decay follows first-order kinetics as discussed in Chapter 4. 2001. The integrated model can be solved with a complex integral (Bellamy. 2000). kd is 174 . which allows the use of a tracer-test RTD directly as an input to the hydraulics module. 2001.6) where.7. 1998. and the ozone residual profile calculated based on the first-order decay kinetic model. Carlson et al. The IDDF approach assumes that the flows in ozone contactors are segregated. Carlson et al. j is the integration step number. The purpose of the present study was to compare the IDDF approach with other CT calculation methods. i is the number of the cell of contactor. Carlson et al.. Rakness 2001).2 IDDF-based CT The Integrated Disinfection Design Framework (IDDF) is an alternative approach for designing ozonation processes (Bellamy et al. 1998. Ducoste et al. 2000). 1998). ∞ ∞ CTi = ∑ E j C j ∆t j = ∑ E j ∆t j [C o exp(−k d t j )] j =0 j =0 (7. disinfectant decay kinetics module. (2001) further developed the IDDF approach by introducing an IDDF spreadsheet method.3. The IDDF approach incorporates four components in one model. The original IDDF approach utilizes mathematical relationships for each of the components (Bellamy et al. Co is the influent disinfectant concentration. pathogen inactivation module and a DBP formation module (Bellamy et al. Therefore. including a contactor hydraulic module. CTs were calculated by incorporating a tracer E curve.

All the calculations were performed using a Microsoft Excel tabular format. A similar IDDF-based CT calculation method was used by Benbue et al.. 2005). The turbulence of the dispersed gas phase was modeled using a Dispersed Phase Zero Equation model. The ozone profile was determined by the ozone decay kinetics obtained from an experimental study done by the École Polytechnique de Montréal. As described above. 2005). 7. The details of the species transport equations and the sink terms used to describe ozone decomposition and ozone transfer can be found in Chapter 4. Podowski. the standard k-ε model was used (Launder and Spalding 1974).the ozone decay kinetic constant. It was assumed that. 2003. The tracer RTD curves were obtained from CFD modelling. For the liquid phase. ∆t j is the time step. ozone residuals in cell 1 increased linearly until reaching the average concentration at the outlet of cell 1. and the ozone profiles in cell 2 were simulated based on a first-order decay kinetics (Benbeau et al.3.. In this study. The hydrodynamic behaviour of ozone contactors was modelled based on continuity and momentum balance equations for the two-phases: water and ozonated gas (Versteeg and Malalasekera. ozone decomposition kinetics and mass transfer kinetics submodels were included in the form of species transport equations. Broséus et al. the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor has two cells.. Bubble induced turbulence was taken into account as per Sato and Sekogochi (1975). the IDDF-based CT of each cell was predicted through integration of tracer residence time distribution curves and ozone profiles along the cell. 1995. (2003).3 CFD-based CT A two phase. To model ozone transport and associated reactions. three dimensional. 175 . 2003). CFD model has been developed to describe ozonation processes (Chapter 4 of this thesis and Zhang et al. E j is the normalized tracer concentration at time step j on a tracer E curve (Levenspiel 1999).

8) where C l is the dissolved ozone concentration 7. ρ l is the density of flow. Indigenous aerobic spore formers (ASF) are usually abundant in surface waters and resistant to ozone (Nieminski et al. bioassays were conducted by the Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Broséus et al. 176 . Since the Eulerian approach is easier to implement and is computationally economic.The results in Chapter 6 of this thesis showed that both the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches could be used for quantification of microbial disinfection efficiency of full-scale ozone contactors. The additional variable transport equation for solving the CFD-based CT is as follows: µ ∂ (rl CT ) + ∇ • (rl U l CT ) − ∇(rl ( tl )∇CT ) = S CT ∂t ρ l Sctl (7. it was used in this study for predicting CFD-based CT. u l is the water flow velocity.4 Bioassy-based CT To validate the CT calculation methods and determine the best approach for predicting ozone contactor disinfection performance. 2000. The source term S CT was defined as: S CT = rl C l (7. Facile et al. Sctα is the turbulent Schmidt number.3.. 2005) using indigenous aerobic sporeformers as a biodosimetric tracer. A finite volume commercial CFD code CFX 10 (Ansys.7) where rl is volume fraction of water. 2005) was used.

7. (2005). 2005).. The bioassay-based CT was obtained by conducting pilot-scale and full-scale tests. it was possible to link it to the CT measured in the pilot contactor (Broséus et al. ozone concentration profiles and the residence times were measured. This validation process is similar to the bioassay tests for validation of UV reactors using reference curves developed with MS2 phages (USEPA 2003). Craik et al.. In this Chapter.1. The detailed experimental method can be found in Broséus et al. Thus a reference CT curve could be generated for describing the inactivation ratio and effective CT. experiments were performed on a continuous-flow ozone pilot system to obtain the correlation between the microbial inactivation and effective CT. the CFD model was validated using tracer experimental data and monitored ozone profiles. the ASF concentrations at the full-scale ozone contactor inlet and outlet at the DesBaillets WTP were measured. They also typically exhibit a linear inactivation with respect to CT. At each dosage condition. as shown in Table 7. By measuring the ASF inactivation ratio during full-scale validations. the ASF concentrations at inlet and outlet. 2005) 177 . The ASF was injected into the inlet of the pilot ozone contactor at different ozone dosages. First. 2002). 2005)..4 Results In Chapter 4. it is possible to use the ASF to validate the CT of full-scale ozone contactors (Broséus et al. Second.2000. were simulated using the validated model. These modelling conditions are the same as the operational conditions for the bioassay tests conducted by the Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Broséus et al. Therefore. CFD-based CT values under varying conditions.

among the three CT prediction methods.08 0.2 also showed that the CT10 method gave the lowest prediction of CT.03 dose Immediate O3 O3 decay kinetic O3/air demand (mg/L) constant (min-1) (% by wt) 0.94 0.1) were modelled Table 7. CT10.1 Summary of the modeling conditions for comparison of different CT calculation methods Gas flow rate Ozone (Nm3/s) (mg/L) Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 0.67 0. the CFD-based CT values fitted best with the bioassay-based CT values obtained from bioassay experiments.84 0.1 Comparison of CT10. Figure 7. CFD-based CT and Bioassy-based CT The CT values at the above four operational conditions (see Table 7.98 1. Figure 7. IDDF-based CT.05 1.06 0.15 0.30 1.46 1.0 to 1.30 0.45 0.2 presents the comparison results of the four CT prediction methods under various operating conditions.83 2. the CT10 values were lower than the bioassay-based CT values.11 0.30 1.7. In all the conditions.16 1.20 0. and IDDF approaches and also compared with the bioassay-based CT. At higher ozone dose conditions. the bioassay-based CT values could be 1. This indicated that the traditional CT10 method may 178 .22 using the CFD.4. The results showed that.5 times higher than the CT10 values.25 0.

It was also found that.significantly underestimate disinfection efficiency which may lead to over-dosing of ozone and an excessive production of disinfection by-products.2 Comparison of the four CT prediction methods under various operating conditions 179 . at current modelling conditions. the IDDF-based CT values were higher than the CFD-based CT values and the bioassay-based CT values. such as bromate. 6 Calculated CT (mg/L min) CT10 IDDF-based CT CFD based CT 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 Bioassy-based CT Figure 7. This suggested that the IDDF-based CT may over-estimate the CT for the Desbaillet ozone contactors and the CFD approach may be a better option for evaluating Desbaillet WTP ozone disinfection treatment performance.

(a) Alternative contactor configuration: Case 1 (b) Alternative contactor configuration: Case 2 Figure 7.4.3.2 Comparison of Three Approaches for Alternative Contactor Configurations Considering the fact that the DesBaillets WTP ozone contactor had only two chambers which exhibited relatively poor mixing behaviours.3 Two alternative contactor configurations for studying the CT approaches 180 . The case 1 configuration included 4 additional baffles in the cell 1 of the original ozone contactor and the case 2 configuration had 6 additional chambers in the contactor. two additional comparisons were conducted at alternative contactor configurations as shown in Figure 7. The purpose of modelling these two additional cases was to study the effect of contactor hydraulics on the different CT methods.7.

In contrast to the strong recirculation and shot-circuiting existed in the original contactor.82. It was therefore closer to plug flow.78. respectively. Original Case 1 Case 2 Figure 7.55.4 Comparison of the flow velocity fields (m/s) at different contactor configurations 181 .Figure 7. 0. the case 2 contactor had the most uniform flow field and minimum short-circuiting and dead zones. The T10/T ratio of the original contactor and cases 1 and 2 were 0. and 0. Obviously.5 present the comparison of the flow fields and the tracer residence time (RTD) curves inside the contactor configurations.4 and Figure 7. the case 2 scenario provided best mixing performance.

the effects of micromixing become stronger and 182 . and the CFD-based CT was smaller than IDDF-based CT. As with previous results.0. the flows were more segregated (Greene. 2002).6 provides a comparison of the CT values of three alternative contactors using different calculation methods: CT10. On the contrary. The IDDF concept.001 0. is therefore acceptable at such conditions for prediction of disinfection performance.5 Comparison of the predicted tracer residence time distributions at different contactor configurations Figure 7. This indicated that the degree of the difference among the IDDF and CFD approaches was sensitive to the contactor configuration.000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Time (S) Figure 7. at lower T10/T conditions. One possible reason for this observation is that. at higher T10/T conditions. However.005 Normalized Concentration 0. Smaller difference could be obtained in larger T10/T systems. IDDF-based CT and CFD-based CT.004 Original Case 1 Case 2 0.003 0. which assumes that the flow is completely segregated.002 0. the difference between CFD and IDDF approaches became smaller from the original case to case 1 and then case 2. the CT10 values were smaller than the CT values predicted by the two other approaches.

6 Comparison of CT calculation methods at different contactor configuration conditions 7.5 Discussion In the above study.the IDDF may over-estimate system performance. This demonstrated that the traditional CT10 method might significantly underestimate disinfection efficiency. 5 CT 10 CT (mg/L min) 4 IDDF-based CT CFD-based CT 3 2 1 Original Case Case 1 Case 2 Case of Study Figure 7. The potential 183 . The CFD model developed in this study does not employ an assumption of mixing state and thus it may provide better description of disinfection efficiency for any types of full-scale ozone contactors. it was found that CT10–based CT values were usually much less than the CT simulated by the two other modelling approaches and were lower than the real dose as described by the bioassay-based CT.

molecules move in groups.reasons or this included: 1) the CT10 approach used a very conservative residence time T10 to represent the residence time of all pathogens. the IDDF uses a tracer residence time distribution curve to represent the contactor hydraulics. Given accurate modelling conditions. 2004. especially when there were few chambers and mixing was poor. However. The CFD modelling approach. 184 . In addition. in all the results. 2) this approach essentially assumed that all the reactive chambers were CSTR reactors. the IDDF-based CT over-estimated the performance represented by the biodosimetric CT. This was due to the fact that the IDDF approach integrates the tracer residence time distribution curves with the ozone profiles along the ozone contactor. The potential reasons for this were that the IDDF assumes that the fluid in the contactor is completely segregated. does not rely on assumptions of fluid mixing levels.or under-estimation of disinfection performance. in which the effluent concentration is used to represent the concentrations inside the contactor. The IDDF approach does not take into account micro-mixing effects or molecular interactions. the IDDF approach may lead to over. It was also observed that the IDDF-based CT was higher than the calculated CT10. However. the CFD-based CT can be obtained based on detailed information for ozone concentrations and residence times of all micro-organisms. residence time distribution alone does not precisely characterize the degree of separation. however. real fluids in contactors are usually partially segregated fluids in which microscopic level mixing may significantly affect the macroscopic level mixing. thus it is possible to provide better prediction of ozone disinfection performance in either small or large scale ozone disinfection systems. and different reactor geometries may exhibit a similar residence time distribution (Levenspiel 1999). 2005). Under this assumption. which means that the fluid mixing occurs on a macroscopic level (Greene et al. However. and molecules in one group do not interact with molecules in another group. Craik. the ozone concentration varied significantly in most chambers. However. Therefore.

2 Key differences of CT10. A very conservative parameter T10 is used to represent the contactor hydraulics Ozone mass transfer Not included IDDF-based CT CFD-based CT Assumes the flows Predicted by Navierare segregated. Microbial inactivation kinetics Not available The site-specific microbial inactivation kinetics can be integrated into the model 185 . The ozone concentrations are monitored at the outlet of the ozone chambers and used as representative parameters for a whole chamber The ozone profiles are simulated based on sitespecific ozone decay kinetics. stokes equation based Tracer Residence fluid equations Time Distribution (RTD) is used to represent contactor hydraulics.Table 7. IDDF and CFD methodologies Major CT10 components in the models Contactor Each contactor Hydraulics chamber is assumed to be a CSTR reactor. Not included The two-film interfacial mass transfer model used and implemented by solving species transport equations The ozone concentrations at any location in the contactor are simulated based on site-specific ozone demand and decay kinetics by solving species transport equations The site-specific microbial inactivation kinetics can be integrated into the model by solving species transport equations Ozone demand and decay Not available.

it may be suitable for use when ozone contactors have high T10/T ratios because the flows were more segregated at such conditions and the IDDF concept. However. However. • The IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the contactors are completely segregated. and CFD-based CT. this approach is questionable in situations when the contactors have substantial short-circuiting and dead zones. When a contactor shows poor mixing performance and has substantial dead zones or short-circuiting. 186 . 7. it may underestimate ozone disinfection efficiency and result in overdosing of ozone. Therefore.6 Conclusions The CT of ozone disinfection processes was studied using different CT prediction methods: CT10. the CFD modelling approach is a better option for predicting CT values. the IDDF and CFD may provide similar CT prediction results.The simulation results also suggested that the differences between the IDDF and CFD approaches were sensitive to contactor mixing performance. overly conservative parameters (ozone residual C and residence time T10) to describe the ozone disinfection performance. It ignores the effects of micro-scale mixing of fluids. IDDF-based CT. Based on the comparison results presented in this chapter.2. The following conclusions can be drawn from the comparison studies: • The CT10 approach uses only two simplified. is therefore more acceptable. The key differences between the three CT prediction methods are summarized in Table 7. which assumes that the flow is completely segregated. when contactor hydraulics is close to plug flow.

and numerical description of the flow field. In the future. for various modelling conditions. 187 . it can be effectively used for predicting disinfection performance in various types of full-scale or pilot-scale ozone contactors. a guideline of safety factors could be developed for various ozone contactor designs. Ultimately. steady or unsteady). CFD validation studies should be done for ozone contactors with different geometries under varying water quality and operational conditions. • The accuracy of CFD modelling can be affected by some uncertainty factors including geometry information.• The CFD approach employs a three-dimensional multiphase CFD model to address all the major components of ozone disinfection processes. mesh quality. appropriate safety factors should be included in the CFD based design.g. Since the CFD approach does not rely on knowledge of the contactor mixing state. Therefore. Current results showed that. the predicted CFD-based CT values fitted well with the bioassay-based CT values. flow regimes (e. laminar or turbulent. boundary conditions.

The model has been validated using full-scale experimental data. 8. ozone mass transfer.CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This thesis has described the development of a comprehensive three dimensional (3D) multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to predict components of ozone disinfection processes: contactor hydraulics. the CFD model has been used to improve ozone monitoring and tracer test strategies to assist with ozone contactor operation and ozone disinfection efficiency prediction. and microbial inactivation. Quebec and the Mannheim WTP in Kitchener. ozone profiles. the Eulerian and particle tracking (or Lagriangian) approaches have been compared for prediction of microbial inactivation efficiency (represented by the effective CT) of ozone contactors. and bioassay tests from full-scale ozone contactors in two Canadian drinking water treatment plants (WTPs): the DesBaillets WTP in Montréal.1 Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn regarding the development and validation of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for ozone processes: 188 . ozone demand and decay. and the different CT prediction approaches have been compared for evaluation of ozone disinfection performance based on full-scale investigations. In addition. including tracer test results. Ontario.

The CFD-predicted flow fields showed that recirculation zones 189 . Good agreement was observed between the numerical tracer simulation and experimental tracer test data from ozone contactors at the DesBaillets WTP in Montreal. Quebec and the Mannheim WTP in Kitchner. ozone demand and decay kinetics. microbial inactivation kinetics. This further validated the CFD model for predicting the performance of full-scale ozone disinfection processes. were integrated within the CFD model through the use of species transport equations with appropriate source terms. Ontario. This suggested that the Eulerian-Eulerian modelling approach developed in this study was capable of predicting multiphase ozone contactor hydraulic performance with a fair degree of accuracy. Using the CFD model. The simulated dissolved ozone concentration profiles agreed well with the monitored ozone profiles of the ozone contactors at the DesBaillets and Mannheim WTPs. The sensitivity of modelling to the turbulence models was also investigated and the k-ε model was found to be more appropriate for the modelling. A mesh density dependence study was conducted. The results of this study revealed that by combining the CFD hydrodynamics model with the transport models. • The CFD model was applied to investigate ozone contactor performance at the DesBaillets WTP. • All the main components of ozone disinfection processes. tracer transport. and bromate formation kinetics.• An Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model had been developed to model the hydrodynamics of complex gas-liquid ozone contacting systems. the ozone mass transfer and reactions could be predicted reasonably well without any pre-assumption about flow characteristics (e. flow structures in two full-scale ozone contactors were simulated. including ozone mass transfer between two phases.g. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) or plug flow reactor (PFR)) or dispersion level).

Once the site-specific model inputs (kinetics of ozone decomposition. microbial inactivation and bromate formation) are determined by bench-scale experiments. and to be cost effective. the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches. The simulation results suggested that the installation of additional baffles would increase the residence time and improve disinfection efficiency. Conclusions from the comparison between the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches for the prediction of microbial inactivation efficiency of ozone contactors are the following: • To the author’s knowledge.and short circuiting existed in the DesBaillets contactors. The CFD model was also applied to simulate ozone contactor performance at the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant before and after the installation of new liquid oxygen (LOX) ozone generators to increase the ozone gas concentration and removal of some diffusers from the system. did not significantly affect the prediction of gas hold-up and dissolved ozone residuals. which was the typical range of the bubble size in full-scale bubble diffuser ozone contactors. two commonly utilized methods for predicting microbial inactivation 190 . The modelling results suggested that such changes led to an increase in effective residence time and adjusting operational parameters was required after system modification. The developed CFD model is expected to provide an efficient tool to balance microbial inactivation and bromate formation in full-scale ozone bubble diffuser contactors. the CFD model can be used to predict optimal ozone dosage in order to reduce the concentrations of disinfection by-products and therefore the associated risk. for the first time. • The effects of bubble size on the CFD modelling were studied. The results suggested that changing bubble size from 2 mm to 5 mm.

the particle tracking model predicts slightly smaller CT than the Eulerian approach does. it is suggested to use more powerful computers which allow tracking larger amounts of the particles. for ozone reactors with plug flow characteristics. • The results of this work is useful in understanding the complex performance of multiphase ozonation systems and may play an important rule in further refining CFD modelling approaches for full-scale ozone disinfection systems. 191 . and 2) it was much more computationally economical than the particle tracking approach. It was also observed that the tracer residence time distribution curve predicted by the Euerlian approach provided a better fit to the experimental results. have been compared for the study of ozone disinfection processes. • For the full scale contactor investigated. the particle tracking-based CT values are slightly lower than the CT values predicted by the Eulerian approach. This was mainly due to the complex particle trajectories in the non-ideal reactors. but the difference between the two approaches are within 10%. either approach could be used to evaluate contactor hydraulics and disinfection efficiency (CT value). • It was also found that the effect of particle size (1 m to 100 m) used in this study on particle tracking method was negligible. For reactors with nonideal hydraulic performance.efficiency. It was suggested that the Eulerian approach may be more suitable for the simulation of chemical tracer performance due to the facts that: 1) it more closely reflects the actual physical behaviour of the chemical tracers. The modelling results of two hypothetical ozone reactors suggested that. To further improve the accuracy of the particle tracking modelling.

overly conservative parameters (ozone residual C and residence time T10) to describe ozone disinfection performance. and baffling conditions etc. it was suggested that multiple ozone residual sampling points should be installed at the outlets of certain cells to provide more accurate indicators to system operators. The variation of residuals was affected by multiple factors. • The IDDF approach uses the assumption that fluids in the contactors are completely segregated.The important findings and conclusions from using the CFD modelling to improve ozone monitoring and tracer test strategies include the following: • The most significant contribution of this part of the work was that a CFD model was applied to illustrate and improve an ozone residual monitoring strategy. Based on the 192 . the CFD modelling results showed that ozone residuals in the cross section of the outlets of some cells differed by an order of magnitude. Therefore. • The CFD model was also used to study the factors affecting the residence time distribution (RTD). temperature. it may underestimate ozone disinfection efficiency and result in overdosing of ozone. It was therefore recommended that multiple sampling points be employed during tracer tests. The results suggested that the selection of tracer injection locations as well as tracer sampling locations could affect the RTD prediction or measurement. the investigation regarding the comparison of different CT prediction approaches lead to the following conclusions: • The CT10 approach use only two simplified. In addition. For the DesBaillets ozone contactors. The CFD calculated T10 values predicted that RTD curves at different outlet locations varied by more than 10%. It ignores the effects of micro-scale mixing of fluids. Therefore. including water/gas flow rate.

it would be valuable to use the developed CFD model to investigate and optimize the ozonation performance for these alternative ozone applications. the predicted CFD-based CT values fit well with the bioassay-based CT values. at various modelling conditions. it may be suitable for use when the ozone contactors have high T10/T ratios and exhibiting behaviour close to plug flow reactors. taste and odour. In the future. 8. In such advanced oxidation processes (AOP).comparison results presented in Chapter 7.2 Recommendations for Future Research • The main focus of this study was to develop and apply a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling approach to predict the disinfection performance of the ozonation processes in drinking water treatment systems. However. In the drinking water industry. ozone can also be used in conjunction with other oxidizing agents. Current results showed that. such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and high energy light (ultraviolet). In addition. the chemical reactions are more complex and faster. to improve the removal of some pollutants. it can be effectively used for predicting disinfection performance in various types of full-scale or pilot-scale ozone contactors. this approach is questionable in situations when the contactors have strong short-circuiting and dead zones. 193 . Since the CFD approach does not rely on the assumption of the contactor mixing state. • The CFD approach employs a three-dimensional multiphase CFD model to address all the major components of ozone disinfection processes. ozone is also widely used as a powerful oxidizing agent for the removals of colour.

• To further improve the CFD modelling of full-scale ozone bubble diffuser contactors. bubble break-up and bubble coalescence need to be experimentally verified and included into the CFD model to provide more accurate prediction of mass transfer between the continuous and dispersed phases. • The factors affecting the Eulerian and particle tracking approaches for the prediction of disinfection efficiency should be further investigated. • The current CFD model sets the water surfaces of the ozone contactors as a rigid wall for water and a degassing free-slip wall for air. the effects of bubble size distribution. The main factors may include: different turbulence diffusion/dispersion model selection. the water surface may move dynamically. operational parameters. • The strategies for improving ozone monitoring and tracer test for the DesBaillets water treatment plant were investigated in this thesis. • Research on the development of experimental protocols for quickly determining site-specific ozone reaction and microbial inactivation kinetics is required to provide more accurate inputs for CFD modelling. It is also recommended that such guidance should be considered in future drinking water regulations. It is suggested that more CFD modelling and experimental studies should be done for different types of ozone contactors to develop technical guidance on determining ozone residual monitoring points and tracer test method. microbial inactivation kinetics. and contactor geometry. It is suggested that the two-phase free surface modelling method for modelling of water surfaces be investigated to better characterize ozone contactor performance. In reality. especially when the water passes the outlet weirs and the baffle walls. It is expected that such research 194 .

turbulent. Therefore. appropriate safety factors should be included in the CFD based design. and inappropriate numerical description of the flow field. inadequately defined boundary conditions. steady. CFD validation studies should be done for ozone contactors with different geometries under varying water quality and operational conditions.along with the development of more advanced computer technology will allow the use of CFD to assist with the real-time control of ozone disinfection processes in the future. a guideline of safety factors could be developed for various ozone contactor designs. • The accuracy of CFD modelling can be affected by the uncertainties of model inputs including inadequately defined geometry. or unsteady). lack of knowledge of the flow regimes (which may be laminar. In the future. Ultimately. 195 .

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5m 220 .Appendix A Geometry and Sampling Points of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Width of the contactor (Z direction) is 5.

Appendix B Arrangement of Bubble Diffusers in the Cell 1 of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor Diffuser diameter: 0.35 m 221 .

Cell 1 and Cell 2 Width of Cell 1 to 2 (Z direction) is 2.40 m 222 .Appendix C Geometry of the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor 1.

50 m 223 .2. Cells 3 to 6 Width of Cell 3 to 6 (Z direction) is 4.

Appendix D Arrangement of Bubble Diffusers in the Cell 1 of the Mannheim Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor 224 .

3 0.54 0.11 0.03 -0.02 -0.00 0.67 1.10 0.51 1.76 0.55 0.5 1.33 0.11 0.59 1.84 0.69 0.64 1.32 0.65 0.12 0.39 0.54 1.73 0.28 0.86 C/C0 -0.94 2 Adjusted Concentration (mg/L) -0.00 -0.91 1.79 0.2 0.77 1.23 0.3 0.27 0.18 1.94 225 .15 0.Appendix E Tracer Test Conditions and Results of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant Ozone Contactor 1.22 0.44 0. Tracer test 1 Water Flow rate (m /s): 3 Gas Flow rate (m /s): Tracer dose Concentration (mg/L): Background Concentration (mg/L): 3 2.12 0.68 0.2 0.52 0.01 0.81 1.4 1.69 0.05 1.08 0.3 0.9 0.73 0.29 0.02 -0.7 0.15 2.15 0.4 0.53 0.16 0.04 0.43 0.13 Temperature (°C): 24 Time (s) 18 78 128 178 188 198 208 218 228 238 248 258 268 278 288 298 308 318 328 348 368 388 408 428 448 478 508 548 608 Measured Concentration (mg/L) 0.16 0.45 1.32 1.06 0.59 0.37 1.8 1.11 0.59 0.02 -0.08 0.16 0.01 0.12 0.29 0.15 0.08 0.01 -0.12 0.03 0.54 0.19 1.25 0.37 0.46 0.38 0.

21 0.03 0.6 0.98 0.18 0.5 522.14 0.16 2.97 1.95 C/C0 0.5 272.01 0.67 1.5 822.98 2.5 Measured Concentration (mg/L) 0.74 0.15 2.71 0.5 1182.18 24 2.18 0.01 0.11 2.96 0.02 0 0.04 0.28 1.22 0.5 212.5 197.38 0.5 372.44 1.5 1002.5 552.5 402.35 1.12 0.01 0.5 252.55 0.04 -0.5 762.89 1.5 312.5 1092.5 492.83 0.19 0.5 702.42 0.5 232.21 0.95 1.61 0.5 182. Tracer test 2 Water Flow rate (m /s): 3 Gas Flow rate (m /s): Temperature (°C): Tracer dose concentration (mg/L): Background Concentration (mg/L): 3 1.38 0.07 2.56 0.13 Adjusted Concentration (mg/L) 0.43 0.32 0.67 1.67 0.63 0.62 1.77 1.47 0.91 1.22 0.5 342.07 2.5 432.5 652.10 0.5 292.5 462.5 882.36 0.93 1.49 1.21 0.44 0.5 582.5 942.23 1.86 0.18 Time (s) 167.94 0.02 0.46 1.89 0.5 612.09 2.98 1.97 226 .09 0.8 1.07 0.03 0.52 0.21 0.85 1.26 0.74 1.98 0.37 0.92 1.05 1.89 1.17 0.95 0.2.53 1.94 0.

Simulation Conditions and Results: Water Flow rate (m /s): 3 Gas Flow rate (m /s): Temperature (°C): 3 2.11 0.12 0.00 0.13 0.20 0.16 0.09 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.10 0.21 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.03 0.08 0.00 0.Appendix F Turbulence Model Sensitivity Tests: Simulation Condition and Results The sensitivity tests were done by simulation of the DesBaillets WTP Ozone Contactor using four different turbulence models: the standard k–ε model.00 0.07 0.01 0.24 SSG model 0.06 0.00 0.15 0.06 0.13 0.01 0.15 24 Normalized Concentration Time (s) k-ε model 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.26 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.21 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 227 .00 0.01 0.18 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.02 0.25 RNG k-ε Model 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.04 0. the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) model and the RNG k–ε model.17 0.00 0.00 0.04 0. the shear stress transport (SST) model.00 0.00 0.18 0.15 SST model 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.

90 0.54 0.76 0.61 0.33 0.62 0.73 0.83 0.42 0.70 0.88 0.80 0.76 0.49 0.51 0.78 0.continued 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 0.62 0.80 0.65 0.57 0.92 0.66 0.74 0.46 0.78 0.87 0.89 0.58 0.83 0.89 0.50 0.27 0.86 0.93 0.36 0.78 0.86 0.80 0.87 0.72 0.33 0.89 0.83 0.47 0.60 0.81 0.88 0.91 0.72 0.65 0.88 0.52 0.63 0.71 0.90 0.33 0.72 0.53 0.52 0.81 0.90 0.27 0.87 0.81 0.38 0.60 0.61 0.74 0.39 0.79 0.89 0.70 0.88 0.30 0.82 0.84 0.43 0.89 0.78 0.42 0.64 0.30 0.24 0.31 0.62 0.37 0.34 0.50 0.85 0.89 0.48 0.54 0.85 0.77 0.83 0.84 0.40 0.45 0.41 0.92 0.65 0.88 0.63 0.35 0.81 0.79 0.85 0.55 0.85 0.74 0.68 0.75 0.74 0.87 0.39 0.56 0.87 0.69 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.48 0.70 0.58 0.46 0.84 0.86 0.39 0.79 0.79 0.91 0.82 0.84 0.72 0.89 0.67 0.93 0.68 0.55 0.76 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.43 0.57 0.65 0.59 0.45 0.59 0.87 0.75 0.92 0.80 0.90 228 .85 0.88 0.31 0.91 0.86 0.50 0.52 0.63 0.75 0.67 0.76 0.70 0.91 0.69 0.82 0.47 0.55 0.57 0.36 0.83 0.67 0.69 0.41 0.90 0.88 0.28 0.82 0.87 0.85 0.90 0.68 0.77 0.21 0.18 0.

99 0.95 0.94 0.99 0.96 0.91 0.91 0.97 0.94 0.94 0.99 0.97 0.00 1.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.98 0.94 0.92 0.92 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.99 0.96 0.92 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.continued 700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 1060 1070 1080 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 0.00 1.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.99 0.00 0.98 0.95 0.99 0.91 0.90 0.00 1.95 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.95 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.90 0.99 0.96 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.94 0.97 0.97 0.99 0.99 229 .00 1.99 0.98 0.96 0.96 0.99 1.99 0.97 0.98 0.93 0.98 0.97 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.96 0.96 0.92 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.93 0.98 0.93 0.97 0.95 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.95 0.98 0.96 0.92 0.98 0.93 0.94 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.99 0.96 0.93 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.98 0.95 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.92 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.91 0.99 0.95 0.93 0.97 0.97 0.99 0.94 0.93 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.99 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.93 0.97 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.98 0.92 0.94 0.

00 1.99 0.99 1.99 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 230 .99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.00 1.00 1.99 0.99 0.00 1.00 1.99 0.00 1.99 0.00 0.99 0.99 0.00 1.99 0.00 1.continued 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.00 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.99 0.00 1.00 1.99 0.99 0.00 1.00 1.

00 100.55 0.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.00 120.00 0.76 0.00 0.13 0.82 0.00 0. Contactor The simulation condition and data are as following: Water Flow rate (m /s): 3 Gas Flow rate (m /s): Temperature (°C): 3 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.88 Mesh element number: 424.00 60.27 0.00 0.01 0.00 20.19 0.60 0.00 170.00 40.03 0.00 0.83 0.01 0.00 10.00 0.15 24 Mesh element number: 320.62 0.69 0.07 0.01 0.00 150.00 180.73 0.00 0.00 50.80 0.Appendix G Mesh Density Sensitivity Tests: Simulation Condition and Results The tests were done by simulation of the DesBaillets Water Treatment Plant ozone contactor using different mesh densities.06 0.803 Normalized Concentration 0.00 Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600 Normalized Concentration 0.50 0.01 0.36 0.40 0.00 0.08 0.00 80.00 0.16 0.982 Normalized Concentration 0.00 90.03 0.03 0.68 0.43 0.65 0.00 1.57 0.80 0.00 140.00 0.00 110.12 0.891 Time (s) 0.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 130.48 0.00 70.04 0.77 0.00 0.00 160.02 0.06 0.00 30.00 190.86 0.87 231 .10 Messh element number: 370.31 0.

00 480.93 0.00 260.13 0.00 540.00 590.00 500.98 0.42 0.55 0.33 0.98 0.70 0.98 0.18 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.00 0.72 0.88 0.80 0.00 530.95 0.00 220.50 0.00 370.87 0.57 0.98 0.96 0.00 360.00 0.00 232 .00 600.78 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.94 0.98 0.92 0.99 1.45 0.96 0.00 520.00 300.00 270.00 440.98 0.67 0.52 0.81 0.86 0.59 0.47 0.00 610.00 510.00 490.98 0.00 280.90 0.95 0.84 0.94 0.21 0.79 0.82 0.00 230.99 0.75 0.00 330.89 0.00 240.00 420.00 310.00 400.93 0.00 380.99 1.97 0.39 0.00 390.00 560.95 0.61 0.00 470.36 0.88 0.00 340.69 0.90 0.98 0.74 0.85 0.30 0.00 320.92 0.96 0.90 630 660 690 720 750 780 810 840 870 900 930 960 990 1020 1050 1080 1110 1140 0.98 0.00 580.65 0.00 250.continued 200.89 0.00 350.63 0.24 0.15 0.00 430.00 620.00 550.00 460.00 290.00 210.00 410.27 0.76 0.00 570.00 450.83 0.90 0.

98 0.00 720.00 710.97 0.98 0.93 0.98 1.00 0.00 770.00 820.95 0.00 690.00 850.00 920.00 660.96 0.98 0.00 810.continued 630.96 0.94 0.94 0.00 900.92 0.00 740.94 0.91 0.00 840.00 700.98 0.97 0.00 670.00 910.00 800.97 0.96 0.00 640.95 0.00 760.97 0.00 860.92 0.98 0.00 233 .00 780.00 890.00 1100.00 790.95 0.98 0.97 0.00 880.00 680.93 0.98 0.96 0.91 0.00 870.00 730.00 750.00 830.00 650.97 0.

the local G values might change from 1000 s-1 at locations around the impellers to lower than 20 s-1 at locations closer to the walls.Appendix H Evaluation of a CFD Modelling Approach for Prediction of Flocculation Mixing Performance at the City of Toronto’s R. The effects of baffling conditions on flocculation efficiency were also studied. When impeller speeds increased to between 20 to 30 rpm.L. a typically recommended upper limit of the G value for flocculators with vertical-shaft turbines. The results to date suggested that a single baffle at the inlet location might be a better option than baffling in the middle of the tank. 234 .L. The indications of behaviour obtained from this modelling need to be validated by pilot. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used for evaluating flocculation treatment performance. It is attached herein to illustrate an alternative application of CFD for full-scale drinking water treatment processes. At an impeller speed of 5 rpm. _____________________________________________ This paper has been published in: Proceedings of 2006 OWWA/OMWA Joint Annual Conference. The CFD-simulated flow fields identified the locations of potential dead zones and short-circuiting that might affect flocculation efficiency. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed to predict potential impacts of a change in equipment on flocculation mixing performance at the R. The results also indicated that local G values varied by orders of magnitude at different locations and changed significantly with impeller speed. the local G values at most of the areas in the tank were higher than 80 s-1.or full-scale testing. A new parameter. Ontario Water Works Association. Clark Water Treatment Plant in Toronto. Local G value (velocity gradient) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate local mixing intensities. Clark Water Treatment Plant Abstract In this study.

In recent years.. impeller speed. 1999. The purpose of this research was to develop a three-dimensional CFD model and apply it to provide indications of the mixing performance of a complex full-scale flocculator 235 . Greene. Introduction Flocculation is instrumental for the removal of particulate contaminants in conventional drinking water treatment systems. coagulation and flocculation units (Lyn et al. Zhang et al. 1999). sedimentation. To insure maximum particle removal. and the hydraulic residence time. CFD is the science of predicting fluid flow. mass transfer. 2001). It is a physical process of agglomerating small particles into larger ones that can be more easily removed from suspension (AWWA. The mixing performance of mechanical mixers depends on the impeller type. reactor geometry. Luo (1997) applied the particle tracking method to predict mixing intensity of flocculation vessels. such as disinfection contactors.. proper mixing conditions and energy input must be provided in the flocculation tank. The use of CFD enables designers to obtain solutions for problems with complex geometry and boundary conditions. However the majority of the previous CFD studies on flocculation treatment have focused on its applications on single impeller laboratory scale mixers. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has come into use for evaluating water and wastewater treatment processes. 2005). air flotation units. The effects of these factors on full-scale flocculators are usually complicated and difficult to be predicted via traditional calculation approaches or lab-scale experiments. 2002. Essemiani and Traversay (2002) used the Eulerian approach to study mixing performance and residence time distribution of an experimental stirred vessel. chemical reactions and related phenomena by solving the mathematic equations governing these processes using numerical algorithms (Versteeg et al.1. For flocculation processes.

Waterloo. the geometry of the flocculator was divided in two domains: a rotating frame was used for the region containing the rotating components (impellers) and a stationary frame was used for the regions that were stationary (tank walls and baffles). which was being installed for the upgrading of the secondary flocculation process at the City of Toronto’s R. The CFD Modelling Approach Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) works by solving the equations of fluid flow (the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence transport equations) over a region of interest. 2004). Canada) was chosen for this study. The multiple frame of reference (MFR) model was used to simulate the impeller rotation. rather than quantitative predictions. called control volumes. In this way.1 (ANSYS Canada Inc.L. The first is called the frozen rotor interface 236 . The equations were discretised and solved iteratively for each control volume. this research was considered to provide indications of expected behaviour.1 Multiple Reference Frames (MRF) Model To model impeller performance accurately.with a vertical shaft impeller mixer. The commercial software CFX5. the region of interest was divided into small elements. As a result. Because detailed design information was not available at the time of modelling and validation of the modelling results could not be performed. Ontario. a 3D simulation was performed. Using this software. 2. Clark Water Treatment Plant. There are two commonly used models for connecting the two frames and incorporating the motion of the impellers. with specified (known) conditions at the boundaries of that region. In the MFR modelling. an approximation of the value of each variable at specific points throughout the domain could be obtained. 2..7. a full picture of the behaviour of the flow could be derived (ANSYS.

lift and drag predictions (Gobby. The SST model works by automatically applying the k-ε model in the bulk flow and the k-ω model at the walls. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) model was used in this study. Previous research has shown that this model is superior to standard models in view of separation. The second option is the transient rotor-stator model.model. 2. The transient rotor-stator model is useful for examining start-up transients. which produces a “steady state” solution to the multiple frame of reference problems. it does not provide any 237 . the frozen rotor interface model was chosen to be computationally effective.2 Turbulence Models Turbulence modeling is of crucial importance when describing flows in CFD modeling. 2004). The two frames of reference connect in such a way that they each have a fixed relative position throughout the calculation. and the solution proceeds with steady transfer of information across the interface between the two frames. With this model. however. exchanging information at the cylindrical interface. This approach gives an average value.3 Local Velocity Gradient G The performance of a flocculation vessel is commonly described by the global velocity gradient G (s-1). In this study. 2002). which can be an order of magnitude longer than that needed for steady state calculations (Essemiani and Traversay. The penalty is calculation time. or to accurately predict the periodic flow pattern in stirred reactors. the two grids slide past each other in a time-dependent manner. This parameter is defined as: G = [(P/volume)/ µ] (1/2) (1) Where P/volume is the power dissipated per unit volume and µ is the dynamic viscosity (Pa ﹒ s). 2.

4 Tracer Test Simulation For flocculation processes. The local G distribution is important as it controls particle suspension. The local G value was calculated in CFX-POST using the simulated turbulence. a steady state CFD simulation was performed for calculating the fluid velocity fields. 238 . distribution. Then the tracer scalar was defined as an additional variable. adequate residence time must be provided to allow generation of particles sufficiently large to allow their efficient removal in subsequent treatment processes. the local velocity gradient G was defined as: ∂u j ∂u ∂u G = ( µ t / µ ) 2∑ ( i ) 2 + ∑ [ i + ] ∂xi ∂xi i i . It was used as a key parameter for evaluation of mixing performance of impeller mixers in this study. In the present study. The rate of floc formation is directly proportional to the local velocity gradient distribution. j ∂x j 2 (2) Where.information about the local shear rate distribution in the vessel. µt is the dynamic turbulent viscosity. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves were simulated by solving scalar transport equations. 2.(?) viscosity and flow velocity gradient data. The flow field obtained from the above simulation was used as the initial condition and was frozen when conducting unsteady state simulations to solve the tracer scalar transport equations. First. coalescence and break-up efficiency.

For steady state simulation. (3) Simulation runs In CFX 5. The geometry model then was imported into CFX-mesh to generate the mesh. the total simulation time was 1200s.55 m3/s. the time step was set at 0. For transient simulation. The frozen rotor model was used for the multiple frames of reference. Impeller rotating speed were varied between 5 and 30 rpm.2. (2) CFD model setup The flows in the flocculator were assumed to be isothermal. The time step was set between 1s and 20s.7. A second order differencing scheme was applied to all equations to obtain high accuracy of computation. 239 .1 to 10 s. the governing equations for fluid flow and species transport are discretized in the computational domain by a finite volume method. The influent flow rate for the modelling was 2. 2004): (1) Geometry and mesh generation The geometry of the flocculator and impellers was built using a commercial CAD software: SolidworksTM (SolidWorks Corporation. USA). The walls of the flocculation tank were set as no-slip walls and the top surface of the water was set as a free-slip wall. Massachusetts. The RMS (root mean square) normalised values of the equation residuals were set as 1×10-4. Discretization of the non-linear differential equations yields a system of linear algebraic equations that are solved iteratively.5 CFD Modelling Procedures The CFD modelling involves four sequential steps (ANSYS.

flocculation. The City of Toronto was replacing the old walking beam mixing equipment in the secondary cells with impeller mixers for flocculation. Figure 1 shows the configurations of a flocculator and an impeller. 3. The current walking beam mixing system has functioned adequately to date but serious corrosion of moving parts and increased maintenance requirements necessitated the replacement of the mixing equipment. water flows through over-and-under hydraulic mixing chambers in series for coagulation. Clark Water Treatment Plant is a conventional treatment plant which treats water from Lake Ontario and has a rated capacity of 615. with a minimum blade thickness of 12.(4) Post-processing After a simulation has finished. Currently. After adding alum prior to rapid mixers.000 m3/d.7 allows the presentation of results either graphically or numerically. sedimentation. CFX5. Each flocculation tank consists of a primary cell and a secondary cell. 240 . This plant has three parallel coagulation/flocculation trains. The treatment process consists of coagulation. fluoridation and disinfection.7 mm and width of 300 mm with a tapered leading edge. each being 2000 mm in diameter. Each impeller has three hydrofoil blades. four impellers are being installed in each secondary flocculator. filtration. the primary flocculation tanks have been retrofitted with impeller-type mixers. followed by flocculators. Case Study The R. L. 3.1 Design of the Upgraded Flocculator In the upgrading design.

meshing was done on multiple blocks to 241 . Preliminary modelling studies showed that the pillars have significant effects on the flow field in the flocculation tank. Four impellers are being added beside each pillar. Since the primary and secondary cells are separated by a wall. Fine tetrahedral three dimensional (3D) meshes were then created in CFX-mesh.2 Geometry and Mesh Generation In the actual secondary flocculation cell. the effects of upstream mixing on downstream mixing can be considered to be negligible. For the stationary domain. only half of the tank was modeled to reduce the computational time. there are four existing pillars for structural support. and the modeling does not consider the upstream (primary cell) mixing conditions. Two geometry domains were set up via Solidworks. the pillars were taken into account in the CFD modeling. Therefore.Outlet Inlet Figure 1 Three dimensional drawing of the existing flocculator (a) and impeller (b) As mentioned previously. each flocculator consists of a primary flocculation cell and a secondary flocculation cell. In this study. However. One is a stationary domain. modelling the whole reactor is time consuming and computationally intensive. 3. Only the secondary flocculation cell was modelled in this study. and another is a moving domain.

respectively. 242 . Results and Discussion 4.598.470×2 (two moving domains).658 and 589. (a) Stationary domain (b) Moving domain Figure 2 Mesh of two domains used in the frozen rotor interface model 4.1 Impact of Impeller Speed on Flow Fields Figure 3 shows the simulated velocity fields when the rotating speed of both impellers was set at 5 rpm. The total number of elements for the flocculator was 1.obtain fine meshes at locations close to the moving domains. The figure shows the locations of the potential dead zones and shortcircuiting zones in the tank.933. The mesh element numbers of the stationary domain and moving domain were 754.

Since the impeller and the inlet are at different heights. Potential short-circuiting Potential dead zones Figure 3 Velocity vectors inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 5 rev/min) Figures 4 and 5 show the velocity fields simulated at higher rotating speeds (20 rpm and 30 rpm). At higher impeller speed. It was observed that the impeller speed could significantly affect the flow fields. 243 . impeller A has reduced efficiency in mixing the incoming water in this configuration. This may be caused by the relatively low elevation of impeller A. The existence of these swirls might reduce the mixing efficiency of the impellers. local swirls were observed at the lower level of the tank.It was observed that the velocity of the incoming water could significantly influence the flow field and lead to serious short-circuiting and dead zone problems. However. the effects of influent water became smaller.

Figure 4 Velocity vectors inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 20 rev/min) Figure 5 Velocity vectors inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 30 rev/min) 4. 244 .2 Residence Time Distribution Figure 6 shows the effects of the impeller speed on the tracer residence time. The current results suggested that the flocculator had longer residence times at lower impeller speeds.

0.0005 0 0 10 20 30 Time (minutes ) Figure 6 CFD predicted tracer residence time distribution curves 4. 8 and 9 show the local G value distributions inside the flocculator at different impeller speeds.0025 N alize tra r con ntra orm d ce ce tion 5 rpm 0.002 20 rpm 30 rpm 0.001 0. the local velocity gradient G was introduced in this study to describe local mixing intensity inside the flocculator.0015 0.3 Local Velocity Gradient G As discussed earlier. Figures 7. 245 .

Figure 7 Local velocity gradient (G) distribution inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 5 rpm) Figure 8 Local velocity gradient (G) distribution inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 20 rpm) 246 .

it could be observed that local G value varied with the monitoring location. at lower G values short-circuiting potentially existed near the inlet locations. When the impeller speed equalled to 5 rpm. Based on drinking water treatment flocculation principles. and this might reduce flocculation efficiency. 2005). 247 . the local G values at locations around the two impellers were in the range of 100 to 1000 s-1 and became significantly lower (less than 30 s-1) at locations close to the walls. The results suggested that for this flocculator configuration a more appropriate range of G values could be obtained at lower impeller speeds. This would also assist in minimizing breakup of flocs previously formed in the primary flocculation tank.Figure 9 Local velocity gradient (G) distribution inside the flocculator (impeller speed = 30 rpm) From the above figures. mixing intensity values (average G values) for flocculators with vertical-shaft turbines should be in the range of 10 to 80 s-1 (MWH. average G values in the lower part of the range cited would be more appropriate. the local G values in most areas in the tank were higher than 100 s-1. Keeping in mind the fact that the modelled flocculators were in fact secondary flocculators. However. as mentioned earlier. When impeller speeds equalled to 20 and 30 rpm.

7 m and 0. Therefore. however the region upstream of the baffle was still poorly mixed. The higher speed for impeller A was chosen to reduce short-circuiting near the inlet. From the velocity profiles. The length and width of the baffle wall was 4. respectively) 248 .25 m respectively.4.4 Effects of Baffle Walls on Impeller Mixing Performance To obtain better G value distribution and reduce swirling in the flocculator. research was also conducted to study the benefits of installing baffle walls in the tank. installing a baffle wall in the middle of the flocculator might not be sufficient to improve the mixing efficiency. a) Flow field b) Local G value distribution Figure 10 CFD simulation results of a baffled flocculator (baffle located at the middle of the tank. speeds of impeller A and impeller B are 10 rpm and 5 rpm. it was found that the flow in the region downstream of the baffle had been improved. Figure 10 shows the CFD simulation results of the flocculator with a baffle positioned in the middle of the tank. The rotating speeds of impeller A and impeller B were 10 rpm and 5 rpm respectively.

which was caused by high G values in a small area around the impeller. At the inlet side. 2005). respectively) 249 . This analysis suggested that the inlet baffle wall could substantially improve mixing. the average G value was relatively high (94. speeds of impeller A and impeller B are 10 rpm and 5 rpm. a) Flow field b) Local G value distribution Figure 11 CFD simulation results of a baffled flocculator (baffle is close to the inlet.Figure 11 shows the CFD simulation results of the flocculator with an alternative baffle location. The average G of the total tank was 43. which was in the range of 10 to 30 s-1.5 m away from the inlet. The rotating speeds of impeller A and impeller B were 10 rpm and 5 rpm respectively. The inlet baffle could improve the G value distribution along the tank (decreasing from high to low).8 s-1 which was in middle of the suggested G value range (10 to 80 s-1) (MWH. the average G value of the half flocculator at the outlet side was 11.7 s-1. as for the other baffle location. Under the current modelling conditions.3 s-1). A 3 m high baffle wall was located 1.

which was within the typically range (10. as cited by Qasim et al. respectively. Therefore. it was found that the average residence times T50 for the two regions were 3.7 s-1 × 4.000). Region 2 Region 1 Figure 12 Method for prediction of the G*t value 250 .6 min. The spatial average G values of region 1 and region 2 were 94. respectively. the G*t value of region 1 equaled 22066 (94.5 Prediction of the G*t Value A key design factor in a flocculation basin is the value of G*t (velocity gradient × detention time).000 to 150.3 s-1 and 11. it is possible to roughly predict the G*t value for the flocculator. in Figure 11.7 s-1.229).066 + 3.3 s-1 × 3. From the CFD based tracer RTD and local G value analysis.4. and G*t of region 2 was 3229 (11. the flocculation tank was divided into two regions by a middle plane between the two impellers. (2000).295 (22. For example.9 min). The total G*t therefore was 25. From tracer test simulation.6 min).9 min and 4.

In conducting further work it should be kept in mind the discrepancies between the global G values and CFD predicted local G values. turbulence model selection. CFD has to be used carefully and responsibly. Limitations of CFD Modelling and Future Work Despite the significant advantages of CFD as a tool for predicting impeller mixing behaviour. The main sources of CFD error include the incorrect selection of numerical discretisation methods. the main uncertainty factor is the geometry of the impellers because limited information was available during the modelling work. A more refined prediction of system performance could be attempted if accurate design information is available for simulations and some sample results could be validated by full-scale or pilot scale testing. it should be pointed out that current CFD techniques still have some limitations. For the flocculators modelled. A study of a laboratory-scale flocculator conducted by Essemiani and Traversay (2002) showed that the mean G value calculated from the local G distribution predicted by CFD was much higher than the one calculated by power input (Equation 1). improper turbulence model selection. predictions should be validated with actual measured data. The validated model would then be able to be used in the future design and retrofit of similar flocculation systems. It is suggested that the sensitivity of mesh density. In the present research. This may be due to that. or poor definition of boundary conditions. incomplete description of geometry. the local G value calculation (Equation 2) integrates turbulence effects through including a 251 .5. and boundary condition definitions should also be further studied to potentially improve the accuracy of prediction of mixing performance in the flocculation process. a comparison of actual tracer test results to model predictions would be the minimum level of validation that should occur. As with all CFD modelling. computer round off.

and inlet velocity. CFD simulation showed that installing a single baffle at the inlet location might be a 252 . 2005. however the global G value is derived based on a laminar shear flocculation rate equation and it is not a valid representation of the average velocity gradient in a turbulent fluid (AWWA. rather than quantitative predictions. The application of the Local G values provided more detailed information for describing impeller mixing behaviour. MWH. Clark Water Treatment Plant. 1999. Because detailed design information was not available at the time of modelling and validation of the modelling results could not be performed. compared with the use of the global G value.L. This study demonstrated the potential of CFD as an efficient tool for understanding impeller mixing performance and may provide useful information for the design and operation of flocculation treatment processes.turbulent viscosity term. p 700). It would be necessary to conduct further studies to obtain an appropriate range for the CFDpredicted local G values and use this range to evaluate flocculation performance. The CFD model described in this paper provided an efficient tool for understanding impeller mixing performance under various conditions and assists with the optimization of its design and operation. Conclusions The mixing of a flocculator is affected by multiple factors including impeller speed. p 6.48. Installing baffles in the tanks might improve mixing performance in the flocculator. These zones might influence flocculation efficiency. flocculator configuration. this research was considered to provide indications of expected behaviour. Initial CFD simulation results suggested that dead zones and short-circuiting might exist in the secondary flocculation tank after installing vertical shaft turbine impellers at the R. 6.

Brightwell Technologies Inc. Funding for this project was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) in the form of an Industrial Research Chair at the University of Waterloo. Ansys Europe Ltd.. the Ontario Clean Water Agency (OCWA).P. Water treatment: principles and design. Ottawa and Toronto. 5th Edition. Ducoste J. John Wiley & Sons. Stantec Consulting Ltd.. 8. and Zenon Environmental Inc. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the City of Toronto. the cities of Brantford.M.F. References ANSYS (2004). New York. PICA USA Inc. 2th edition. Crozes G. Clark M.. and Burns C. USA. Hamilton.. MWH (2005).. the Region of Durham. 253 . RAL Engineering Ltd. Denver. Inc.. Mcgraw-Hill. It was also suggested that experimental studies should be done in the future to validate the CFD modelling. American Water Works Association (1999). EPCOR Water Services. 7. The current Chair partners include: American Water Canada Corp.. USA. Water quality and treatment: a handbook of community water supplies.. Improving clearwell design for ct compliance. Hagstrom J.. the Regional Municipalities of Niagara and Waterloo. CFX User manual.better choice than positioning a baffle in the middle of the tank. New Jersy. AWWARF and AWWA. (1999). Conestoga-Rovers & Associates Limited. Co. Guelph.

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