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Mobile and ADHOC Networks
SUBMITTED TO: MS GUrleen kaur SUBMITTED BY: vikas RANA ROLL NO. 03 REG. NO. 7010070026 BCA (H) – MCA LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY
CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks PART – A 1. Discuss routing in PRNET? .
This point-to-point route is an ordered set of repeater addresses that is determined by the mobile station. the ALOHA project at the University of Hawaii demonstrated the feasibility of using the broadcasting property of radios to send/receive data packets in a single radio hop system. each repeater has to maintain a list of packet identifiers for previously broadcast packets that it recently had received and forwarded. To ensure that each packet radio only forwards a packet once. PRNET permits multi-hop communications over a wide geographical area. the mobile station computes the best point-to-point route and distributes this information to all repeaters in the route or directly to the source packet radio. During the 1970s. This scheme was found to be suitable for slow moving user terminals. that is. Following are the types of routing in PRNET Point-to-Point Routing PRNETs support point-to-point communications through point-topoint routing. Broadcasting information to all radios in a network is equivalent to flooding. . With network topology information. Here. a packet originating at one part of the network moves through a series of one or more repeaters until it eventually reaches the final destination. the network topology. The ALOHA project later led to the development of a multi-hop multiple-access packet radio network (PRNET) under the sponsorship of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) Unlike ALOHA. ARPA itself has a history in terms of its name and roles. This station is the only element in the network that has knowledge of the overall network connectivity. Broadcast Routing Radio technology provides very good broadcasting properties.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks ANS Packet radio was a technology that extended the concept of packet switching (which evolved from point-to-point communication metworks) to the domain of broadcast radio networks.
that is. the packet ripples away from the source. This means that as network topology changes. No specific routes are derived prior to data transmission. In the connection-oriented packet forwarding approach. where each node in a route has a lookup table for forwarding incoming packets to the respective outgoing links. a route re-establishment phase is needed. Although broadcasting is very robust (since a packet will be received by every node in the non-partitioned network). an explicit route establishment phase is required before data traffic can be transported.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks In broadcast routing. Impact of Mobility . a packet radiates away from the source packet radio in a wave-like fashion. where each packet carries sufficient routing information for it to arrive at the destination. This approach is commonly associated with point-to-point routing. broadcast routing was found to be useful as it avoids the need to process rapidly changing routes. hence. Packet Forwarding The connectionless approach to packet forwarding requires some background operation to maintain up-to-date network topology and link information in each node. the background routing traffic can be substantial. the destination host address is included in each data packet. Packets will eventually reach the destination host if the network is not partitioned. For fast moving user terminals. Hence. it is not efficient for two-party communications since all other nodes in the network must participate in the transmission and reception of packets that are not intended for them. This is commonly associated with broadcast routing. however. Hence. when broadcast routing is used for point-to-point communication. if a topology changes. routing decisions are not centralized.
When the user rate of mobility is increased. Some move relatively slowly (for example. GSM "world phones" (some of which are known as tri-band or quad-band phones. point-to-point routing may not be practical since most of the time will be spent in computing alternate point-to-point routes instead of forwarding the packets to their intended destinations. Dual-band GSM phones are capable of working in both the 850 and 1900 MHz bands. Mexico and the United States. 2. The FCC.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks In a PRNET. every node is supposed to relay the packets. and hence. although they are incompatible with 900 and 1800 MHz European and Asian systems. a topological change in the backbone network is not frequent. no need to cope with rapidly changing routes in broadcast routing under conditions of rapid host mobility. Instead. The assumption made in a PRNET is that user terminals normally move slowly enough such that the assigned point-to-point routes are valid for at least a few seconds before another route must be chosen. and hence. as the original cellular phone band at 800-894 MHz was becoming overcrowded. and D-AMPS systems can be used on PCS frequencies. There is. Explain PCS? ANS Personal Communications Service or PCS is the name for the 1900 MHz radio band used for digital mobile phone services in Canada. the repeaters). the destination host will receive the packet eventually. IS95(cdmaOne). Broadcast routing is less affected by user mobility since the packets do not follow a specific point-to-point route. all elements of the network can be mobile. as well as Industry Canada. However. therefore. GSM. However. very poor communication performance will be observed. respectively) offered by North American carriers support both European and domestic . set aside the frequency band of 1850-1990 MHz for mobile phone use in 1994. Under such circumstances. because they operate in three or four different frequency bands. broadcasting is power inefficient.
CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks frequencies. PCS is used to refer to GSM1900. which was a GSM network in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. PCS Architecture Terminology of PCS Radio Network MS (Mobile Station) (or so-called mobile phone) BS (Base Station) Wired Transport Network . which later became part of TMobile USA. Sprint was the first company to set up a PCS network. Eventually however. the PCS frequencies have been adopted for usage in most parts of the Americas. Nowadays. PCS is used to refer to GSM-1800. Sprint converted that network to CDMA technology and sold the GSM infrastructure to Omnipoint. Outside the USA. In Hong Kong.
Discuss this? Heterogeneous communication interfaces in a real-world mobile ad hoc network test bed. The anticipated algorithm introduces features like backup routes and delay aware routing to improve AODV's performance heterogeneity in Ad hoc network comes in different flavors. Heterogeneity includes disparate computing and communication capabilities. Mobile phone Base Station (BS) The radio coverage of a BS is called a cell The BSs usually connect to wired core network via land links or dedicated microwave links.Size . • Sensor Network • Personal Area Network • Traditional Mobile Ad Hoc Network Heterogeneity in mobile computing devices and application scenarios complicates the development of collaborative software systems.Disk . and semantic conflicts across different domains and representations. Communication Access Technology FDMA — Frequency Division Multiple Access • TDMA — Time Division Multiple Access • CDMA — Code Division Multiple Access 3.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks MSC (Mobile Switching Center) Mobility database attached with MSC Mobile Station (MS) Portable Handset. Heterogeneity in Mobile Devices • Devices differ in: .Computational power . Ad hoc network suffers from heterogeneity. The aim is to provide an end-to-end communication abstraction that hides heterogeneity. differences in users' needs and interests.Memory .Battery Capacity • Ad hoc device can act as server or service provider .
It includes the source device ID/address. The ETE header remains intact as the packet transits toward the destination device. Routing Header In contrast to the ETE header. Note that the source . which is used in packet forwarding. a packet traverses over a chosen path hop-byhop and is acknowledged at every packet radio along the path.16A • IEEE 802. Forwarding is accomplished via information read from the device and tier tables. The routing header encapsulates the ETE header. not the packet radio. and from the packet headers. ETE Header The end-to-end header (ETE) is created by the source mobile device/terminal.15 and Bluetooth • IEEE 802.20 PART .CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks • Some devices are more powerful. and the destination device ID/address.B 1.11a/b/d/g/h/e/p • IEEE 802. hence can be servers others can be clients • Relay packets and also expel its own energy • Thus a mobile node must check its own well-being before committing to relay packets on others behalf. since it is the routing header that the packet radio will use to forward the packets. – Wireless Ad Hoc Backhaul Network and different ways to access the medium • IEEE 802. which is used to update the packet radio's device-to-packet radio mapping information. the routing header is created by the source packet radio. Differentiate between ETE and routing header? ANS In PRNETs.
Explain challenges in ad hoc wireless networks? ANS challenges in ad hoc wireless networks are the followings . and destination packet radio ID remain intact throughout the packet's journey toward the destination packet radio. The remaining fields are updated by every intermediate packet radio in the route. The Structure of a Routing Header Routing Header Field Source PR ID Sequence Number Previous PR ID Previous PR's transmit count Transmitting PR ID Transmitting PR's transmit count Next PR ID Tier Destination PR ID Purpose Acknowledgment Acknowledgment Acknowledgment Pacing Acknowledgment Pacing Forwarding/Pacing/Acknowledgment Alternate Routing Forwarding 2. the routing header is stripped at the destination packet radio and the ETE header is exposed.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks packet radio ID. sequence number. Eventually. The packet is then delivered to the destination device.
Nodes are mobile and can be connected dynamically in an arbitrary manner. Cognitive radio support for networks with physical layer adaptation. • Limited physical security. 7. Sensor network features such as aggregation. Also storage capacity and power are severely limited. Cross-layer support for optimization of protocol performance. content routing and in-network Processing. • Bandwidth optimization. Mobility support for dynamic migration of end-users and network devices.Mobility implies higher security risks such as peer-to. 4. 6. 9.No centralized administration entity is available to manage the operation of the different mobile nodes.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks 1.Scalability can be broadly defined as whether the network is able to provide an acceptable level of service even in the presence of a large number of nodes. . 2. Self-organization and discovery for distributed control of network topology. • Dynamic topology.Wireless links have significantly lower capacity than the wired links. Decentralized management for remote monitoring and control. which is a scarce resource. 10. The major open problems are listed as: • Autonomous. • Scalability. spoofing and denial-ofservice attacks should be considered. 3. • Device discovery. • Limited resources -Mobile nodes rely on battery power. Security and privacy considerations for mobile nodes and open wireless channels.peer network architecture or a shared wireless medium accessible to both legitimate network users and malicious attackers. 5. Eavesdropping. Links of the network vary timely and are based on the proximity of one node to another node. Location services that provide information on geographic position. Naming and addressing flexibility. 8. Economic incentives to encourage efficient sharing of resources.Identifying relevant newly moved in nodes and informing about their existence need dynamic update to facilitate automatic optimal route selection.
. routes are dynamically reassigned by the station to satisfy minimum delay criteria. commercial.This is an inherent problem of wireless communication caused by several error sources that result in degradation of the received signal. • Topology maintenance. The mobile station is present to derive routes from one host to another.CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks • Poor Transmission Quality. so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. and government radio systems Wireless terminals attached to PRNET this is unaware of station’s assignment and reassignment of routes. repeater failures or recovery. and dedicated mobile stations. which comprises mobile devices/terminals. PRNET consists of various devices. packet radios. The static station is optional A radio repeater is a combination of a radio receiver and a radio transmitter that receives a weak or low-level signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power.Challenges in standard addressing scheme to be implemented. DEVICES IN PRN The network architecture of PRNETs . This article refers to professional. The role of a repeater is to relay packets from one repeater to another. • Network configuration. wireless terminals. Hosts and terminals attached to the PRNET are unaware of the station's assignment and reassignment of communication routes. As network conditions change (terminal movement.Updating information of dynamic links among nodes in MANETs is a major challenge 3. changes in hop reliability. until the packets eventually reach the destination host. and network congestion state).The whole MANET infrastructure is dynamic and is the reason for dynamic connection and disconnection of the variable links. Discuss? ANS PRNET consists of several mobile radio repeaters. and repeaters. • Ad hoc addressing.
i. This is the terminology of 2G systems like GSM. as opposed to the older techniques used by dedicated or switched circuits ARCHITECTURE OF PACKET RADIO NETWORK The interface of a data terminal to a packet radio .CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks The mobile station (MS) comprises all user equipment and software needed for communication with a mobile network. mobile station (MS) is now referred as user equipment (UE). The mobile station refers to global system connected to the mobile network. Packet radio is a form of packet switching technology used to transmit digital data via radio or wireless communications links.e. In the 3G systems. mobile phone or mobile computer connected using a mobile broadband adapter. It uses the same concepts of data transmission via Datagram that are fundamental to communications via the Internet.
CAP517 Mobile and ADHOC Networks The user computer interfaced to radio via terminal network controller (TNC) LSI based therefore bulky architecture radio that handles layer 1 TNC and Radio constitute packet to layer 3 functionalities radio within itself due to Now a laptop integrates packet VLSI .