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Environmental Parameters PREDICT evaluates a large number of environmental parameters to assess the corrosive severity of the environment and to determine a corrosion rate in steels. PREDICT also assists you in determining the viability of carbon steels through a rigorous evaluation of general corrosion susceptibility of steels with or without inhibition in the operating environment. The system determines a steel corrosion index, a number representing the predicted corrosion rate in the operating environment. PREDICT uses a large number of parameters to determine the steel corrosion severity index. The system uses a widely accepted CO2-based corrosion prediction model to obtain an initial assessment of corrosion severity in carbon steels. This number is modified to account for the effects of other factors such as temperature, H2S, chlorides, velocity and inhibition. Relevant parameters in steel evaluation include, CO2 pH H2S Bicarbonates Chlorides Temperature Gas/Oil Ratio Water/Gas Ratio Dew Point Water Cut Oil Type Oxygen Sulfur Fluid Velocity Service Life Flow Type Type of Inhibition Partial pressure of carbon-dioxide in the operating environment Hydrogen ion concentration of the operating environment Partial pressure of hydrogen sulfide in the operating environment Amount of bicarbonates (HCO3) present in solution Dissolved chlorides in the operating environment Operating temperature for the environment Volumetric ratio of produced gas to oil Ratio of water to gas in gas dominated systems (gas wells) Dew point of operating environment Amount of water as a volumetric ratio of total fluid produced Type of persistence of oil films in an oil dominated condition Oxygen concentration in the environment Presence of elemental sulfur in the operating environment Flowing Velocity of in the operating environment Life of project in years Type of fluid flow Inhibition method of delivery
Corrosion Allowance Allowable general corrosion in mils (or mm) over the lifetime of the project
Inhibition Efficiency Efficiency of application of inhibitors
Carbon dioxide (CO2) CO2 is one of the most important parameters in determining corrosivity of a production environment.
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Predict Help - Environmental Parameters
CO2-based corrosion has been one of the most active areas of research, with several predictive models for carbon steel corrosion assessment. These efforts range from a predictive model that begins with CO2 corrosion to models that focus on specific aspects of the corrosion phenomena (such as flowinduced corrosion or erosion corrosion) to models that empirically relate corrosion rates to gas production and water production rates. The Predict model integrates lab data and field experience within the framework of relevant controlling parameters that are most prominent in oil and gas production. While there have been several studies focusing on the exact mechanism of metal dissolution in CO2 containing waters, the efforts of De Waard and Milliams and others present a commonly accepted representation wherein anodic dissolution of iron is a pH dependent mechanism as given by Bockris, the cathodic process is driven by the direct reduction of undissociated carbonic acid. These reactions can be represented as, Fe ----------> Fe++ + 2e-(Anodic reaction) H2CO3 + e-----> HCO3- + H (Cathodic reaction) The overall corrosion reaction can be represented as, Fe + 2H2CO3 ---> Fe++ + 2 HCO3- + H2 The build up of the bicarbonate ion can lead to an increase in the pH of the solution till conditions promoting precipitation of iron carbonate are reached, leading to reaction given below: Fe + 2HCO3- ---> FeCO3+ H2O+CO2 Iron carbonate solubility, which decreases with increasing temperature, and the consequent precipitation of iron carbonate is a significant factor in assessing corrosivity. This corrosion rate equation is given as2, log (Vcor) = 5.8 - 1710/T + 0.67 log (pCO2) ------ (1) where Vcor = corrosion rate in mm/yr T = operating temperature in K pCO2 = partial pressure of CO2 in bar The corrosion rate obtained by equation (1) has typically been often seen as the maximum possible corrosion rate without accounting for iron carbonate scaling. A nomogram representing eq. (1) is given in Figure 1, which also includes a scale factor to account for the formation of protective carbonate
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From a practical stand point. as shown in Figure 3 . Conversely. The Predict system incorporates a numerical computer model to compute pH for different values of acid gas partial pressures. Even though H2S is probably the most significant concern in current day corrosion and cracking evaluation. H2S related corrosion and cracking has remained one of the biggest concerns for operators involved in production because of the significance of H2S related damage. where it is the dissolved CO2 or H2S that contribute significantly to a lower pH. provides a three fold role for H2S: 1.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2.. While it has been documented that the CO2 corrosion mechanism is dissimilar to that of strong acids like HCl (where as CO2 corrosion is now understood to progress through direct reduction of H2CO3 to HCO3. 2.Environmental Parameters films that lead to a reduced corrosion rate at higher temperatures. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Oilfield production environments. bicarbonates and temperature. and at temperatures above 60 C. This surface reaction can lead to the formation of a thin surface film that can mitigate corrosion.corrosionsource. in addition to its contribution in pH reduction. The stability and formation of such films called mackinawite is the subject of much research. can lead to the formation of an iron sulfide scale called mackinawite at temperatures below 120 C. pH can be determined as a function of acid gas partial pressures. it is more meaningful to determine the effective CO2 partial pressure from the system pH. in recent years. However. For production environments.36] .Predict Help . the role of H2S in corrosion in steels has received much less attention when compared to the widely studied CO2 corrosion. HCO3 and temperature.htm (3 di 11) [21/12/01 16. corrosion and any passivity is a function of FeCO3 formation related phenomenon and the presence of H2S has no realistic significance.is influenced by pH and temperature. Data in Figure 3 can be represented as equations for straight lines in terms of pH and acid gas partial pressures for a given level of HCO3 and temperature. CO2 is the dominant corrosive species. this particular form of scaling. http://www. pH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration) pH is one of the most critical parameters in corrosivity determination. have been characterized by increasing presence of H2S and related corrosion considerations. At very low levels of H2S (< 0. there is also significant agreement that lower pH levels obtained from higher acid gas presence leads to higher corrosion rates. which is produced on the metal surface directly as a function of a reaction between Fe++ and S.09. Data about the effects of pH from another study is shown in Figure 4.rather than reduction of H+ ions). The Predict model. In CO2 dominated systems. and that carbonic acid corrosion is much more corrosive than that obtained from a strong acid such as HCl at the same pH. presence of even small amounts of H2S (ratio of pCO2/pH2S > 200).01 psia). higher levels of pH obtained through buffering in simulated production formation water solutions have been shown to produce significantly lower corrosion rates even at higher levels of CO2 and/or H2S. Hence. the contribution of H2S or HCO3 or temperature to pH determination is another way of representing effective levels of CO2 that would have produced a given level of pH. However.
Even though there is agreement amongst different workers that there is a beneficial effect of adding small amounts of H2S at about 60 C. the scale factor applicable for CO2 corrosion with no H2S (shown in Figure 1) becomes inapplicable. and Videm et al. Chlorides are often specified in ppm NaCl. Bicarbonates in the operating environment have a significant impact on corrosion rates. Murata et al. initially it is the mackinawite form of H2S that is formed as a surface adsorption phenomenon.061 grams of HCO3 in one liter of solution.Predict Help .htm (4 di 11) [21/12/01 16. There is a natural inhibitive effect of presence of bicarbonates which can be present in substantial quantities in formation waters (up to 20 meq/l)31. This combined effect results from the fact that chloride ions in solution can be incorporated into and penetrate surface corrosion films which can lead to destabilization of the corrosion film and lead to increased corrosion.000 ppm30. Figure 5  shows the combined effects of temperature and gas composition on corrosion rate of carbon steels. At higher concentrations and temperatures. high levels of bicarbonates can provide higher pH numbers leading to corrosion mitigation even when the partial pressures of CO2 and H2S are fairly high. The magnitude of this effect increases with increasing temperature over 60 C (150 F). at temperatures below 60 C or above 240 C. Figure 6  shows the effect of varying degrees of H2S contamination on CO2 corrosion. Also. This phenomenon of penetration of surface corrosion films increases in occurrence with both chloride ion concentration and temperature. there is a preferential formation of a meta-stable sulfide film in preference to the FeCO3 scale.09. One meq/l represents 0. Bicarbonates The bicarbonate ion is a buffering agent used in aqueous solutions to increase the pH of the solution.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2.corrosionsource. In naturally deaerated production environments. for CO2 dominated systems. present divergent results at higher concentrations and higher temperatures. However. In H2S dominated systems (ratio of pCO2/pH2S < 200).000 ppm to 100. Condensed water in production streams typically contains no bicarbonates. The reduction in pH in turn decreases the corrosivity of the environment. Ikeda et al. It should be noted that ppm chlorides can be http://www. presence of H2S exacerbates corrosion in steels since the presence of H2S prevents the formation of a stable FeCO3 scale. Chlorides Produced water from hydrocarbon formations typically contains varying amounts of chloride salts dissolved in solution. from zero to few ppm for condensed water to saturation in formation waters having high total dissolved salts/solids (TDS). Further. mackinawite becomes the more stable pyrhotite. It is to be noted that the role of H2S in CO2 corrosion is a complex issue governed by film stability of FeS and FeCO3 at varying temperatures and is an area further active research. it has been observed that FeS film itself becomes unstable and porous and does not provide protection. The chloride concentration in this water can vary considerably. there is protection available due to the presence of the sulfide film in the range of temperatures 60 to 240 C.Environmental Parameters 3. corrosion rate increases with increasing chloride ion content over the range 10. Here. Its presence is typically measured in mili-equivalents/liter (meq/l). On one hand.36] . hence. The effect of H2S adopted in the Predict model reflects work published by T.
brines with low chloride content (i.e. the corrosive severity is substantially reduced. corrosion rate is almost independent of the CO2 partial pressure of the system. In many production applications where essentially dry hydrocarbons are being produced. more careful selection of inhibitors and inhibition procedures must be performed where high levels of chlorides (>30. the full corrosivity of the hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide will not be present. If GOR is not known. Corrosion rate as a function of different levels of CO2 and temperature are given in Figure 7 . be weakened by high chloride concentrations or can be broken by high velocity. where the environment has a GOR < 890 m3/m3 (5000 scf/bbl in British units). the presence of salts can reduce the solubility of acid gases or buffer the water and may therefore alter the solution pH. In some cases.htm (5 di 11) [21/12/01 16. It has to be noted that once the corrosion products are formed. which effectively reduces the corrosivity of the environment. It is also apparent that the carbonate film is more stable at higher temperatures and affords greater protection at higher temperatures. Under normal circumstances.63 x ppm NaCl. However. Therefore. the inhibiting effect is dependent on the oil phase being persistent and acting as a barrier between the metal and the corrosive environment. because of the fact that no carbonate scale may be formed and that the FeS film becomes porous and unstable at temperatures beyond 120 C. http://www. Corrosion rates of steel in oil and gas production generally increase with increasing chloride content. it is recommended that a value greater than 5000 scf/bbl or 890 m3/m3(in SI units) be used. in many cases. <10.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2. Operating Temperaure Temperature has a significant impact on corrosivity in CO2/H2S systems. Typically. Water to Gas Ratio To have corrosion in oil and gas systems. a dry gas is considered as that which contains no more than 2 BBL water/MSCF gas (or 11. However.09. aqueous water is required. there is a significant mitigation in corrosivity. however. the tendency for corrosion and environmental cracking is substantially reduced. The carbonate film may. Gas to Oil Ratio In oil and gas production. the chloride content of the aqueous phase does not directly affect the hydrogen charging conditions in steel. Figure 7 also shows that at temperatures beyond 120 C. significant localized corrosion may be observed.000 ppm) are present.Predict Help . This is caused by the inhibiting effect of the oil film on the metal surface. For Water to Gas Ratio with less than or equal to this amount. In such systems. In H2S dominated systems. The chloride species in the aqueous phase can work to penetrate and destabilize protective surface films.corrosionsource.36] .3m3/Million m3).Environmental Parameters obtained as 0. it can also affect the effectiveness of chemical corrosion inhibitors.000 ppm) are less aggressive than those having higher chloride contents provided that they are compared at the same pH.
If the total water in a condensing system as measured by the Water to Gas Ratio is less than 11. the inhibiting effect is a function of the type of oil phase and the water cut of the environment.09. corrosive severity of the environment is lessened due to the absence of an adequate aqueous medium required to promote the corrosion reaction. the inhibiting effect is dependent on the oil phase being persistent and acting as a barrier between the metal and the corrosive environment.corrosionsource. However. This is caused by the possible inhibiting effect of the oil film on the metal surface. even in systems with high water cuts.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2. which effectively reduces the corrosivity of the environment. corrosivity is substantially reduced.htm (6 di 11) [21/12/01 16. irrespective of the type of hydro-carbon.e. The http://www. the tendency for corrosion and environmental cracking is often substantially reduced. no condensation is going to be possible and will lead to highly reduced corrosion rates. Metal surfaces that are water wet show significantly higher corrosion rates. which effectively reduces the corrosivity of the environment. Figure 10  shows data that relates the acid number of the crude to oil wettability and Figure 11  shows corrosion rate as a function of produced water content for different crude oil/produced water mixtures. The degree of protection provided by oil films can be quantified only as a function of water cut and velocity. In oil systems the water cut acts in synergy with the oil phase to determine the level of protection from the hydrocarbon phase. at very low water cuts (less than 5 percent). Hence the dew point plays a critical role in gas-dominated systems in that at higher operating temperatures (greater than the dew point) significantly lower or no corrosion may be observed due to absence of condensed moisture. Corrosion under condensing conditions (i. Water Cut The Predict model classifies systems as oil dominated or gas dominated on the basis of the gas/oil ratio (GOR) of the production environment. If the operating temperature is higher than the dew point of the environment.36] . If the environment has a GOR < 890 m3/m3 (5000 scf/bbl in English units). However. corrosion is fully suppressed. substantial corrosion can exist. the tendency for corrosion and environmental cracking is often substantially reduced. Under such conditions. In oil systems with a persistent oil phase and up to 45 percent water cut. there are two measures to evaluate availability of the aqueous medium. However.3m3/Mm3 (2 BBL water/MSCF gas). If the environment has a GOR < 890 m3/m3 (5000 scf/bbl in English units)35. operating temperature less than the dew point) is a function of the rate of condensation and transport of corrosion products from the metal surface. Dew Point In gas dominated systems..Predict Help . Relative wettability of the oil phase versus the water phase also has a significant effect on corrosion.Environmental Parameters Care should be taken to evaluate presence of possible locations where water can separate from the hydrocarbons and form a continuous water phase. This is caused by the possible inhibiting effect of the oil film on the metal surface. Oil Type The Predict model classifies systems as oil dominated or gas dominated on the basis of the gas/oil ratio (GOR) of the production environment. The persistence of the oil phase is a strong factor in providing protection.
the degree of protection can be quantified only as a function of water cut and velocity. Increased fluid flow leading to increased mass flow of oxygen to the metal surface 3. uncontaminated (read deaerated) production water samples. http://www. Oldfield  has chronicled how presence of oxygen can significantly increase corrosion rates due to acceleration of anodic oxidation. at very low water cuts (less than 5 percent). Metal surfaces that are oil wet show significantly lower corrosion rates37. In oil systems with a persistent oil phase and up to 45 percent water cut. It is important to understand the type of crude oil in terms of the organic compounds that make up the crude to determine wettability effects.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2. Increase in operating temperature 2. The persistence determination is a more complex task and requires knowledge of the kerogen type and hydrocarbon density.corrosionsource.Environmental Parameters persistence of the oil phase is a strong factor in providing protection. corrosion is fully suppressed. The Predict system provides for a significant reduction in the corrosion rate (up to a factor of 4) based on the type of oil phase being q q q Highly persistent. While corrosion rate increases with oxygen. mildly persistent not persistent. corrosive severity of the environment is lessened due to the absence of an adequate aqueous medium required to promote the corrosion reaction.36] . Figure 10  shows data that relates the acid number of the crude to oil wettability and Figure 11 shows corrosion rate as a function of produced water content for different crude oil/produced water mixtures. Corrosion rates for different flow velocities and oxygen levels as a function of temperature is shown in Figure 13. irrespective of the type of hydro-carbon. Oxygen Presence of oxygen significantly alters the corrosivity of the environment in production systems. it is even more difficult to quantify precise compositional elements of an oil medium that contribute to wettability and persistent oil film formation. Increasing oxygen concentration Data showing increases in corrosion rate as a function of oxygen concentration for differing temperatures is shown in Figure 12. While the effect of persistence of the oil medium is significant on corrosion rates.htm (7 di 11) [21/12/01 16. Such quantification is possible by rigorous laboratory testing of different actual.09. However. rate of oxygen reduction as a cathodic reaction is further exacerbated by: 1. Relative wettability of the oil phase versus the water phase has a significant effect on corrosion. even in systems with high water cuts. so as to determine the extent of protection. In oil systems the water cut acts in synergy with the oil phase to determine the level of protection from the hydrocarbon phase. However.Predict Help .
it determines the flow behavior and flow regime. this is replaced with the liquid velocity. elemental sulfur is often found to be present.36] .com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2. corrosion products and other deposits can settle out of the liquid phase to promote crevice attack and underdeposit corrosion. However. While flowhttp://www. Typically. In multiphase (i. Velocities less than 1 m/s are considered static. corrosion rates of steel increase only slightly between 3 to 10 m/sec. At 5 m/sec. gas. the increased flow promotes a sweeping away of some deposits and increasing agitation and mixing.Environmental Parameters Sulfur In systems containing high levels of H2S. In liquid (oil / water) systems. First. For inhibited applications. One measure which can be used to define the flow conditions is the superficial gas velocity. Above about 10 m/sec. Fluid flow velocities affect both the composition and extent of corrosion product films. Under these conditions corrosion rates can be higher than those observed under moderately flowing conditions. Additionally. Between 1 and 3 m/sec.e. corrosion rates in inhibited systems start to increase due to the removal of protective surface films by the high velocity flow. stratified flow at intermediate conditions and turbulent flow at higher flow rates.Predict Help . liquid hydrocarbon) production. water. velocity is probably the most significant parameter in determining corrosivity of production systems. Fluid Velocity Next to the corrosive species that instigate corrosion. Sulfur can directly combine with Iron to form FeS and can lead to significant metal loss in a localized mode.e. the flow rate influences the corrosion rate of steel in two ways. Flow induced corrosion is a direct consequence of mass and momentum transfer effects in a dynamic flow system where the interplay of inertial and viscous forces is responsible for accelerating or decelerating metal loss at the fluid/metal interface. Flow related effects on corrosivity have been linked to the wall shear stress developed and is an area of intense research in the community. resulting from mixing of the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases. corrosion rates in non-inhibited applications start to increase rapidly with increasing velocity. Its presence can significantly increase the corrosivity of the production environment with respect to weight loss corrosion and localized corrosion.htm (8 di 11) [21/12/01 16.09. This occurs because under static conditions. this is manifested as static conditions (i. there is no natural turbulence to assist the mixing and dispersion of protective liquid hydrocarbons or inhibitor species in the aqueous phase. little or no flow) at low velocities. Presence of sulfur is similar to that of having oxygen in production systems in that it can be a strong oxidizing agent and can lead to significantly increased local attack. stratified conditions generally still exist.corrosionsource. In general terms.31 Data shown in Figure 9 demonstrates the effects of velocity on corrosion rate for both inhibited and noninhibited systems. high velocities (> 4 m/s for noninhibited systems) in the production stream leads to mechanical removal of corrosion films and the ensuing exposure of the fresh metal surface to the corrosive medium leads to significantly higher corrosion rates. Corrosion rate as a function of flow velocity and temperature is shown in Figure 8.
Alternatively. Type of Flow The flow conditions (i. The concept of Corrosion Allowance involves the use of an increased thickness over that required for mechanical design to allow for corrosion and metal loss that may take place during q q the project life or until replacement.12 inches (3 mm).The conditions may be essentially non-corrosive. etc.36] . http://www. The magnitude of the Corrosion Allowance is dependent on the severity of corrosion expected and the ability to mitigate corrosion usually by the use of corrosion inhibitors.09. stratified. Horizontal flow is usually more prone to static and stratified conditions which limits the amount of mixing of oil and water phases at low flow rates. it is common to take into account and added factor of safety in terms of the Corrosion Allowance. Corrosion Allowance In designing systems from materials such as steel which can exhibit corrosion. Method of Inhibition For horizontal flow systems the following types of inhibition method are commonly used: No Treatment . Guidelines for velocity limits with respect to erosional considerations are given in API14E in terms of the density of the fluid medium. static.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2.) are dependent on the nature of the produced gases and fluids and if the flow is primarily horizontal (surface production) or vertical (subsurface production).Environmental Parameters induced corrosion is a significant component of predictive modeling discussed herein. See fluid velocity for more information. This usually occurs under the following conditions (a) very low acid gas (CO2 and H2S) partial pressures. Service Life The Service Life is the period of useful service for a particular component.corrosionsource. (b) low amounts of water or (c) very persistent oil phase.htm (9 di 11) [21/12/01 16. Vertical flow typically exhibits these types of conditions only during period of shut-in of the well.Predict Help . in some particularly severe cases larger Corrosion Allowances can be utilized. This is usually taken to be the time required to achieve a corrosion metal loss equal to the Corrosion Allowance. The Corrosion Allowance in most cases is < 0. the topic of flowrelated effects is being actively researched by the authors and forms the focus of another publication. However. Another relevant aspect of flow or velocity induced corrosion is erosion corrosion and refers to the mechanical removal of corrosion product films through momentum effects or through impingement and abrasion.e. turbulent. the Service Life may be used to define the required Corrosion Allowance based on the assessment of corrosion severity and inhibition performance and methods in the particular application.
Inhibition Efficiency Appropriate inhibition is a critical criterion for effective use of carbon steels in corrosive production http://www. continuous inhibition has been shown to be more effective particularly in deeper high temperature wells and at more severely corrosive conditions.corrosionsource. pigging is used to remove water and deposits from the bottom of the pipe which can promote corrosion at this location. This technique is usually effective where the chloride concentration is high but the velocity is low. This technique is usually effective where the chloride concentration is high but the velocity is low. solids and other deposit in the flow system. However. Instead of just displacing the tubing with inhibitor and its carrier fluid. Squeeze Treatment . Pigging . In cases where flow velocity is low. A strongly persistent filming inhibitor is usually used which can reduce corrosion rates effectively during the period between batch treatments.Predict Help . squeeze treatments can also interfere with the well's production by plugging the formation. (b) low amounts of water or (c) very persistent oil phase.Environmental Parameters Continuous Inhibition .Inhibitor is added in the flow system periodically in batch treatments and usually added to the tubing bore in a process where the fluids in the well bore are displaced with the inhibitor and its carrier.Inhibitor is continuously injected into the tubing at bottom of the string or through a subsurface injection valve.Pigging is the use of flowline pigs to assist in (a) application of batch inhibitors and (b) removal of accumulated water. At high flow rates.htm (10 di 11) [21/12/01 16. A strongly persistent filming inhibitor is usually used which can reduced corrosion rates effectively during the period between batch treatments. Batch Inhibition . the squeeze treatments also forces the fluid under pressure into the surrounding formation. This may be conducted in both downhole and surface production systems.09. continuous inhibitor injection may become costly and possibly ineffective. This usually occurs under the following conditions (a) very low acid gas (CO2 and H2S) partial pressures.Inhibitor is continuously injected into the flow stream. However. It is preferred where the flow velocity is greater than 10 ft/sec (3 meter/sec) or where the amount of water is high. in other cases.Inhibitor is added in the flow system periodically in batch treatments usually between two pigs. pigging is required to get proper distribution of inhibition chemicals through the flow system. conditions of high temperature (>250 F. In many applications. This has the benefit of extending the duration between batch treatments in some wells.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2. While more costly and requiring more equipment than batch inhibition.36] . The rate of injection is regulated to provide the inhibitor at a required concentration to mitigate corrosion. For vertical flow systems the following types of inhibition method are commonly used: No Treatment . It is commonly used to supplement other inhibition techniques.The conditions may be essentially non-corrosive. Continuous Inhibition .Squeeze treatments are a modification of batch inhibition used for controlling downhole corrosion. Batch Inhibition . 120 C) and high flow rate generally limit the use of this technique.
htm (11 di 11) [21/12/01 16. hydrocarbons to water ratio and dissolved chloride levels. 2. CRi = inhibited corrosion rate. Conditions which affect IE include: 1. Inhibition has been typically found to be viable in flows with velocity in the range 0.corrosionsource. Solubility of inhibitor in aqueous phase. Phase behavior of inhibitor and carrier fluid in service environment.com/tools/corrpred/pdhlp_p2.3 . Values of IE near 1. 3.0 represent conditions with maximum efficacy of the inhibitor reatment.36] . http://www.) is also an important factor in determining appropriateness of inhibition for a given set of operating conditions. Inhibitor concentration. 5.Predict Help . The predictive model evaluates inhibition efficacy on the basis of velocity. 4. continuous. The method of delivery (batch. Inhibition Efficiency (IE) describes the efficacy of an inhibitor treatment in mitigating weight loss corrosion and is an important factor in assessing corrosivity. Service temperature. Severity of corrosive environment.10 m/s. Persistence of inhibitor on metal surface. It is based on either laboratory or field data where inhibited and non-inhibited corrosion rates are compared using the following equation: IE = 100[(CRn .Environmental Parameters systems.CRi)/CRn] where CRn = non-inhibited corrosion rate. 6.09. pigging etc.
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