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1938  Serving the Army for Fifty Years  1988
o
THE AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF 7.62MM MATCH BULLETS
S..ROBERT
L. McCOY
'
DECEMIBER 1988DTc
•'"•
•DTIC
iELECTEa 2 • 1 'VIAR 1989
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED.
U.S. ARMY LABORATORY COMMAND
BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORY ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND
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11. TITLE (Include Securriy Ciassificazon)
1ýhl8AH80
The Aerodynamic
12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S)
Characteristics of 7.62mm Match Bullets
McCOY,
ROBERT L.
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14 DATE OF REPORT (Year, Montt, Day)
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13. SUBJECT TERMS Continue on reverie id necessary arao icentiry Oy ,)ccx numeer)
IELD 01
I
GROUP 01
SUBGROUP
7.62mm Match Bullets Aerodynamic Characteristics Aerodynamic Drag
Gyroscopic Stability Dynamic Stability Yaw LimitCycle
19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identity by block numoer)
Spark photography range tests of three 7 .62mm match bullets were conducted to determine the aerodynamic and flight dynamic characteristics at supersonic and subsonic speeds. The drag coefficients of the match bullets were determined, and recommendations for rifling twist rates to insure gyroscopic stability were made. The observed nonlinear Magnus moment properties of the 7.62mm match bullets predict a small slow arm limit cycle yaw at supersonic speeds, and a larger limit cycle yaw at subsonic speeds.
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ROBERT L.
McCOY
JUN 86
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Table of Contents
Page
List of Figures ......... List of Tables ......... 1. II. III. .................................. ................................... v vii 1 1 2 .2 3 4 4 4 6 7 8 59 61 65
Introduction ............................................. Test Facilities and Material .................................. Results .......... .......................................
1. Drag Coefficient ....................................... 2. Overturning Moment Coefficient ............................ 3. Gyroscopic Stability ........ .............................
4. Lift Force Coefficient ..................................... 5. Magnus Moment Coefficient and Pitch Damping Moment Coefficient . . ................................ .................................... ................................
6. Damping Rates ......... IV. V. Conclusions .......... Recommendations .........
References .............................................. List of Symbols ......... Distribution List ......... .................................. .................................
Ae,•r. ¢• "
or
Ay
In

List of Figures
Figue 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Photograph of the BRL Free Flight Aerodynamics Range ............... Coordinate System for the BRL Aerodynamics Range ................. Sketch of the M118 Match (Special Ball) Bullet ...................... Sketch of the 190 Grain Sierra Matchking Bullet ..................... Sketch of the 168 Grain
9 .rr;
Page 9 10 11 12 .3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .26 27 28 29 30 31
International (M852) Bullet ..........
Shadowgraph of Ml18 Bullet at Mach 2.2 .......................... Shadowgraph of 190 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 2.2 .................. Shadowgraph of 168 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 2.2 .................. Shadowgraph of M118 Bullet at Mach 1.8 .......................... Shadowgraph of 190 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 1.8 .................. Shadowgraph of 168 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 1.8 .................. Shadowgraph of Ml18 Bullet at Mach 1.4.......................... Shadowgraph of 190 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 1.4 .................. Shadowgraph of 168 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 1.4 .................. Shadowgraph of M118 Bullet at Mach 1.1 .......................... Shadowgraph of 190 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 1.1 .................. Shadowgraph of 168 Grain Sierra Bullet at Mach 1.1 .................. ZeroYaw Drag Force Coefficient versus Mach Number, Mll8 Bullet ..... ZeroYaw Drag Force Coefficient versus Mach Number, 190 Grain Sierra Bullet .......... ........................................ ZeroYaw Drag Force Coefficient versus Mach Number, 168 Grain Sierra Bullet .......... ........................................ Yaw Drag Force Coefficient versus Mach Number, Ml18 Bullet ........ ..
Yaw Drag Force Coefficient versus Mach Number, 190 Grain Sierra Bullet. . Yaw Drag Force Coefficient versus Mach Number, 168 Grain Sierra Bullet..
ZeroYaw Overturning Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number, MillS Bullet. 32
V
List of Figures (Continued)
Figure 25 26 ZeroYaw Overturning Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number, 190 Grain Sierra Bullet ......... .................................... ZeroYaw Overturning Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number, 168 Grain Sierra Bullet ......... 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 .................................... .35 36 37 38 ... ... ... ... 39 40 41 42 43 44 .45 .46 47 48 49 50 Page
33 34
Gyroscopic Stability Factor versus Mach Number, Ml18 Bullet ........ Gyroscopic Stability Factor versus Mach Number, 190 Grain Sierra Bullet. Gyroscopic Stability Factor versus Mach Number, 168 Grain Sierra Bullet. Lift Force Coefficient versus Mach Number ........................ Magnus Moment Coefficient versus Effective Squared Yaw ........... Magnus Moment Coefficient versus Effective Squared Yaw ........... Magnus Moment Coefficient versus Effective Squared Yaw ........... Magnus Moment Coefficient versus Effective Squared Yaw ........... ZeroYaw Magnus Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number ............ ZeroYaw Magnus Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number. ........... ZeroYaw Pitch Damping Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number ..... ZeroYaw Pitch Damping Moment Coefficient versus Mach Number ..... Fast Arm Damping Rate versus Effective Squared Yaw................ Slow Arm Damping Rate versus Effective Squared Yaw .............. Fast Arm Damping Rate versus Effective Squared Yaw ................ Slow Arm Damping Rate versus Effective Squared Yaw ...............
Vi
List of Tables
Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average Physical Characteristics of 7.62mm Match Bullets .......... Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Ml18 Match Bullet ............... Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 190 Grain Sierra Matchking Bullet... Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 168 Grain Sierra International Bullet. Flight Motion Parameters of the M118 Match Bullet ................ Flight Motion Parameters of the 190 Grain Sierra Matchking Bullet ..... Flight Motion Parameters of the 168 Grain Sierra International Bullet. .. Page 51 52 53 54 55 .,0 57
vii
I.
Introduction
The marksmanship training units of the various U.S. Armed Services have traditionally been interested in the ballistics of national match rifles and ammunition. The Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) has received many questions over the years concerning match ammunition performance, from captains of service rifle teams, marksmanship training instructors, and U.S. Olympic match shooters. The answers provided in the past by the BRL were best estimates, since no aeroballistic data had ever been collected for match ammunition. The first BRL spark photography range firings of a match bullet were conducted in 1975, using the 7.62mm, 168 grain Sierra International bullet, fired from a Remington 40XB match rifle chambered for 7.62mm NATO (.308 Winchester). The 168 grain Sierra International is a commercial match bullet, which is currently loaded in the M852 Match ammunition. Additional spark range tests were conducted in 1980, to extend the data base for the 168 grain Sierra International bullet, and to determine the aeroballistic properties of the 7.62mm M118 Match (Special Ball) ammunition, and the 190 grain Sierra Matchking Hollow Point bullet. This report is a consolidation of all the BRL aeroballistic data collected for 7.62mm match bullets from 1975 to the present.
II.
Test Facilities and Material
The spark range firings were conducted in the BRL Free Flight Aerodynamics Range.' The Aerodynamics Range is an enclosed, instrumented firing range designed to accurately record the flight of a projectile over approximately 90 metres of its trajectory. The free flight range technique for obtaining aerodynamic data demands unusually high accuracy in the measurement of position, time of flight, and projectile pitch and yaw angles. Figure 1 is a photograph (circa 1958) of the BRL Free Flight Aerodynamics Range. Figure 2 is a schematic illustration of the coordinate reference system for the range. The 1975 firings of the 168 grain Sierra International bullet were conducted using a Remington Model 40XB "Rangemaster" Center Fire Rifle, chambered in .308 Winchester, with a 27.25 inch barrel, and a rifling twist rate of 1 turn in 12 inches. Launch Mach numbers varied from 2.2 down to 1.4, and yaw levels from 1 degree to 7 degrees were induced using a halfmuzzle yaw inducer with a variable lip extension. For the 1980 firings of the M118 Match and the 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets, a Remington Model 700 ADL rifle chambered in .308 Winchester was used. The Model 700 barrel length was 22 inches, and rifling twist rate was 1 turn in 10 inches. The faster twist rifling was used for the 1980 tests because preliminary calculations had indicated that the gyroscopic stability of the heavier bullets might be too low at subsonic launch velocities, from the 12 inch twist
barrel used in 1975.
Launch Mach numbers for the 1980 tests varied from 2.2 down to 0.6, so the entire useful velocitv range of the match bullets would be covered. For completeness, the 168 grain Sierra International bullets were also tested at low supersonic and subsonic speeds. Yaw levels induced in the 1980 tests were essentially the same as those obtained in 1975. All firings used Lake City Match cartridge cases. and appropriate charges of IMR 4895 propellant were used for the higher supersonic speeds. Reduced charges of IMR 4198 propellant were used for the lower supersonic velocities. Further reduced charges of Hercules 2400 and Hercules UNIQUE were used to achieve the desired subsonic speeds. Figures 3 through 5 are sketches of the three match bullets tested. A sample of five each of the three projectile types were measured for complete physical characteristics. The average physical properties of the match bullets are presented in Table 1.
III.
Results
The free flight spark range data were fitted to solutions of the linearized equations of motion and the resulting flight motion parameters were used to infer linearized aerodynamic coefficients, using the methods of Reference 2. Preliminary analysis of the aerodynamic data showed distinct variation of several coefficients with yaw level. In BRL Report 974, Murphy 3 has shown that aerodynamic coefficients derived from the linearized data reduction can be used to infer the coefficients in a nonlinear force and moment expansion, if sufficient data are available. For the 7.62mm match bullets, sufficient data were obtained to permit determination of several nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients. A more detailed analysis of nonlinear effects is presented in the subtopics of this section, which discuss individual aerodynamic coefficients. An interesting and useful byproduct of spark photography range testing is the high quality shadowgraph information obtained. Figures 6 through 17 show the flowfields around the three 7.62mm match bullets at four supersonic Mach numbers. The shadowgraph figures were selected from range stations where the angle of attack was less than one degree. The roundbyround aerodynamic data obtained for the 7.62mm match bullets are listed in Tables 2, 3 and 4. Free flight motion parameters for the three bullets are listed in Tables 5, 6 and 7.
1.
Drag Coefficient
The drag coefficient, CD, is determined by fitting the timedistance measurements from the range flight. CD is distinctly nonlinear with yaw level, and the value determined from an individual flight reflects both the zeroyaw drag coefficient, CD . and the induced 0
2
drag due to the average yaw level of the flight. expressed as an even power series in yaw amplitude:
+
The drag coefficient variation is
CD =
CD 0
CD6 62+ 2
...
(1)
where CDo is the zeroyaw drag coefficient CDo 2 is the quadratic yaw drag coefficient, and 62 is the total angle of attack squared. Analysis of the zeroyaw drag coefficient data for the 7.62mm match bullets showed that the Ml 18 bullet had the lowest drag of the three designs tested, at supersonic speeds. The 190 grain Sierra Matchking averaged four percent higher drag than the M118. and the 168 grain Sierra International bullet averaged eight percent higher drag than the military M118 design, over the Mach number range 2.2 to 1.1. At subsonic speeds, the zeroyaw drag coefficients of the three bullets are nearly identical. Figures 18. 19 and 20 show the variation of zeroyaw drag coefficient with Mach number for the three match bullets tested. The variation of the quadratic yaw drag coefficients, CD6 2 , with Mach number are shown in Figures 21, 22 and 23, for the respective bullet designs. The yaw drag coefficients presented were used to correct the range measured total drag coefficients to zeroyaw values. Dashed portions of curves are used throughout this report to indicate trends, in regions where no data were collected. The roundtoround standard deviation in zeroyaw drag coefficient at supersonic speeds was determined for each match bullet design, from the leastsquares fit of the drag data. All the 7.62mm match bullets showed standard deviations in CD0 between 0.7 percent and 0.8 percent, which represents significant improvement over the one to three percent drag standard deviations typical of military ball projectiles. The standard deviation in drag coefficient for an individual flight in the BRL Aerodynamics Range is of order of 0.2 percent, hence the measurement error does not contribute significantly to the observed roundtoround standard deviation in drag. 2. Overturning Moment Coefficient
The range values of the overturning moment coefficient, CM,, were fitted using the appropriate squaredyaw parameters from Reference 3. A weak dependence of CM• on yaw level was observed for all the 7.62mm match bullets. The overturning moment is assumed to be cubic in yaw level, and the coefficient variation is given by: Cj = CV0 + C 2 2 +±... (2)
where Cvj,, is the zeroyaw overturning moment coefficient, and C 2 is the cubic coefficient. The variation of Cv,0 with Mach number for the three 7.62mm match bullets is shown in Figures 24 through 26. The cubic overturning moment coefficients. C., ,ed to correct the range values of Cx,.f to zeroyaw conditions, are included on the figu 's.
3
3.
Gyroscopic Stability
The variation of launch gyroscopic stability factor, S , with launch Mach number. at standard atmospheric conditions, is shown for the three 7.62mm match bullets in Figures 27 through 29. The stability factors for 10 inch twist and 12 inch twist of rifling are illustrated. For a launch Mach number of 2.3 (muzzle velocity approximately 2570 feet/second), the Ml18 bullet from a 12 inch twist barrel has a gyroscopic stability factor of 1.4; the stability factor of the 190 grain Sierra Matchking at the same muzzle velocity and twist rate is 1.3. The corresponding value of S. for the 168 grain Sierra International bullet at the same conditions is 1.65. Thus all the above 7.62mm match bullets are gyroscopically stable when fired from a 12 inch twist barrel at muzzle velocities greater than 2500 feet/second. However, for the M118 bullet, and especially for the 190 grain Sierra Matchking, there is no margin of safety for cold weather (high air density) atmospheric conditions, if a 12 inch twist is selected. A launch gyroscopic stability factor between 1.5 and 2.0 is usually specified, to insure .mple safety margin under worst case conditions. Thus for the 7.62mm NATO cartridge. the 12 inch twist rate is an excellent choice for the 168 grain Sierra International (M852) bullet, and a 10 inch twist barrel should be selected for the Ml18 or 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets. 4. Lift Force Coefficient
The range values of the lift force coefficient, CL., were also analyzed using the methods of Reference 3. No significant value of the cubic lift force coefficient could be found, for any of the three 7 .p2mm match bullets. The range values of the lift force coefficient are plotted against Mach number in Figure 30. No significant difference in lift force coefficient with bullet type is observed in Figure 30. The curve in the plot was obtained from a least squares fit of the CL, data. and should be used for all three 7.62mm match bullets. The lift force coefficient is not as well determined from spark range tests as is the overturning moment coefficient. This fact is reflected in the larger roundtoround data scatter observed in Figure 30, compared with the overturning moment coefficient data plotted in Figures 24 through 26. 5. Magnus Moment Coefficient and Pitch Damping Moment Coefficient
The Magnus moment coefficient, CMpa , and the pitch damping moment coefficient. .Cwv¢,+ C.v,), are discussed together, since if either coefficient is nonlinear with yaw level. both coefficients exhibit nonlinear coupling in the data reduction process. 3 Due to mutual reaction, the analysis of C,vpo and ( CMq + Cv• ) must be performed simultaneously. althoiigl the aerodynamic aoment• are not, in themselves, directly physically related.
4
If the dependence of the Magnus moment and the pitch damping moment are cubic in yaw level, the nonlinear variation of the two moment coefficients is of the general form:
CM•
=C.VP°
+ C 2 6 '2
(3)
(CM, + CM,) = (CMq + CM&) 0 + d 2 where CMP, 0 and (CMq + CM&)
0
S 2
(4)
are the zeroyaw values of Magnus and pitch damp
ing moment coefficients, respectively, and C 2 and d 2 are the associated cubic coefficients. In Reference 3, it is shown that the nonlinear coupling introduced through the data reductin yields the following expressions for range values [Rsubscript] of C."P, and
(C.M
+ C.,,•):
[CMpl
[(C,,, + CM&)],R
R =
C.° (C,
+ C2 ý6
+ d2
6
2
(3)
=
+ CM&)oa + C2 6 2H
+ d2 6 2
(6)
where the above effective squared yaws are defined as:
e
= Kg
+
K, +
(7)
652T
F
F
, 6S
"eTH = (
)[(K? + ,
2)(
1) )"
K)
k'yJ (Ix) (L (K2
62
=
(12 2
j
+
(K
ls)
()o
]
()
(X 
Symbols in this report. The remaining symbols are defined in the List of Preliminary analysis of the 7.62mm match bullet data showed strong nonlinearity in the range values of C.w, and (C.,f + C.m,,) at angles of attack less than 2 degrees. for both supersonic and subsonic speeds. The data rounds were separated into Mach number groups. by bullet type. and an analysis was performed to determine the cubic coefficients at both small and large yaw levels. No significant values of the cubic pitch damping uiomeint coefficient, d 2 , could be found.
5
The data were then analyzed assuming a cubic Magnus moment and linear pitch damping moment. Further analysis revealed no significant variation of either coefficient with bullet type at supersonic speeds, and all bullet types were then combined for final analysis. The combined data rounds were again separated into Mach number groups, and final values of the cubic Magnus moment coefficient were obtained. Plots of the range Magnus moment coefficient versus & 2 are shown in Figures 31 through 34, for the four Mach ihumber intervals selected. The Magnus moments of the 7.62mm match bullets show a bicubic behavior; i.e., a strong cubic dependence on angle of attack at small yaw level, followed by a very weak dependence on angle of attack at larger yaw levels. The small yaw cubic Magnus moment coefficient, C2 , appears to be constant for all bullet types at all supersonic speeds, and has the value C2 = 250. The angle of attack at which bicubic behavior begins increases slowly with decreasing Mach number; at M = 2 the critical angle of attack is around 2 degrees, and at A! = 1.1 the critical angle has increased to about 4 degrees. At subsonic speeds; the value of C2 = 300 was obtained, and bicubic behavior appears at angles of attack of approximately 5 degrees. A significant variation of the Magnus moment with bullet type is also observed at subsonic speeds, as is illustrated in Figure 34. The cubic Magnus moment coefficients were then used to correct the range values of CMw, and (CM, + CM,) to zeroyaw conditions, and the results are illustrated in Figures 35 through 38. A comparison of Figures 35 and 36 shows that the three 7.62mm match bullets have essentially identical zeroyaw Magnus moment coefficients at supersonic speeds, but the 168 grain Sierra International bullet shows 50 percent larger (negative) coefficients than the other bullets, at subsonic speeds. The pitch damping moment coefficients, corrected to zero..yavw conditions, are shown in Figures 37 and 38. The effect of bullet type on the pitch damping moment at subsonic speeds is even more startling than that observed for the Magnus moment. The average value of (CMq + C,6,) 0 for the Ml8 and the 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets at subsonic speeds is approximately 4; the 168 grain Sierra bullet shows three out of four values positive, with an average zeroyaw p;tch damping moment coefficient of + 1. It should be noted that the analysis of nonlinear Magnus and pitch damping data from free flight spark ranges is a delicate process at best, and the results are highly sensitive to small errors in determination of the damping exponents on the two modal arms. The uncertainties in damping rate determinations are reflected in the larger roundtoround data scatter in Magnus and pitch damping moment coefficients, compared with the smaller scatter observed in the overturning moment coefficients. 6. Damping Rates
The( damping rates, AF and As, of the fast and slowv yaw modes indicate the dynamic stability of a projectile. Negative A's indicate (tamping; a positive A means that its associated modal arm will grow with increasing distance along the trajectory.
6
For a projectile whose Magnus or pitch damping moments are nonlinear with yaw level, the clamping rates also sh.,v a nonlinear dependence on yaw. 4 Figures :39 through 42 iilustrate the variations in damping rates with yaw level for the 7.62mm match bullets at ,upersonic and subsonic speeds. At supersoniic speeds, the fast arm is always damped, for all the bullet types, at all yaw levels tested. Tlw slow arm is undamped at small yaw levels, but damped at larger y:w. Thus a slow arm limit cyzle yaw is predicted at supersonic speeds; the expected magnitude is about 2 degrees. At subsonic speeds, the fast arm is damped at all yaw levels for the M118 and 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets. The fast arm for the 168 grain Sierra International bullet is essentially neutrally damped at small yaw, and is probably damped at larger yaw levels, although no data were taken to substantiate this estimate. The slow arm at subsonic speeds shows the same characteristic behavior observed at supersonic speeds; dynamically unstable at small yaw, but stable at larger yaw levels. The predicted magnitude of the slow arm limit cycle yaw at subsonic speeds is approximately 4.5 degrees for the Ml18 and 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets, and about five degrees for the 168 grain Sierra International (M852) bullet. No direct measurement of limit cycle yaw at long range has been made for any of the 7.62mm match bullets. However, a two degree limit cycle yaw at supersonic speeds and a four to five degree limit cycle yaw at subsonic speeds are consistent with unpublished results obtained by Piddington for the similarly shaped 7.62mm, Ball M80 bullet, and with results obtained by the author for 5.56mm M855 and SS109 bullets. 5
IV.
Conclusions
The Ml18 Match (Special Ball) bullet has the lowest drag coefficient of the three 7.62mm match bullets tested, at supersonic speeds. The 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullet shows four percent higher average drag coefficient than the Ml18, and the 168 grain Sierra International (M852) bullet shows eight percent higher average drag coefficient than the M118 design. The roundtoround variation in drag coefficient for the 7.62mm match bullets is significantly smaller than that observed for typical military ball bullets. The standard deviation in CD for the match bullets, at supersonic speeds, was found to be between 0.7 0 percent and 0.8 percent. The three 7.62mm match bullets, launched at standard atmospheric conditions and at muzzle velocities above 2500 feet per second, are gyroscopically stable from a 12 inch twist of rifling. To insure an adequate margin of safety for cold weather (high air def'ity) conditions, a 10 inch twist rate should be selected for the MI18 and 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets. The nonlinear Magnus moment properties of the 7.62mm match bullets predict a slow arm limit cycle yaw of approximately two degrees at supersonic speeds, growing to four
7
to five degrees at subsonic speeds. Although the predicted limit cycle yaws are consistent with observations made for similarly shaped bullets, the long range flight dynamic results need to be verified by an independent experiment.
V.
Recommendations
It is recommended that a 12 inch twist of rifling be selected for firing the 168 grain Sierra International (M852) bullet from the 7.62mm NATO cartridge case. A 10 inch twist of rifling should be selected for the M118 or 190 grain Sierra Matchking bullets, to allow a cold weather safety margin. A long range limit cycle yaw test should be conducted with 7.62mm match bullets, to verify the flight dynamic predictions made in this report.
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Table 1.
Average Physical Characteristics of 7.62mm Match Bullets.
Projectile
Reference Diameter (mm)
Weight
(grams) 11.27 12.27 10.89
Center of Gravity (cal  base) 1.80 1.81 1.54
Axial Moment of Inertia (gmcm 2) .716 .787 .722
Transverse 'Moment of Inertia (gmcm 2) 6.78 7.68 5.38
M118 190 Sierra 168 Sierra
7.82 7.82 7.82
51
Table 2.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of the MIll8 Match Bullet.
Round
Mach
Ot
CD
CM0
CL,
0
C Mp
(CMq
CPV
Number
13903 13901 13902 13906 13907 13912 13911 13918 13920 13929 13930
Number (degrees)
2.191 2.184 2.181 1.848 1.801 1.407 1.395 1.098 1.086 .803 .798 2.60 2.03 2.10 1.01 1.93 6.64 2.20 3.22 7.60 3.61 10.80 .3290 .3263 .3219 .3361 .3436 .4629 .3907 .4326 .4968 .1459 .2425 2.54 2.57 2.55 2.78 2.72 2.89 2.98 3.18 3.09 3.35 3.16 2.61 2.60 2.59 2.12 2.37 1.72 1.64 1.41 1.47 .10 .23 .13 . 17 .07 .32 . 12 . 35 .16 . 27 . 01
+ C.jf)
5.81 6.87 6.35 4.04 5.99 8.10 3.16 1.47 5.80 .14 2.30
(cal base)
2.66 2.68 2.68 
2.92 2.88 3.27 3.24 3.95 3.65
52
Table 3.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 190 Grain Sierra Matchking Bullet.
Round Number 13904 13905 13909 13908 13914 13915 13922 13921 13935 13933 13934 13931
Mach at Number (degrees) 2.208 2.138 1.821 1.800 1.440 1.347 1.140 1.114 .763 .732 .673 .639 1.43 3.25 2.41 2.11 2.37 4.52 4.23 2.93 3.73 3.16 .106 18.29
CD
CM.
CLa
C.IP
(C.1q
CPv
+ CMw ) .3306 .3411 .3615 .3560 .3971 .4390 .4588 .4394 .1441 .1452 .2844 .3848 2.82 2.83 2.98 2.96 3.18 3.19 3.33 3.35 3.58 3.57 3.15 2.94 3.02 2.41 2.23 2.11 1.93 1.64 1.58 1.97 . 02 .10 .05 .01 . 13 .16 .02 . 54 .05 . 58 .15 .03 7.85 6.95 5.18 5.62 5.53 7.51 5.12 1.80 1.11 2.82 4.06 2.56
(cal base) 2.65 2.88 3.02 3.06 3.20 3.81 3.50 3.06
53
Table 4.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of the 168 Grain Sierra International Bullet.
Round Number
12135 12130 12129 12136 12138 12137 12144 12145 12151 12152 13924 13923 13959 13939 13936 13941
Mach et Number (degrees)
2.219 2.217 2.210 2.202 1.826 1.817 1.775 1.773 1.450 1.412 1.150 1.119 .866 .817 .753 .703 6.24 1.63 1.04 6.95 1.29 1.30 6.60 6.81 1.75 2.08 7.79 1.79 4.12 4.18 3.73 4.65
CD
CMQ
CLý
C. 1 .
(C'.1q + C'.%I ) 1
5.56 4.40 9.48 5.55 6.09 9.22 5.78 5.83

CPV (cal base)
2.39 2.39 2.62 2.49 2.51

.3995 .3404 .3371 .4099 .3664 .3678 .4496 .4503 .4111 .4182 .5451 .4433 .2033 .1713 .1592 .1538
2.61 2.69 2.66 2.62 2.89 2.88 2.84 2.84 3.06 3.06 3.00 2.99 3.17 3.36 3.35 3.29
2.69 2.69 2.30 2.53 2.49

.10 . 17 . 23 .10 . 41 . 29 .11 .09

2.02 1.88

. 37 . 06

3.72 4.65

2.79 2.78

1.50 1.39 
1.79 1.41 1.02 .66
13.84 13.60 10.74 8.02
3.55 3.71

54
Table 5.
Flight Motion Parameters of the MIlS Match Bullet.
Round Mach Number Number
13903 13901 13902 13906 13907 13912 2.191 2.184 2.181 1.848 1.801 1.407
S2
Sd
F x 103 (1/cal)
. . . . . 106 095 110 164 130
As
X 103
AF
•S
(1/cal)
. 065 . 098 . 071 .042 . 032 . 106 .0276 .0229 .0217 .0041 .0176 .0808 .0316 .0232 .0256 .0166 .0262 .0738
of ofSpin (r/cal) (r/cal) (r/cal)
.0161 .0161 .0159 .0160 .0154 .0155 .0032 .0032 .0033 .0036 .0037 .0038 .183 .184 .181 .186 .181 .183
1.81 1.79 1.77 1.66 1.61 1.58
.84 1.02 .86 . 16 .62 1.01
.101
13911 13918 13920
13929 13930
1.395 1.098 1.086
.803 .798
1.52 1.39 1.43
.46 .85
. 108 . 060 . 092
. 078 . 055
. 007 .046 . 062
.062 . 017
.0172 .0353 .0920
.0393 .1287
.0332 .0435 .0955
.0490 .1358
.0152 .0145 .0147
.0140 .0144
.0040 .0045 .0043
.0049 .0045
.182 .180 .180
.179 .179
1.30 2.01 1.38 .73
55
Table 6.
Flight Motion Parameters of the 190 Grain Sierra Matchking Bullet.
Round
M[ach
S3
Sd
AF
x 103
Number Number 13904
13905 13909 13908
(1/cal) 1.69
1.72 1.61 1.61
As x 103 (1/cal) .017
. 067 . 036 . 034
AF
Iýs
F S Spin (r/cal) (r/cal) (r/cal)
2.208
2.138 1.821 1.800
.30
.82 .70 .65
. 171
. 118 . 101 . 119
.0157
.0313 .0240 .0180
.0192
.0412 .0320 .0300
.0152
.0156 .0152 .0152
.0033
.0033 .0036 .0036
.181
.185 .184 .183
13914
13915
1.440
1.347
1.54
1.54
.26
.78
. 157
. 121
.014
. 058
.0143
.0440
.0372
.0580
.0150
.0150
.0038
.0038
.184
.184
13922 13921
13935 13933 13934 13931
1.140 1.114
.763 .732 .673 .639
1.43 .61 1.42 10.2
1.29 1.30 1.52 1.68 1.12 1.05
. 113 . 108
. 043 . 098 . 031 . 040
. 022 .092
.029 .134 . 054 . 033
.0475 .0294
.0440 .0316 .1753 .2179
.0560 .0414
.0478 .0444 .1676 .2253
.0143 .0143
.0134 .0136 .0147 .0154
.0042 .0042
.0048 .0047 .0039 .0034
.180 .181
.178 .179 .181 .184
56
Table T.
Flight Motion Parameters of the 168 Grain Sierra Internatiunal Bullet.
Round
Mach
S9
Sd
AF x 103
As x 10F
AF
Is
Os
Spin
Number Number 12135 12130 12129 12136 12138 12137 12144 12145
12151
(1/cal) 1.95 1.92 1.88 1.94 1.78 1.78 1.84 1.84
1.68
(1/cal) . 066 .016 .064 . 066 .102 .079 . 065 . 058

(r/cal) (r/cal) (r/cal) .0G22 .0091 .0017 .0719 .0014 .0016 .0571 .0561
.0003
2.219 2.217 2.210 2.202 1.826 1.817 1.775 1.773
1.450
.76 .15 .00 .77 . 38 . 05 .75 .70
. 07
. . . . .
134 176 355 132 305
.0836 .0258 .0172 .0908 .0206 .0213 .0882 .0934
.0273
.0194 .0195 .0191 .0194 .0191 .0190 .0194 .0194
.0188
.0035 .0036 .0036 .0035 .0039 .0039 .0038 .0038
.0042
.171 .172 .169 .171 .171 .171 .173 .173
.171
. 365 . 138 . 145

12152 13924
13923
1.412 1.150
1.119
1.68 1.89
1.88
. 43 .34

. 220 . 152

.079 . 010

.0044 .0848
.0111
.0339 .1045
.0263
.0187 .0203
.0202
.0042 .0038
.0038
.171 .180
.179
13959 13939 13936 13941
.866 .817 .753 .703
1.68 1.61 1.63 1.64

. 021 .064 .066 . 047
.387 .271 .181 . 187
.0199 .0260 .0316 .0648
.0621 .0644 .0555 .0473
.0192 .0189 .0192 .0191
.0043 .0045 .0045 .0044
.175 .175 .176 .175
1.33
57
References
1. Braun, W.F., "Thie Free Flight Aerodynamics Range." US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, BRL Report No. 1048. August 1958. (AD 202249) 2. Murphy C.H., "Data Reduction for the Free Flight Spark Ranges," US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, BRL Report No. 900, February 1954. (AD 35833) 3. Murphy, C.H., "The Measurement of NonLinear Forces and Moments by Means of Free Flight Tests," US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground., Maryland, BRL Repurt No. 974, February 1956. (AD 93321) 4. Murphy, C.H, "Free Flight Motion of Symmetric Missiles," US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, BRL Report No. 1216, July 1963. (AD 442757) 5. McCoy, R.L., "Aerodynamic and Flight Dynamic Characteristics of the New Family of 5.56mm NATO Ammunition," US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, MR Report No. 3476, October 1985. (AD A162133)
59
60
List of Symbols
C.,=
C1 2
Cubic static Iliolnent coefficient
=
cubic Magnus moment coeffi
cient
CD
Drag Force [(1/2)pv VS]
CDO CD6 2
= =
zeroyaw drag coefficient
quadratic yaw drag coefficient Lift Force [(1/2) p V'S6 Positive coefficient: Force ir. plane of total angle of attack.
at, I to trajectory in direction of at. (at directed from trajectory to missile axis.) 8 = sin at.
Normal Force
CNa,
=
[(1/2)p V2 S6]
plane of total angle of attack.
Positive coefficient:
Force in
ctt, I to missile axis in direction ofct. C~v, CL, + CD 0 C CM_ _
=
Static Moment [(1/2)pV 2 Sd6] Magnus Moment [(1/2)pV 2 Sd (pd/V) S]
Positive coefficient: Moment increases angle of attack at. Positive coefficient: Moment
rotates nose I to plane of a, in direction of spin.
CI CNP
=g
M'agnus Force [(1/2)pV S (pd/V) • Negative coefficient: acts in direction of 900 Force rota. tion of the positive lift force against spin.
61
List of Symbols (Continued)
For most exterior ballistic uses, where & ; damping moment sum is equivalent to: (CMq + CM, ) 1
=
q. 3 .z r. the ,tefinition of tile
Damping Moment [ (1/2) p V 2 S d (qt d/V)
I
Positive coefficient: Moment increases angular velocity.
CRoll
Damping Moment [(1'2) p " S d (pd/U) ] center of pressure of the normal force, positive from base to nose
=
Negative coefficient: Moment decreases rotational velocity.
CP.v
a. 3 oet
angle of attack, side slip
=
(a2
+ 32)2 = sin' 6,
total angle of attack AF As
=
fast mode damping rate slow mode damping rate
negative A indicates damping negative A indicates damping
p

air density
S=

:a.sr mode :rf( 4 1ency
slow mode frequency center of mass body diameter of projectile, reference length cubic pitch damping moment coefficient axial moment of inertia
c.rn. d
=
=
d2

Ix
62
List of Symbols (Continued)
l~y
KF
=
transverse moment of inertia magnitude of the fast yaw mode magnitude of the slow yaw mode length of projectile
mass of projectile
Ks
=
S=
m
= = =
11
p
q, r
Mach number
roll rate
transverse angular velocities (q 2 +2)
= =
qt= R s
subscript denotes range value dimensionless arc length along the trajectory
2 t(d /4), reference area
S
Sd S9
= =
dynamic stability factor gyroscopic stability factor velocity of projectile
=
S=
63
List of SynrIiols (Con1tinued,()
E:~. ~
'i
rF
I
;ixv Paramcrters
K~I, + K]
F(
K~ 2 + K2IcF]

~
22K2
(F

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