Retrospective operation of delegated legislation


Administrative Law Project

“Retrospective Operation of Delegated Legislation”

Gujarat National Law University Page 1


Retrospective operation of delegated legislation

Prateeti Gaur IV Semester, 09B085 B.A. LL.B. (HONS.),



I take this opportunity to thank a few people without whose help this project would not have been completed. With immense pleasure I express my special and sincere thanks to our Administrative Law professor Mr. Girish R, without whose help the completion of this project would have been a dream for us. I am also thankful to the University for providing us an opportunity to work on this project. I am also thankful to all our friends who provided us support throughout the completion of this project. Without their valuable support, I would never have been able to get ahead in our project. I would like to thank all those people who had been of great help for us. Last but not the least; I am thankful to the almighty and my parents for their blessings and never ending support. I am grateful to all of you, THANK YOU.


Gujarat National Law University Page 2

Hence the research is doctrinal in nature. Gujarat National Law University Page 3 . reporters available in the Gujarat National Law University library. The online libraries and resources from the internet have also been used.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation Research methodology Aims and Objectives :To make a study of and analyze the control of delegated legislation through judicial control. journals. Methodology: The sources for this paper are the books.

All England Law Reports Art.Article Ch.-Corporation Edn-Edition Hon’ble-Honourable HL-House of Lords • M.Maharashtra Para.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation List of abbreviations • AC -Appeal Case • ACJ –American Communication Journal • AIR .paragraph SC-Supreme Court SCC-Supreme Court Cases Gujarat National Law University Page 4 .-Company Corp.All India Reporter • • • • • • • • ALL ER.P.-Madhya Pradesh • • • • Maha.Chapter Co.

V. quilon.V Nachane v. 2006 9 SCC 90 Baku Cashew Co. S. Musaliar v. Ponnoose Gurucharan Singh v. State AIR 1974 SC 385 A.Supreme Court LIST OF CASES • • • • • • • • Hukam chand v. State of Punjab (1962) 13 STC 180 (SC) T. Officer.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation • SCR.C.K. & sons v. Potti AIR 1956 SC 246 Gujarat National Law University Page 5 . M.T. Union Of India AIR 1982 SC 1126 Mathra Pd. M. Rishi Dikshit. union of india AIR 1972 SC 2427 Ashok Lanka v. AIR 1987 SCC 2239 Income tax officer v. v.

Retrospective operation of delegated legislation Table of contents • Delegated legislation • Need for delegated legislation • Reasons for control over delegated legislation • Retrospective rules • Case laws on retrospective operation • Retrospective effect with reference to constitutional law • Principle of ultra vires • Constitutionality of delegated legislation • Conclusion Gujarat National Law University Page 6 .

The amount and scope of delegated legislation has grown as a result of the increasing pressure on parliamentary time. Hence. It involves transfer of legislative power from the legislature to the executive. some controls and safeguards are needed in that area. It is a bureaucratic legislation. It has equal effect in law although ministers can be challenged in the courts on the grounds that specific pieces of delegated legislation are not properly based on powers given by acts. Gujarat National Law University Page 7 . The democratic safeguards that apply to a legislature are absent in case of the delegated legislation. In the United Kingdom. Delegated (or secondary) legislation is law made by ministers under powers given to them by parliamentary acts (primary legislation) in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. is made through the force of statutory instruments in the form of ministerial regulations. typically. orders in council.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation RETROSPECTIVE OPERATION OF DELEGATED LEGISLATION INTRODUCTION : ‘Delegated Legislation’ means the exercise of legislative power by an agency which is subordinate to the legislature. and codes of practice. delegated legislation.

is designed to have retrospective effect. since the House of Lords cannot veto a Bill. The parliamentary debates on proposed legislation will also be made public. allowing those voted for by the public to have the most power over legislation. and set down procedure to be followed in their creation. The retrospective operation of delegated legislation is a power given to the executive with certain implied restrictions. and as such its influence can be seen as fair and democratic. allowing for public consultation. may be beyond powers or an unusual use of them. The power of making retrospective rules and also the implied restrictions on the same has been dealt with the help of case laws. or the Scrutiny Committee. The Scrutiny Committee reviews all statutory instruments and draws the attention of parliament to certain points. for Royal Assent after a year. The House of Commons can be considered to have the most influence over legislation. Before Bills are introduced into Parliament they will go through a green and white paper process. allowing the parliamentary law-making process to appear open and clear. as the House of Commons can send a Bill. is made under an Act which states it cannot be challenged in court. Effective check on delegated legislation is the Joint Select Committee on Statutory Instruments. if the statutory instrument. The House of Commons is also democratically elected. and if those creating the delegated legislation do go beyond their powers. then the legislation will be void. imposes a tax. or is badly drafted or in need of clarification.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation Statutes are legislation made by Parliament. but simply make amendments and slow the process. Parliament initially has the ability to limit the powers of bodies and individuals creating delegated legislation. Any power given to the executive if considered by the court to be ultra vires can be declared ultra vires and struck down. Delegated legislation has been imposed with certain restrictions to avoid any kind of arbitrariness. as well as the Monarch before they become law. without agreement from the House of Lords. and need the consent of the House of Commons and the HL. Gujarat National Law University Page 8 . its need and reasons to put control over it. This project deals with the meaning of delegated legislation.

and Parliament would not have the expertise to create the necessary legislation. and orders in Council. such as building regulations. Delegated legislation is considered necessary for a number of reasons. which have been given their power by Parliament. or public corporations. and do so much faster than Parliament. statutory instruments. therefore delegated legislation is often used for emergency and urgent problems where legislation is needed quickly and would take too long through Parliament. this is similar for local bye-laws. which are laws made by government departments. which are made by the government in times of emergency. on issues such as traffic control. which require specific local knowledge.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation DELEGATED LEGISLATION Delegated legislation is not created by Parliament. Finally statutes passed by Parliament may cause problems and queries. Gujarat National Law University Page 9 . instead it is the responsibility of other bodies. which are laws made by local authorities. and delegated legislation could be used to provide specific details not included within the Act. Another factor to consider is that some areas of legislation require technical knowledge. and as such other bodies are needed to make rules. bye-laws. one is that Parliament does not have the time available to debate all of the laws necessary. There are three types of delegated legislation.

and dealing with different industrial problems or operating complex taxation schemes whereas delegated legislation can use experts who are familiar with the relevant areas. illustrating a great deal of flexibility in the system. Gujarat National Law University Page 10 . Delegated legislation can also be amended or revoked relatively easily. ensuring environmental safety. Jacqueline Martin has suggested instead for parliament to debate the main principles thoroughly. but leave the detail to be filled in by those who have expert knowledge of it. which is vital for times of emergency. delegating legislation will allow however thoroughly debated regulations to pass through as well as saving parliamentary time. Parliament takes longer as it does not sit all the time and its procedures is generally quite slow and complex due to the several stages each bill has to pass through. so that the law can be kept up to date and so that the law can meet future needs that arise such as areas concerning welfare benefits. Delegating legislation allows law to be made more quickly than parliament. As a result local people elect councilors from certain districts and it is their responsibility to pass legislation in the form of by-laws to satisfy local needs. Another argument for the need of delegated legislation is that parliament may not always be the best institution to recognize and deal with the needs of local people. MPs do not usually have the technical knowledge/expertise required in for example drawing up laws on controlling technology. as it only has a limited amount of time to pass legislation. Otherwise statutes can only be amended or revoked by another complicated and time-consuming statute.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation NEED FOR DELEGATED LEGISLATION Delegated legislation is necessary for a number of reasons: parliament does not have time to contemplate and debate every small detail of complex regulations.

was held to be unreasonable and as a result the passing of this delegated legislation was rejected. although the enabling act may require some public consultation. rather than being debated as parliamentary legislation is. as a result many people have the power to pass delegated legislation. who was originally given the power to make delegated legislation by the enabling act. This means power is taken even further from those elected and continues to make delegated legislation appear undemocratic and in need of strict controls. Currently delegated legislation is made by nonelected bodies away from democratically elected politicians (parliament) . such as by a government minister. apart from delegated legislation created by elected local authorities. delegated legislation could be seen as much less open and publicised than statutes. to civil servants within the department. which provides a necessity for control. As delegated legislation is not made by Parliament. Also. the vast quantities produced and complex wording mean delegated legislation is criticised for being difficult for people to fully understand. and therefore may not be very open to public scrutiny or involvement in its creation. Sub-delegation is a problem with delegated legislation. and therefore not those democratically elected by the public to be responsible for legislation. Thus the main reason that controls over delegated legislation are necessary is because it is not created by Parliament. as the creation of the legislation is delegated further.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation Reasons for Controls over delegated legislation There are many important reasons why it is necessary to have controls over delegated legislation. in the Strictland V Hayes Borough Council (1986) where a bylaw prohibiting the singing or reciting of any obscene language generally. although delegated legislation is published. Another point to consider is that delegated legislation is generally made privately. and thus. and often not even Gujarat National Law University Page 11 . it is important to have sufficient controls. as without controls bodies would pass outrageous unreasonable legislation which was attempted in the past.

Another issue which occurs making controls over delegated legislation vital is sub legislation. Commissioners of Custom and Excise v Cure and Deely Ltd (1962). this requires law passed by these civil servants to be checked by the scrutiny committee of parliament or the courts. Below I describe cases where controls over delegated legislation have been essential in order to avoid authorities abusing there powers. to implement important policies. whilst the validity of statute can never be challenged by the courts due to parliamentary sovereignty.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation those given the responsibility by Parliament. which will affect the lives of hundreds of people from passing. as they are with Parliament. This means that the public are not able to elect those making legislation. An example of ultra vires Gujarat National Law University Page 12 . and thus those making delegated legislation are not accountable to the people. Creating criticism that our law is made by civil servants (who may know hardly anything about the law) and just a rubber stamped by the Minister of that apartment. which is where law making is handed down another level to people other than those who were given the original power to do so. Finally delegated legislation can share the same issues as Acts of Parliament such as obscure wording that can lead to difficulty in understanding the law. The most common reason for objecting delegated legislation in the courts is due to ultra vires. but is further sub-delegated. which again makes controls necessary as parliament or the courts can stop unclear legislation.where legislation goes beyond its power that parliament granted under the enabling Act. so delegated legislation can seem undemocratic and a particular problem if it is used for more important policies. the particular cases are: R v Secretary of State for Education and ex parte National Union of Teachers (2000) and Employment. Procedural ultra vires occurs when procedures under the enabling act have failed to be followed and refers mainly to the situation where a public authority has over stepped its powers. and not simply administrative rules.

The problem with enabling Acts is that it provides Ministers with high discretionary powers as a result Elliott and Quinn demonstrate a phrase such as the minister may make such regulations as he sees fit for the purpose of bringing the Act into operation to be quite common. where the power of the commissioners to make delegated legislation under the Finance Act 1940 was challenged. there job was to only collect the amount of tax due. In this demonstration control by the courts has proved to be highly effective. This occurred in the Commissioners of Custom and Excise V Cure and Deely Ltd (1962). the courts are able to intervene to prevent or remedy an abuse of power by public authorities. This case demonstrated a clear example of where delegated legislation can lead to abuse of powers and why it is necessary to have controls over delegated legislation. Gujarat National Law University Page 13 .Retrospective operation of delegated legislation occurred in R v Secretary of State for Education and Employment. ex parte National Union of Teachers (2000) a High Court judge ruled that a statutory instrument setting conditions for appraisal and access to higher of pay for teachers was beyond the powers given under the Education Act 1996 as a result the statutory instrument was declared void. Under the principle of substantive ultra vires. Under this Act the commissioners determined the amount of tax due where a tax return was submitted late however the High Court invalidated this and argued that the commissioners had given themselves powers far beyond what parliament had empowered. this means it is rare for anything to lead to ultra vires leaving judicial review effectively frustrated (Elliott and Quinn). This is another case whether it has been clearly demonstrated without controls many authorities will abuse the powers ultra vires and again demonstrates why it is necessary to have control over delegated legislation.

Rishi Dikshit. it was held that ordinarily. In other words we can say that a general power to make laws for the purpose of carrying out the purposes of the act.1 Moreover in the Ashok Lanka case. 2006 9 SCC 90 2 Gujarat National Law University Page 14 .2 Also while referring to another case the Supreme Court commented that “an authority which has the power to make subordinate legislation 1 Hukam chand v. a subordinate legislation cannot be given retrospective effect but a clarificatory notification can be given retrospective effect. does not entitle the government to make rules. union of india AIR 1972 SC 2427 Ashok Lanka v.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation RETROSPECTIVE RULES Legislature may enact laws with retrospective effect but a delegate cannot exercise a similar power and give retrospectivity to the rules made by it unless the parent statute gives it a power to do so either expressly or by necessary implication.

The court declared the clause invalid on the ground of retrospectivity.T. quilon. M. Officer. a fresh order was issued. “An authority which has the power to make subordinate legislation cannot make it with retrospective effect unless it is so authorized by the Legislature which has conferred that power on it. AIR 1987 SCC 2239 Ibid AIR 1974 SC 385 4 5 Gujarat National Law University Page 15 . 3 Baku Cashew Co. a legislative order having been held invald. S. iii) Further in Gurucharan Singh v. State5.C.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation cannot make it with retrospective effect unless it is so authorized by the legislature which has conferred the power on it”3. and not its delegate. And in accordance to this. A clause in the new order stated that anything done or action taken under the old order should be deemed to have been taken under the new order. v. a few of them are cited below i) In Hukam Chand4 case the court said that “The government cannot amend the rules with retrospective effect if no such power has been specifically given by the parent statute. the courts declare retrospective rules invalid unless the authority making them has power to do so under the parent statute. ii) In Income tax officer v. makes retrospective rules. The main intention lying behind the preposition is that retrospective rule may prejudicially effect vested rights and so it is proper that only the Legislature. a notification issued by the government investing tehsildar with the powers to tax recovery with retrospective effect was held invalid the court said that the parent statute gave no power to the government to make rules with retrospective effect. Ponnoose case.” There are plenty of examples in which the court has accepted the above proposition.

V Nachane v. the Supreme Court ruled that it would be operative from the beginning of the financial year. The act as such has not been given a retrospective operation. There is no question of affecting any vested rights. when the Government issued a notification exempting a commodity from sales tax in the middle of the financial year. The reason given in this context by the Supreme Court was that the sales tax was a yearly tax under the law and it was made payable on the annual taxable 6 AIR 1982 SC 1126 (1962) 13 STC 180 (SC) 7 Gujarat National Law University Page 16 .Retrospective operation of delegated legislation iv) In A. & sons v. mainly because it was against the interest of the affected person. “the rules operate prospectively. These rules will operate prospectively only as far as that judgment was concerned. Union Of India. State of Punjab7. The Supreme court in this regard has explained that the Court disfavor retrospective operation of laws because it disfavors retroactive operation of law because it may prejudicially affect vested rights.” We may even see a few cases wherein the courts have relaxed the rule against retrospectivity of rules. but failed to specify the date from which the notification was to be operative.6 it was held that retrospective amendment of the rules cannot nullify the effect of the writ issued but the court earlier on the subject. the exercise of power must not operate discriminately or in violation of any constitutional rights so as to affect vested rights. Retrospective statute permits framing of rules with retrospective effect. There could be no objection to the notification fixing the date of commencement of the act after its enactment but from a date earlier than the date of notification. The supreme court as clearly mentioned in most of the cases that. For example in Mathra Pd.

on the ground that the date fixed for the operation of the Act was subsequent to the date of its enactment. confers powers on the legislature to enact legislation to regulate and define service conditions of Government employees. But retrospective rules made under Art. The rulemaking power conferred by Art. 1949. M. Musaliar v. 1949. Thus. and the rule making power is co-existed with the legislative powers. Therefore the courts have taken the view that the Government made rules fill a “hitus” until the legislature legislated. 309 cannot contravene Art. the Government is authorized to make rules for the purpose. 309 of the constitution. Failing the enactment of such a law.S. Government can make service rules for Government servants.V. 309 of the Constitution Under Art. so can the Government make service rules with retrospective effect. Further in T. 309 with retrospective effect. This interpretation obviously confers a benefit on the taxpayers.K. 309 in the first instance. 16 or 8 AIR 1956 SC 246 AIR 1969 SC 118 9 Gujarat National Law University Page 17 . And since a legislature can enact with retrospective effect. Vadera v. The same principle was reiterated in many other decisions Art. A constitution bench ok Supreme Court in B. Union of India9 held that rules made under proviso to article 309 of the constitution of India are legislative in character and therefore could be made with retrospective effect. 309 has been helt to be broad enough to permit making of rules with retrospective effect. Potti 8 The Supreme Court upheld a notification dated July 26. Hence the exemption from tax must operate for the whole year in the absence of any clear indication to the contrary.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation turnover of a dealer. 1949 bringing an Act enacted on July 1. service rules can be made under Art. 14. Retrospective Rules under Art. into force from July 22.

gave power to the governor to relax the rigour of the general rules in such a manner as may appear to him to be just and equitable. The court argued that the power was to be exercised in the interest of justice and equity.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation 31 of the Constitution. 309. When some injustice comes to the notice of the Government. the court has ruled that retrospective operation of a rule will be struck down if there exists no reasonable nexus between the concerned rule and its retrospectivity.Yadav v. a service rule made under Art. Rao10.J. 10 AIR 1977 SC 451 AIR 1981 SC 561 11 Gujarat National Law University Page 18 . service rules have become a plaything in the hands of the government as rules are changed with every change in Government. the court refused retrospective operation of the concerned rule as it found no nexus between the rule and its retrospectivity.State of Haryana11 case.S. either from the face of the rules or by extrinsic evidence. Firther in State of Andhra Pradesh v. Such a nexus may be shown either from the face of the rule or by extrinsic evidence. In B. to benefit some specific individuals. The Supreme Court interpreted this rule as authorizing the governor to make provisions with retrospective effect. But the date from which the rules are made to operate must be shown to bear. The government power to make retrospective service rules has been in practice not been exercised with caution and circumspection. justice may have to be done by exercising the power with retrospective effect. In some States. sometimes with long retrospective effect. Such rules cannot affect vested rights of an employee. This is a new principle evolved by the court to test the validity of retrospective rules. otherwise the object and purpose of the rule in question will be largely frustrated. D. To curb such a tendency.

Retrospective operation of delegated legislation reasonable nexus with the provisions contained in the rules. In Yadav case. But it is surprising that even though over fifteen years have passed by since the Constitution became operative. 309 envisages legislation by the legislature as regards service mattes. Narayanan v. The retrospective operation of the impugned rule attempts to disturb a system which has been existing for more than twenty years. The court said that. Government’s rule making power is transient in nature. 12 AIR 1994 SC 55 Gujarat National Law University Page 19 . there is no nexus between framing a rule. State of Karnataka12 a service rule made in 1985 was given effect to from 1976. 14 and 16 of the constitution if it adversely affects vested rights and is discriminatory. discontent and demoralization among civil servants by falsifying the just expectations of the officers. The rule was quashed as it operated viciously against the existing personnel. especially when the retrospective effect extends over a long period. Absence of nexus apart. Art. And that too without any rationale. no rule can be made retrospectively to operate unjustly and unfairly against other. and making it retrospective with effect from 1976. For example as held in K. The reason is that no Government wants to give up its large leverage over its employees. A retrospective rule can be challenged under Art. service mtters continue to be governed by rules. the Supreme Court advised the government against making retrospective service rules as it causes frustration. The Supreme Court has also ruled that retrospective rules ought not to operate criminately or in violation of any constitutional right so as to affect vested rights.

Art 148(5) has been interpreted as not authorizing making of retrospective rules. service rules can be made by the president in consultation with the Compeller and AuditorGeneral. 148(5) being different from Art. Renusagar13. 309. 13 AIR 1988 SC 1737. An action of a n authority is intra vires when it falls within the parameters of the power conferred on it. as a matter of policy. the doctrine of ultra vires is the basic doctrine in administrative law. how to implement the provisions of the statute and what measures to take efficaciously achieve the objects and purposes of the act. 148(5) of the constitution also gives rule-making pwer to prescribe conditions of service of persons serving in the Audit and Account Department. Because of the phraseology of Art. In State of Uttar Pradesh v. the exercise must conform to the provisions of the statute. All the conditions of the statute must be fulfilled. The doctrine of ultra vires is concerned with the question : is the rule challenged within the scope of the authority conferred on the rule maker by the parent statute.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation Art. but ultra vires when it goes outside those limits. Subject to any law made by Parliament. The doctrine envisages that an authority can exercise only so much power as is conferred by law. para 75 : (1988) 4 SCC 59 Gujarat National Law University Page 20 . the SC held that “if the exercise of power is in the nature of subordinate legislation. The emanating delegated legislation may be in conflict with some provision of the constitution. It is for the rule maker to decide. Doctrine of Ultra Vires The validity of delegated legislation may be adjudged by the courts on the ground whether it is ultra vires or intra vires the parent act. it is not for the courts to examine the merits or demerits of such a policy. The court does not concern itself with the wisdom or efficaciousness of the rules. Constitutionality of Delegated Legislation The courts may be asked to consider the constitutionality of delegated legislation itself.

The delegated legislation will be invalid in that case and the frame of reference to assess the validity of delegated legislation is the constitution. a few provisions of the U. The parent statute may be constitutional. Delegated legislation has been declared invalid in a number of cases under art. AIR 1981 SC 1829. Para 8 : 1954 SCR 803 AIR 1960 SC 430 : (1960) 2 SCR 375 Hari Shankar Bagla v. Union of India15. because the law could not be presumed to authorize anything unconstitutional. 19(1)(g). 1953 made under s. It has emerged to be the most potent constitutional provision to control rule making. 19(1)(g). para 37 : (1981) 4 SCC On public sector undertakings AIR 1981 SC 1829. In an earlier case16. III. Coal Control Order. In Air India v. The court held that though a law may not be unconstitutional.. a fundamental right guaranteed by the constitution. the validity of the essential commodities act had been upheld. State of M.P. 1955. an undertaking of the central government18. 1946 were declared ultra vires as infringing article art. The courts may be asked to consider the question of constitutionality of delegated legislation itself. Ch. 1958 was made under the essential commodities act. 56.. the Supreme Court specifically considered the point whether the question of unconstitutionality of delegated legislation made under a valid act could be raised or not. an order made there under may yet be challenged under the constitution. para 37 : (1981) 4 SCC 15 16 17 18 Gujarat National Law University Page 21 . The Non Ferrous Metal Order. as discriminatory under article 14 of the constitution.14 guarantees ‘equal protection of the laws’ and ‘equality before the law’. but the delegated legislation emanating there under may be in conflict with some provision of the constitution.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation In Dwarka Prasad Laxmi Narayan v. Nargheesh Mirza17. The question in Narendra now was whether the constitutional validity of the order made under the act could be canvassed under art.14 on such grounds as being 14 AIR 1954 SC 224. 3(2) of the essential supplies act. In Narendra Kumar v. State of Uttar Pradesh14. Jain Cases. AIR 1954 SC 465 : (1955) 1 SCR 380.P. the Supreme Court declared certain regulations pertaining to the conditions of service of air hostesses in Air India. Art.

izhaar hussain. was “capable of being used arbitrarily and with an uneven hand20. jain.” Conclusion 19 Raj Pal Sharma v. Haryana. State of maha. Of post office v. A rule vesting unguided and uncontrolled discretion in the government to retire any government servant at any time after completing 30 years of service was held invalid and. 432 20 Gujarat National Law University Page 22 . AIR 1985 Sc 1263.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation arbitrary. cases. Nidmarti v.. AIR 1989 SC 2262. or discriminatory or on the ground of unreasonableness19. thus. (1986) 2 SCC 534 Senior Supt.

In various case laws the basic point that Court has kept in mind is that if delegated legislations makes any law that has not been included in the Parent Act then it can be declared as ultra vires and struck down. Delegated legislation is purely a bureaucratic legislation. It involves the transfer of legislative power from the legislature to the administration. The restrictions clearly require that executive can make rules which have retrospective effect but it should be in compliance with the constitutional law. The question no longer arises as to whether delegated legislation is desirable or not but what controls and safeguards ca and ought to be introduced so that the rule making power conferred on the administration is not misused or misapplied. Framing of retrospective rules is a power given to the executive by the legislative but with certain implied restrictions. it is necessary to have an effective control mechanism so that the benefits and advantages of the institution of delegated legislation are minimized.Retrospective operation of delegated legislation Delegated legislation has become a part of modern administrative process. BIBLIOGRAPHY Gujarat National Law University Page 23 . Therefore. For any rule to have retrospective effect it is necessary for it to be mentioned in the parent act. The normal democratic safeguards which usually operate in case of legislation by a representative legislature are absent.

Retrospective operation of delegated legislation • Gujarat National Law University Page 24 .

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