Method- Ultrasonic Testing Level I


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Inclusions and other inhomogeneities can also be detected by causing partial reflection or scattering of the ultrasonic waves or by producing some other detectable effect on the ultrasonic waves. Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of inspection procedure. flakes. The sound waves travel through the material and gradually loss its energy. The degree of reflection depends largely on the physical state of the materials forming the interface and to a lesser extent on the specific physical properties of the material. • Non-hazardous to operator. The disadvantages of ultrasonic inspection include the following • • • • • • Manual operation requires careful attention by experienced technicians. bursts. INTRODUCTION Ultrasonic inspection is a non-destructive method in which beams of high frequency sound waves are introduced into materials mainly for the detection of flaws in dept. • Only one surface needs to be accessible. Ultrasonic instruments are to be calibrated properly. permitting the detection of entirely small discontinuity.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 2 of 13 . disbonds and other discontinuities that produce reflective interfaces can be easily detected. irregular in shape. Advantages and Disadvantages The primary advantages of ultrasonic inspection as compare to other methods are Superior penetrating power which allows the detection of flaws deep in the part. • Method. • Operation is electronic which provide instant result. • Greater accuracy in compare to other NDT methods in determining the position of internal flaws. pores. Couplants are needed to provide effective transfer of ultrasonic wave energy between transducer and parts being inspected. laminations. or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect. Discontinuities those are present in a shallow layer immediately beneath the surface may not be detectable. very small or thin. porosity) then one part of the transmitted energy reflects from the second media and the reflected beam is displayed and then analyzed to define the presence and location of flaws or discontinuity. Parts those are rough. shrinkage cavities. UT can be possible to high thickness of about 6 meter in the axial inspection of parts such as long steel shafts or rotor forgings. shape and nature.1. crack. On the way of its travel if it interacts with some other media (might be inclusion. • High sensitivity. • Volumetric scan is possible. • Provide an output that can be processed digitally by a computer to characterize defects and to determine material properties. Ultrasonic test method is also capable to identify surface defects with special arrangement. Cracks. estimating their size and characterizing their orientation.

Transverse wave c. Velocity (v) of sound in a media = Wave Length (λ) X Frequency (f) λ The unit of frequency is cycle per second (cps) or hertz. Longitudinal or compressional or normal beam wave can travel through both solid and liquid. Plate wave or Lamb wave a.Frequency above 20000 Hz The frequency of ultrasound is in the range of 200 KHz up t 35 MHz 1 KHz = 1000 Hz =103 Hz 1MHz = 1000000 Hz = 106 Hz Frequency (f): The number of full cycles completed in a second by a sound wave in a media is called frequency Wave Length (λ): The distance travelled by a sound wave in a media during completion of one cycle is called wave length.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 3 of 13 .0 X 106 mm per second Method. Longitudinal wave b. Different type of waves a. Different wave propagation a. Sonic. Surface wave or Raleigh wave d.Frequency in between 20 to 20000 Hz c. The wave travels perpendicular to the plane of the test surface. Sub-sonic – frequency less than 20 Hz b. The unit of wave length is mm.6 km per second to 6.2. Supersonic.6 X 106 mm per second to 6. Longitudinal wave The propagation of wave is parallel to the direction of the vibration of the atoms of the test item. Velocity of normal beam wave in steel is = 5600 meter per second to 6000 meter per second or 5.0 km per second or 5.

The velocity of surface wave is 0. It can travel maximum one wavelength depth inside the material. Shear Wave Shear wave travels perpendicular to the direction of vibration of atoms of the travelling media. Lamb Wave Lamb waves are known as plate waves. corrosion and pitting check e. The wave propagation is elliptical in nature. weld check from the top of the weld with ground flush Normal Beam Probe Direction of vibration of atoms Direction of propagation of longitudinal wave parallel to the direction of the vibration of the atoms b. Angle beam probe Job under angle beam inspection Angle beam probe The direction of vibration of atom The direction of propagation of shear wave at perpendicular to the direction of atom’s vibration Θ Angle beam propagation c. Lamb waves can propagate in plates only a few wavelengths thick. Surface wave or Raleigh wave is used for the inspection of thin materials. The shear wave can travel in between 350 to 800 in steel material. Surface Wave Surface wave travels through the surface of the test item.9 Vshear. The angle beam shear wave is generally used for weld scanning. thickness gauging b. The velocity of shear wave is almost half to the velocity of normal beam. d. lamination check c. Shear wave can travel only in solid. bond check d.Normal beam is used for the following purposes in minimum a.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 4 of 13 . are another type of ultrasonic wave used in the nondestructive inspection of materials. A lamb wave Method. Shear wave travels in certain angle to the perpendicular axis of the test surface.

couplant 1. elastic properties. The propagation characteristics of lamb waves depend on density. sensitivity = wave length 2 = 1. Delay-control circuit 6.5 mm 1 MHz = 106 Hz so. Example: Normal beam scanning is carried out on steel material with 4 MHz probe. cables 4. Amplifier-Receiver circuit 5. pulsar circuit 3.consists of a complex vibration that occurs throughout the thickness of the material. Angle beam probe can not check lamination. ultrasonic flaw detector 2. Lamination is checked by normal beam probe. Oscilloscope Method. battery 2. wave length = velocity Frequency = = 6 X 106 4 X 106 1. Ultrasonic flaw detector Ultrasonic flaw detector consist of the following circuits 1. and structure of the material as well as the thickness of the test piece and the frequency.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 5 of 13 . Lamination is parallel to the surface of the plate.5 mm = 0. search unit 3. Calculate the sensitivity? Normal beam wave velocity in steel is 6 X 106 mm per second. Velocity = wave length X frequency Or. Timer circuit/ Electronic Clock 4. What is lamination? Lamination is very thin slag or air gap. Lamination produces at the time of rolling of the billets to plate.75 mm 2 Requirements for ultrasonic testing 1. How to determine the sensitivity of a normal beam test method? The half of the wave length is called sensitivity of a ultrasonic test method.

The power supply is usually controlled by switches and fuses. the pulser circuit generates a burst of alternating voltage.The transducer is the basic part of any search unit. the ultrasonic wave delivers in the test object. When coupled to the test object through couplant. Through Transmission Technique c. Direct contact method pulse-echo system b. and it mechanically vibrates in response to the applied voltage.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 6 of 13 . Immersion Technique UT Image Presentation a. it reached to the receiving transducer where the ultrasound converts to Method. Many instruments includes electronic equipment for signal conditioning. Moreover. In the way of traveling inside the material. A sending transducer is one to which the voltage burst is applied. duration and repetition rate of the burst generates by the pulsar circuit. Search Unit . Pulsar Circuit –When electronically triggered. data acquisition and signal-processing systems are also incorporated in recently developed equipments Power Supply circuits are supplying current for all the functions of the instrument. C-scan Presentation Direct Contact Method Pulse-echo Technique with A-Scan Presentation Gate PRR Delay control Vertical Plate Battery Pulsar Clock 100% Probe Reflected Beam ReceiverAmplifier Job Horizontal Plate of CRT 0 10 Attenuator Gain control One part of the transmitted energy Returned form the flaw depth Transmitted beam Back Wall Echo Oscilloscope Scale Here. A-scan presentation b. we are discussing about the ultrasonic testing principle of a direct-contact method A-scan presentation system in minimum. B-scan Presentation c. gating automatic interpretation and integration with a mechanical or electronic scanning system. when ultrasound encounters any acoustic impedance difference due to the presence of foreign material or porosity or lack of fusion or when reflected back from the back surface (normal beam) of the test object. The performance of search unit (probe) is influenced by the frequency.Types of Ultrasonic Testing a.

Single Crystal 2b. Before reaching the pulse to search unit. the horizontal base is called Time Base. However. Depending upon specific type of instrument. Another part of the electric pulse activates the transducer of the search unit. By the time. The frequency of the transducer should match to the frequency of the electric pulse send to it by the pulsar.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 7 of 13 . The range of any test system is adjusted by adjusting the speed of flow of this electron beam. the electrical pulse is generated in pulsar circuit. the range of a system is adjusted by the time needed for travelling the electron beam from left to right plate. • • • • • • • • Whenever UT flaw detector is switched on. Pulse Repetition Rate (PRR) circuit controls the pulse rate. Gain control of receiver-amplifier circuit usually consists of fine and coarse sensitivity selectors. the other useful control is often available in the instrument for electronically compensating for a drop in the amplitude of signals reflected from flaws located deep in the testpiece. The rate of pulse is controlled by clock.Electronically amplify the return signals from the receiving transducer and modify the signal into a form suitable for display. one part is directly go to the amplifier-receiver circuit. reference voltage and reference waveform. The clock circuit synchronizing the activities of all circuits The pulsation rate can be controlled by PRR circuit Pulsar send electric pulse to search unit. It may be a separate circuit or it may be a part of the clock circuit. The output is fed into vertical plate an oscilloscope or other display device. Angle Beam 3. sensitivity-time-control. the timer circuit activates delay control. This is the reason. The clock coordinates operation of the entire electronic system.amplifier Circuit. Delay circuit is connected to horizontal plates of the CRT tube. Double Crystal 2. the pitch catch method uses individual transducers for both transmission and receiving purpose. Normal Beam Search Unit 1a. Gate Circuit is connected to the Delay circuit which is connected to the horizontal plate of the CRT. In the pulse echo mode a single generator alternately serves both the purpose. the transducer converts the transducer to mechanical vi Search Unit Type 1. When electric pulse form pulsar circuit reaches the transducer. The CRT tube continuously discharging electron which are continuously flowing from left horizontal plate to right horizontal plate. Therefore. This circuit may be known as distance-amplitude-correction (DAC). Receiver. Wheel Probe Construction of probe Method.The electronic clock or timer serves as a source of logic pulses. Electronic Clock. time-corrected-gain or time-varied-gain.the electric pulse. The output from the receiver amplifier circuit is a signal directly related to the intensity of the ultrasonic wave impinging on the receiving transducer. The pat of the electric pulse exist in the CRT tube as initial echo. Jacks are there to connect the search units with the instrument.

θ Two thicknesses near the lower and upper value of the thickness measurement range shall be selected for the adjustment of range for thickness gauging using normal beam TR probe. 600. if less than 350 probe is used. and 700 are generally used for angle beam inspection.Co axial cable Housing Backing Material Crystal/ Transducer Hard face Membrane Single Crystal Normal Beam Probe Double Crystal Normal Beam Probe Application of different type of probes Normal beam single crystal probe is used for thickness gauging. lamination check of high thickness plate Normal Beam Double Crystal probe is used for thickness gauging and corrosion monitoring. There is a chance of presence of longitudinal mode. Method. minimum 350 probe can be used. With TR probe minimum 4 mm thick plate can be tested. ANGLE BEAM PROBE Angle Beam Probe Crystal θ Angle beam probe is used for the inspection of weld. For lower thickness high angle of probe is used. TR probe can be used for testing up top 50 mm. 450 is useful for root inspection whereas 600 is useful for the inspection of lack of side wall fusion. error percentage of thickness reading is high.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 8 of 13 . Double crystal probe also called as TR probe. COUPLANT Cellulose paste mixed in water shall be used as couplant. machine grease mixed in oil mixed shall provide better transmission of beam energy to the test object. Above 50 mm. For the inspection of steel material. For rough surfaces. Shear wave at 450. lamination check and bond check of thin material for avoiding dead zone. Planner type defect such as lamination can not be tested by angle beam.

3.High frequency for low thickness. What will be new echo height? 8 dB = 6 + 2 so new echo height is = 20 X2X1.Diameter – Depends upon the job dimension and curvature. 10 mm diameter search unit good for curved surface . 2. dB = 20 log10 A2/A1 OR. Set the range 4.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 9 of 13 .NORMAL BEAM TEST METHOD 1. set the back wall echo at 80% of the full scale height (FSH) Gain Adjustment dB = 20 log10 (A2/ A1) Example: Suppose initial echo is 50% of FSH.25 times 2 times 10 times Note Similarly if dB is decreased. A2 = 50 X 2 % Or.Frequency. Gain increased by 6 dB. TR probe can be used up to 100 mm thickness. It always to be kept “off” while the machine is on. If dB is increased by 8. A2 = 100% Note that Gain Increase 1 dB 2 dB 6 dB 20 db Echo height increase 1. A2/50 = anti log of (6/20) Or.Single / Double crystal – For low thickness. check the status of “Attenuator” button. TR probe is to be used for avoiding the dead zone. the initial echo height is to be divided by 2. What will be the echo height? dB = 6 dB increased A1 = 50% of FSH Suppose echo height is A2 Then. the echo height shall be decreased by the same way.12 times 1. Example: Initial echo height is 20% of FSH. After turn on the flaw detector. So that if 6 dB is decreased. 6 = 20 log10 A2/ 50 Or.25% = 50% DEFECT SIZE MEASUREMENT Method. Selection of probe . Generally 4 MHz is used for thickness up to 100 mm . After range adjustment.

EXTEN OF TEST AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AS PER VARIOUS PDO SPECIFICATIONS Ref.Defect size shall be measured by 1. SP-1096 SP-1174 SP-1177 & SP-1097 SP-1177 Thickness check of arc strike ground Unacceptable if the thickness is below the area minimum specified value Full pipe lamination check following the removal of full joint due to the discovery of any lamination or split end Entire pipe portion containing any lamination shall be removed SEARCH UNIT CHARACTERISTIC NF TRANSITION ZONE Ø FAR FIELD Near Field(NF) = D2 N / 4V Far Field starts after three near field distance. 6 dB drop method When defect size is bigger than the crystal size.22 X (V/ N* D) Resolution Method. 20 dB drop method shall be used. 2. Thickness check of arc strike ground area Thickness check of arc strike ground area Acceptance criteria The maximum dimension of minor axis of lamination shall not exceed 6. Std SP-1173 & SP-1096 Type of check and area Lamination over a zone of 50 mm back from new bevel edge and a zone of 50 mm around the proposed cut hole for branch connection Lamination over a zone of 50 mm in all preparation in pipe of 273 mm OD and above and/or wall thickness of 12.7 mm and above. 20dB drop method When defect size is smaller than crystal size. -Do Unacceptable if the thickness is below the minimum specified value Unacceptable if the thickness is below the minimum specified value SP-1096 SP-1173.Ultrasonic Testing Level I D= Crystal diameter N= Frequency of search unit V= Velocity of ultrasonic beam in the material INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 10 of 13 . 6 db drop method shall be used. Transition zone is twice the near field distance Ø= Half beam angle Sin Ø = 1.3 mm and the maximum product of the major and minor axes shall not exceed 50 mm.

The capability of ultrasonic testing system to distinguish between the discontinuities which are very nearer to each other is called resolution power Good Resolution Poor Resolution Dead Zone Due to the pulse duration. The depth up to which can not be detected by a ultrasonic test system is called the dead zone.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 11 of 13 . transducer can not response the reflection from any reflector which is very nearer to the surface. Dead Zone Method.

lower the beam spread so that the beam can hit the bottom of the shaft without touching the side wall. bigger diameter search unit shall be recommended because bigger the diameter. Angle beam search unit is to be calibrated with IIW V2 block. Method. Few important points are again discussed in this clause.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 12 of 13 .Higher the damping lower the dead zone Higher the frequency lower the dead zone For axial scanning of long shaft. IMPORTANT CONCEPT REGARDING ULTRASONIC TESTING E Frequency (f) Probe Dia (D) λ P R S DZ N BS Speed ANGLE BEAM TEST METHOD Angle beam is discussed in page 7 of this book.

Method.Ultrasonic Testing Level I INDUSTRIAL NDT CONSULTANCY AND TRAINING Page 13 of 13 .

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