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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Interpersonal Behavior in an organization.


To understand how individual affects, and is affected by, two persons interaction,
in an organization.
The last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth rate of research on
behaviour among individuals in an organization.
The basic psychological factors on individual behavior, perception, learning,
personality and motivation affect individual behavior. Individual behavior affects
and is affected by the behavior of others.

This interpersonal behavior can be –


Interpersonal cooperative behavior
Interpersonal conflicting behavior

Interpersonal cooperative behavior---all organizations strive to promote


mutually gratifying and co-operative behavior. Conditions necessary for co-
operative interpersonal behavior and any organizational setting are mutual respect
and trust.
Concern for each others need and interaction with complementary ego states which
are necessary at all levels of designation in an organization.
Interpersonal conflicting behavior----- out of interpersonal interaction it is not
necessary that only co-operative behavior will result because of several reasons
like personality differences, different value systems, interest conflict, role
ambiguity etc, and interpersonal conflict may arise in the organization. This type of
behavior may not be functional in the organization.
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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 To gain a close understanding of the functions of the organization.

 To develop excellent communication skills through interaction with top


level managers.

 To relate the school caustically acquired knowledge with the reality.

 To appraise the operational and environmental complexities of an

organization which otherwise cannot be visualized.

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REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE
To research any problem, it is necessary to review the existing literature. Various
studies relating to different aspects of Interpersonal Behavior have been conducted
in the past. A brief review of some of the major studies in recent years is given
below.

SOURCE 1
R.S. Diwivedi (1998)
concluded that Interpersonal Behavior is a major determinants of productivity.
Interpersonal Behavior refers to inter striving conditions called wishes, desires,
drives, etc. There is three kinds of motives: psychological, socio-psychological and
general. There exists diverse view relating to Interpersonal Behavior. Theories of
Interpersonal Behavior are classified as ‘contents’ and ‘process’ oriented. The
content theory tells what factors affect Interpersonal Behavior. The process
theories interpret the underlying process of Interpersonal Behavior and indicate
how to affect Interpersonal Behavior.

SOURCE 2
Moorhead Griffin (2002)
explains the equity theory of Interpersonal Behavior assumes that people want to
be treated fairly. It hypothesizes that people compare their own input-to-outcome
ratio in the organization to the ratio of a comparison other. If they feel their
treatment has been inequitable, they take steps to reduce the inequity. Expectancy
theory is based on the assumption that people are motivated to work toward a goal
if they want it and think they have a reasonable chance of achieving it.

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SOURCE 3
Archna Tyagi (2002)
Says that Interpersonal Behavior is the extent to which persistent effort is directed
toward a goal. Intrinsic Interpersonal Behavior stems from the direct relation ship
between the worker and the task and is usually self-applied. Extrinsic Interpersonal
Behavior stems from the environment surrounding the task and is applied by
others.

SOURCE 4
Fred Luthans (1997)
Explains Interpersonal Behavior is probably more closely associated with micro
prospective of organization behavior than in any other topic. A comprehensive
understanding of Interpersonal Behavior includes the need-drive – incentive
sequence, or cycle. The basic process involves needs, which set drives in motion to
accomplish incentives. The drives or motives may be classified into primary,
general, and secondary categories. The primary motives are unlearned and
psychologically based. The general motives are also learned but are not
psychologically based. Secondary motives are learned and are most relevant to the
study of organization behavior.

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FOCUS OF THE STUDY

To guide the empirical part of the work, the Focus of the Study States:
Interpersonal Behavior effect the working of employees of both public &
private sector.

1) The Factors Affecting Interpersonal Behavior of the employees depends upon


their perception.

2) The Factors Affecting Interpersonal Behavior differs from time to time, place to
place and situation to situation and person to person.

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CONCEPTUALISATION

The concept of evaluating the workers in lumax dk auto industries ltd. Is to know
about the superior—worker interpersonal behavior so that it is known that why the
interpersonal behavior among workers is negative and what kind of changes should
be brought so that the worker—superior behavior is strengthened to the extent so
that everyone can work in a tension free environment.

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LUMAX DK AUTO INDUSTRIES LTD.

INTRODUCTION:-

1) We shall continuously and anticipate our Customers evolving needs


needs and according innovate our products to meet their technology
requirements.

2) We shall be the first to deploy the optimum Technology. Technology in


India by a global relation ship.

3) We shall promote and facilitate the effective Integration of technology


between our people products and processes to create value.

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GROUP VISION 2010

To make “lumax “ brand

• An indian name with a global presence


• The prefered solution provider ‘ among its customers in everything we do .
• A name synomous for the best practices committed employes , enhancing
stake holder value .

Lumaxdk

Company vision 2015


1) Domestic market share of minimum of 50% gear shifters.
2) To become full capability of supplier for the manual and automatic
gear shifter ,designing /validation/manufacturing.
3) Addition of 1 more customer for parking brakes.
4) Diversify into 2 new automotive product lines as tier 1 system supplier.

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COMPANY POLICIES

4 steps:
1) Employee involvement
2) Visual control: create visual signs and everything.
3) Remove “muda”:muda means a Japanese term is to approve the best quality.
4) Quality: - quality of the product is good.

Formed in the year 1997, Lumax DK is an integral part of the D.K. Jain Group of
companies. It is a 100% subsidiary of Lumax Auto Technologies Ltd. Lumax
DK specializes in design, manufacturing and supply of Gear Shifters, Parking
Brakes, Precision Components and Plastic injection trim parts. These are
manufactured to the highest standards and stringent quality control procedures are
in place to ensure, that quality products are delivered on time, every time.

Lumax DK has two state-of-art manufacturing plants located in Manesar in


National Capital Region of Delhi, and in Pant Nagar, a fast developing Automotive
Industrial Hub in North India. We have been growing at a rapid pace and have
clocked revenues of Rs. 150 Crores (US$ 40 Million) in 2006-07 fiscal years...

We, at Lumax DK - an ISO 9001:2000 and ISO/TS 16949:2002 certified


company, endeavor to provide our customers with quality automotive parts at a
competitive price. Association with Lumax DK offers you the 360 degree
manufacturing of global standards

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• Precision Engineering - CAD systems with auto cad Inventor
& Unigraphics NX3, Tool room with all required machines and
fixtures for Tool development and prototyping.
• Robust Manufacturing - 3-AXIS Tube Bending and Copping,
Hydraulic Pressing, Robotic MIG Welding Stations, Plastic
Injection Molding, Robot Writing for Gear Shifter Knob, and Cellular
Assembly Lines
• Stringent Testing setup - Endurance Testing for Parking Brake, Tensile
Testing, Weld Penetration Check, Hardness Testing, Profile Checking, and
Strength Testing.

We have technology support from CIMAR, Spain and GHSP , USA , especially for
Gear Shifters

A progressive set of associates, a young & dynamic management team, that


believes in inclusive sustained growth with involvement of people and modern
technology, the lineage of the Lumax brand. Ingredients that make Lumax DK, a
name in reckoning for being at the forefront of automotive components technology
arena. A name poised for being your partner in growth.

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TECHNICAL ALLIANCE

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PERFORMANCE AWARD

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PRODUCTS AND INVENTIONS

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Dec, 2009
S.No. Particulars 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
(unaudited)
1. Sales (Rs. in Millions) 107 144 229 560 1140 1350 1344
Rs. (in
19 18 29 68 169 194 207
2. PBDIT Millions)
% 17.76 12.50 12.66 12.14 14.82 14.37 15.40
Rs. (in
17 14 20 52 137 158 181
3. PBT Millions)
% 15.89 9.72 8.73 9.29 12.02 11.70 13.47
4. Dividend % 10 10 Nil Nil Nil Nil 68
5. EPS (Rs.) 2.28 1.89 2.72 7.99 21.55 25.53 35.87
6. Book Value (Rs.) 6.65 7.66 10.65 18.90 40.70 66.48 94.60

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MAJOR CLIENTS

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It
may be understood as a science how research is done scientifically. Research
methodology refers to the tools and the methods used for obtaining information for
the purpose of the research study. Research not only need to know how to develop
certain indices or tests, how to calculate the mean, the mode, median, how to
apply particular research techniques but also need to know which of these methods
or techniques are relevant and which are not and what would they mean and
indicate and why. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design
his methodology for his problem as the same way differ from problem to problem.

RESEARCH DESIGN

Research design is the framework which determines the course of action towards
the collection and analysis of required data. As the research type is descriptive, so
we will be using Descriptive Research Design to do our Research work. The
methodology of study will be through interviews, observation and library research.

ANALYTICAL RESEARCH

In it, we have to use facts and information already available and analysis these to
make an evaluation for project.
o RESEARCH PROBLEM

The study undertaken by me was regarding a detailed analysis of the services of


human resource department. I want to know the actual work done by the human
resource managers in the companies. Research problem
TYPE OF RESEARCH
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Descriptive research:-it includes surveys and facts ,findings enquires of different
kinds. The major purpose of did is description of the state of affair as it exists at
person .
Exploratory research:- the main purpose of erd is that of formulating a problem
for more precise investigation. Study involves filling of questionnaires, structured
interviews, and personal observations i.e. it involves surveys and facts, finding
enquires of different kinds.

DATA COLLECTION
The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and
research design /plan chalked out there are several types of sources of data
collection:

SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION


Primary source: - the data which is collected first time.
Secondary source: - doing updation of the data which is already collected.

QUESTIONNAIRE:- The Main Purpose of the Survey (Questionnaire) is to


collect data about Interpersonal Behaviour and The Significance of The
established factors ,Price ,Trust , Convenience.

LIKE, in this Project I have used:

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SAMPLING PROCEDURE: There is a NON –PROBABILITY SAMPLING .It
is that Sampling Procedure Which does not afford any basis for estimating the
Probability that each Item in the Population has of being included in the Sample.
Further in Non Probability Sampling used is convenience sampling & random
sampling

SAMPLING PLAN
Employees of personnel department.

SAMPLE SIZE
25 employees
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

QUESTIONNAIRE:-The Main Purpose of the Survey (Questionnaire) is to


collect data about Interpersonal Behaviour and The Significance of The established
factors, Price, Trust, and Convenience.

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INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR

What are interpersonal skills?

• A set of behaviors which allow you to communicate effectively and


unambiguously in a face-to- face setting.
• They can also be thought of as behaviors which assist progress towards
achieving an objective

Developing interpersonal skills is therefore designed to help you to get all


ingredients to work together effectively. Face-to-face situations provide the context
(formal or informal), objectives spell out the desirable ends, and behaviors are the
means to achieve them. In situations which are not face-to-face, such as a phone
call or letter, what you say or write represents your behaviour.

FUNDAMENTALS
There are just six interpersonal skills which form a process that is applicable to all
situations:

• Analyzing the situation


• Establishing a realistic objective
• Selecting appropriate ways of behaving
• Controlling your behaviour
• Shaping other people's behaviour
• Monitoring our own and others' behaviour

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These individual skills need to be applied appropriately. For example, if you:

• Are discussing how to solve a problem with a person who has more
experience than you, then listening is important
• Know much more about what needs to be done to solve a problem than
another person, then communicating clearly and testing the other person's
understanding are higher priorities.

APPLICABILITY OF INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

The interpersonal skills process described above is applicable to all people-


situations anywhere, in the following ways:

• Analyzing the situation helps us to set realistic objectives


• Establishing objectives, in turn, provides the context in which to make
choices about how best to behave
• By being conscious of our own behaviour in working towards the
achievement of objectives we are more likely to influence other people’s
behaviour
• Constant monitoring will provide the feedback we need to make situation-
dependent adjustments.

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BENEFITS OF IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

However, some of the advantages of improved interpersonal skills are that


you will be better at:

• Quickly assessing and understanding face-to-face situations


• Setting specific and realistic objectives for face-to-face encounters with
people - you will benefit from being clear in what you are aiming at
• Choosing and using behaviors that complement the circumstances and are
appropriate to the objective - thus benefiting by having an easier, and
pleasant, means to achieving your objective

Being aware of other people’s behaviour and influencing it - influencing others by


your own behaviour.

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS ARE:

• HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


• JOB ANALYSIS
• RECRUITMENT
• SELECTION
• PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
• INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR
• EMPLOYMENT TRANSITIONS
• LABOUR RELATIONS

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Human behavior is the most difficult to define in absolute terms .it is a complex
phenomenon .it is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal
stimuli these responses reflect psychology structure of a person.

Psychologist khan art Levin believes that people are influenced by a number of
diversified factors and the influence of these factors determines the patterns of
behaviour in-fact organization composed of individuals. no organization can exist
without individuals hence, organizational performance is largely affected by
individuals behave at work .mangers hand to understand individual /human
behavior at work so as to extract the best and maximum contribution from them
learning motivation ,and the leadership are the theories that have been developed to
explain the behavior of individuals also socio psychological theories have tried to
explain how attitudes ,beliefs, preconception ,values inculcated and influence
individual behavior

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MEANING OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
Individual behavior means some concrete action by a person. In fact the Individual
behavior is not a self induced concept but it is affected by a large system like
family, group, and society within which one function .besides individuals will
behave differently depending upon three motivation, values, attitudes and
perception they have

Individual behavior explains why Individual behaves and reacts in response to


different situation. Therefore to understand the human behavior in organization in
a better way, a careful study of all the factors which affects human behavior is
must the efforts and the contribution of an individual depends upon his behavior
.the factors which affects the human behavior are person, environment and
organization itself. In other words, we can say that – individual behavior is a
function of person, environment and hide organization

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CAUSES OF INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR

Causes of human behavior:

In order to understand the causation of human behavior it is essential behavior it is


essential to know first what the term behavior actually means. Different behavioral
scientists have defined behavior differently. Some observations are as follows;

Behavior simply means “as a response to certain stimuli which is observable


directly and indirectly “

‘Behavior is observed directly by studying the responses of people to their work


environment indirect observation refers to horo people describe decision making
processes and attitude verbally.

This is seen that human behavior is caused by certain reasons behavior is the result
of interaction between individual characteristics and the characteristics of the
environment in which behavior occurs.

Personal characteristics remain inside the person whereas environmental once


outside the person. These personal and environmental characteristics secure as
foundation of individual behavior.

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The causes of human behavior can be classified into categories
INHERITED CHARACTERISTICS: Some of the characteristics inherited from
birth, may or Amy not be changed by external environment
1. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS: - relate to height, slim body, and vision

and stamina .manual dexterity results in quality, performance in such jobs that
require artistic skills.
2. AGE:- the age may influence the behavior of an individual in a physiological as

well as psychological ways


3. INTELLIGENCE:-Some people are born Intelligent However intelligent can

be enhanced with efforts, hard work proper environment and motivation.


4. RELIGION:-It play important role in determining the behavior. High religious

people have high moral standards. They strive for achievement and self
fulfillment.

LEARNED CHARACTERISTICS: these characteristics involver and


individuals, attitudes, values and perceptions about the environment in which
he/she function. They are a result of parental values and expectation.

PERCEPTION: - Is a process by which individuals organize and interpret there


sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment. It refers to the
manner in which a person experiences the world.

PERSONALITY: - It is a set of traits and characteristics, habit patterns and


conditioned responses to certain stimuli that formulate the impression upon others.
It indicates the type of activities, jobs and assignment suitable to a particular
person which will enable him to perform that task affectively.

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ATTITUDES: - it may be defined as the way a person fells about something- a
person, a place, a commodity, a situation or an idea. It addresses an individual’s
positive or negative feeling about some object.

VALUES: - values are important in relation to study of organizational behavior.


Because an organization is a composite of attitude, perceptions, personalities and
individual behavior of managers as well as workers. Values determine what is
right and what is wrong. The values behavior pattern.

FACTORS AFFECTING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

ENVIROMENTAL FACTORS
It includes such variables as
ECONOMIC FACTORS- the economic environment is an important
determinant of individual behavior .all work is performed with in economic
framework .the concept of economic environment is a synthesis of several factors
like employment level, wage rate, economic outlook and technological change
rate.People work for money but not only for money. However wages satisfied
various needs of individuals.

POLITICAL FACTORS- the stability of government can affect the employment


opportunities both in quantity and quality. Management structures and
philosophies in controlled societies have a significant impact on decision,
strategies and methods of implementation available to managers. The relative

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freedom available can affect carrier choice, job design, motivation methods and
finally individual behavior.

SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS: people grow up in a particular society that


shape their basic values, beliefs and behavior. Cultural vary from country to
country and these variation produce different behavior across the country

LEGAL ENVIRONMENT: rules and laws are formalized ad written standards


of behavior both rules and laws is strictly enforced by the legal system .laws relate
to all members of society observing laws voluntarily allow predictability of
individual behavior.

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS: the characteristics of an organization are


also affects human behavior.

PHYSICAL FACILITIES: The physical facilities such as ventilation ,proper


lighting , painting on wall, proper space for employee and like that put impact on
employee behavior and performance..Hence physical environment at work place
may be said to be the arrangement of people and thinks in such a manner. So that
they may have a positive impact on interpersonal behavior.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES AND DESIGNS- It refers to the way in


different departments in organizations are set up and the way in which the
emoting relationship and lines of communication are established among different
departments in the organizations.

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QUALITY OF LEADERSHIP-The organizational establish a system of
leadership and supervision to pride direction assistance, advice, training, to
individual members. The behavior of a leader is therefore a potential source of
influence on an individual. In other words the behavior of individual by a large
extent influenced by their leaders.

REWARD SYSTEM:-Organization establishes reward system to compensate the


employees. The behavior of an employee influenced by reward system of an
organization.

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INDIVIDUALS DIFFERENCES AT WORKPLACE

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE: it is seen that an individual differs from each


other owing to their varying Characteristics that foam an individual’s
individuality. All is different .this is a fact supported by science. Each one is
different from others just as each of their finger prints to different as far as we
commonly known.
Co is able to explain usual observations leads all of us to the conclusion that two
people in the same job cannot behave in exactly the same way. People perform
their jobs in different ways

1) Promptness in completing tasks


2) Conscientiousness in doing exactly quality work.
3) If manager wants to employee he has to recognize the overwhelming

influences that individual’s differences play.

INDIVIDUALS DIFFERENCES AT WORKPLACE


1) REWARDS-Depending upon different psychological make-ups, people differ
in attaching importance to awards.
2) TYPE OF COMPENSATION PLAN- People also differs in the type of

compensation plan they want. Some may refer to have compensation under the
time wage system, while others may like to prefer piece wage system.
3) STYLE OF LEADERSHIP- People may differ in the style of leadership they

want to work under. While some may like to work under autocratic leadership
style, others may be in a democratic style of leadership.

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4) STAMINA-People also differ in their stamina to bear with job stress. While

some may prefer to flight stresses.


5) PERSONNEL CHARACTERISTICS- People differ in their personnel

characteristics like age, sex, race, education, abilities etc.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND ORGANIZATION


BEHAVIOR
In organizational behavior, too much emphasis is placed on studying individual
differences .it is not that values, attitudes, personalities and similar personal
characteristics are irrelevant to under standing organizational behavior rather
organizations come.

With a host of formal and informal control mechanism that in effect largely
shapes .direct and constraint members’ behavior that is structure tends to over-ride
interpersonal differences.

Almost organizations have policies, procedures rules and other formal


documentation that limit and shape the behavior. This formal documentation sets
standards of acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

Almost all organizations differentiate roles horizontally, creating unique jobs and
departments. The structure of these jobs allows others to predict behavior in those
roles. Organizations also differentiate roles vertically by creating levels of
management
So, they create boss employee relationship that constrains employee behavior.

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When you join an organization, you are expected to adapt its norms of acceptable
behavior. The norms are unwritten rules but, they are powerful and controlling.
An organization may not have a formal dress code but employees are expected to
‘dress appropriately’-which mean adapting to the implied dress norms.

Models of a man based on individual differences

Study of human behavior in both regarding and necessary for management. It is


doubtful whether the management can perform its function successfully without
having understanding why people behave as they do. It based on individual
differences; individual differences are classified in to certain models or type.

1) RATIONAL ECONOMIC MAN:-This is based on the doctrine of


maximizing oneself interest. This assumptions are :
Man is able to calculate the cost of his efforts and value of inducement he
receives from his efforts.
Man is able to evaluate the alterations available.
Man is motivated by economic interest.
The organization controls the economic activities.
Organization can be designed to control rational feelings and avoid
unpredictable behavior.

The different types of assumptions a manager makes about people with greatly
determine the actions he takes in motivating and controlling people.

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In simple rational economic model people can be induced to produce more by
providing economic incentives. This works very simply, that is people are engage
by the organization for the productive purpose.
It will continue to give them incentives till it receiving matching contribution
From them.

The economic incentives can work till man is not reasonably satisfied by a need of
money. Though money is such a factor that its need can never be satisfied because
it may purchase many things through which people may satisfy their other needs
Within organizational context. The role of money is to maintain the people n the
organization and beyond that is not able to provide incentives to people.

2) SOCIAL MAN:-It is based on the doctrine that man being part of the society,

is influenced by a social forces and seeks satisfaction from social relationships.


 Man is motivated by its social needs.
 Man is more responsive to group pressure.
 He will obey managements order as long as these are in conformity with his
social needs.
 Management should organize work in such a way that it provides not
belongingness.
 Social man concept is the invention of researchers which behavioral scientist
has carried out from time to time begom hawthorn experiments.

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3) ORGANIZATION MAN: - William white who gave this concept believes that

value of loyalty to the organization and co-corporation with fellow workers is


important for man. The social ethics are guides of organization.
The group is a source of creativity.
 Belongingness is the ultimate need of individual.

Generally organization means emphasis that there is no conflict between


organization and interpersonal. Even if there is any, it can be overcome by
sacrificing the individual interest in favor of organizational interest. Its
implications is that management will design its various actions high will satisfy
the people.
People will not see their interest differently as the organization is to take care of
their interest.

4) SELF ACTUALIZING MAN: - It suggests difference in the way man can


overcome limitations to work .the managers normally take following.
 The various needs can be put in hierarchical.
 Man moves from immaturity to maturity.
 Man is self motivated and self motivated managers try to create normal
achievement of people to release greater potential for commitment to
organizational goals
This model is based on the assumptions that is man is self motivated and
controlled.
Man works. To satisfy is needs, in a hierarchical orders arranged by Abraham
Maslow physiological needs, safety and security needs social needs, esteem and
status needs and self actualizing needs.

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ABILITIES:-
It is an individual capacity to perform the various tasks. In a job, Ability is the
criteria used to determine what a person can do ability directly influences an
employee level of performance and satisfaction. In order to get compatible ability,
the management can do the following:

 The management must follow effective selection process. This process will
improve and provide a compatible individual.
 A job analysis will provide information about jobs currently being done and
the abilities that individuals need to perform the job adequately.
 The management ,after analyzing the job , can invite applicants .applicants
can then be tested ,interviewed and evaluated on the degree to which they
possesses the necessary abilities.
 Promotion and transfer decisions should reflect the abilities of individuals in
the organizations.
 Management must be cheerful in accessing critical abilities that will be
needed in the job.
 In order to improve abilities, modifications can be made in the job. However,
three should b no significant impact on jobs basic activities.
 Finally man agent has an alternative in the regard. A final alternative is to
provide training to employees. This is applicable to both ne workers and present
workers. Training can keep the abilities of workers current or provide new skills
as times and conditions charge.

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SWOT ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS :-
a) The globally cost competitive
b) Adheres to strict quality controls. Has access to latest technology.
c) Provides support to critical infrastructure and metal industries.

WEAKNESSES:-
a) Industry has a lower level of research and development capability.

b) Industry is exposed to cyclical downturns in the automotive industry. Most

component companies are dependent on global majors for technology

OPPURTUNITIES:-
a) May serve as sourcing hub for global automobile.
b) Majors significant export opportunities may be realized through diversification
of export basket.
c) Implementation of value added tax vat) in fy2004 will negate the cascading
impact of price.

THREATS:-
a) The presence of large counterfeit components market poses a significant threat.
b) Pressure on prices from gems continues. Imports pose price based competition
in the replacement market. Further marginalization of smaller player’s likely
outlook

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PESTE ANALYSIS

POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
The stability of government can affect the employment opportunities; both in
quantity and quality .politically unstable environment have difficulty and attracting
experience problems in maintaining steady level of employment.
The political ideology of a country affects interpersonal behavior primary through
relative freedoms available to its citizens. Management structures and philosophies
in controlled societies have a significant impact on decisions, strategies, strategies
and methods of implementation available to manager’s .the relative freedoms can
affect career choice, job design motivation methods and finally interpersonal
behavior.

ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
The Economic environment is an important determinant of individual behavior. All
work is perform with in economic framework .the concept of economic
environment is a synthesis of several factors, like employment level, wage rates,
economic outlook and technological change.
People work for money but not only for money.however wages satisfy various
needs of an individual .it are well known that wage attract people to certain
organizations and determine their satisfaction on jobs. Inequality in wages will
have adverse effect on employees

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SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
People grow up in a particular society that shape their basic beliefs, values and
behaviors. Culture varies from country to country and these variation produce
different behaviors across the country .culture vary between two regions with in a
country too and these variations produce different behaviors across the country.
Work ethics, achievement needs, effort reward expectations and values are
important factors having behavioral implications as suggested by Stephens’s
p.robbins.it always desirable for organization effectiveness that direct there must
be direct relationship between effort and reward.

TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
It is seen that technological change is included as an economic factor because of
potential effects on individual job opportunities
Technological change has its strongest effect at lower level jobs although
increased automation, computersation and more sophisticated production
technologies can affect individuals at all levels.

LEGAL ENVIRONMENT

Rules and laws are formalized and written standards of behavior. Both rules and
laws are strictly enforced by the legal system .laws relate to all members of
society. Observing laws voluntary allows for predictability of individual behavior

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QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS

1) What kind of relationhip do you have with your boss?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Formal 1 4
Friendly 17 68
Both Formal and 6 24
friendly
Miscellaneous 1 4
TOTAL 25 100

a ) Fo r m a l
4% 4%
24%
b ) Fr ie n d ly

c ) B o th Fo r m a l a n d
Fr ie n d ly
68% d ) M is c e lla n e o u s

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 68% of the Employees are Friendly with Boss and
4% Employees are Formal, 24% of the Employees are both Friendly and Formal
and 4% are having Miscellaneous Relations with Boss.
2) How often does your superior guide you in your job?

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OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS
Often 12 48
Once in a while 8 32
Never 3 12
Cant say 2 8
TOTAL 25 100

50

40
Often
30 Once in a while
Never
20
Cant say
10

0
%OFRESPONDENTS

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 48% of the Employees are Superior guide in your
Job and 32% Employees are once in a while, 12% of the Employees are never l
and8% can’t say.
.

3) How often does your boss blame you when things go wrong in your area
of work ?

41
OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS
Often 2 8
Once in a while 10 40
Never 11 44
Cant say 2 8
TOTAL 25 100

45
40
35
30
Often
25
Once inawhile
20
Never
15
Cant say
10
5
0
%OFRESPONDENTS

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 8% are often and 40% Employees once in a
while.44% never and 8% are can’t say.

4) What type of relations do you have with your colleagues?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Friendly 20 80
Competitive 1 4

42
Social 3 12
All three 1 4
TOTAL 25 100

4%
12%
4% a) f riendly
b) c ompetitiv e
c) s oc ial
d) all three
80%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 88% of the Employees are Friendly with
Colleagues and 4% Employees are Competitive, 12% of the Employees are Social
and 4% are all three Relations with Colleagues

5) Do you feel unbalanced relations affect the efficiency level of employees?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Yes 17 68
No 72 28
Can’t say 1 4
TOTAL 25 100

43
70

60

50

40 Yes
No
30
Can’t say
20

10

0
%OFRESPONDENTS

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 68% of the Employees are yes and 4% Employees
can’t sayFormal, 24% of the Employees are both Friendly and Formal and 4% are
having Miscellaneous Relations with Boss.

6) Which of the following situations adversely affect your relationship


among groups?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Stress 10 40
Illiteracy 1 4
Incompetence 0 0

44
Lack Of Knowledge 6 24
Miscellaneous 8 32
TOTAL 25 100

a) stress
32%
40% b) illiteracy
c) incompetence
d) lack of know ledge

24% 4%
0% e) miscellaneous

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 40% of the Employees are stress and 4%
Employees are illiteracy 24% of the Employees are having lack of knowlege and
32% are having miscellaneous adversely affect relations.
7) What are the causes of such adverse situations?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Individual case 9 36
Group 2 8
Organization 9 36
Others 5 20

45
TOTAL 25 100

20%
36% a) individual case
b) group
c) organisation
d) others
36% 8%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 36% of the Employees are adverse situations and
8% Employees affect group 36% of the Employees affect the organisation.

8) What problem does this negative behaviour lead to?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Physical Problem 0 0
Psychological Problem 10 40

46
Behavioral Problem 10 40
Others 5 20
TOTAL 25 100

20% 0%
a) physical problem
40%
b) psychological problem
c) behavioral problem
d) others
40%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 40% of the Employees are having psychological
problem and 40% Employees ae having behaviour problem, 20% of the Employees
are affected by other problems.

9) Do you get full co-operation and unbiased attention from your superior
in your work place?

OPTIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Yes 22 88
47
No 0 0
Sometimes 3 12
TOTAL 25 100

0% 12%

a) yes
b) no
c) sometimes

88%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 88% of the Employees says yes and 12%
Employees are sometimes having unbiased attention.

10) Does group cohesiveness prevail in your organisation?

OPTIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Yes 21 84

48
No 2 8
Sometimes 2 8
TOTAL 25 100

8%
8%

a) yes
b) no
c) sometimes

84%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 84% of the Employees are yes and 8% Employees
are no and 8% having sometimes group cohisiveness prevail in the organization.

11) What are the forces which bring cohesion in group?

OPTIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Outside Person 0 0
Competition 19 76
49
Others 6 24
TOTAL 25 100

24% 0%

a) outside person
b) competition
c) others
76%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 0% of the Employees are outside person and 76%
Employees are having competition, 24% of the Employees are others.

50
12) How often does interpersonal conflict arise among superior and
subordiantes and among the people at the same hierarchy?

OPTIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Quite Often 2 8
Occasionally 18 72
Never 5 20
Can’t Say 0 0
TOTAL 25 100

20% 0% 8%
a) quite often
b) occasionally
c) never
d) can’t say
72%

INTERPRETATION:

51
The above Diagram shows that 8% of the Employees are quite often, 72% of the
employees are occasionally problem and 20% Employees are never arise problem
among superior.

13) Is stress a major factor which affects your interpersonal relation in an


organisation?

OPTIONS NO. OF RESPONDENTS % OF RESPONDENTS


Yes 10 40
No 15 60
TOTAL 25 100

40%
a) yes
b) no
60%

INTERPRETATION:

The above Diagram shows that 40% of the Employees are major factors which
affect your personnel behaviour. And 60%Employees are no.

52
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

 Most of the workers have a friendly relationship with their superior as well

as their colleagues; this in turn depicts the open communication available in


organization.
 Most of the workers are often guided by their supervisors in their sphere of
work and agree that they understand their work pressures and problems and
try to solve them if it is within their reach.
 Most of the workers feel that unbalanced interpersonal relations affect the
efficiency level of employees mainly due to stress which is mainly caused
because of individual and organisational related factors.
 The negative behaviour of workers is mainly due to psychological and
behavioual problems although they get full co-operation and unbiased
attention from their superior in their work place.
 Group cohesiveness prevails among different groups in org. mainly due to
competition.
 No superior is afraid to express any kind of views about the worker to him.
 To some extent, the management is concerned about maintaining good
relations with trade unions.

53
LIMITATIONS

I had put my best effort in gathering the data and i have tried my level best that the
data provided and the survey done are authentic as they could be, but there are
some limitations, which are mentioned below :

 The study period is limited, the researcher has to collect the necessary and
important information within the limited period of time and it is not possible to
collect it, due to lack to time.

 Some consumers give half-hearted response or false information, which may


lead to wrong conclusion.

 It is not possible to carry out the detailed survey due to limited finance.

 The crew members were hesitates to speak freely as they feared the
information’s to leak in the head office.

54
CONCLUSION

After working on this project it’s my immense pleasure to say it’s been most
beneficial to me as it given me lot of knowledge about the hr department, which
includes how an hr department works and how to interact with people.

I found that in lumax dk auto industries ltd. There is an open communication and
most of the employees in the company are satisfied but still there are some
employees who are not satisfied with their superiors and these employees are
mostly working in godowns.

I also found that the company is of the view that interpersonal behaviour is not
only helpful in making peace but also in the career planning.

The company is also of the view that interpersonal behaviour plays an important
role in the positive relations between the superior and the subordinate.

55
RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of my findings and conclusion my suggestions to the company are:

To know why 20% employees are not satisfied with their superiors and try to
solve their problems.

Equal opportunities are given to all to express their feelings in the meetings.

To realize the employees who are working at godowns that they also have
Freedom to take initiative in regard to change in procedure.

 Give more importance to the hr department as it plays a key role in an

Organisation.

 Mostly recruitments are internally, but there should be external recruitments so


that company get more benefitted.

56
SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE

INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR IN AN ORGANISATION

Name:
Department:
Age:
Marital status:
QUESTIONS:

Q 1:- What kind of relationship do you have with your boss?


A) Formal 
B) Friendly 
C) Both formal and friendly 
D) Miscellaneous 

Q 2:- How often does your superior guide you in your job?
A) Often 
B) Once in a while 
C) Never 
D) Can’t say 

57
Q 3:- How often does your boss blame and comdemn you when things go wrong in
your area of work?
A) Very often 
B) Once in a while 
C) Never 
D) Can’t say 
Q 4:- What type of relations do you have with your colleagues?
A) Friendly 
B) Competitive 
C) Social 
D) All three 

Q 5:- Do you feel unbalanced interpersonal relations affect the efficiency level of
employees?
A) Yes 
B) No 
C) Can’t say 

Q 6:- Which of the following situations adversely affect your relationship among
groups?
A) Stress 
B) Illiteracy 
C) Incompetence 
D) Lack of knowledge 
E) Miscellaneous 

58
Q 7:- What are the causes of such adverse situations?
A) Individual causes 
B) Group causes 
C) Organizational causes 
D) Others 

Q 8:- What problems does the negative behaviour lead to?


A) Physical problem 
B) Psychological problem 
C) Behavioural problem 
D) Others 

Q 9:- Do you get full cooperation and unbiased attention from your superior in
your work place?
A) Yes 
B) No 
C) Sometimes 

Q 10:- Does group cohesiveness prevail in your organisation?


A) Yes 
B) No 
C) Sometimes 

Q 11:- What are the forces that bring cohesion in group?

59
A) Outside person 
B) Competition 
C) Others 

Q 12:- How often does interpersonal conflict arise among superior & subordinates
and among the people at the same hierarchy?
A) Quite often 
B) Occasionally 
C) Never 
D) Can’t say 

Q 13- Is stress a major factor which affects your interpersonalrelation in an org.?


A) Yes 
B) No 

60
BIBLIOGRAPHY

PUBLICATIONS:
• Kothari, c.r business research methodology, New Delhi, new age
international (p) ltd, publishers.

• Marketing research by “s l gupta”

• Organizational behavior “Dr f.c .sharma” (shree mahavir book depot


publishers)

• Lumax dk magazines

WWW.LUMAXDK.COM

WWW.GOOGLE.COM

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