Graphology the study and analysis of handwriting, which mirrors the writer symbolically ³Handwriting is civilization¶s casual encephalogram

.´ Graphology FOREWORD«««««««««««««.«..2 I. ETYMOLOGY««««««««««««.«..4 II. HISTORY«««««««««««««.««5 III.VALIDITY««««««««««««««.7 IV.LIMITATIONS«««««««««««««8 V.APPROACHES OF GRAPHOLOGY««««««9
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VI.LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS««««««««««9 VII.APPLICATIONS OF GRAPHOLOGY««««..«10 VIII.APLICATED GRAPHOLOGY««««««..12 IX. EXAMPLES OF TRAITS«..«««««««.«.20 X.BIOGRAPHY OF MARILYN MONROE««««««..21 XI. CONCLUSION«««««««««««««26 XII.BIBLIOGRAPHY«««««««««««.27 FOREWORD Graphology is the study of all graphic movement; it is not simply ³handwriting analysis.´ In addition to handwriting, the graphologist studies doodles, drawings, sculptures, and paintings in order to gain insight into the physical, mental, and emotional states of the writer or artist. Although all graphic movement can be analyzed, handwriting is the most accessible for analysis because we teach the subject in our schools and most people can write. Communicating through written symbols is a uniquely human endeavor. Of the millions of species of life on earth, only Homo sapiens has the ability to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, design the graceful span of the Golden Gate Bridge, or scrawl ³Alexander was here . . . ´ on a bathroom wall. We are also the only species that can use graphic symbols to

communicate long after we are dead, through art, books, wills, music, and so on. You can look at someone¶s handwriting and you can have a brief insight into that person¶s character even if you have not met that him. People aren¶t aware of how much graphic movement reveals how they feel, even if most of them use graphology intuitively, based on common sense, when put in a situation where they have to analyze handwriting. I have divided my paper into ten chapters, each focusing on the most important features of the Graphology. In the first two chapters, I¶ve written about general facts, like the etymology of the word and the history of this unique method of analyzing someone character The third and fourth chapter focus on the scientific point of view on this controversial science .The fifth chapter describes the three main approaches of graphology and the sixth chapter debates the legal considerations of such science. The last four chapters present the most common patterns in Graphology with real life examples like Marilyn Monroe. The reason I have chosen Graphology to be the subject of my English Certificate, is because it will prove a efficient method in my future career as a psychologist. Graphology has grown up as an alternative psychological analyzing method. It does not rely on sensational concepts such as Freud¶s. Instead, it relies on the actual evidence of handwriting. It does not classify people into set personality types. Handwriting shows that everyone is an individual. Nevertheless, character portraits by graphologists have been described as ³stunningly similar´ to those derived from psychological tests, purely through handwriting analysis. Graphology ³As a child you were taught to write. Why don¶t you continue to write the way you were taught ? The fact that you don¶t is the reason Graphology exists«´. I. ETYMOLOGY Graphology: graphos (from the Greek : writing) / logos (from the Greek : science). It is a generic, as for instance: Anthropology, Psychology, Biology, Geology. With the lexeme Grapho (from the Greek: ) there are many words generic: Graphopatology, Graphomaniac, Graphistic, Graphopsychology, psychoGraphology, Graphometric, Graphometry, Graphoanalysis, Graphotechnology. Introduction Spoken words are the symbols of mental experience, and written words the symbol of spoken words. Just as all men have not the same speech sounds, so all men have not the same writing.´ ² Aristotle

arm. movement. all handwriting movements are governed by complex universal laws. µTo write¶ or µI write¶. rhythm. We all recognize writing on envelopes from close friends and relatives and have noted that our own handwriting suffers when we are under emotional or physical stress. Handwriting may also be regarded as ³brainwriting´.which has it¶s own meaning and interpretation. mental state. neither do . quality. coined the phrase ³Graphology´.. Although supporters point to the anecdotal evidence of thousands of positive testimonials as a reason to use it for personality evaluation. being at its highest level when an effort has to be made by the writer and at its lowest level when the motion of the writing organ has gained momentum and is driven by it. which follow the principles of dynamical systems. II.Writing is an expressive movement . One must examine the handwriting or drawing movements by considering them as movements organized by the central nervous system and produced under biomechanical and dynamical constraints. their handwriting will show additional changes. however. The form of the resultant writing movement is modified further by the flexibly assembled coordinative structures in the hand. and biomechanical factors such as muscle stiffness and elasticity are reflected in a person¶s handwriting. with character and with strengths and weaknesses. the French Abbot. reflect both transitory and long term changes in the central nervous system such as Parkinson¶s disease. therefore. form. acquired when these people learned to write by copying letters and words.Arbitrary as it may at first appear. circa 2. they tend to take on individual styles with age. or alcohol usage.000 BC. Graphology has been controversial for more than a century. relatively speaking.The movements and corresponding levels of muscular tension in writing are mostly outside of conscious control and subject to the ideomotor effect. are found to be as valid as the universal laws which govern chemistry and mathematics. Therefore it is not surprising that efforts should be made to compare handwriting with emotions. The written strokes. Its activity waxes and wanes. The specific writing organ (mouth. from the Greek: ³Graph´ meaning. hand. Graphology is the study of handwriting and the connection it has to a persons behavior. graphologists proceed to evaluate the pattern. Also. and consistency of the graphic stroke in terms of psychological interpretations. In 1875. which. The neurophysiological mechanisms which contribute to the written movement are related to conditions within the central nervous system and vary in accordance with them. and ³Logos´ meaning µdoctrine¶ or µtheory¶. crook of elbow) is irrelevant if it functions normally and is sufficiently adapted to its function. Such interpretations vary according to the graphological theory applied by the analyst. and shoulder. HISTORY The belief that handwriting is a sign of the inner personality is very old.The muscular movements involved in writing are controlled by the central nervous system. when fully understood and accurately applied. Emotion. foot. Although the term µgraphology¶ is relatively recent. the subject itself dates back many centuries. Handwritng is unique to each individual. Given these considerations. most empirical studies fail to show the validity claimed by its supporters.When we write. Aristotle wrote: ³Just as all men do not have the same speech sounds. having originally (as far as we can tell) been taken from Southern India to China and from there to Greece. as a person ages. the ego is active but it is not always active to the same degree. Jean Hyppolyte Michon. Coming closer to present expression of the whole personality. Although some peoples¶ handwriting may have similar styles and characteristics in common.

To every element in the handwriting. and have to use the opposite hand. unless it is supported by other factors in the writing. µpunctuation¶ and µparaphs¶. or even the mouth or foot as in the case of paralysis. Speed. Also in Switzerland. At approximately the same time in Germany. and the Frenchmen. Edouard Hocquart and Abb Flandrin. he insisted that the value of any given sign is not fixed and that its significance and interpretation can vary depending upon the other features in the writing. But it was not until the second half of the century. Form. At the beginning of the 19th century. Klages moved to Switzerland where he was to continue his research work and create the first complete and systematic theory of graphology. no single feature in handwriting can be taken reliably to represent anything about the writer. William T Preyer recognized the fact that µhandwriting¶ is in fact µbrainwriting¶. but even his greatest contributions were overshadowed by the eminence of Klages. and also with the practice of attributing rigid interpretations to single signs. the 2nd ³Graphological Periodical´ was founded in Germany by Hans Busse (who also formed the Association for Graphological Research). Direction. This was little more than a collection of random observations though. Dr Max Pulver. Pressure. namely the µstroke¶. he studied certain elements in handwriting. developed the art of interpreting handwriting. is now recognized as only being partly accurate. in terms of the symbolism in handwriting. who spent his life collating and improving upon Michon¶s observations. This theory is now supported by all professional graphologists. He defined the various elements of handwriting which today form the basis of the French school of graphology. is today credited with founding the ³Societ Francais de Graphologie´. Meyer¶s work was important.they all have the same writing´. by the Italian Camillo Baldi. ³How to recognize from a letter the nature and quality of a writer´. Michon¶s successors. His method gained popularity owing to its simplicity. In other words. Lavater. Dr Ludvig Klages. a renowned psychologist who had a deep interest in graphology. µflourishes¶. the µletters¶. But it is not until 1622 that the study of handwriting was put into print. that the subject began to arouse public interest. Crepieux-Jamin. ³Handwriting can infallibly show whether it comes from a person who is noble-minded or from one who is vulgar´. the µbaseline¶. when Michon published the results of his many years research into individual handwriting movements. although obviously not executed with such fluency at first. Crepieux-Jamin attributed a range of possible meanings. the same basic tendencies will appear in the script. his method of allocating one specific movement to represent one aspect of character. and Confuscius is recorded as having observed. and remained virtually unnoticed. However. and divided these elements into seven categories: Dimension. with his . His division of the handwriting into the three vertical µzones¶ explains aspects of the handwriting previously misunderstood. was to make a further contribution. Layout and Continuity. particularly his student. the German. Later. The chief contributors were Dr Georg Meyer and Busse¶s assistant editor. both in direction and in symbolism of space. as did Nelson for example. µparagraphs¶. Jule Crepieux-Jamin disagreed with this principle. the µwords¶. µfree movements¶ (µi¶ dots and µt¶ bars). In 1897. He correctly postulated that should the writer lose his writing arm. and in particular his assertion that the lack of a movement indicated the opposite characteristic.

Many studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness to predict personality and job performance. Preyer. * Alfred O Mendel. based upon what he termed ³the science of the expression of movements´. Lockowandte (1976)and Nevo(1986). * Klara Roman.Graphology is primarily used as a recruiting tool to screen candidates during the evaluation process. a Hungarian graphologist who emigrated to the USA. in which he introduced a new approach to the interpretation given to direction of pressure. and depth ± providing an integral understanding of graphology as we know it today. A Key To Personality´ (recently reprinted by the Institute). a contemporary of Saudek¶s. They were able to draw upon a more highly developed understanding of a psychological characterology which for the first time attempted to penetrate the psyche of the writer. Professor Rudolph Pophal (whose books are currently being translated into English) who held the Chair in Psychology and Graphology at the University of Hamburg. etc. also produced books aimed at the general public.VALIDITY Although graphology had some early support in the scientific community such as Fluckinger. each of which indicated highly revealing aspects of the writer. expressive movements of hands and arms. i. depending upon the writer¶s personal proclivities. Tripp & Weinberg(1961). * Many books began to appear as the subject gained public interest. revealing that gestures seen in the writer¶s body language. some of whose authors also furthered the science of graphology. A Czech Graphologist who came to live in England. brought graphology into the area of research and made many discoveries related to brain and muscle structuring. whose book ³Personality in Handwriting´ included a lengthy dissertation on pressure in handwriting. ³Handwriting. horizontal movement. is acknowledged as having established ³speed´ in handwriting. included the results of considerable research into pressure in her excellent book. Klages and Pulver. that handwriting is indeed µbrainwriting¶. a British psychologist who wrote . the results of most of the recent surveys on the ability for graphology to assess personality and job performance have been negative. These latter graphologists.e. were also reflected in the handwriting. * Hans Jacoby. manner of walking. no serious graphologist would consider assessing handwriting without first ascertaining the speed. and demonstrated that this single subject could be broken down into many different areas. Recent studies testing the validity of using handwriting for predicting personality traits have been consistently negative. the results of most of the recent surveys on the ability for graphology to access personality and job performance have been negative as well. III. made greater attempts than their predecessors to appreciate the inner psychological causes of graphic expression. * And in Germany. including: * Robert Saudek..formulation of the µThree Dimensions¶ ± vertical movement. which confirmed the earlier assertion of Preyer¶s. The best way to summarize the appeal that graphology has despite the complete lack of empirical evidence has been put up by Dr Rowan Bayne. Today.

Dr. originally published in The Encyclopedia of Clinical Assessment. in its publication: An Annotated Bibliography of Studies in Handwriting Analysis Research. some practitioners are more competent than others. if not hundreds of studies being conducted and published annually. points to studies that: ³seem to be the most effective in demonstrating a scientific basis for the assumption that handwriting can be as valid in personality assessment as the other major projective techniques. As to handwriting analysis. Crumbaugh (Mississippi Psychologist of the Year. Handwriting analysis training that suits the present generation needs is available from organisations like -International school of Handwriting analysis[usa]. nevertheless. Today. The Handwriting Analysts India[India]. 1989). Dr. psychiatrists and other physicians have taken training in handwriting analysis and that.g. So yes. Destroying a written specimen where the writer has expressed emotionally charged issues and concerns has therapeutic value. this field is catching the attention and gaining the respect of the scientific community. James C. International Graphoanalysis society. the Rorschach Inkblot test) which rely heavily on the skill of the practitioner and do not easily stand up to ³hard core´ validation measures. Controlled writing is a repetitive act that can be used to modify personality by suggesting behavioral traits. is a result of physiological and psychological causes. Since agraphia.several studies on graphology: ³It¶s very seductive because at a very crude level someone who is neat and well behaved tends to have neat handwriting´ . The Graphoanalytic system appears to satisfy the tests of global and holistic validation. in a reprint entitled: Graphoanalytic Cues. . As well. Other schools of graphology may or may not be scientific but. summarizes approximately 240 studies bearing on various aspects of graphology.LIMITATIONS The written specimen portrays personality descriptions and behavior predictions. Also. Crumbaugh. They can. Dr. The text content is irrelevant to the character analysis and is not utilized by the handwriting analyst. many universities require training in Graphology as part of their Ph. be accepted as scientific if they meet the criteria of global or holistic validation. many of them by serious scholars. IV. undeniably. aspects of handwriting analysis can be scientific. some aspects of Psychology involve projective techniques (e. Crumbaugh points out that these studies comprise less than two percent of studies conducted on this science and he considers these to be the most serious studies conducted by scholars and published in respected publications. negative comments on the quality of penmanship are unnecessary and subjective. The specimen cannot explain the ³why´ or give the past root-cause for a particular action or condition. programme in Psychology.´ He further points out that a number of psychologists. This is much like asking: ³Is Medicine or Psychology scientific?´ The answer is: ³Some aspects are very scientific and some are not. but must be performed with great care.D. 1980. handwriting analysis is the subject of much scientific investigation with dozens. The International Graphoanalysis Society has had a research department since 1929 and. volume 11. in Germany. revised 1985. and studies are continuing to demonstrate this. degraded or ³bad´ penmanship.

color. trait stroke. V. menstruation. Hazelwood School District (1976) indicated handwriting analysis meets Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In this approach. As a note. EEOC.APPROACHES OF GRAPHOLOGY There are three main systems of graphology. Symbolic analysis In this approach. In this approach (Holistic Graphology) a profile is constructed on the basis of form. Movement and Space. sensory. French System and Graphoanalysis. cultural influences. disease. Symbolic Analysis is based on the analysis of symbols seen in the handwriting. Most systems within this approach use a cluster of stroke formations. traumatic experiences. one looks for symbols seen in the handwriting. and financial status. race. or Minor Symbolism. group status. to score a specific personality trait. national origin. natural origin. religion. age. political leaning. physical beauty. electric shock treatment. a teenager¶s writing tends to be inconsistent from moment to moment.. movement and space. situation anxiety. Holistic graphology This is commonly. These conditions modify personality. and fatigue. dependent upon the affects of drugs. Gestalt graphology was a system of handwriting analysis developed circa 1915 in Germany and was related theoretically to Gestalt psychology. and working to the inside. creed. but can take on different meanings depending on the overall context. Integrative Graphology is constructed on the basis that specific stroke formations relate to personality traits. are not assigned specific meanings. Integrative graphology This approach holds that specific stroke structures relate to personality traits. social economic background. . individual traits. It has been described as starting from the outside.Your writing is independent of your background and physical appearance. Handwriting does not give causality information on gender. but incorrectly referred to as Gestalt Graphology. age and disability. sex. handicap (e. It has been described as starting from the inside. and working to the outside. Your writing is. maturity. educational qualifications. Practicing a particular written pattern for twenty minutes each day for thirty days to alter behavior should be carefully monitored. Statistical correlations have yielded various degrees of success and/or failure. (Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act) requirements as nondiscriminatory. color. manual.g. such as legibility. hypnosis. Federal District Court-United States v. Systems that fall under this umbrella are: fixed signs. In Holistic Graphology a persons profile is formed on the the basis of Form. Every system of graphology has its own vocabulary that makes the meaning those words different. * Major symbolism is the meaning ascribed to the stroke. The EEOC legal counsel in 2001 indicated that there has been no cases based on handwriting that discriminate against an individual¶s race. however. physical strength. This can be either Major symbolism. or speaking disability). as it related to the page.

67. Age. Neither do they address third party issues. weight. . Second Series 35. Uniformly the research indicates that gender can be determined at a significant level. As a result.* Minor symbolism ascribes a meaning to the stroke. The published studies on ethnicity race age nationality. 93 SC 774 US v Mara aka Marasovich :410 US 19 (1973) US v Rosinsky :547 F 2nd 249 (CA 4th 1977 ) United States v Wade :388 US 218. Max Pulver is the best known exponent of this system. for example. thus far. VI. Lawyers Edition. 221-223 (1967) All of these cases are about Fifth Amendment rights in a criminal investigation. Handwriting clearly falls into the group of tests that cannot be adapted to be administered to individuals who fall within one or more ADA-defined disabilities. tests that cannot be adapted for use by those individuals will not be used by a company. This approach provides the theory that underlies both Holistic Graphology. For example. do not develop the required fluency in handwriting. there have been no studies demonstrating that the use of handwriting analysis in employment does not have a disparate impact upon EEOC protected classes. for the writing to be correctly analyzed. then nobody can. Ethnicity. or other EEOC Protected Classes. depending upon the picture that the stroke draws. and their relationship to handwriting have had mixed results. A Hungarian Parliamentary Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information report[65] states that handwriting analysis without informed consent is a privacy violation. John Wayne¶s signature shows a blackened out portion. gender orientation. These cases do not address issues relating to psychological analysis of an individual.LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS Graphologists often claim that handwriting analysis in the workplace is legal. Blind people.citing one or more of the following cases: y y y y y Gilbert v California :388 US 263-267 (1967) US v Dionisio :410 US 1 (1973) 1973. However. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 One of the rules of thumb in human resources is that if an individual who has an ADAdefined disability cannot take a test. with a tendency to indicate that they can be determined from handwriting. There have been a number of studies on gender and handwriting. that represents his lung cancer. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Many graphologists claim that handwriting analysis is non-discriminatory. since it cannot determine Gender. and Integrative Graphology.

Ct. Be generally accepted in the Scientific Community. 137 Misc. it fails between two and five criteria. case law for the rejection of graphology as psychological testimony. Daubert Daubert defined several criteria that admissible expert testimony has to meet.Y. Carroll v State [276 Ark 160.APPLICATIONS OF GRAPHOLOGY The most common applications of graphology are: ‡ Employment profiling o Business Compatibility ‡ Marital compatibility ‡ Psychological analysis ‡ Medical diagnosis ‡ Jury Screening Employment profiling A company takes a writing sample provided by an applicant. Depending upon the specific system of handwriting analysis that is used.S. Subject to published peer review. In doing so. 2d 373. 101-102 (1982)] will be remembered for its implications on the propriety of allowing graphologists to testify. Be valid and reliable. The opposing Handwriting Analysts displayed a distinct lack of professional courtesy to each other. such as comprehensive background checks and practical demonstration of work skills. they undermined the scientific validity of both Integrative Graphology and Holistic Graphology.Y.Questions that Handwriting Analysts ask before doing an analysis can be illegal under this act. A graphological report is meant to be used in conjunction with other tools.2d 917 (Sup.S. Held to standards within the field. refutable. Co. and proceeds to do a personality profile.[81] Graphology in court testimony Cameron v Knapp. matching the congruency of the applicant with the ideal psychological profile of employees in the position. y y y y y Be verifiable. 1987) (handwriting expert may testify as to the authenticity of a writing but not as to an individual¶s physical or mental condition based on a handwriting sample) stands as current U. 634 SW 2d 99. Of the . 520 N. VII. N. and testable.

281 ± 283). R E A Graphological Examination of the Handwriting of Air Pilots Thesis in the Faculty of Arts: University of Pretoria: 1934) to guarded success (Luca. to create three hypothetical employees. the mean.traditional tools used in the hiring process. Business compatibility This is an additional service offered by some handwriting analysts. ‡ Division wide This is a report that describes how compatible the individual is. The focus of these reports can be one. ‡ Unit wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. The individual is then compared to these three employees. the only one that graphology can replace. to create three hypothetical employees. with each employee in the company. mode. mode. ‡ The average unit employee . E S ³Major Aptitudes and Personality Chracteristics of 42 Dental Students as Evaluated Through their Handwriting. ‡ The average company employee For this report. with focus being how well the individual will fit into the existing company psychodynamic profile. The individual is then compared to these three employees. 43. for the entire company are used. and median scores of every scored data point . the mean. ‡ The average division employee For this report. for the entire division are used. 1 * No. 3 * Fall 1997). with the focus being how good a fit the individual is.´ New York Journal of Dentistry 1973. 73 * No. with each employee in the division. is the job interview. 1 * Article 1) and on legal grounds (Julie Spohn ³The Legal Implications of Graphology´ Washington University Law Quarterly Vol. The use of graphology in the hiring process has been criticized on ethical ground (Daryl Koehn ³Handwriting Analysis In Pre-Employment Screening´ The Online Journal of Ethics Vol. or more of the following: ‡ Company-wide This is a report the describes how compatible the individual is. and median scores of every scored data point . with each employee in the unit. Research in employment suitability has ranged from complete failure (Lighton.

any commitment that is made. The resulting reports not only deal with the individual on a one-to-one level within the group. but also those of their co-workers. nor theory to support them. are research studies in which handwriting is used as one datapoint in making a clinical diagnosis. to a four wheel Wittlich Diagram and accompanying twenty five thousand word analysis. ‡ Composite reports This explores the difference in personal style between every employee in a group. Transactional Analysis. mode. ‡ The unit manager / Co-worker This explores the differences in personal style between a manager/co-worker and potential employee. and how they can more harmoniously work together. On the other end of claims made by graphologists. but also each individual as a part of a group of three. A major value of a graphological analysis lies in the increased understanding of people and the ability consequently to enjoy improved relationships both personally and professionally. etc people within the group. On one end. will be more enduring. Psychological analysis These reports can range from a ten item check off list to a 10 000 word report on the makeup of an individual from the perspective of Freudian Psychoanalysis. and sexual response are examined. for the entire unit are used. and understanding how each other are different. At its most complex. it is not unknown for a polyamourus group to obtain a report. It complements psychometric assessment because they each come from different directions according to the International Graphology Association. five. The content of these reports can range from a simple perspectrograph. which have neither research. only sexual expression. with a focus on how good a fit the individual is. the mean. . Medical diagnosis Medical graphology is probably the most controversial aspect of handwriting analysis. every aspect of an individual is examined for how it affects the other individual(s). Whilst these are typically done for couples. The idea is for each member of the group to learn not only their own strengths and weakness. The basic theory is that knowing. Marital compatibility In its simplest form. and median scores of every scored data point . four. The end result is on how each can maximize productivity and minimize personal friction. prior to the commitment ceremony of a new individual. Those are then compared to the applicant. into the group. to create three hypothetical employees. or another personality theory.For this report.

000 people only 3 people were found to write concave lines. for the most favorable response from the jury. In some cases fatigue can be considered a reason for a descending line. based upon their alleged personality profile. When we write we move from left to right. Experience shows that people in a mood swing may temporarily write in descending lines. On the other hand ascending lines may indicate optimism. Jury screening A graphologist is given handwriting samples of a prospective jury and determines who should be struck. Out of a sample of 1. A person who writes a straight line may also go straight toward his daily aim. But even after years of practise the reality is that few people write in a straight line. in other words we progress. prior to the then standard medical tests.APLICATED GRAPHOLOGY DIRECTION OF LINES Instruction in writing has usually insisted in writing in straight lines. If a person writes in a precisely straight line we may say that person is unyeilding. People who write with concave lines (a line that descends than ascends) approach their task with little optimism but gain self confidence as the task nears completion. meandering lines may be indicative of moodiness. Generally speaking descending lines may be caused by depression or pessimism. the graphologist advises counsel on how to slant their case. Wavy.Alfred Kanfer published several papers whose implication was that cancer could be detected using handwriting analysis. Subsequent studies failed to support his findings. It may be said it represents our hopes and dreams. VIII. After the trial has begun. Deviations from writing in a straight line are not the exception but more the norm. Descending steps are often found in writers who bravely fight off depressive moods. When we write the words follow one another as they do in speech. The activity of writing may therefore be interpreted as a movement toward the future. Lines that are ascending steps are often found in people who have little stamina. People who write in convex lines (a line that ascends then descends) start their project with ambition and enthusiasm only to lose interest and give up before the task has been completed. SPACE BETWEEN WORDS Space between the words is non-deliberate. When we buy writing paper it is ruled in a straight line. .

When a person speaks with pauses it may be because they are accustomed to pondering and considering before they act. People who tend to leave wide left margins are often shy people or on the other-hand they are proud people. However this only betrays what we want. However. This person may also be impulsive. It may also be because the person wants to let the words sink in to the audiences consciousness. then we may conclude the speaker is conceited. Narrow right margins show people who are eager to get out into the world away from family and sheltered life. Shy people will take full control over both the right and left margins making sure text if equally justified. It may be said that narrow upper margins betray informality and wide ones show withdrawal. They want to be one with the world. Wide left margins are often in handwtriting of proud or shy people. The Margins Left margins are deliberatly chosen. No margins is indicative of a person who wants no distance between other people. because it is the non-deliberate right margin that shows the distance we really assume. Margins are often set by what the paper layout is with width left for headers and address lines. Sometimes writers words are widley spaced and at other times narrowly spaced. Pathologiaclly selfconscious people will watch and control both the left and right margin. Wide right margins often symbolize fear of the unknown and a need for comfort and security. THE PEN IN WRITING . Many graphologists take the assumption that upper margins are determined by outside influences such as letterhead. A majority of writers will admit some deliberation in the choice concerning the width of the left margin. on the other hand if the pauses outweigh the importance of the speech. We may say that this writer is unstable in both thinking and emotions. Only in a few cases is the right margin chosen with such purpose. If there is no pause between the writers words then we may say this is a person of action. The width of the left margin might be indicative of the distance we wish to maintain to other people. Wide margins are indicative of a withdrawn person.

Left slant writing is seen more often in women than in men. and sociable. The pressure against the penholder is called secondary pressure. Wholly upright hands are very rare. Primary pressure can be analyzed through the contrast between thinner upper strokes and heavier downward strokes. Genuine pressure will appear naturally. In general interprtation of writing it may be said that the left direction is interpreted as the direction towards the mother as well as the past. But the same person with the same pen never writes the letter or word twice in exactly the same way. self-denial. They tend to have no inclination to either the mother or father. The right slant is found in people in a hurry. impatient people and the active writer. egotism. But as we know some writers do not. Writers with left slant are generally much closer to their mothers. The primary pressure indicates our strength and vitality. Left slant in writing can show introversion. expressive. restless. THE SLANT It may be said by some that the right slant is the normal slant.The appearance of a handwriting is in some extent relevent to the pen you use. sympathy. PRESSURE IN WRITING The pressure against the paper is called primary pressure. egotism. . The upright slant is found in people who are very independant in life. If the writing appears with a slant to the right the writer can be said as extrovert. The right slant is the most common and and most natural slant. Forced pressure looks forced and even cries out. neutrality. In fact this may only be achieved by a show of discipline. The task is to define between pressure produced by will and pessure produced by inhibition. fears the future and withdrawal. coldness. It may also be percieved that whoever writes from left to right naturally uses the right slant. Therefore people give much thought to the selection of a pen that feels natural to them. Writing which is upright can show self control. We often see left slant in people who have a disturbed balance in the parantel equilibrium. The secondary pressure indicates our aims and inner convictions. and self sufficiency. People are aware of this fact.

relations. Legible handwriters make good teachers and speakers.Extreme added pressure is often seen in hands of criminals. . They are sincere and co-operative. In the middle zone the writers daily routine is shown. It may suggest that the crossing of the neurological pathways typical in muscle brain center correlations is relevant here. LEGIBILTY Legibilty is a measure of the writers sense of purposefulness. The social behavior. how they think. His left side is to the right. SYMMETRY Symmetry is a yardstick of the writers inner balance and developement. pride and ethical ideas. If the middle zone is strongly developed this is a person whose sentimental and sensivity and concern for themselves are likely to result in emotional pain. imagination. Symmetry is used to establish style value. There we see what fills the unconscious. Pressureless writing is often seen in the hands of feminine writers. what they strive for. The lower zone harbours manifestations of things not yet known to the writer. BODY IMAGE A person`s body is projected in his writing. ZONES The upper zone shows what a writer thinks. and his right side is to his left. However their emotional development remains infantile. If the lower zone is overdeveloped we are dealing with a writer who is overconcerned with money. When the upper zones are strongly developed we are dealing with a person of intelligence and ambition. preferences and rejections.

Wide upper zone loops can show people who are deep thinkers and dreamers. h. Large writing can portray someone who is superior. Those who use short capital letters are often shy or modest people. but it usually crosses through all three zones. not ideas. CONNECTION OF LETTERS The connection of letters shows the writers attitude toward others. if they are very extended then the person probably has unrealistic expectations of what they can truly achieve. f can also be in this category. good at making and investing money. deep thinkers or academic. arcades and angles. Tall capitals are people who tower above the rest. Small handwriting can mean people who are respectful. They concentrate on facts. If they are straight it shows people who like to get the job done. Small capitals are people who are modest in nature. Deep garland indicate people who take things too tragically. takes pride. shy. . Tall initials come from impressive people. introvert. The size of a letter is indicative of the writers self reliance. down. tolerable. outgoing and extrovert. l. A letter may also be tall and wide. These people are wolves in sheeps clothing.But beware of the person whose writing is impressively legible. yet people who use tall initials are people who think tall and think of themselves as superior. p and y. then those whose letters go up then down directly over themselves are often un-imaginative. Wide letters are extroverted people. garland. b and d. Enclosed garlends are people who tend to be calculating. Letters in the lower zone like g. j. those who loop them are often full of energy. or/and need security. A letter may extend in four directions. Narrow letters come from loners. q. up. Letters which reach into the upper zones such as t. right or left. arrogant. boastful or they put on an act of confidence. In writing there are three mainly used links. SIZE OF LETTERS People who use tall capital letters are often tall themselves.

impatient. General arcades show people who rely on instincts. sluggish. When only some letters are unconnected it shows an artistic and intuitive thinker. Unspontaneous Writing : Inflexibile. High arcades show artistic gifts. The spaces between words are like when a person speaks with pauses. People who join up all of their letters are often logical and systematical thinkers. cautious. General angles show people who have contradictions in feelings. When all letters are connected it indicates a person with logical and systematic thinking. Spontaneous Writing : Ambition. big pauses usually means that the person is pondering or considering what to write. When most letters are unconnected it shows a person who is an egocentric. quick thinking. . honest but deep in thought and people with words narrow spaced may be unstable in either emotions or thinking. When the first letter stands apart it shows a cautious person. activity. Square garlands tend to come from narrow minded people.Flat garlands tend to come from the practical business man. Lack of end strokes indicates a shy person. A person who leaves wide spaces between letters is indicated as someone who is prone to isolation and loneliness. those who join most of their letters but leave some un-joined are artistic and intuitive thinkers and those who leave their writing totally un-joined are people who sometimes do things without thinking. Supported garlands come from people who need emotional support in life. restlessness. <>P> Low arcades show hypocrasy. A person who has some words widely spaced are often open. schemer. CONCEALING STROKE There are two interpretations of the concealing stroke. insability. a person who doesn¶t mix easily or is uncomfortable with closeness. SPACE BETWEEN LETTERS Space between letters show the extent the writer relies upon their own intuition. PACE OF WRITING Specific pace furnishes us with a variety of human characteristics. plotter.

From a young age we are taught to write in straight lines and given paper with ruled lines. yet they lose interest and give up when they have just got good at things or before the task is fully complete. Then people who write with their lines going down then up in a concave manor are people who are scared to approach something but when they manage to get there they gain a lot of self confidence. Someone who tends to write with straight lines is either very orderly. then lines that go uphill show optimism.Inhibition and insincerity are the basic meanings of the concealing strokes. Middle zone : Emotional delusions. In angels : Trickster. There are many different interpretations to what the line slants can determine. writing that is extremely legible. Wide spaced lines often show people who have a very organized life with order and a systematic approach to things. neutral. often portrays people who can be very different from how they seem. In the first letter : frustrated ambition. whereas ones which are touching or overlapping may indicate people with emotional or mental disorders. Wavy lines that do not have a set pattern show people who have bipolar or alternating moods. People who write with their lines going up then down in a convex manner are people who have ambition and are good at things they do. but even with this very few people actually write using straight lines. In arcades : Shrewd. In upper zone : Secretive. Slope and Width Of Lines The direction of lines when written can say a lot about people. . hidden or someone who goes straight for their aims and goals. However. In garlands : Shyness. my personal study and interpretation into handwriting would say that: Lines which go downhill may be caused by pessimism and depression. neat. If the line is highly spaced from the next then it might just show someone who likes to keep their distance! Lines with little space between them indicate people who like to be around others. Other Stuff In Handwriting People whose writing is very legible are often severe and co-operative.

and just have poor handwriting in general. The trait name identifies a graphic indicator with its descriptive behavior. such as bad writing positions or the wrong type of pencil grasp. nbottom baseline intersections BLUNT increasingly heavy downward and forward middle final BROADMINDED wide e-loop sorts and separates information in assessing their value. as this is not often the case due to time constraints.If a signature is decorative then it speaks of a person who dramatically expresses themselves. People who have a signature just like their normal writing are down to earth people and those with illegible signatures wish to hide their true personality and feelings. Because of this. they may be depressed and dissatisfied with society or in the extreme they could even be suicidal. left handed children often develop poor writing habits. People who put a stroke through their signature are often people who wish to get rid of themselves. parents can provide opportunities for their children to practice their handwriting at home. If your child is left-handed they may have difficulty monitoring their handwriting as their hand covers their writing. Left Handed Writing Many parents worry that their left-handed child writes awkwardly or uncomfortably. Try to angle the paper so that it lies parallel to your child¶s forearm. Even five to ten minutes per day spent on handwriting until your child can remember how to form the letters reasonably well can make all the difference to your child¶s handwriting skills. free of bigotry focuses attention on one CONCENTRATION activity ignoring all other small writing influences integration and CULTURAL REFINEMENT discrimination of creative . EXAMPLES OF TRAITS y Trait names were chosen by Stephen Bongiovanni with regard to the founders of graphology and recognizing the fine line between sharing ideas of others and original concepts. Studies show that handwriting practice should be a part of every school day. IX. Examples of traits: ANALYTICAL THINKING v-wedges for m. Encourage your child to always position the paper correctly before starting a writing exercise. When writing. However. evaluates information brings matters to a conclusion and thrusts it upon others liberal self-viewpoints. When helping your left handed child to write ensure that the paper is positioned completely left of your child¶s midline. your child should never cross over the midline.

d-stem height through a sense of superiority X. One only has to track back her history to discover land mines of insecurity that pock marked her very short life. abundance of MUCH available energy and AVAILABLE heavy average stroke vitality. Despite having achieved a spectacular visual preeminence. Norma¶s mother married and divorced twice and had several affairs prior to giving birth to Norma. Abandonment. . proactive pressure inability to recall FORGETFUL information or planned missing t-bars action. Its graphic message portrays both the highs and lows ± emotional despair. belligerent upper circle excessively high regard of ones conduct demonstrated VANITY tall t. And Rejection Fear of Rejection Creates Different Motivations The evolution of personality as a result of emotional growth over time is a known fact. Tracking those personality and behavioral changes through the evolution of handwriting is intriguing as it reveals a rare portrait at a point in time. possesses strong libido and passions.middle letter printed artistic and structural as capital systems into one¶s mode of living EMOTIONAL INTENSITY. absentmindedness HUMOR the contrast between reality initial wavy upper and assumed values area down stroke to provokes amusement baseline REBELLIOUS open hostility towards inflated triangular authority and for any form forward inverted of discipline.BIOGRAPHY OF MARILYN MONROE NORMA JEAN A POOR LITTLE RICH GIRL A PROFILE IN COURAGE Her Childhood Was a Nightmare of Ongoing Neglect. she suffered horrendous insecurity. The evolving changes in this ³poor little rich girl´ can hardly be described as typical as it was played out publicly to some degree.

The mother had violent fits of rage and depression and could only care for her haphazardly. Unfortunately. a clear persona writing. Figure 2 was written during her meteoric rise to stardom. she never again saw her son. So much so that Norma had been in 10 different foster homes. leaving her with friends or family for weeks. leaving her pregnant. When her mother became increasingly indifferent and more emotionally unstable. vivacious. This early sample. Although her half brother had died. she slowly began to explore the world trying to find ways to support herself. This pattern was repeated several times over the years. he joined the navy soon thereafter. the guardian¶s husband sexually molested her. That led to posing for an infamous nude photo that flung open the doors to fame and fortune. apparently. and a neighbor raped her. abandonment. she worked briefly as a call girl and a model. straight baseline. low t-bars. Curiously. She had blossomed into an incredibly beautiful. she was given the option of either marrying the son of a neighbor whom she knew only vaguely or going back to the orphanage. (irregular. she put Norma in a foster home so that she would be free of the burden of having a child around. had been so promiscuous she had no idea who Norma¶s biological father was. regularity in letter forms and spacing) reveals a strong degree of emotional reserve and cautiousness ± she learned early to repress her feelings. she¶d take her back. Her mother was very unstable as was the grandmother. Her childhood was a nightmare of ongoing neglect.She. exaggerated mid zone letters. extremely photogenic young woman. Over the next few years. inflated d stem). exuberant albeit emotionally vulnerable. An important graphological issue is that she was left handed indicating she was inherently more vulnerable to the emotional influences of the right brain. Figure 1: This is a persona writing of a young LH teenager with a turbulent childhood. Her Husband divorced her and moved across the country taking the other two children. she became close to her half sister. . very insecure young woman. Although she lacked guidance. who tried to smother Norma when she was about two. extreme right slant. Consequently. Norma didn¶t find out she had a half sister and a half brother until she was 12 years old. rising letters that bounce up and down. Figure 1 was written during Norma¶s teenage years about the time she married. She had learned to let go of some of the strong inhibitions in the earlier sample and projects the image of a dynamic. (left slanted. some of which she claimed little Norma harbored in her soul. before she began her ascendancy to fame. Several months later. The marriage lasted but a few years before she filed for a divorce. she was well on the road to fame and fortune. it was taken away soon after birth. When Norma was 16. Figure 2: This sample was written in the midst of an exuberant transition. had spent two years in the Los Angeles Orphan¶s Home and had lived with a guardian for several years of her young life. her guardian moved out of state and did not want to take her. she was religiously superstitious and consumed fears regarding sin. rejection. Although she was allowed to bear the baby. She chose to marry the young man five years older than she. while the mother was quite promiscuous.

Figure 4 was written at one of the many low points in her life in a battle with depression to the point of breakdown (drooping. and in the safety of marriage. Lack of emotional bonding in her very early years due to a sick. so did her massive anxiety and depression. she had numerous simultaneous affairs. But the signs of inflated ego (extreme capital letters) suggest that she had not yet achieved balance in her life as the extreme zonal imbalance suggests. Figure 3 was written further along in her path to fame and fortune. R. Figure 4: The writer is caught in the throes of one of a number of breakdowns. Joseph indicates the effects of insecurity can create different motivations. or acclaim. Along the way. Those troubled souls drive themselves in seeking superiority. she somehow managed to forge a movie career. usually with older men. she endured terrible anguish in not being able to carry a pregnancy to term. varying baseline. drugged. Having begun to tap the power of her emotional resources in climbing her way to the top. frequently absent. the more the child is plagued with the underlying feelings of unworthiness. emotional insecurity is a given. Or it can spawn a desperate motivation to prove one¶s self to the world to gain the love and approval of which she had been deprived. applause and admiration of others to overcome their sense of feeling unworthy. it allowed her to marshal her emotional energy more effectively. and is overly critical. As her fame grew. she was exuberant in her efforts yet was never but a step away from being an extremely vulnerable waif who was consumed with anxieties and insecurities. miniscule letters. baseline and letter size). she became repeatedly pregnant. or intoxicated. . Dr. unwanted. (regularity in slant. mentally ill. Anxieties (seen in the narrow letter spacing and narrow o¶s) consumed her. disturbed. inadequate or unloved. irregular spacing). In one case. Having learned to temper her strong reactive exubrance to some degree. rejecting mother generated a massive black hole of emotional insecurities that could never be filled. Figure 3: By reining in her exuberance she learned to marshal her emotional energy more effectively and formed her own production company. inferior.Considering the early emotional neglect she was subjected to. the more a parent rejects and withholds love. fame. becoming one of the world¶s most sought after glamorous femme fatales. She was married and divorced several times to prominent men. the fear of rejection is such that the individual is paralyzed so that nothing is ever ventured. she underwent 12 abortions. Yet despite repeated suicide attempts and alcohol and drug abuse. Over the course of 21 years. she was notorious for holding up production which sent budgets escalating into the stratospheres. Joseph suggests. Dr.

However. Despite some eight years of therapy. that speculation has resurfaced. emotionally) taught her that she did not deserve love. Suetonius noted that Emperor Augustus did not separate his words when writing and concluded that this demonstrated a neglect of detail when forming a picture of a whole situation. involving the interpretation of character and personality traits. and possible ways of dealing with stress.e. Intutive interpretation of handwriting date back to ancient times. Such feelings of inadequacy often can spawn self destructiveness.Seen more as an art then a valid document. They buried her under the name of Marilyn« Biography of Marilyn Monroe XI. 35 years after her death. the official answer was more likely that it was finally a successful suicide.Today courses are being taken to find out more about the persons next to you. graphology is a controversial science. anxiety. and she spent a lifetime looking for it. It is a way to compare different personalities and their potential for compatibility in the areas of problem-solving. It is a system of studying the frozen graphic structures which have been generated in the brain and placed on paper in a printed and/or cursive style. Her unexpected death at such an early age hurled her towards an icon status. Yet she was one of the most beautiful. In conclusion.BIBLIOGRAPHY . achievement/work habits. Indeed. and how they will react under pressure. and recognizable actresses in the last 40 years. thinking styles. she had been plagued her entire life by fear. It is a method to view the emotional development of an individual relative to maturity and consistent actions. CONCLUSION What Handwriting Analysis Is It is a projective technique like body language which can profile human behavior in the areas of social skills. Aristotle claimed that he could define a person¶s soul by his way of writing.The need for love that was denied her from infancy unconsciously (i. interpersonal skills. Recurring speculation over the years has been that she may have been killed due to the considerable potential for serious political damage arising from those political connections. self a world characterized as being ÄAn Information Rich World which lacks in communications´ XII. and a very needy emotional dependence that often alienated those who were attracted to her. how they would fit into a team situation. she died at the young age of 36. After having a number of reported liaisons with an American president.

´ in The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal edited by Gordon Stein (Buffalo.Basil. Kendrick Frazier (Buffalo. 200 -205. ³Write and Wrong: The Validity of Graphological Analysis.´ in The Hundreth Monkey and Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. 1991). Kendrick Frazier (Buffalo..Y. Barry and Dayle F. pp.: Prometheus Books.´ in The Hundreth Monkey and Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. pp. 1991). ch. 206 -208. Beyerstein. Beyerstein.Y. Furnham. 1996). Inc. Robert. pp. Beyerstein. Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Publications. N. 1957). Graphology from the ³Encyclopedia of the paranormal ³by Berry Beyerstein ³The use of graphology as a tool for employee hiring and evaluation´. editors. ³Graphology. N. Adrian. N. Gardner.ed. the Study of Handwriting Analysis (Buffalo.: Prometheus Books. 309 -324. 1991).: Prometheus Books.: Prometheus Books. Barry.ed.Y.Y. N.from the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association . 24. ³Graphology and Personality: `Let the Buyer Beware¶. Martin. The Write Stuff ± Evaluations of Graphology.

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