Kritikal Super Best Friends

Kritik Authors and You A Lecture by Josh Key Terms: Here is a list of key terms. You should use this as a reference during this lecture and in future lectures and debate. Biopower: Power over life. The ability to preserve life is the flip-side of the power to take it away (Foucault). Calculability – The grouping of people together in order to manage them. Capitalism- is an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately owned, and capital is invested in the production, distribution and other trade of goods and services, for profit. Communism/Socialism- is a political ideology that seeks to establish a future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production and the absence of private property. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Deconstruction: You can break down any word/sentence because they say many things at once. Philosophers deconstruct complex things like god. E.g., deconstruction of law = It’s composed of people, they are corrupt, many people are denied rights. Deontology: Each person is an end unto his or herself. Someone who really believed in this system of ethics would find the idea of the politics DA abhorrent. Cannot decide to use the people of the harms as a means to preventing a war that is not their fault. Difference: Usually fundamental; traits that distinguish certain groups of people from others (gender, sex, ethnicity, etc.) Discourse: Basically means “ideas.” Refers to language and its assumptions; everything that conditions the way one speaks. Empiricism: Belief that humans can understand the world through objective observation. Epistemology: A study of the history of thought, how we acquire knowledge of the world. Ethics: Most common, asks, “What is right?” Fantasy: A story we tell ourselves in order to explain reality. E.g., a movie.(psychoanalysis). Form/Content: Form = how you say something; Content = what you say (e.g., sarcasm, numbering arguments, speed). Genealogy: Historical investigation; research of how ideas have changed over time (Foucault). Geopolitics: Geo = geography; politics = making decisions that weigh the pros and cons. Geopolitics = politics of the world Hermeneutic: A method of analysis/perspective. You start from one kind of thinking to get to another. Humanism: Idea that humans are the best and are the center of the universe, and we’re also getting better (e.g., don’t judge slave owners because our values hadn’t evolved yet).

Holy (Fasching) - A multi-culturalist understanding of the world that focuses on cross-cultural understanding and building bridges of understanding that allow for a peaceful world community to be created. Identity politics- is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. It claims to represent and seek to advance the interests of particular groups in society, the members of which often share and unite around common experiences of actual or perceived social injustice, relative to the wider society of which they form part. In this way, the identity of the oppressed group gives rise to a political basis around which they then unite. Logic: Reason determined through rationality Metaphysics: “What is it?” Pre-Socratics like Heraclites or Anaximander who thought that there were fundamental substances in the universe like fire, water, nothingness—has now shifted more to questions about the relationship of the self to the world…almost always dealing with an external world Multiculturalism- is a public policy approach for managing cultural diversity in a multiethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a country's borders. Ontology: The study of being/metaphysics- transcends the physical world and the 5 senses. Modernism – Philsophy that is derived from the works of the seventeenth century, most noted for ascribing to capital ‘T’ truths. Performance: Resist discourse through comporting (e.g., break down heterosexuality by crossdressing). Phenomenology: How things are represented in our consciousness, without reference to the status of the object outside ourselves. Will be important to postmodernism in a few minutes. A philosophic movement that originated around the turn of the century on the Continent (see Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations for example). This movement -- like Russell, G. E. Moore, and the analytic movement generally -- insisted on divorcing philosophy from (empirical) psychology, thus avoiding something labeled psychologism. The phenomenologists insisted that philosophers could directly study the pure phenomenon of thought (intensional objects) by a bracketing technique which avoided any commitments about empirical psychology. Positivism: Belief that the world can be read as a physical science with only concrete values. Postmodernism: Shift in philosophy and art in 20th century, from objectivity and truth to “the world is constructed.” Post-structuralism- is most easily understood as a critique of structuralism. Major contributors included Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, and Julia Kristeva. Pragmatism- A concept put forth to construct correct metaphysical doctrines rather than reject metaphysics. Realism: Dominant philosophy of international relations. Assumes states are rational actors and can accurately predict and avoid war. Representation: How we describe the world, the terms we use to describe the world, how we process information, etc. Resistance: Fighting against (unjust) power. Sacred (Fasching) - Exclusive groups that have differing descriptions of God and the correct reality. Sacred groups are responsible for Hiroshima, Auschwitz and the coming apocalypse. Standing reserve: Many people think of the world as a resource. They only think about what something can do for them, not its essence. It’s merely a “reserve” that is waiting around for us to use. Statism: The existence and authority of the state. State means any organized system of governance.

Subaltern: Alterity = difference; subaltern = below difference. Means people who are not considered within your community Subject(ivity): Consciousness of the self in relation to the external universe; the accumulation of personal experiences; self-reflection. The “other”: Other people/subjects, often the disempowered and marginalized. The Big Other: (Capitalized “O”) Like big brother- hidden thread that organizes society. (Psychoanalysis based) The Real: Reality is a lie. The “Real” never is fully grasped by the human mind (psychoanalysis). Utilitarianism: Greatest good for the greatest number.

Our Heroes:


Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5, 1818 in Germany. He was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. He is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggles. Marx died in London on March 14, 1883. While Marx's ideas have declined somewhat in popularity, particularly with the decline of Marxism in Russia, they are still very influential today, both in academic circles, and in political practice, and Marxism continues to be the official ideology of some Communist states and political movements.

Important Ideas
Human Nature: Commodity Fetishism: Ideology: Religion: The Environment:



Socialism to Communism:

Superpowers: Equality- Declaring that all people should be entitled to equal distribution of research. Sharing is better than being selfish. Utility in debate rounds: Marx’s criticism of capitalism, as an economic structure, is good because it questions the intent and function of most laws and economic practices. By advocating a destruction of all structural hierarchies, Marx’s communism can be seen as a fair liberal alternative to the consumerism and unequal economic practices of the status quo. Sidekicks: Zizek- Who will be discussed below Chomsky- Though a social anarchist, much of his criticism of history and structures are economic concerns. Churchill- Though concentrated on Native American Liberation, much of Churchill’s criticism and suggestive alternatives have very strong Marxist roots. Derrida- Discussed below

Frederick Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was born October 15, 1844. A German philologist and philosopher, produced critiques of contemporary culture, religion, and philosophy centered around a basic question regarding the positive and negative attitudes of various systems of morality toward life. He died on August 25, 1900.

Main Ideas
Nihilism and God is dead and beyond good and evil- Nietzsche saw nihilism as the outcome of repeated frustrations in the search for meaning. Nietzsche saw this intellectual condition as a new challenge to European culture, which had extended itself beyond a sort of point-of-no-return. Nietzsche conceptualizes this with the famous statement "God is dead”. Nietzsche believed this "death" had already started to undermine the foundations of morality and would lead to moral relativism and moral nihilism. As a response to the dangers of these trends he believed in re-evaluating the foundations of morality to better understand the origins and motives underlying them, so that individuals might decide for themselves whether to regard a moral value as born of an outdated or misguided cultural imposition or as something they wish to hold true. Master morality and slave morality- Nietzsche argued that two types of morality existed: a master morality that springs actively from the 'noble man', and a slave morality that develops reactively within the weak man. These two moralities do not present simple inversions of one another, they form two different value systems; master morality fits actions into a scale of 'good' or 'bad' whereas slave morality fits actions into a scale of 'good' or 'evil'. Amor fati and the eternal recurrence-A person who unconditionally affirms life would do so even if
everything that has happened were to happen again repeatedly. According to Nietzsche, it would require a sincere Amor Fati (Love of Fate), not simply to endure, but to wish for the eternal recurrence of all events exactly as they occurred — all of the pain and joy, the embarrassment and glory. The wish for the eternal return of all events would mark the ultimate affirmation of life.

Übermensch- Some controversy exists over who or what Nietzsche considered the Übermensch (in English, "overman" or "superman") to be or to represent. This is a person who leaves passive nihilism behind, and is proactive in an attempt to transvalue values. Nietzsche's vision of the overman aligns more with the concept of a Renaissance type of man or woman, than a Nazi-like will to power as solicited by Nietzsche’s sister.

Superpowers: Makes fun of everyone! Nothing was too sacred as to miss the wrath of the philosophy’s picked on kid brother. Everyone’s Achilles Heel was exposed when Nietzsche wrote about them. Utility in debate rounds Questions all forms of existing morality, which all debate impacts depend upon to call things like death, genocide and war as being ‘bad’. Nietzche also question reactivity to situations, which would criticize us presenting a harm and then a method to solve that problem. Nietzsche also rights about unconditionally affirming ones own fate, which has made interesting affirmative arguments in the past. Sidekicks: Foucault- see below Sartre- An existentialist who embraced Nietzsche’s concept of radical individualism and atheism. Sartre is most known for claiming that human’s have complete freedom and can’t know ‘the other’. All postmodern philosophers- (above)

Martin Heidegger

Heidegger was born in rural Messkirch, Germany. Raised a Roman Catholic, his father was the sexton of the village church. He served as a salaried senior assistant to Edmund Husserl at the University of Freiburg until 1923. After Hitler's rise to power, Heidegger became a member of the NSDAP (Nazi party) in 1933. He was appointed Rector of the University and his inaugural address, his "Rektoratsrede," became notorious. He resigned the Rectorship in 1934, but never resigned from the Nazi party. He died May 26.

Important Ideas
Science and Technology: Problem solving: Ontology and Dasein: Sidekicks: Sartre- see above- took his concept of being towards death to aid in existentialism Spanos- Criticizes American foreign policy for it’s problem solving method. Most famous for using the Vietnam Conflict as a model for why the methodology of United States policing is flawed.

Timothy W. Luke

areas of research specialization include environmental and cultural studies as well as comparative politics, international political economy, and modern critical social and political theory. He teaches courses in the history of political thought, contemporary political theory, comparative and international politics.

Important Ideas
Let’s talk about Foucault

Michel Foucault Biography: Born in 1926 in France. He had an uneventful childhood and was a mediocre students until his late teens. He suffered a bout of depression and attempted suicide in his twenties. His interactions in this period may have influenced his ideas about psychiatry, a subject about which he wrote extensively. He lived in France, Tunisia, and the US during his lifetime. He was active in student protests, prison reform, and the gay movement. It is believed that he contracted AIDS while living in San Francisco. He died of AIDS in Paris in 1984. Important Ideas: 1. Disciplinary power – 2. Biopower – 3. Geneaology –

Superpowers: X-Ray vision – ability to see power differentials in all human relations; Spidey-skin – ability to stick (link) to any affirmative which useds the government. Utility in debate rounds: Foucault is often used to link to affirmatives which make claims about the state’s abiltity to improve life – this is the biopolitics argument. Any time the state takes more interest in the ability to preserve life, there is the risk of increasing it’s ability to take life. Foucault is also used as a critique of reformism through the state. One important note for aff teams – Foucault may have written in opposition to the state, but he was very active in fighting for real, often state-based reforms of prisons and medicine. Sidekicks: 1. Giorgio Agamben – Looks at the history of the Roman Law and shows draws an analogy to today in which he argues that the Roman concept of homo sacer (“sacred man”) is used to justify biopolitical extermination. Homo sacer is the life that can be killed but not sacrificed. He connects this to the Holocaust. 2. Judith Butler – Below

3. Securitization authors – This group uses Foucault’s ideas as a foundation for criticisms of national security. Authors include Campbell, Dillon, and Shapiro. The argument here is that when the aff or neg identifies something as key to life or survival, this is an act of “securitizing.” Once something is securitized, it becomes critical to life and thus justifies war to protect it. For example, the argument that we should stop global warming to prevent resource wars securitizes the environment. The impact is biopolitical wars. This kritik can often be used as a discursive one – when you read a security impact of any kind on a DA, you are securitizing that subject.

Arne Næss: (born January 27, 1912) is widely regarded as the foremost Norwegian philosopher of the 20th century[2], and is the founder of deep ecology. His philosophical work focused on Spinoza, Buddhism and Gandhi. He was the youngest person to be appointed full professor at the University of Oslo. Næss, himself an avid mountaineer, is also known as the uncle of mountaineer and businessman Arne Næss Jr. (1937–2004) and the younger brother of shipowner Erling Dekke Næss. Næss cited Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring as being a key influence in his vision of deep ecology. Næss also engaged in direct action. In 1970, together with a large number of demonstrators, he chained himself to rocks in front of Mardalsfossen a waterfall in a Norwegian fjord and refused to descend until plans to build a dam were dropped. Though the demonstrators were carried away by police, the demonstration was eventually a success[3]. In 1958, Arne Næss founded the interdiciplinary journal of philosophy Inquiry. Philosophy: Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind an integral part of its environment. Deep ecology places greater value on non-human species, ecosystems and processes in nature than established environmental and green movements. Deep ecology has led to a new system of environmental ethics. The core principle of deep ecology as originally developed is Arne Næss's doctrine of biospheric egalitarianism — the claim that, like humanity, the living environment as a whole has the same right to live and flourish. Deep ecology describes itself as "deep" because it persists in asking deeper questions concerning "why" and "how" and thus is concerned with the fundamental philosophical questions about the impacts of human life as one part of the ecosphere, rather than with a narrow view of ecology as a branch of biological science, and aims to avoid merely utilitarian environmentalism, which it argues is concerned with resource management of the environment for human purposes. Principles

Proponents of deep ecology believe that the world does not exist as a resource to be freely exploited by humans. The ethics of deep ecology hold that a whole system is superior to any of its parts. They offer an eight-tier platform to elucidate their claims:[9] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Development Scientific Spiritual Experiential

Françoise d'Eaubonne (March 12, 1920 in Paris - August 3, 2005 in Paris) was a French feminist, who introduced the term ecofeminism (écologie-féminisme, éco-féminisme or écoféminisme) in 1974. Her father was member of the religious Sillon movement and anarchist sympathiser, her mother a child of a Carlist revolutionary. Her childhood in Toulouse was marked by the physical decay of her father, due to the gas he had been exposed to in the trenches during the war in 1914. When she was at the age of 16, the Spanish Civil War broke out. Three years later she witnessed the arrival of the Republicans in exile. Between the age of 20 and 25 she endured the privations of the time. In a train station in Paris the Liberation, the end of the war met her in form of freed Jews returning from the camps. Later she would express her feelings in this period of her life with the meaningful title "Chienne de Jeunesse". Such a childhood together with a hypersensitive personality made her look at the world critically and formed her into a militant radical and feminist. Former member of the communist party of France, in 1971 she co-founded the FHAR, a homosexual revolutionary movement. She coined the term ecofeminism in her book Le féminisme ou la mort in 1974. In her literary and militant life she came across a number of people of influence in the 20th century, like Colette, Simone de Beauvoir and JeanPaul Sartre, Jean Cocteau and many more. Philosophy: It is a philosophy and movement born from the union of feminist and ecological thinking, and the belief that the social mentality that leads to the domination and oppression of women is directly connected to the social mentality that leads to the abuse of the environment. It combines eco-anarchism or bioregional democracy with a strong ideal of feminism. Its advocates often emphasize the importance of interrelationships between humans, non-human others (e.g., animals and insects), and the earth. A central tenet in ecofeminism states that male ownership of … Vandana Shiva Some ecofeminists point to the linguistic links between oppression of women and land

Feminist and social ecologist Janet Biehl has criticized ecofeminism as idealist, focusing too much on the idea of a mystical connection with nature and not enough on the actual conditions of women. However, this line of criticism may not apply to many ecofeminists who reject both mysticism and essentialist ideas Françoise d'Eaubonne proposed a cooperative system in small unities (villages) with autonomization, without alienating technology. Superpowers: Bringing everybody together to fight all evil…coalescing the good against evil. Superfriends: Ghita rajan, Vandan Shiva

Ayn Rand Biography: Ayn Rand lived from 1905 – March 6, 1982. She was a Russian-born American novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter. She is widely known for her best-selling novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system called Objectivism. Philosophy: Rand's philosophical system, Objectivism, encompasses positions on metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics and aesthetics.Objectivism embraces objective reality in metaphysics, reason in epistemology, and rational egoism in ethics. In politics she was a proponent of laissez-faire capitalism and individual rights, believing that the sole function of a proper government is protection of individual rights (including property rights). … Rand considered the initiation of force or fraud to be immoral, Man as a heroic being… Rand was greatly influenced by Aristotle, … Summary: rational individualism laissez-faire capitalism, categorically rejecting socialism, altruism, and religion. Super Friends: Jason Peterson: A gun loving rural bumpkin from the middle of nowhere California, who hates taxes, the government and people who go to the movie and stay for a second. Tim Mahoney: St. Marks debate coach Adam Smith: Father of free market capitalism. Coined the term invisible hand. Donated lots of money to charity. Satan: Dark Night, Beezlebub

Jacques Derrida Biography: Born in 1930 in France and a contemporary of Lacan and Foucault. He was kicked out of his school in Algeria under the Nazi-sympathizing Vichy French government. After the war he came to prominence as a literary theorist. He died of cancer in 2003 Important Ideas: Post-Structuralism – Structuralism was a theory that was prominent in literature, linguistics, anthropology and psychology in Derrida’s heyday. The general idea, in terms of linguistics, is that a signifier (a word, sound) relates in a certain given way to the signified (the idea behind the word or the sound). Struturalism is a deterministic theory which argues that the relationship between the signified and signifier is fixed. Derrida, while he is often called a structuralist, argued that this relationship is not an easy one to establish. That language is very indeterminate and all language should be seen as influenced by culture. This influenced other thinkers. It is responsible for the “death of the author” school of thought which argues that texts should be viewed as cultural phenomena and not as creations of individual authors. Deconstruction – The answer solution to the modern problems of the world proposed by Derrida. He often uses the word “decentering” – this means attempting to remove signifiers from the center of our search for meaning. One can deconstruct any concept by attempting to dig underneath the superficial meaning and examine the history of the word or concept as a cultural object. According to Wikipedia, deconstruction is “A philosophy of meaning that deals with the ways that meaning is constructed by writers, texts, and readers and understood by readers. One way of understanding the term is that it involves discovering, recognizing, and understanding the underlying — and unspoken and implicit — assumptions, ideas, and frameworks that form the basis for thought and belief.” Deconstruction debunks the idea of “capital ‘T’ Truth.” Superpowers: Transforming – ability to turn any word or idea into a whole set of cultural practices. Utility in debate rounds: Derrida’s deconstruction often offers a useful alternative in debates. His idea of deconstruction is often paired with the idea of “embracing the other” which will be discussed a little more below. Sidekicks: Dillon – A security author who write about calculability. Emanuel Levinas Biography: Levinas was born in Lithuania in 1906. He moved to France and survived the Holocaust because he was “fortunate” enough to be in a work camp instead of a concentration camp. He was a follower of Heidegger’s, but is in many ways the anti-Heidegger. He died in 1995. Important Ideas: Alterity – The idea that people are wholly different and incalculable. This recognition of the fact that people are different is the foundation for ethics which is the best way to combat the prioritization of metaphysics/ontology (big words for knowledge of the world) over ethics. He argues that scholars focus too much on the “love of knowledge” (which leads them to treat people as objects, as in the Holocaust) that they forget about the “knowledge of love” – ethics. Superpowers: Love – He’s like a big Care Bear only with less hugging. Utility in debate rounds: Any aff that tries to help people in a way that assumes that people are fundamentally the same can link to a Levinas- style argument. The alternative of “recognizing the other” is often combined with Derridian deconstruction. Sidekicks:

Badiou – A contemporary ethicist who argues that ethics, as meant by most scholars, are dangerous because they create a central truth. He uses math, poetry, and a lot of other craziness to argue that we must “decide upon the undecidable” as a way to reject truth. Judith Butler Biography: Judith Butler is an American post-structuralist feminist born in 1956. She is currently a professor of rhetoric at Berkeley. Important Ideas: 1. Discursive construction of gender – This takes the ideas of Derrida (about language) and Foucault (about normalization) and argues that masculinity and femininity are learned behaviors. The way that we learn these roles is through language and societal norms. There are expectations transmitted through language, media, and law which create a particular idea of how a male should act (masculinity) and how a female should act (femininity). Butler argues that the problem with this is that it leaves out people who don’t act in the way that their sex dictates – gay men, masculine women, lesbians, transvestites, bisexuals, etc. This idea of biological sex determining gender roles also leaves out people who don’t have a defined biological sex (transgendered people). 2. Performativity – Since gender is discursively constructed, when we act masculine or feminine it is a type of performance. She argues that the alternative to accepting a normalized gender role is a counterperformance. In particular, she talks about transvestism as a way to counter society’s normalizing functions. Superpowers: Mistress of disguise – gender is a performance after all. Utility in debate rounds: Any affirmative that talks about women or femininity is begging to be Butlered. Any affirmative that nails down a particular identity is engaging in some kind of normalization. There is always some room for link turns on this Kritik – if there is any risk that the plan opens up new gender performances they may be able to solve for the K. The impact turns are also pretty persuasive. Many feminists argue that some idea of what is a woman is critical to advancing feminism and ending patriarchy.

Slavoj Zizek

Slavoj Žižek was born March 21, 1949. He is a Slovenian sociologist, philosopher and cultural critic. He was born in Yugoslavia, and received a D.A. in Philosophy in Ljubljana and studied Psychoanalysis at the University of Paris. Žižek is well known for his use of the works of Jacques Lacan in a new reading of popular culture. Žižek is a senior researcher at the Institute of Sociology, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Chicago, Columbia, Princeton, New School for Social Research, New York, the European Graduate School, the University of Minnesota, the University of Michigan, etc. He is currently the International Director of the Centre for Advanced Studies in the Humanities at Birkbeck College, University of London.

Important Ideas
Metaphysics- Some argue that Žižek's metaphysics belongs to an Idealist tradition that holds that reality is constructed in the mind (Canning, 1993, p. 89). Unlike postmodernist theorists he often criticizes, Žižek tries to sidestep charges of relativism by focusing on the relationship between the subject and the political State. Žižek often describes himself as an "old-fashioned dialectical materialist" or simply a materialist. The formation of the subject- Since the unconscious is structured like a language, it will orient itself towards desire in two aspects: first, the objects of desire, which is called the "goal" of desire and, the unconscious, or the mechanism of desire in itself, which is called the "aim" of desire. Objects are mainly contingent, yet they are supposed to find their place inside the Symbolic realm to be desirable to us. In other words, the Symbolic decides what is desirable and undesirable to us; while the desirable objects can provide us with temporary pleasure, the latter is both the remains and surplus of Symbolization. The Real- Here the Real is a rather enigmatic term, and it is not to be equated with reality. For our reality is symbolically constructed; the real, however, is a hard kernel, the trauma that cannot be expressed in words. The real has no positive existence; it exists only as barred. (see vocab)

The Symbolic- The Symbolic is inaugurated with the acquisition of language; it is mutually relational. At the same time, there always remains a certain distance towards the real: not only is the beggar who thinks he is a king a madman, but so is the king who really believes he is a king. For effectively the latter has only the symbolic mandate of a king. (see vocab) The Imaginary- The imaginary is located at the level of the subject's relation to itself. It is the gaze of the Other in the mirror stage, the illusory misrecognition. The imaginary is the fundamental fantasy that is inaccessible to our psychological experience and raises up the phantasmal screen in which we find objects of desire. Here we can also divide the imaginary into a real , an imaginary, and a symbolic imaginary thinking. The imaginary can never be definitively grasped, since any discourse on it will always already be located in the symbolic. Postmodernism- One theme in particular that Žižek addresses is postmodernism, which confronts psychoanalysis with new questions. Zizek criticizes post-modernism for denying the existence of the real. He uses his criticism of capitalism to show that the fluidity of post-modernity denies suffering and perpetuates the inequalities that the market economy functions through. Politicization- Today, in the aftermath of the end of ideology, Žižek is critical of the way political decisions are justified; the way, for example, reductions in social programs are sometimes presented as an apparently 'objective' necessity, though this is no longer a valid basis for political discourse. He sees the current talk about greater citizen involvement or political goals circumscribed within the rubric of the cultural as having little effectiveness as long as no substantial measures are devised for the long run. But measures such as the limitation of the freedom of capital and the subordination of the manufacturing processes to a mechanism of social control—these Žižek calls a radical re-politicization of the economy. Sidekicks: Freud- Father of psycho-analysis. Lacan- He considered his work to be an authentic "return to Freud", in opposition to ego psychology. This entailed a renewed concentration upon the Freudian concepts of the unconscious, the castration complex, the ego conceptualised as a mosaic of identifications, and the centrality of language to any psychoanalytic work. His work has a strong interdisciplinary focus, drawing particularly on linguistics, philosophy, and mathematics, and he has become an important figure in many fields beyond psychoanalysis, particularly within critical theory. Marx- Above

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