1 Excerpt from the book „A New World is Possible” by Dunja and Ljubodrag Simonović, Belgrade, Serbia, 2007.

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LIFE AS PLAY Libertarian Play Freedom is the essence of play. In a world in which there is no freedom, free play is not possible. Only libertarian play – as an integral part of the social (political) movement that tends to create the new world – is a possibility. It has a tendency to liberate man's playing being by superseding the ruling relations and the repressive normative confinement which are a part of the prevailing play-forms that are in fact a way of letting off the steam of non-freedom, and as such represent "chain rattling". On the contrary, regardless of its intention, play is being reduced to the creation of space for an illusory "happiness" within the existing world, where man hopelessly seeks to discover his own mislaid humanity – and sinks deeper and deeper into the mud of despair. Libertarian physical culture does not campaign for "free play" but for free man, that is, for a new society within which free play will represent the utmost (self) accomplishment of man as a universal creative and free being. Genuine play is attainable solely by superseding the existing world, that is, by totalizing the world through man’s libertarian and creative practice, and in that context through the turning of life itself into a creation of his playing being. One does not arrive directly from libertarian play to the genuine play through the use of new forms of player proficiency, but by way of the society within which man has achieved freedom. True play is a result of the libertarian struggle that generates the new world. The most important characteristic of libertarian play is life-creativeness. Destruction is a totalizing life power of capitalism; life-creativeness is a totalizing life power of man. As distinct from the animal which is unconscious natural life-creating being (procreation), man is a self-conscious life-creating being that creates its own world. The essence of the animal’s life-creativeness is determinism; the essence of human lifecreativeness is freedom. Man’s playing being represents the anthropological basis of his life-creativeness, and play is the supreme form in which the life-creative nature of man is realized. The “major” religions have also acknowledged the life-creativity principle. Development of man’s self-conscious as a creative being and creator of (his own) world represents the basis for the theory of the world as a “divine creation”. “God” is a symbolic incarnation of creative powers alienated from man, a manifestation of man’s independence from nature and the placing of human powers “above” those of nature. By means of the idea of “God”, man becomes an autonomous creative power and, in that sense, a specific (unique) cosmic being: creation of the world is a conscious and willful act. Historically, man has been subordinated to the (real or imaginary) universe of a metaphorical and politically instrumental nature that serves as means for obtaining eternalness for the ruling order. Human life-creativeness is imaginary: creation of

2 imaginary conscious becomes compensation for depriving man of the ability to create the earthly world in his own image. Capitalism has degenerated and instrumentalized man’s life-creating powers: they now serve to preserve the capitalist order that destroys both life and man as a life-creating being. Libertarian play is guided by the spirit of life-creating pantheism: all that lives and creates possibility for life should become a unique lifecreating being struggling against capitalism. Libertarian play requires visionary consciousness of a utopian nature. It represents the supreme form of man’s change-creating practice by which the objective possibilities of freedom, established within a civil society, become realistic possibilities for man’s liberation. This affirmation of man’s life-creating powers is accomplished by the surmounting of civilization’s barriers and diversions. The life-creating power becomes the basis of the self-creation of both man and society as a community of lifecreating beings. Man used to be a toy in the hands of “superhuman” powers; it is necessary that he become a free playing being, while life in its entirety should become a form of affirmation of his own playing nature. The basic relation, though, is not one of play – player, but of society as a community of free men – man as a universal free creative being. The moment when man becomes a self-conscious and unique life-creating being is when the true history of humankind begins. Play per se does not contain what-isyet-to-be, for this is not what defines its utopian nature; it is a specificity of man as free self-creating being: man is not what he is but what he can be. Space and Time Man lives in inhuman time and in inhuman space. His attitude towards time and space is given by the ruling order. In the contemporary world capital is the master of both time and space. This goes for the capitalist determination of time, in a context of the capitalist totalizing of the world by repressive and destructive commercialization (“Time is money!”), which turns the world into a labour-consumer concentration camp. An “objectification” of time has taken place: time as a virtual or abstract phenomenon becomes a power of destiny (“It’s a matter of time!”, “Time will tell!”…). The speed of capitalist reproduction conditions the dynamics of social life. Using science and technology as means for acceleration of the profit-making process, capital increasingly “diminishes” human existential and spiritual space and at the same time creates a growing gap between people, one that is not measurable in meters, but in a feeling of loneliness and despair that has reached epidemic proportions. Acceleration of capitalist reproduction makes human time, which represents the duration of life, run out more and more quickly. “Measuring of time” in sports is a typical example of the instrumentalization of “physical” time and space in order to overmaster man. In sport, space and time are given dimensions, independent from man. This relates to closed space and to definitive time: upon this ground, and within this framework, basic relationships and basic values of the existing world are being reproduced. Sport is an area where quantitative and mechanical “mastering” of time and space are most perceptible, one of the major features of “technical civilization” used by capital to turn natural forces into a vehicle for the

in it. altius. humans. fortius at any cost. Consequently. libertarian and visionary dimension. such improvements are nonsensical and of an abstract value for man. but is reduced to limitless and increasingly intensive circular movement that occurs on the sport track. Sport “progress” does not represent a moving forward. Through playing. the ruling relations are being reproduced. tenths and hundredths of a second. The record is not an expression of the development of human powers but represents a quantum of destruction of man as a biological and cultural being. a symbol of man’s openness towards the future. The real world is what . In authentic play. Instead. as well as the creation of the concept of space which surpasses the directly perceived and experienced living space. man exists outside of biological and historical (cultural) time and finds himself in an area of mechanical time. as such. and to which names of un-personalized “champions” are adjoined. passes. and represents the ground for creation of the notion of “world” and of the existence of us. It represents a possibility of creation of a new world and is. at a higher quantitative level. man ceases his existence in the given time and space and creates his own (human) time and space.3 destruction of human time and space. neither is it an emptiness in which the world exists. A sports spectacle represents a symbolic form of complete integration of man into capitalist time and space. rebounds…). In sport. libertarian. Through playing. which is supposed to halt history and hinder man’s striding away from the existing world. creative. "Expansion of space" results from man's creative practice. Motion through space is the basis of the (existential.. and. “Sport time” is a phenomenal form in which the process of capitalist reproduction pulsates: development of capitalism conditions the “openness” of sport time and of sport space. In sports where “competing against the chronometer” dominates. of the "boundaries" and of the "dimensions" of space. results are not being measured only in minutes. It represents the basis of man's uniqueness and of his libertarian selfconscious. interpersonal. There is an endeavour to preserve the dominant principle citius. What differentiates human motion from mechanical and animal motion is the fact that it requires a change-aspiring relation towards the existing world and a moving towards new worlds. The “quality of play” is being measured by the quantity of occurrences per time unit (points. along with it. Spaces of some future time are not being developed in sports. which means that it possesses a creative.the essence of which represents freedom measured by development (accomplishment) of man's playing being and by an increased certainty of human survival. but in seconds. opening possibilities for the development of humanness. The creation of life and life itself become inseparable contents of time. It is a historical motion . space is limitless and time is endless. visionary) relation of man to space. the "measure" of its "duration". The Olympiads (the “holy” four-year period ending with the Olympic Games) represent a mythological time that annuls historical time in order to attain “eternity” for capitalism: modern Olympic Games are a reincarnation of the “immortal spirit of antiquity”. the duality of the "outer" and the "inner" is abolished: genuine creativity represents a "transformation" of the world into an experience of humanness. the belief in the “progressive” nature of the ruling order. the “history of sport” is being reduced to a sequence of numbers that increase in a linear manner. This is the essence of record-mania. The challenge shifts from the variety of outer world forms towards the richness of the inner. from whence a notion of space derives. Space is not a given fact that defines the framework of playing.. From the point of view of the development of human powers.

hippodrome. Attainment of man's playing being becomes the "source" of playing time and space. his perception of the possible is being completed through his ability to move. Genuine naturalness. the quivering of leaves. by human closeness and creative life. and historical existence. in a word. esthetical. colours… When he finds himself in a glade full of flowers or by a mountain stream. Playing. but also a historical. It requires the annulment of all forms that mediate between man and world. "Comprehension" of humanness is the basic and the sole authentic "dimension" of human time and space.4 man carries inside and what he creates together with other men. no comparison that annuls all humanness. in that sense. shopping malls – physical movement loses the uniqueness and steadiness that it can have solely within a natural environment. human. a specifically human universe. In this sense play becomes "fascination". the way it used to be in antiquity (stadium. he actively realizes a contact with nature and atones with his own natural being. man finds out that he is fascinated. A spontaneous. Instead of creating special spaces for physical exercise. anyhow. Man’s becoming a human being is the authentic content and the authentic measure of human time. It is. authentic motion. this experience not only sets the basis for other physical activities. which is the most authentic human mode for totalizing the world. Senses react to the swinging of branches. becomes a "metamorphosis" of historical time and space into "purely" human time and space. Fantasy represents an essential aspect of human time and space. a sort of time that has no quantitative dimensions. gymnasium. living. halls. authentic human reaction: fascination . and becomes a phenomenal form of the ruling relations. Nature With the expulsion of man from nature and the creation of a surrogate "natural space" in the form of cities. palaestra) which are assigned the status of cult sites where. a sense of life taken to the extreme – through experience based on the creation of life . stadiums. and visionary space – which means that nature is the sole space in which man can experience the wholeness of his own natural. to the richness of sounds. which for man represents not only a physical. The "duration" of playing time and the "dimensions" of the space are conditioned by a flourishing of the senses and emotions. Libertarian play inclines towards a genuine natural space. forms that transform the world into "otherness". but as a projection of a future world and the creation of novum. through physical agonic activities.reason accepts with surprise and unease. When man steps into the water and starts swimming.. not as an escape from the existing world and daydreaming. Richness of the inner life-creating impulses can be experienced and refined in the space where life thrives in innumerable and astonishing forms. scents. Man does not disappear . men tend to achieve a harmony with the cosmic order and to elicit divine erotic enchantment – nature itself should become a cult site where the life-creating cult would be worshiped through lifecreating activism that enhances the natural through development of man's playing being. but it also influences the development of his senses and opens new spiritual spaces – which becomes the basis for the development of the creative imagination..instead of evasion as a compensation for a deprived humanness. Nature “enters” man by means of motion. is possible exclusively in nature. and.

it does not represent a mere surrender to the rhythm of life which then acquires an abstract. Engendering (one’s own) freedom is the essence of man’s play. he becomes a human being. Man’s need for free physical activism should be also comprehended as a need to go beyond the environment in which he. There is no continuity of animal play in the play of man. Apart from this. mystical aspect: man is the creator of his own world. natural space is at the same time spiritual space. thus. but has developed his own specific playing being which continuously “breaks through” the limits imposed on him. not for the adaptation of man to the established (life) rhythm. and that becomes an imaginary space of desired humanness – the vision of which is an inspiration for the creation of the new world. in the form of man: with the development of instincts. Replenishing the power of nature represents an inspiration for creative activism. but his human nature – becomes man (unique personality). When man’s senses are better developed he can experience nature more intensively. Hilarity. In authentic play man comprehends and experiences himself as the utmost form of life-creating natural being. exaltedness – these are all erotic reactions stimulated by a stay in nature. Creation of play as a symbolic form. When human sight perceives mountaintops protruding through the mist. as a man. Living nature “never repeats. merge with nature more completely and more intensively and be nourished by its power. However. a qualitative jump occurred in the development of living creatures. the thriving of life in an extreme variety of forms and the unity of all forms of life – induces man to create life. this represents a symbolic “fusion” with the world that exists “beyond”. the development of creative powers took place – which became the basis for the “detachment” of man from nature and for setting up an active (change-aspiring) relationship with nature. over and over again. In the course of the struggle for survival. is encumbered. which as such represents the highest point of humanness. the way it happens to the animal. Nature as life-creating life. While creating a civilization man has not developed his own playing nature “inherited from animals”. Through playing. in the form of an established “play”. with his own natural being. does man attain a chance to experience the richness of natural forms as creative. unlike animal play where natural exigency is being reproduced. Only when fear of nature (through mastering its rules) is eliminated and the esthetic sense (playing being) developed. absorb its scents.5 within the richness of natural forms and motions. by the ruling order. Being in unity with nature means being in unity with one’s own primary life-creating powers. create new horizons by means of his own physical and spiritual activity. colours. His rapport with nature occurs through personal experience that becomes a creative and motivating inspiration contributing to the further enrichment of his personality. human play tends towards creation of new worlds. provides human play with a special aspect. . A similarity of behaviour between some animal species and man does exist – based on which Huizinga made the wrong conclusions. and of the intellect. instead. At the same time. a sip of fresh mountain water develops man’s longing for a life in which he would exist at one with nature and. and not for escape from the existing one. In that sense man perceives a “return to nature” as existence within a space that is neither given nor defined with artificial boundaries. while the animal through “playing” becomes an animal (a member of the species). man does not confirm his animal nature. fascination. motions. but renews”. physical mobility. sounds. unlike animal play. senses. but in which he can. For man. libertarian inspiration. physical motion is at the same time spiritual motion. With animals adaptive-existential activity dominates.

the dynamics of biological rhythm obtain a human. let him run and shout. harmonious development of the entire body – which corresponds to man’s universal creative potentials and to his human (individual) complexity. so that he can be clever and intelligent. coordination. his “un-organic body” (Marx). spirituality. The rhythm of motion becomes a spontaneous expression of man’s creative pulse and. intention. Sport and physical exercise do not just nurture the body . Rousseau was one of those who perceived the existence of the conditioning linkage between the development of sensebased mobility skills and the intellect. his elementary and natural existence. to the world and his own self as a man. motion towards man and nature. A relationship to the body is in effect a relationship of man to other people. upon which philosophy of play insists. rigor (which are oriented towards the creation of a liege/performer nature and conscious that should eventually bring about the turning of man into “lethal flesh” and a vehicle for destruction of life) the challenge should shift towards mobility. as such. Man’s relationship with his own body. but also the mind. between disciplining and humanizing the body. that is. let him work and act. In sport. this “tenseness” exists between man’s libertarian and creative nature and the repressive (destructive) capitalist civilization. is possible exclusively by means of another human being. libertarian (visionary) dimension. In lieu of the ideal of strength. Let him primarily be man per strength and he will shortly be man per intellect. This represents an essential difference between physical culture and sport. Man as a universally creative being “corresponds” to a creative body. tremulousness. which means it is systematically mutilated in order to achieve the imposed prototype that incarnates the principle upon which the ruling order is based. Creative mobility is a basic aspect of a healthy body. There is no “tenseness” between animal and civilization. between the repressive and the libertarian pedagogy… In sport the body is civilized “by means of discipline”. self-control. speed. and the basic possibility for his achieving a unity with nature. softness. sound…). man's libertarian and creative personality – which is one of the key objectives of the libertarian play. colour. From there derives one of his most significant pedagogical instructions: "Exercise incessantly his body. and affirmation of the genuine playing motion that represents a creation of humanness in an immediate form. let him be constantly in motion. Development of a universal creative body and of lavishness of motion is the basic condition for development of mind. A distinction should be made between civilizing and cultivating the body.they nurture man. It requires surpassing of the artistic motion as a way of producing artistic forms and sensual effects (object. attaining abilities to create motions. cultural. and consequently. In playing. and its “sign mark”. a non-replicable indicator of humanness." (1) In his developmental psychology . as an immediate nature. which requires an ever earlier specialization that disfigures not only the body. which means that its essence consists of man’s motion towards another. libertarian physical culture endeavours to humanize the body by means of cultivation: free physical development requires free development of the personality. Instead of acquiring skills for performing certain motions (exercises).6 which means that it has a visionary disposition. Physical movement becomes an expression of man’s playing nature. in a word. the body is molded. Man’s body represents his immediate nature. the meaning of such a body and of such abilities as enable the articulation of a creative (playing) personality of man – this represents one of the most significant challenges for libertarian play. endeavour to make your scholar strong and healthy.

customs. Imposing a defined model of behaviour at the same time represents the infliction of a defined model of thinking (which means stereotyping and maiming the mind). nor to create valves for their release in the form of violent and destructive behaviour. taken out of their original historical environment (living conditions. What occurs here. in a word. The most immediate form of nature-humanizing is body-humanizing. limited to mere physical drill. therefore. Instead of humanizing the body and the body’s movement through the cultural (emancipating) heritage of modern society. war. Hebert rejected the emancipating heritage of the physical culture and reduced body movement to behaviour imitation of the Brazilian Indians. It should not be forgotten that "physical education".. who are reduced to being "savages". which dominated in the 20th century. but also of interpersonal relations. Man cannot attain his own naturalness by imitating the movements of animals or those of the natural environment. a new one should be created. and reduced to technical movements that are assigned the dimension of "naturalness". There is no cultivated body without a cultural man – there is no free movement without a free man. in a word. in fact. and are not limited by any imposed stereotypes that destroy man's vitality – as happens with the aristocratic and Christian physical cultures. Like many other "naturalists". thus. thus. development of humanness. which corresponds with creative discontent. Libertarian play represents an integral part of the overall culture of man as a universal freedom-creating being. religion. was generated in the grayness of the military gymnasiums and was. deprived of their cultural contents. by means of a creative activity in which man’s concrete historical (social) movement towards another man dominates. requires humanization of man's natural being (which at the same time represents his own naturalizing). liberation of the body (nature) from the destructive ruling order. but by means of culture. Instead of immerging in the existing world. but of encouraging the creation of motions that would enable each individual to express his own specific and non-repeatable personality. where man loses individuality. The intention of libertarian play is not to limit and deform man's instinctive actions through aggressive exercise. hunting. Outdoing the capitalist world. "Immerging in nature" is an illusory opposite to "technical civilization". should be the goal.) and are. but to help those actions attain their refined expression while respecting man's individual personality. represents man's immerging in the existing world at a "lower" level of civilization – the . not a matter of developing a model of (physical) motion that should be imposed on man. Instead of "melting into nature". "naturalizing" the body and its movement occurs through re-introduction of "primitive" movements which represent spontaneous expressions of its original naturalness. the concept of the world and man’s position towards the world.. This is most clearly expressed in Coubertin's "utilitarian pedagogy" which represents a modern Procrustean bed. From there derives a conclusion that stereotypical models of motion limit the development of intellect. and asserting the humanized original natural motion aimed at man within which the libertarian creative essence of man is being expressed. It is. Creation and imitation should be distinguished. dominated by the dehumanization and denaturalization (robotization) of man. What we have here goes for copying the movements of the Indians.7 Piaget has indicated the fact that sense-based mobility represents the first stage of the development of the intellect: based on concrete action-related operations the body attains knowledge that represents the foundation of the whole of cognitive development.

but for survival. and. so does the motion of man towards another man. In the same way Rousseau and the philanthropists formed their "alliance" with nature in the struggle against the ancien régime. man's original natural motion should be identified and respected. on one hand. based on this relation. It is complete nonsense to assert that man was in “unity with nature” a long time ago. which means a self-conscious being capable of having a relation towards nature and. but also a development of an artistic (creative) being. thus. as such.does not exist. In that sense flexibility of the human body requires a creative body: development of the esthetic feeling represents the basis for development of sense-based motion.8 way it happens with physical culture of the Far East where man as an emancipated personality. In order to merge with nature man had to become a man. This does not mean that man should return to the water. tends to create a new world in his own human (libertarian and creative) image . Man does not "return" to his natural being by means of play as a specific sphere. In order to be able to humanize man's natural being by means of libertarian (life-creating) play. and he should know what he must aspire in order to be as close as possible to his own natural being. It is a matter of a natural motion humanized by means of the emancipating heritage that forms man's cultural and. of the psychological and physical consequences deriving from forced adapting of his system to concrete living conditions (standing upright. but that he should have a notion of his own original natural motion. and richness of expressive possibilities represents the basic precondition of the esthetic (libertarian). Regarding the relation between play. "The liberating transformation of nature" (Marcuse) requires artistic motion. contemporary man should form an "alliance" with nature against capitalism – only now the struggle is not merely for freedom. The humanization of natural motion and not naturalizing of the technical motion is what we are talking about here. hand and arm (technique of motion). his playing being. and science and technique. "Naturalism" is an off course in a struggle against the "technical world". walking on two legs…). on the other. in his position towards the world. which. In pre-historical times man was merely a part of the nature. It is grounded in the cultural heritage of mankind and represents the utmost . consequently. Man’s playing skills are the basic expressive option of his playing being. to merge with it. and also towards nature in general. Rousseau's "return to nature" deals with the notion of a "noble savage" in whose behaviour the principle homo homini homo est dominates. we are not advocating the establishment of parallel spheres. and therefore a developed artistic being. Libertarian play tends to enable such a passage from natural towards creative motion as will not cause negative impact on the development of a personality and becomes a source of frustration. Playing a violin does not merely require attained flexibility of the fingers. but through transforming of his entire life into a humanized natural life: "humanization of nature" is achieved through totalizing the world by means of man's playing being. and which manifests itself in a relation towards repressive (destructive) behavioural forms imposed by "technical civilization". Voltaire ridicules Rousseau and fails to notice that his "noble savage" has a metaphorical quality and represents a critique of the distorted aristocratic world deprived of naturalness and humanness. but bestowing on science and technique an artistic nature which would enable them to become the means of humanization of nature and of man's natural being. Play becomes the utmost form of man’s "embracing" the world and his most immediate relationship towards his own natural being.

Genuine physical motion requires a genuine engagement of the organism. and not the pushing (destroying) of humanness into the background and adapting man to the "model citizen" pattern. at the same time it enables creation of an artificial body language which is more of a technical (strictly defined motions. space defined in advance. that restricts. but from a spontaneous. dribbling. but a harmonious activity of the entire system. opulence of sensuality and of interpersonal relations based upon solidarity and tolerance – which means the fullness of man's playing being – this represents the basis of the playing skills and playing manner.) than of a cultural nature..9 form of the refined body motion. Man's prolific creative life should become the basis for the development of his playing skills. In this context the playing skills developed in sport (giving up the ball. The acquiring of skills through (body) motion control requires development of human powers. within which man is being reduced to a mechanical doll. and.. The most important task of libertarian play is to enable physical motion. Instead of "motion control technique". Development of playing skills becomes an expression of the development of man's universal creative (playing) powers. The supremacy of libertarian and creative (playing) motion should be established. No free and contented personality can exist if man does not liberate his body and his motion from destructive capitalist civilization.. This does not merely mean "the exerting of a large number of muscles". Schiller's position "education by means of art is education for art" is one of the most significant postulates of the libertarian play. heart. Regarding the universal grammar of motion (skills). as creation of novum.. Development of playing skills is being manifested as openness towards the future. but as a form of specific (individual) human expression. lungs. the fulfillment of individual predilections. where one man is another man's inspiration for play. Instead of . and society will become a playing community. Healthiness. of a rich and unique individuality. and this motion turned towards man and the living world (nature) that has no intermediary but represents man's genuine necessity for other men. glance and vocal conversation should be introduced. muscles. for education by means of libertarian play is education for the free society. The range of creative spirituality. etc... "objectivity" of the form being developed as an area alienated from man. tendons. Genuine human motion is aimed at the whole lot that impedes man's overcoming the existing world..) can be productive. spirituality. repetition. harmony of motion – all are comprised in physical mobility as a supreme spontaneous play of nerves. Skill and the way of playing do not derive from play as a separate social sphere that possesses its own mechanics of development and its own rules.. creative relationship between men. however. in the context of annulment of institutional (repressive) intermediation between men. This represents the basis for the development of the creative physical activism that attains its expression in physical mobility. The ideal of harmonious physical development corresponds to man's creative universality. joints. and degrades him. it provides possibilities for establishing of a comprehensive approach to body exercise. from the (objective) social sphere. Genuine playing skills require annulment of the technical sphere as an intermediary in fulfillment of man's playing potential. through the development of man's artistic being. thus. body. and not as "improvement" of the playing model that represents a ritual expression of submissiveness to the ruling order. from whence derives the "softness" of motion which determines physical "elegance". to become the playing motion by means of which man will attain "unity" with himself as an undivided creative being. In libertarian play skill does not present itself as independent from man. moulds.

Each new friendship opens up a new human space inside man. Life-creativeness represents the essence of erotic union with the nature and basis of erotic play. therefore.. Love play between man and woman is the supreme form of play where the unrestricted playing being is expressed. Without it. experiencing and creation of an abundance of tones. Giving up the ball is not an action of throwing an object from one position to another that has an "objective" form and technical character.10 assigning a defined model of body and motion. at the same time. The immediate goal of libertarian play is not to produce records. It is essential to develop a communal spirit while developing. a spontaneous motion which is an expression of man's playing being should be strived for: richness of motion is conditioned by richness of the playing personality and by development of interpersonal relations. and as such represents the basis of life-creation. as a synthesized life-creating energy. Human motion cannot be perceived merely from a technical or organic (purely medical) aspect. the effort to express uniqueness leads towards extremism. of a repressive nature. improve playing techniques. in the homosexual (pedophilic) relationship. also a supreme spontaneous form of man's self-creation and a supreme mode for generating society as a community of free people. enjoyment in the erotic relationship is compensational. which is. develop the play as a normative sphere and create a healthy body. but is a humanized (by means of cultural heritage) motion of one man towards another man and. The playing disposition is a potential human disposition that can be actualized exclusively within a community of free and creative personalities. sterilization of man's (society's) life-creating ability occurred. aggression. but to create a healthy society within which creative personalities will be developed. as a humanized motion of a live being towards another live being. creative personalities where the motion of man towards another man dominates. develops his sense of humanness. narcissism.. nature. is the most important source of man's motion towards another man. man's motion towards another man. Already in antiquity. represents establishing human community in an immediate form. in the same way a developed esthetic sense provides opportunity for distinction in music or painting. Eros. but also man as a historical and social being plays a part in the motion. In the homosexual relationship Eros loses its life-creative disposition and turns into an anti-existential principle. development of interpersonal relations represents a conditio sine qua non of play. in other words: "production" of humanness in the most immediate form. homosexual and lesbian Eros represents a clash with man's natural life-creativeness and. Narcissistic. the world. but requires the existence of a playing community of emancipated. This is what constitutes its concrete historical (social) nature and endows it with a "soul".. with the likelihood of the erotic . and where homo homini mirrors humanness. as such. based upon which life as a playing act can be developed. Man's need for another man is the basic quality of his life-creating being. Play is not an immediate relation of man to himself. destruction. The relation of man towards another man. by means of partition of the erotic from the naturally reproductive (fertile). Therefore. Richness of personality is a basic precondition for opulence of interpersonal relations and vice versa. and not destroying. which means of an adaptive nature. It represents the supreme form of humanization of man's natural being. in essence. If this is lacking. represents the essential motion of man as a specific natural being. is comprised in it. Play is a result but. forms and colours. The spontaneity of play requires an emancipated personality.. Therefore. the future. individuality. Not solely the body.

we should have a propensity for development of the playing disposition "inside man" and. of which the rules should not be violated at any cost. where the requirement of "synthesis" is reduced to the development of technical expressions that should impress with a lavishness of colour. Therefore. A distinction should be made between playing as fulfillment of man's playing being (playing act) and play as behaviour in accordance with the imposed norms. in the same way the love song cannot be a substitute for a lack of human closeness. Play as a Form Philosophy of play does not make a clear distinction between man's playing nature. Play as a normative constraint has no tendency towards the improvement of man and of interpersonal relations. Libertarian play does not strive for the creation of new forms of play. the play's "unchangeableness" becomes its crucial feature. They are reduced to a behavioural model that is in fact a form of play in which the ruling relations are being manifested. which always occurs as a response to false life.11 as a humanized natural relationship. Playing is reduced to the endeavour most consistently to imitate the assigned model of play. on that basis. but tends to reduce ("discipline") him to the model of a usable citizen (subject). alienated from man. but for the development of man's playing being. and a matter of "restitution" of man's powers from alienated social spheres . Specificity and irreplicability. where (potentially) each form of human activity represents at the same time a form of expression of his playing being. A typical example is the "sport play": it becomes a mechanism by means of which man is made to express other men's non-liberty. Instead of endeavouring to define the notion of genuine life. It is a matter of superseding the world divided into the world of "misfortune" and the world of “happiness”. It is a matter of endeavouring to preserve the ruling order and to reduce man to the "dimension" which corresponds to that order. is reduced to the complete submission of man to the rules of play. as such. the genuine human life should be lived. The option of love play as the life-creating play between genders is being abolished. in a word. Instead of the development of play as a separate social area. Man's longing for another man is being mediated by relations that estrange man from other human beings and reduce him to the role imposed on him. The ruling historical forms of play are behavioural forms deprived of humane (playing) contents. The intellectual sphere cannot be man's compensation for the senseless life he lives. playing and play. dominate. which derive from the specificity and irreplicability of man as a creative personality. the way of manifesting man's playing being. Libertarian play endeavours to annul the fragmented man that has been decomposed in accordance with the requirements of the fragmented world. by means of which "cultural" legitimacy and infinity of the ruling forms of play are provided. The ideal of "perfection". sound and form and become a "compensation" for an increasingly impoverished humanness. as well as to the imposed esthetic pattern – which represents the "stage set" of the ruling order. for assigning a normative constraint. Play is a form in which playing occurs and. for establishing society as a playing community. and the life-creating sexual relation is being reduced to technical fertilization of women – to technical production of children.

Nothing is earlier than man. Play is the supreme and the most immediate form of experiencing the world through creating it. What develops the playing disposition is not play per se. spontaneity in play requires breaking through the barriers that constrain man. but for the enrichment of the human personality and development of interpersonal relations. Playing turns into the awakening of the lethargic (deterred) playing being. The endeavour to get through to the essence of humanness and to "catch" it by fixing human existence at the level of certain forms. In a repressive society play as a form represents a repressive normative confinement that impedes the fulfillment of man's authentic playing being. as such. it is no longer the image of the "man" for which man longs and exclusively within which he can distinguish "his own (human) look" – but man as a free and dignified person becomes the creator and the "image" of humanness. which means that it represents the most immediate and the most authentic form of man's becoming human. structures. Instead of the "perfection" model. "enlivening" the senses. but an opening of possibilities for development of man's playing nature and in that sense only one of the expressions of his creative nature: the development of forms of play is an expression of the development of man's creative (playing) powers. the creation of the humanum in the untainted sense. Genuine play is the expression of an .12 and of establishing the human Ego as an integral source of man's relations towards the world as whole. but of the form as a spontaneous and non-replicable expression of the specific moment in the manifestation of man as playing being which is symbolic of the libertarian and visionary. in a word. spiritual formations – inevitably leads towards preservation of the world in which such forms and structures are possible. above man or exterior to man. misfortune. and not just becoming skilled and imitating the imposed model of play – which appears as the "supreme human challenge". and in that sense an ideal of "perfection". The expression of play has to be of such a nature as to enable man to realize his own playing being. but humanness that develops as man faces limitations. The "encounter" of men by means of the pure (esthetic) forms is a clash between soap bubbles. The so called "universally human" does not exist outside of man any more (as an imposed or transcendental sphere). A rich creative life is the basic precondition for the development and enhancement of the playing being. The form libertarian play does not represent a limitation. Commitment to play means a struggle for the fulfillment of man's necessities and abilities for play. Schiller indicated the correct path: instinct for play is the instinct for freedom. but the free realization of human playing (universally creative) powers. Play is neither a transcendental nor a trans-subjective. but an immanent and inter-subjective phenomenon: it is an immediate interpersonal relation and. Instead of play as "cultural form" representing the basic possibility of playing. reduced to the transcendental normative form. Play is not a criterion for determining a playing disposition and playing. and challenges imposed by life. the free man becomes a source of the esthetic inspiration: freedom is the substance of beauty. there is man as a cultural (playing) being: the authenticity of play is the expression of the authenticity of man. It is not an issue of the form as an imposed pattern of behaviour. surmounting anxiety and shedding the snakeskin of the (petit) bourgeois. In genuine play the dualism of the “being” (Sein) and the “ought” (Sollen) has been dissolved. Genuine creativity does not go for the creation of playing forms. represents the supreme form of establishing a society as a community of free persons. Instead of giving vent to the deterred being.

. The principles of domination and elimination have been abolished within it and replaced by the principles of tolerance and solidarity. sensuality. and play is a result of the fulfillment of his playing being. Instead of striving for victory and records. The completed experience of humanness represents the "measure" of the richness of playing. jazz. Spontaneity. man represents another man's inspiration. as an originally human uniqueness. Development of the "quality" of play requires development of rich individuality and of interpersonal relations. outplaying calls for an attempt to "enlarge" humanness and to create a new world. Outplaying in the elements of play. but by what means – where the starting point for defining humanness is not the repressive esthetic stereotype that tends towards "perfection". an expression of enthusiasm for life. With Fink and Gadamer the notion of play is being used to reduce man to a phenomenological abstraction which is merely a masque behind which the concrete man. fortius. A distinction should be made between man as play being. In this context Rousseau's principle homo homini homo est attains its true value. and man as playing being. the playing disposition turns into play that becomes the basis for identification of the limitations of playing and of the possibilities of its development. and enhanced interpersonal relations. which means that man's motion towards another man is dominant in it – which is possible exclusively based on man's need for another man. as well as with Nietzsche's Übermensch: he is a toy of the cosmic forces. The emancipated playing personality requires a man as a unique life-creating being. In this context. where playing of one individual represents inspiration for the playing of another (like in traditional folk dances. It is exactly the same with antique and Christian man. imagination – are expressions of the playing uniqueness. altius. a self-creator.13 extended horizon of the freedom achieved. and the supreme form of manifestation of man's life-creating powers.. Huizinga's homo ludens is not man-player but man-toy of superhuman forces. In outplaying. in the second case he is the subject. and advocates outplaying (similar to "outsinging" typical of traditional folk music) that in essence represents struggle against the established order of destruction and development of man's universal creative powers. Libertarian play rejects a competition reduced to combat between people aimed at preservation and development of the ruling order. reduced to a toy of capitalism. Outplaying requires endeavouring to supersede what has already been achieved (for creation of the novum) through the development of interpersonal relations. and not through clashes between people based upon the Social Darwinist principle bellum omnium contra omnes and the progressistic principle citius. but as specific (individual) human expression. emotions. In the first case he represents an object. the skills are not manifested in relation to man as an independent ("objectivized") power (reduced to a dehumanized and denaturalized "playing technique"). love play. The actual result of playing is not play. while play is the subject. Enjoyment in play derives from contentment with the engagement of life. The key issue here is not how much. interpersonal closeness in play is possible exclusively because of the closeness acquired in the process of struggle for a new world: man's motion towards another man at the same time represents man's motion towards new worlds. and all that creates life opposes whatever destroys life and restricts freedom. thus.. is hiding. but man enriched with spirit. but man himself. creativity. and as such a creator of his world – and. Through playing.) creates the possibility for everyone freely to express his own playing being.

Likewise with Goethe. As regards Nietzsche.. instead. which means creating the new universe. When man becomes a self-conscious libertarian being. It is the most original way for man to integrate into the cosmic order. Fait. Libertarian play is not apolitical. therefore. Capitalistically degenerated science has the same stance regarding the universe as it has regarding the Earth: the universe has been reduced to an object of exploitation. By means of instrumentalized science and technique a "break" into the universe is going on in order to "conquer" it. which is fatalist in nature. The position of the "extraterrestrials" towards the Earth is a projection of capitalistically degenerated man's attitude towards the universe. based upon the quantity principle that corresponds to the ruling principle of capitalist reproduction (augmenting of profit). A stance regarding the universe is a projection of the stance regarding the earthly living environment. in that context. attains a "classless” determination – which is manifested in the well-known maxim "sport has nothing to do with politics". It is. The struggle of the oppressed and the awakened and. as such. there is no true political struggle if. and turns into man's self-creation and the creation of the human universe. the process of cosmic life-creation attains a new quality – in which the specificity of man as a cosmic being is expressed. In the contemporary world the prevailing stance regarding space (universe) is based upon the expansionist spirit of capitalism.14 In the capitalist world play is a vehicle for entangling the repressed working "masses" into the spiritual orbit of the bourgeoisie and. however. but represents an inherent part of political struggle against class society. It is the most authentic human way of creating the human world. at the same time. In the act of playing. turns into the destruction of human life-creativeness as a specific form of cosmic life-creativeness. Man is the toy of the gods. Modern man is an emancipated cosmic being and. the "nucleus" of the new universe. represents a symbolic incarnation of the ruling relations and values. and the world is their playground: the divine necessity for playing ensures survival of the human world and provides it with a meaning. he perceives in play a vehicle for the creation of a "new aristocracy" in an exclusive organic (class) community. The essence of play is not determinism. In ancient Greece play is the basic cosmic phenomenon of a divine (metaphoric) nature and. play stops being a privilege of the gods and the instrument for devaluing man. as such. provides play with a meaning. an issue of creating an organic community of free creative personalities by means of play. Technique. "Conquering the universe" becomes a vehicle for obtaining a legitimacy in the endeavour to supersede "traditional humankind" and to create the new (master) race of "cyborgs" that will be able to "compete" with the . Schiller's fascination with play was directly encouraged by the French Revolution. the belief in man and in his ability to realize his libertarian being. Klopstock. which opened the gates for the new era.. it does not represent a struggle for the liberation and development of man's playing being. Without the struggle for the free world play becomes escapist and an empty form. The new society cannot be created through play but through political struggle. Play as a Cosmic Phenomenon Play is a specific cosmic phenomenon. but freedom.

it turns into a springboard for the “conquest of space”. The issue of the survival of humankind will be resolved on Earth. The way the Europeans were "discovering" the new continents. does not permit man to comprehend the essence of his own human existence. Ancient peoples were closer to the cosmic essence of man than the contemporary (petit) bourgeois. Instead of human questions. the possibility of establishing a critical distance from the ruling order of destruction and towards creation of the new world: the stance towards the universe should function as a defense of life on Earth and of the development of humanness. which means his attitude towards himself as a cosmic being. contemporary man will be “discovering the new worlds and populating them”. in contrast to the "average" modern (petit) bourgeois who. Instead of "conquering of space" a clash with capitalism must take place in order to prevent the destruction of life on Earth. The possibility that capitalism will destroy life on Earth is far more certain than the possibility that life on Earth will disappear – in five or ten million years. and the essence of the universe. which contributes to a fatalistic surrender to destructive capitalist craving. in spite of ignorance. however. but by means of the esthetic that can enable man to supersede the quantitative dimension of the universe and reach (his own) cosmic essence. "primitive" man was conscious of what freedom and slavery were. being stuck in the nothingness of "consumer society" and the television screen that offers compensation in the form of an illusory world. Capitalism deprives man of his natural cultural being and transforms him into a technical vehicle for the employment of assets – a walking mechanical corpse. The Earth is not man's cosmic home that needs to be preserved. not a quantitative. Also. the essence of the world he lives in. dictated by dehumanized science and technique. The prevailing position towards reality. Contemporary man possesses an incomparably wider knowledge. man asks technical ones imposed on him by capitalistically degenerated science and technique – which mutilate man and annihilate the possibility for him to ask the significant human questions. The "conquest of space" project is based upon an assertion that the Earth will "certainly collapse". the way and manner of attaining this knowledge deprive him of comprehensive humanness without which he can neither ask the right questions nor provide the right answers. The more man knows about the universe. mythical conscious – guided by symbols of a holistic nature: for them the issue of the universe was the issue of man. At the same time. for they transform man into a mechanical (lifeless) "being". Development of man as a cosmic being is not possible on the basis of (mechanical) cosmic rules or by means of technical control of time and space. but only by means of a quality that provides a possibility for a "union" with the universe – in which the cosmic essence of man is included. The universe that is being created by man is not comparable with the vastness of the cosmos. and not in space. by way of a cosmologic concept. and for creation of an illusion that technical development would ensure the survival of mankind. It has a qualitative. therefore.15 "intelligent machines" and to "conquer" the universe. Man's attitude towards the universe. the myth of the "conquest of the universe" is being used for preservation of the myth of the "progressive nature" of capitalism. It is an issue that opens. prejudices. which is being identified with the conquest. and. the more remote is the possibility for him to experience his own cosmic essence. can not be established by means of technique. for they were. has lost the notion of freedom. dimension. It is an issue of relating to the universe by means of symbols that enable man. as .

the human universe is regulated by relations between human beings. a human dimension. Telescopes and space sounds do not direct man towards his cosmic being. Cosmic space merely appears to be open. Man will not "enter" the universe through a hole bored by a science alienated from him. The openness of cosmic space is preconditioned by the openness of man.to be a creator of his own. an embrace – tell more about the essence of man as a specific cosmic being than do all the "space programs" combined. in the human universe. The essence of the physical universe is determinism. The issue of infinity should be resolved in a manner that provides possibilities for man's selfconfirmation as a life-creating being. Human existence represents opposition to the cosmic laws of motion which destroys quality and reduces everything to the lowest (energy related) level (entropy). . In the physical universe. Finally. Solely man is capable of creating something new. but in the development of spiritual richness and of interpersonal relations. historical time is characterized by qualitative changes. A thought. of a "metamorphosis" of physical space through a widening of human space. By means of those symbols the phenomenal form of the universe can be superseded and his very essence can be reached – by means of which a dualism of the earthly and the cosmic existence of man is being abolished. of being the demiurge of the new world. and eventually by his freedom. the passage of historical time is measured by the development of man's creative powers. "God" becomes man's host in his own cosmic home. By means of freedom infinity attains an authentic. which is not attained by means of technique. which means by the development of his creative powers. which supersedes the infinite quantum of the universe (the endless lot). This is an issue of a specific human cosmic dimension – creative freedom and sociable disposition – which means. Fullness of man's creative being is what fills the cosmic vastness.16 a life-creating being. man's becoming human is the only truly cosmic process. a song. Physical time is characterized by quantitative (linear) temporality. Man's "conquest of outer space" is being achieved through development of his playing being. The key is not in the "conquest" of cosmic vastness. Man's unlimited creative powers are the "measure" of infinity: the enhancement of humanness represents widening of the boundaries of the new universe. play does: the development of man's playing being is a path that leads towards the development of his cosmic being. the essence of the human universe is freedom. where it is not an issue of "God" as a superhuman force. It is an issue of "transformation" of the outer quantity into a human quality. Human life-creativeness is productive: all that man creates becomes a (potential) basis for creation of the new. but of "God" as a constantly new. the passage of mechanical time is measured by movement through space. The occurrence of man is the only truly cosmic occurrence. man's stance towards the universe is a depiction of his stance towards his own self. In that context a possibility is being created for the notion of "God" as the one. A new clarification of the notion of "God the Son" is needed: man's lifecreating power represents an autonomous cosmic force that enables man – as a unique libertarian being . which means of the new universe. increasingly splendid product of the creative powers of man that represents a symbolic incarnation of the "unity" of man with his own cosmic essence. in a word. a painting. to experience the universe. it is of a new cosmic quality upon which space and time that have no quantitative dimension. but by means of play. The cosmic life-creativeness is fatalistic: all that is being originated eventually disappears. are based. The physical universe is regulated by relations between celestial bodies (particles).

A critique of established play (world) is not the expression of an aspiration for "free play". Time. the entire life of the Hellenic people was filled with agonistic activities performed as a ritual service. man appears as a fly in the spider’s web.17 Life as Play In ancient Greece. the authentic position of humanness is given. orientation towards nature. compared to other forms of struggle. "precision". It is a similar case with Christianity and other "great" religions: life is of a liturgical nature. but also the very approach to it is being dehumanized. and the awareness of a necessity is an indispensable. "Bewilderment" dominates this development. Man is always present in a defined (assigned) time and space where the dynamics of the destruction of humanness (life) become more and more intense behind a masque of "elegance". but rather the development of comprehensive humanness. the nature of the body. but of an aspiration for life . represents a totalizing power that conditions man's life. Liberation of man's playing being is the most important immediate task of libertarian play. as a form of libertarian struggle. space. Aspiring towards genuine play is not a theoretical project. demystification of the present serves as an area where people will discover joy. through a spectacular act that makes the basic values of the ruling order non-esthetic (non-erotic). Instead of play as a form.. but an issue of concrete political struggle. Freedom is a reasonable desire. precondition for freedom. The “sportivization” of society is a process by which the total domination of man by the ruling order is established. "functionality". It is not based upon knowledge of the world. towards the emancipating heritage of humankind. have been instrumentalized in it. the spirit of victory. but insufficient. "efficiency".. "clarity". the objective aspired to should be liberation of man's playing being. for play as a form is being mediated by dehumanized and denaturalized spheres to such an extent that it is becoming a vehicle for the degeneration and destruction of humanness. based upon Social Darwinism and progressism (elimination by means of victory that attains a better result/record). technical means. "harmony". but is rather an expression of the endeavour to create a truly human world where life itself represents the realization of man's playing being. etc. In capitalism.. of the artistic disposition. development of the visionary conscious. The endeavour to create genuine play is not an expression of the hope to establish a separate social sphere that exists "parallel" to the "world of worry" (like Fink's "oasis of happiness"). Where. instead of a tendency towards escapism and "distraction". but between what he can – and wants or does not want to do. It requires the development of critical conscious about the existing world – perception of the objective possibilities for creation of a new world and for development of the playing self-conscious as a libertarian and creative self-conscious. in the contemporary world. Not only play. where man will futilely try to fulfill his playing needs and powers. the key motive of the player should be man's life-creating necessity for another human being. in a word. but upon the experience of man. development of interpersonal relations. of motion... This represents its specificity. Genuine freedom does not consist of the possibility of choice between what man can and cannot do. Development of spontaneity does not require development of a normative conscious.

18 that manifests itself as the fulfillment of the universal creative (playing) powers of man as an emancipated member of the human community. which means that man. In a society where man is genuinely happy it is absolute nonsense to determine the ideal of “happiness”: life itself becomes the fruition of the ideal of humanness. For libertarian physical culture play is not a separate area of life. The attempt to preserve “humanness” in a form of normative confinement. but to those who experience other people as their brothers. Play is the supreme form of performing humanness – the utmost human act of which the immediate result is a contented man. Man's need for another human being. The self-production of man as a playing being is the highest human act and requires the (self) production of the society as a community of free creative personalities. as an interpersonal relationship. in every sense of the word. or artistic form. should be changed. play. In the same way. From the sphere of production of works of art by isolated individuals. has been abolished. that is for a constrained world.) but from fundamental humanness: man's life-creating need for another human being represents the basis of man's motion towards another man. but represents the entirety of human living within which man strives to realize himself as a playing (libertarian/creative) being. It requires not only a creative body. play establishes the immediate relations between people. that is. is being abolished. Replacement of the “imperfect” normative conscious with a “perfect” one does not imply the creation of the “perfect” man. The significance of playing is not in the production of objectiveness or form. which means that a model of man – a projection of life alienated from man. but also a (life) creative motion. Instead of the endeavour for “perfection”. Since living is understood as a series of interpersonal relationships. Life as play requires the abolishment of man's duality as a social being and a "player". is superseded. requires an emancipated man for whom “the freedom of each represents the basic precondition for the freedom of all” (Marx). as a concrete social being. the ruling order. that is. represents a genuine motif for play and the authentic basis for establishing of a society as a human community: homo homini is a mirror of humanness. is an expression of disbelief that freedom is possible at all. In the world that turned out to be fulfilled humanness it is futile to establish normative criteria upon which human existence is to be determined. has realized his own playing being – which represents his original social being. By means of playing man’s creative being is fulfilled in such a way that a need for artistic expression. we are referring here to a totalizing man who interacts with other people proceeding not from separate areas of life (work. .. science. who discharge their own desire for humanness through their works. but in the immediate development of humanness. The playing sensitivity is the supreme form of the realization of the sense of humanness. as a compensation for non-expressed (non-fulfilled) humanness. The abundance of playing forms becomes the opulence of genuine interpersonal relations. In it. there is no more dualism of approach to man in which the real and the ideal world are contained. man's ultimate and most complex ability to experience another human being. The sphere of fundamental interpersonal relations. from where derives man's original playing motion towards another man. This does not refer to people who know what “freedom” signifies. the “esthetic sphere” which counters the non-esthetic (ugly) world. Play. The normative sphere is not the one that should be changed. within which the opulence of man’s playing (creative) being is realized. philosophy..

Only when work stops being an activity where man is alienated from himself as a creative and libertarian being. conditions are being established for abolishing repressive and degenerating work-related activities. Aspiration towards play. misfortune). and not an idealized (abstracted) “man” that represents an incarnation of the “future” society for which struggle is waged. not even as a real utopian project that confronts the existing world on an intellectual level and turns into a certain normative idea of the future. not an aspiration towards “the future” as an abstraction. This requires the abolition of separate spheres. in a word. creativity. becomes the basis of creative life that represents the creation of the future. it is the supreme form of determination for being man – creation of humanum in an elemental form. when the dualism of homo faber and homo ludens is abolished with a creative man. Man’s authentic nature is a genuine origin of authentic play. and for instituting creative work that offers opportunities for the development of man’s playing being and. When the rule of creative work is instated the most important causation for dual perception of the world as the “world of worries” (labour. which can only result from libertarian struggle. Freedom. in a word of playing and of play. and cannot represent a mere consequence of the development of technical processes. in its essence. will always exist. better one. humanized naturalness and sociability – these are the characteristics of playing. but also the primary human necessity. liberation of man’s universal creative powers – which will dominate in the future society and which requires humanization of nature and development of interpersonal relations. The third precondition for freedom still remains. The “tenseness” of which Marcuse speaks. In play. the nature of this “tenseness” will be conditioned by fulfillment of two key preconditions of freedom: freedom from natural imminence (natural forces overcome) and freedom of man from man (abolition of class society and of exploitation).can be eventually abolished. when creative work becomes affirmation . Therefore. as well “private” and “public” zoning. but the life-creating necessity of one man for another man. suffering. basically. “Tenseness” in play does not result from the development of the theoretical mind. but from man’s endeavour to realize his own freedom and his own creative universality – through the superseding of forms of play in which limitations imposed on man by the existing order are manifested. as such. However. what man can be is being fulfilled: man’s becoming a human being is the criterion of genuine progress. division of work between intellectual and physical. and the “world of happiness” (illusory “play”) disappears.19 development of unconstrained humanness becomes the supreme challenge. For libertarian play homo homini represents the supreme challenge and is. On the basis of creative work. With the introduction of automation. including the sphere within which the novum is sought. the institutionalized political powers alienated from man . Only when the development of his playing being becomes the “measure” of humanness will the real development of man’s universal creative powers occur – the one that today we can merely foretell. thus. Work becomes not only the “primary life necessity” (Marx). possibilities for refinement of man’s natural being. for he will always have a critical/transformationaspiring attitude towards the world in which he lives trying to create a new. for man will always strive to be more than he is. and play ceases to be a compensatory activity and becomes the supreme form of man’s spontaneous creative self-realization and the supreme form of interpersonal closeness. represents endeavour for the free expression of humanness. that is being developed as a response to an increasingly dramatic destruction of life. a mirror of humanness.

Physical and spiritual activism. an individual who experiences his own self in his own way. opening new spiritual spaces. more complete. Life as play means that creation of interpersonal relations is the supreme manifestation of the playing disposition: man’s social being becomes his fulfilled playing being. Creative collectivism represents the basis of playing collectivism. which means that living becomes an artistic act. The world is what man carries inside himself and what he can establish together with other people. unconditioned and unmediated necessity for another human being. that is. Coliving has no temporal and spatial dimension. Instead of the martial contests that dominate sport.. play becomes an eruption of unrestrained humanness. playing and play – in a free. The joy of creative fulfillment. the world is being abolished as outer-human reality and becomes man's self-existence. and where a physically. without which no play exists. A consequence of outplaying is not the removal of the “weak” and the triumph of the “strong”. rather than human symbols. spiritually and intellectually enriched man is being created. in the existing world. and life a work of art. attaining true respect through companionship (playing) is manifested in an attitude towards “ecstasy” which is. It is aimed at establishing and developing interpersonal relations and represents the basis for attaining (self) respect. Homo homini becomes the supreme challenge. development of creative personality – these are all inducements for genuine play. instead of being reduced to a vehicle for fulfillment of pathological “needs” imposed by capitalist civilization. Authentic creativeness is "transformation" of the outer world into an experience of . but a humanized man. the supreme form of exhibition of slavery as an imitation of “spontaneity”. spontaneous and creative endeavour. status symbols which incarnate prevailing values are dominant. Play represents the making of the society as a playing community in the most immediate sense. based upon outplaying. life-creating competition should be introduced. Instead of being an escape from nothingness. developing his own individuality.20 of human freedom: only then can man’s playing being be liberated from all forms of compulsions – only then does true play become possible. unlike petit bourgeois love which originates in the context of struggle for money and power where. through the most immediate form of man’s self-creation. The development of a necessity for man. Through playing.. Genuine play is based upon authentic love developed in a creative (libertarian) exaltation. Instead of immerging inside himself. It is an issue of the attainment of “unity” between the playing being. of play as a realization of the playing disposition through a creative effort – through comprehensive self-creation of man (human community). that is. The variety of the outer world forms is not a challenge anymore but is being replaced by the opulence of the inner. where there are no winners and no vanquished. The experiencing of man always reappears as an option of the new. the interpersonal. Play turns into midwife skills – delivering humanness through creative effort. The specificity of play as creativeness is in its being based upon man’s spontaneous. This is exactly where the apex of the genuine life creating practice that generates a society as a human community is being manifested – with man’s turning into a human being. emotionally. but at the same time generates himself as a creative and social being. true belief in man. man should aspire towards the enrichment of the contents of interpersonal relations. With creative work man renders not only his own existence. requires creative effort: creative activism determines the rhythm of play. only a human one. more beautiful… Human nearness becomes the source of life’s warmth.

Man's becoming a human being and the creation of being represent the same process: man's self-creation becomes the selfcreation of being. "unity with the world" will become "unity" of man with another human being. instead of the aristocratic class as an organic community united by parasitism and by existential fear of the labourers. as it is with Nietzsche. which is. where man could not be at one with being. not language. In contrast to antiquity. Man has nowhere to return to. in a word. Instead of the world of misfortune as a negative basis for play. he will perceive the world as his own creation. as it is with Nietzsche. Man will not attain "unity" with the world through labour. but in the world of gods who temporarily assigned him their own powers so that he could entertain them. Playing becomes the supreme form of "appropriation" of the world by man. the child's education by means of living life as free creative personalities will become the basic pedagogical principle. which will also imply the body-talk. and is. man did not exist in his own world. x x x . therefore. as his manifested (and not "infested") humanness. Instead. technique.. but also his self-creation. man's need for the other as a physical and spiritual being will dominate. that will not represent a privilege of the "new nobility".. the acme of life will represent living life as free. the supreme challenge will be the society as an organic community of free creative personalities. as is the case with romanticism. in the world of today possibilities exist for man to reach being. but of totalizing the libertarian (creative) activism of which the main "product" is a society as a community of free people. an expression of a hopeless attempt to escape from the society. play. In that sense. the world of happy people will become the ground and inspiration for the development of a rich playing personality. it does not only represent man's self-knowledge and self-expression.. but the basic human right. No more will man live in a world he refers to as something (im)posed and outerhuman (alien). Genuine play is not merely man's supreme intellectual relation with the world. In the beginning there was play.. This is not an issue of simulated totalizing of the world by means of simple subjectivism. but play becomes the supreme form of establishing human society.21 human intensity. True history will begin when man's playing being becomes the indisputable source of his own life. instead of the child's subordination to repressive normative stereotypes. Instead of living the life of the chosen. In the world of freedom the real value will be attributed to poetic expression. The development of man as a universal free creative being and the enhancement of interpersonal relations will become the "measure" of development of the world. as such. In pre-Socratic times. Life itself will become the supreme symbol of humanness. He has to build the home that he never really possessed.. instead of the need to suppress repressive normative confinement and the repressive esthetic canons (by means of which the elitist class status is determined). which eventually represents the "appropriation" of himself with "no residue". happiness. – but will make the world: creation of the world will become man's self-creation. creative people.. It is an issue of superseding the "fragmentized" and of attaining the "synthetic" man who represents a unity of Apollonian and Dionysian. art. the most comprehensive form of experiencing the world.

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