IMPROVED MEMBRANE
ABSORBERS
Robert Oldfield
Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment, Acoustics
Department, University of Salford, Salford, UK
Submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of
Science by Research, September 2006
Contents i
CONTENTS
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Nomenclature vii
List of Tables and Figures ix
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
2. ABSORPTION METHODS.................................................................................. 7
2.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 7
2.2 PRINCIPLES OF ABSORPTION ........................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Reflection Factor....................................................................................... 9
2.2.2 Absorption Coefficient ............................................................................. 10
2.2.3 Surface Impedance .................................................................................. 11
2.3 POROUS ABSORBERS .................................................................................... 12
2.3.1 Characterising and Modelling Porous Absorbers .................................... 15
2.3.1.1 Material Properties........................................................................... 16
2.3.1.1.1 Measuring Flow Resistivity.......................................................... 18
2.3.1.2 Prediction Models ............................................................................ 20
2.3.1.2.1 Acoustic Impedance Modelling of Multiple Porous Layers........... 21
2.4 RESONANT ABSORPTION............................................................................... 25
2.4.1 Helmholtz Absorbers ............................................................................... 26
2.4.1.1 Predicting the Performance of Helmholtz Absorbers ........................ 27
2.4.2 Membrane Absorbers............................................................................... 30
2.4.2.1 Predicting the Performance of Membrane Absorbers........................ 31
2.4.2.1.1 Transfer Matrix Modelling........................................................... 33
2.5 CONCLUSION................................................................................................ 39
3. MEASURING ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT AND SURFACE IMPEDANCE ..
............................................................................................................................ 41
3.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 41
3.2 REVERBERATION CHAMBER METHOD........................................................... 42
3.3 IMPEDANCE TUBE METHOD.......................................................................... 44
Contents ii
3.3.1 Standing Wave Method............................................................................ 45
3.3.2 Transfer Function Method ....................................................................... 48
3.3.3 General Considerations for Impedance Tube Testing............................... 52
3.4 THE DESIGN, BUILD AND COMMISSIONING OF A LOW FREQUENCY IMPEDANCE
FTUBE .................................................................................................................... 53
3.4.1 Design ..................................................................................................... 54
3.4.2 Construction............................................................................................ 56
3.4.3 Commissioning ........................................................................................ 57
3.4.3.1 Processing the Data.......................................................................... 57
3.4.3.1.1 Least Squares Optimization Technique......................................... 58
3.5 CONCLUSION................................................................................................ 64
4. USING LOUDSPEAKER SURROUND AS THE MOUNTING FOR A
MEMBRANE ABSORBER........................................................................................ 66
4.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 66
4.2 THEORY....................................................................................................... 67
4.2.1 Traditional Mounting Conditions............................................................. 68
4.2.1.1 Simply Supported ............................................................................ 68
4.2.1.2 Clamped .......................................................................................... 69
4.2.1.3 Freely Supported.............................................................................. 70
4.2.2 The Pistonic Case .................................................................................... 70
4.3 MEASUREMENTS .......................................................................................... 72
4.3.1 Initial Measurements Using an Accelerometer......................................... 72
4.3.2 Impedance Tube Tests.............................................................................. 75
4.4 MODELLING................................................................................................. 81
4.4.1 Equivalent Circuit Model......................................................................... 81
4.4.1.1 Finding Parameters .......................................................................... 82
4.4.1.1.1 Determining C
AD
.......................................................................... 82
4.4.1.1.2 Finding the Equivalent Piston of a Clamped Plate ........................ 84
4.4.1.2 Results ............................................................................................. 85
4.4.2 Transfer Matrix Model............................................................................. 86
4.5 CONCLUSION................................................................................................ 87
5. USING A LOUDSPEAKER AS A RESONANT ABSORBER........................... 89
Contents iii
5.1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 89
5.2 BASIC PREMISE FROM LOUDSPEAKER THEORY.............................................. 90
5.3 LUMPED PARAMETER MODELLING................................................................ 91
5.3.1 Theory ..................................................................................................... 92
5.3.1.1 Equivalent Circuits........................................................................... 93
5.3.2 Analysis................................................................................................... 98
5.3.2.1 Electrical Section............................................................................. 98
5.3.2.2 Mechanical Section........................................................................ 100
5.3.2.3 Acoustical Section ......................................................................... 105
5.3.2.4 Combining the Sections ................................................................. 106
5.3.3 Defining the Parameters ........................................................................ 111
5.3.4 Calculating the Absorption of the System............................................... 116
5.4 IMPLEMENTING THE MODEL ....................................................................... 117
5.4.1 Discussion ............................................................................................. 117
5.5 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................. 121
6. CHANGING THE RESONANT CHARACTERISTICS OF A LOUDSPEAKER
ABSORBER USING PASSIVE ELECTRONICS..................................................... 122
6.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................... 122
6.2 CHANGING THE LOAD RESISTANCE............................................................. 126
6.2.1 Theory and Prediction ........................................................................... 126
6.2.2 Measurements........................................................................................ 130
6.2.3 Summary ............................................................................................... 135
6.3 CHANGING THE CAPACITIVE LOAD ............................................................. 136
6.3.1 Theory and Prediction ........................................................................... 136
6.3.2 Measurements........................................................................................ 138
6.3.3 Discussion ............................................................................................. 139
6.3.4 Summary ............................................................................................... 139
6.4 MODELLING OTHER SCENARIOS ................................................................. 140
6.4.1 Resistors and Capacitors in Series......................................................... 140
6.4.2 Resistors and Capacitors in Parallel...................................................... 143
6.4.3 Applying an Variable Inductor............................................................... 144
6.4.4 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Series ......................................... 146
6.4.5 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Parallel ...................................... 148
Contents iv
6.4.6 Summary ............................................................................................... 151
6.5 OPTIMISING THE PASSIVE ELECTRONIC LOAD FOR A GIVEN SET OF DRIVER
PARAMETERS......................................................................................................... 151
6.5.1 Determining the Capacitance Needed for a Certain Resonant Frequency ....
.............................................................................................................. 152
6.5.2 Determining How the Qfactor Changes With Resistance ...................... 156
6.5.3 Determining the Optimum Shunt Inductance of a Capacitor .................. 157
6.6 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................. 158
7. FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK.......................................... 161
7.1 FINAL CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................. 161
7.2 FURTHER WORK ......................................................................................... 163
References 166
Appendices 172
Acknowledgements v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my thanks to Prof. Trevor Cox for his inspirational supervision,
guidance and time during this project. Also I would like to thank everyone in the
Acoustics department at the University of Salford for their continual support,
encouragement and suggestions with particular thanks to Fouad and the team of G61.
Thanks also to Dr. Mark Avis for his practical suggestions and willingness to offer help
whenever it was needed.
Thanks also to my wonderful parents for their ever present wisdom and encouragement
which have never been in short supply and have always been an example to me. Finally
praise goes to the Almighty God, ‘Great is His faithfulness!’
Abstract vi
ABSTRACT
This thesis presents research into two novel techniques for improving the low frequency
performance, tunability and efficiency of membrane absorbers. The first approach uses
a loudspeaker surround as the mounting for the membrane, increasing the moving mass,
thereby lowering the resonant frequency of the system. Using a loudspeaker surround
also allows for more accurate prediction of the absorber’s performance as the mounting
conditions are such that the membrane can be more accurately represented by a lumped
mass moving as a piston.
The second approach expands upon this technique and uses a loudspeaker within a
sealed cabinet to act as the membrane absorber. Passive electronic components can be
connected across the terminals of the loudspeaker to adapt the mechanical resonance
properties of the system. Tests were performed on the absorber systems using a
specially constructed low frequency impedance tube. It was found that varying a
complex electrical load connected to the driver terminals enabled the range of
obtainable resonant frequencies of the system to be dramatically increased. Varying a
solely resistive load has also been shown to alter the absorption bandwidth. An
analogue circuit analysis of the absorber system is presented and demonstrates good
agreement with impedance tube measurements. A final model is shown that allows for
the system to be optimised using different resistive and reactive components given a
specific driver.
Nomenclature vii
NOMENCLATURE
B Magnetic flux density (T)
Bl Force factor (Tm)
A
C Acoustic compliance (m
5
N
1
)
AB
C Acoustic compliance of the cabinet (m
5
N
1
)
AD
C Compliance in acoustic units of the diaphragm (m
5
N
1
)
AEV
C Capacitance in acoustical units as a result of variable inductor L
EV
AT
C Total acoustic compliance (m
5
N
1
)
1 AE
C Capacitance in acoustical units as a result of inductor L
1
2 AE
C Capacitance in acoustical units as a result of inductor L
2
E
C Electrical capacitance (F)
EV
C Variable electrical capacitance (F)
M
C Mechanical compliance
MD
C Mechanical compliance of the diaphragm without an air load (mN
1
)
MS
C Mechanical compliance of the diaphragm with an air load (mN
1
)
F Force (N)
f Frequency (Hz)
i Electrical current (Ω)
j 1 −
k Wavenumber (m
1
)
M
k Mechanical stiffness (Nm
1
)
l Length of coil (m)
E
L Electrical inductance (H)
AEV
L Inductance in acoustical units as a result of capacitor C
EV
M Mass (kg)
AB
M Acoustic mass at the back of the diaphragm (kgm
4
)
AD
M Acoustic mass of the diaphragm without an air load (kgm
4
)
AF
M Acoustic mass at the front of the diaphragm (kgm
4
)
AS
M Acoustic mass at of the diaphragm with an air load (kgm
4
)
AT
M Total acoustic mass (kgm
4
)
MD
M Mechanical mass of diaphragm without air load (kg)
MS
M Mechanical mass of diaphragm with air load (kg)
in
p Input acoustic pressure (Pa)
q Electrical charge (C)
AB
R Acoustic resistance/damping at the back of the diaphragm (Nsm
5
)
AD
R Acoustic resistance/damping of the diaphragm without an air load (Nsm
5
)
AE
R Resistance in acoustical units as a result of resistor R
E
AEV
R Resistance in acoustical units as a result of resistor R
EV
2 AE
R Resistance in acoustical units as a result of resistor R
2
AF
R Acoustic resistance/damping in front of the diaphragm (Nsm
5
)
Nomenclature viii
AS
R Acoustic resistance/damping of the diaphragm with an air load (Nsm
5
)
AT
R Total acoustic resistance/damping (Nsm
5
)
E
R Electrical resistance of loudspeaker coil (Ω)
EV
R Variable electrical resistance (Ω)
M
R Mechanical resistance/damping (Nsm
1
)
MD
R Mechanical resistance/damping of diaphragm without air load (Nsm
1
)
MS
R Mechanical resistance/damping of diaphragm with air load (Nsm
1
)
S Area (m
2
)
D
S Area of diaphragm (m
2
)
t Time (s)
U Volume velocity (m
3
s
1
)
u Particle velocity (ms
1
)
V Volume (m
3
)
v Voltage (V)
in
v Input voltage (V)
B
V Volume of cabinet (m
3
)
x Displacement (m)
A
Z Acoustic impedance (Pasm
1
or MKS rayl)
AB
Z Acoustic impedance at the back of the diaphragm (Pasm
1
or MKS rayl)
F A
Z Acoustic impedance at the front of the diaphragm (Pasm
1
or MKS rayl)
E
Z Electrical impedance (Ω)
M
Z Mechanical impedance (Nsm
1
)
α Absorption coefficient
λ Wavelength (m)
ρ Density (kgm
3
)
0
ρ Density of air (1.21kgm
3
)
ω Angular frequency (s
1
)
For the rules of equivalent circuit nomenclature see appendix I
List of Tables and Figures ix
LIST OF TABLES
Table 5.1 Summary of the impedance analogue........................................................... 97
Table 5.2 Summary of the mobility analogue .............................................................. 98
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Reflection of a sound wave incident normal to a surface .............................. 9
Figure 2.2 a) Closed cell foam, b) Open celled foam, (From Cox and D’Antonio [8]). 13
Figure 2.3 Test apparatus for measurement of flow resistivity .................................... 18
Figure 2.4 Diagram of sound propagation through multiple layers .............................. 22
Figure 2.5 Schematic representation of a typical Helmholtz absorber.......................... 27
Figure 2.6 Diagram of a Helmholtz type acoustic resonator ........................................ 28
Figure 2.7 Schematic representation of a standard membrane absorber ....................... 30
Figure 2.8 Diagrammatic representation of the transfer matrix modelling of sound
incident to a membrane absorber ......................................................................... 35
Figure 2.9 Transfer matrix modeling of porous absorbent with a rigid backing using the
Delany and Bazley model.................................................................................... 37
Figure 2.10 Transfer matrix prediction of a simple membrane absorber ...................... 38
Figure 3.1 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the standing wave
method................................................................................................................ 45
Figure 3.2 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the transfer
function method .................................................................................................. 49
Figure 3.3 a) Photograph of completed impedance tube b) Schematic of completed
impedance tube ................................................................................................... 55
Figure 3.4 Impedance tube for the transfer function method with modelled image source
technique............................................................................................................. 58
Figure 3.5 Image source technique for multiple microphone positions ........................ 60
Figure 3.6 Results of commissioning of the low frequency impedance tube................ 61
Figure 3.7 Results, comparing the standard transfer function method and the least
squares optimization method of interpreting the results ....................................... 62
List of Tables and Figures x
Figure 3.8 Comparing the original and the extended version of the least square method
............................................................................................................................ 64
Figure 4.1 Schematic representation of a simply supported plate................................ 68
Figure 4.2 Schematic representation of a clamped plate ............................................. 69
Figure 4.3 Schematic representation of a freely supported plate................................. 70
Figure 4.4 Schematic presentation of pistonic mounting ............................................ 71
Figure 4.5 Photos of membrane mounting.................................................................. 73
Figure 4.6 Experimental setup for the accelerometer tests........................................... 74
Figure 4.7 Results from the accelerometer tests .......................................................... 75
Figure 4.8 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in large sample
holder.................................................................................................................. 76
Figure 4.9 Illustration of differing clamping conditions in accelerometer and impedance
tube tests ............................................................................................................. 77
Figure 4.10 Samples mounted in impedance tube, demonstrating how mounting rings
can support modal behaviour............................................................................... 78
Figure 4.11 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in small
sample holder ...................................................................................................... 79
Figure 4.12 Results from impedance tube tests on hardboard with and without surround
in small and large sample holders........................................................................ 80
Figure 4.13 Equivalent circuit for a membrane absorber ............................................. 81
Figure 4.14 Experimental setup for measuring compliance of surround ...................... 82
Figure 4.15 Results from experiment to determine compliance of surround ................ 83
Figure 4.16 Absorption curve from equivalent circuit model of membrane with and
without surround ................................................................................................. 85
Figure 4.17 Comparison of measured absorption curves with predictions from a transfer
matrix model ....................................................................................................... 86
Figure 5.1 Simple representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker ................. 99
Figure 5.2 More complicated representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker
.......................................................................................................................... 100
Figure 5.3 Mechanical representation of a loudspeaker ............................................. 102
Figure 5.4 Impedance analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker ... 103
Figure 5.5 Mobility analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker ...... 104
Figure 5.6 Impedance analogue circuit of the acoustical section of a loudspeaker ..... 105
List of Tables and Figures xi
Figure 5.7 Mobility analogue circuit of the acoustical section of loudspeaker used as a
membrane absorber ........................................................................................... 106
Figure 5.8 Idealised transformer ............................................................................... 107
Figure 5.9 Simplified idealised transformer .............................................................. 107
Figure 5.10 Equivalent circuit linking electrical, mechanical and acoustical sections
with transformers .............................................................................................. 109
Figure 5.11 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical and mechanical
sections combined............................................................................................. 110
Figure 5.12 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical, mechanical and
acoustical sections combined............................................................................. 110
Figure 5.13 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber in impedance analogue........... 111
Figure 5.14 Simplified equivalent circuit of membrane absorber............................... 115
Figure 5.15 Comparison of equivalent circuit model with impedance tube
measurements.................................................................................................... 117
Figure 5.16 Real part of surface impedance from both predicted and measured data . 118
Figure 5.17 First three vibrational modes of a circular plate...................................... 119
Figure 5.18 Multiplot of absorption and surface impedance showing the first two
resonant modes of the loudspeaker .................................................................... 120
Figure 6.1 Electrical section of the absorber equivalent circuit with an additional
variable resistor across terminals A and B. ......................................................... 127
Figure 6.2 Full equivalent circuit of absorber with additional variable resistor across
terminals ........................................................................................................... 127
Figure 6.3 Simplified equivalent circuit of absorber.................................................. 128
Figure 6.4 Changes in absorption curves with a variable resistor connected across
loudspeaker terminals........................................................................................ 129
Figure 6.5 Mounting of loudspeaker in large sample holder for impedance tube testing
.......................................................................................................................... 130
Figure 6.6 Measurements made on absorber in impedance tube changing resistive load
on loudspeaker terminals................................................................................... 131
Figure 6.7 Real part of the measured surface impedance of absorber with a variable
resistive load without porous absorption in the cabinet ...................................... 132
Figure 6.8 Predicted absorption coefficient changing the resistive load on the absorber
without porous absorption in cabinet. ................................................................ 133
List of Tables and Figures xii
Figure 6.9 Measured absorption coefficient of absorber with variable resistive load with
porous absorption in the cabinet ........................................................................ 134
Figure 6.10 Equivalent circuit with additional variable capacitor connected to
loudspeaker terminals........................................................................................ 136
Figure 6.11 Predicted absorption curves with a variable capacitor connected to
loudspeaker terminals........................................................................................ 137
Figure 6.12 Measured absorption curves, changing the load capacitance connected
across loudspeaker terminals ............................................................................. 138
Figure 6.13 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable resistor in series with a variable
capacitor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker..................................... 141
Figure 6.14 Multiplot showing changes in the trend of absorption for different
combinations of resistors in series with capacitors............................................. 142
Figure 6.15 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable
resistor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker ....................................... 143
Figure 6.16 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor connected to the terminals
of the loudspeaker ............................................................................................. 144
Figure 6.17 Absorption curves changing inductive load on loudspeaker.................... 145
Figure 6.18 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor in series with a variable
capacitor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker..................................... 146
Figure 6.19 Multiplot of absorption trends with a variable inductive and capacitive
load connected in series..................................................................................... 147
Figure 6.20 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable
inductor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker ...................................... 149
Figure 6.21 Multiplot showing predicted absorption trends with a variable inductor and
capacitor connected in parallel to the terminals of the loudspeaker .................... 150
Figure 6.22 Equivalent circuit of absorber system with simplified motor impedance
terms and variable capacitor connected to terminals .......................................... 153
Figure 6.23 Resonant frequency versus capacitance value to determine the component
value needed for a given resonant frequency ..................................................... 155
Figure 6.24 Standard deviation changes in absorption curve for different load
resistances on loudspeaker terminals, a comparison between measurement and
prediction.......................................................................................................... 157
Figure 6.25 Resonant frequencies of absorber with varying capacitance and inductance
in parallel connected to the loudspeaker terminals ............................................. 158
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1. INTRODUCTION
This thesis is focused primarily upon low frequency absorption for room acoustic
applications. Absorption is paramount in room acoustics for reducing the intensity of
reflections from the boundaries of, or objects within, a given room. Without sufficient
absorption, these reflections cause the reverberant level in the room to be high as a result of
long decay times. Absorption will reduce the reverberation time in the room and
consequently will reduce the level of the reverberant field enabling the direct sound to be
heard at sufficiently high amplitude in comparison to the reverberant field thus aiding
speech intelligibility. Absorption also helps to reduce colouration i.e. a change in frequency
content or timbre between the radiated and received signal as a result of strong reflections
at discrete frequencies [1]. Absorption can thus help to produce a room with a flatter
response with respect to frequency. In many situations creating a completely reflection free
Chapter 1: Introduction 2
listening environment is undesirable as reflections tend to enhance the enjoyment of
listening; adding to the perceived spaciousness of the room [2]. Creating an entirely
anechoic room by using too much absorption has a rather eerie quality which impedes the
perceived enjoyability of a performance.
A room will have a different temporal and frequency response at different frequencies so it
is important that acoustic treatment is considered across the entire audio bandwidth. The
absorption of mid to high frequency sound can be achieved relatively easily and cheaply
with the use of porous absorbers, low frequency absorption however is harder to achieve
and is often the most necessary, with the particular problem of room modes. Room modes
occur when standing waves are set up between the boundaries of a room; these standing
waves lead to regions in space of higher and lower amplitude at discrete frequencies
governed by the geometrical dimensions of the room. Thus the room will have an uneven
response both spatially and with respect to frequency. There are also temporal problems as
at modal frequency the decay times are longer, subjectively this is commonly the most
noticeable consequence of room modes. Problems with room modes occur primarily at
longer wavelengths, as here the modes are further apart in frequency with respect to each
other and are subsequently detected more easily as discrete modes by the ear.
Many precautions can be taken in order to prevent the occurrence, and to control the extent,
of room modes. Placing loudspeakers and sound sources in places where they will not
excite the antinodes and optimising the geometry of room [3, 4] can both help, however
repositioning sources only tackles half the problem and it is not always possible, practical
Chapter 1: Introduction 3
or cost efficient to resize and shape a room. Work has been done on treating room modes
by active equalization using digital signal processing [5], however this only deals with
sound reproduction systems and not problems as a result of acoustic stimuli, it is therefore
an incomplete solution. Attempting to diffuse these low frequency reflections, thereby
preventing room modes, is by and large unfeasible as the scattering surfaces needed have to
have deep irregularities to be optimally effective for longer wavelength sound; thus where
space is a premium this is seldom a practical solution. Absorption is therefore often the best
way to treat room modes. By absorbing sound at the discrete modal frequencies of a room,
the magnitude of boundary reflections is reduced thus lessening the severity of the standing
waves i.e. decreasing the pressure ratio between antinodes and nodes, resulting in a flatter
frequency and spatial response. Absorption at modal frequencies can be achieved using
either active [6] or passive techniques however active techniques often fraught with
practical difficulties and are therefore not widely used; consequently this project focuses
primarily on passive low frequency absorption techniques.
Low frequency absorption can be difficult to achieve without using very large and
cumbersome absorbers due to the large wavelengths involved. One method of absorption is
to use porous absorbers, where viscous and thermal losses of sound passing through small
pores in a material generate absorption. Porous absorption is a broadband solution but the
depth of material needed for it to be effective increases as the wavelength gets longer, thus
it is often impractical for treating low frequency problems. Another method is to use
damped resonators to provide absorption such as with membrane absorbers which provide a
smaller/shallower solution. Incident sound forces a cavity backed membrane into
Chapter 1: Introduction 4
oscillation, the energy of which is absorbed using acoustic damping. As membrane
absorbers are resonant systems they tend to have a narrow bandwidth of effective
absorption, controlled in frequency by the physical and geometrical properties of the
device. These absorbers also suffer from poor tunability, which can only be achieved by
reconstruction with different materials and/or geometry. However because of their small
size and relatively simple design membrane absorbers are commonly used in the control of
low frequency sound in rooms.
Designing a room where membrane absorbers are to be used can be rather problematic as
there are no accurate prediction models available for predicting their performance, simple
relationships do exist [7] that can predict the resonant frequency but these often rely on the
assumption that the membrane in question is moving as a piston, in most cases this is not
true and the exact boundary conditions are very difficult to accurately predict. The first
question of this thesis addresses this problem by considering the possibility of using
loudspeaker surround as the mounting for a membrane in a membrane absorber.
Loudspeaker surround is designed so that the diaphragm of a loudspeaker can move like a
piston i.e. each point on the diaphragm moves with the same velocity and phase. In
loudspeaker technology this is useful both in terms of predicting the behaviour of
loudspeakers and also in ensuring the radiation characteristics are as flat with respect to
frequency as possible. Using loudspeaker surround means that approximating the
movement of the membrane to that of a piston will be more accurate and thus prediction
models will be more useful when designing an absorber for a specific application. The use
of a loudspeaker surround will also increase the moving mass of the membrane thus
Chapter 1: Introduction 5
lowering its resonant frequency, allowing absorbers to be built with smaller dimensions
whilst still achieving the same low frequency performance.
The second part of the project expands this theme, using an entire loudspeaker as an
absorber system. Loudspeakers are already designed to be massspring systems with
damping in the cabinet, thus they have the potential to work as membrane absorbers if used
in reverse. There are a number of advantages in using loudspeakers as absorbers, firstly
they are cheap, readily available and are already configured to absorb. Secondly they can be
tuned by connecting a passive electronic load to the terminals of the driver. By adding a
reactive electronic component, the resonance of the induced current produced as the coil
oscillates within the magnetic field can be changed; this will then result in a change in the
mechanical resonant frequency, allowing for a tunable absorber. In addition, adding
electrically resistive components will alter the electrical and mechanical damping and
hence the Qfactor of the system. Using these techniques leads to an absorber that could be
moved from room to room and tuned to meet the requirements of that room, i.e. tuned to
the frequency of a troublesome room mode and damped to the required level in order to
produce the optimally flat frequency response.
This thesis will, in chapter two, highlight the main principles of both porous and resonant
absorption and, in chapter three, how these absorbers can be tested including the design and
build of a specially constructed low frequency impedance tube. Chapter four will consider
using loudspeaker surround as the mounting of a membrane, looking first at the theory and
prediction and later at experimental studies undertaken in order to verify this theory.
Chapter 1: Introduction 6
Chapters five and six will look at using a loudspeaker as an absorber and how it can be
tuned and optimized by the use of a passive electronic load on the driver; again theory,
prediction and experimentation are included. Chapter seven concludes and outlines any
further work and commercial possibilities that could result from this research.
.
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 7
2. ABSORPTION METHODS
2.1 Introduction
Absorbing mid band and high frequency sound is easily achieved and is done with high
efficiency using porous absorbers, such as mineral wool. Porous absorbers make use of the
movement of the air particles in acoustic waves through the pores of the material and
absorb energy through viscous and thermal losses as sound propagates through these small
orifices. Absorption in this case is greater when there is a larger particle velocity. The
positioning of these absorbers for maximum efficiency reflects this, such that the surface of
the absorbent should be in a region of higher particle velocity. Here lies the reason why this
technique is well suited to the absorption of mid to high frequency sound. At a boundary
the pressure will be a relative maximum, the particle velocity however will be a relative
minimum, this means that the porous material will not be effective if on the boundary itself,
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 8
it will have to protrude from the wall to such an extent that its surface will be in the place of
a higher, or ideally, maximum particle velocity. This is not a problem for higher frequency
waves but when the incident wavelength is larger, problems occur as the material needed
has to be very thick to absorb efficiently. This is undesirable as the useable volume of the
room is reduced to make space for the acoustic treatment. A solution to this problem is to
create an absorber that would exhibit maximum absorption in a region where the pressure
was a maximum rather particle velocity i.e. a solution that could be used close to the
boundary of a room. This would reduce the need for thick porous absorbers to treat longer
wavelengths. A technique that fits this criterion is resonant absorption, so called because it
utilises damped resonators to absorb sound. Acoustic pressures induce the vibration of a
massspring system which, at a given frequency will resonate, producing maximum
excursion of the mass. Damping this movement will introduce loss of energy into the
system and consequently absorb the incident sound. The mass in resonant absorbers is
usually in the form of a semirigid plate or membrane in the case of membrane absorbers or
a plug of air in Helmholtz absorbers, the spring in both cases is usually an air spring as a
result of an enclosed volume. Damping is introduced into the system usually by adding
some porous absorbent either in the holes of Helmholtz absorbers or at the rear of the
membrane in a membrane absorber. Resonant absorbers are effectively velocity
transducers, as they convert incident pressure into movement of a membrane that creates a
high particle velocity through the porous absorbent thus absorbing sound at the resonant
frequency of the system. This project is primarily concerned with resonant absorption but
as porous materials are needed in resonant absorbers to provide greatest efficiency across a
larger bandwidth, the theory of both methods has been detailed in this chapter.
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 9
2.2 Principles of Absorption
Several parameters of absorbent materials and systems can be derived or measured that
give good indication as to its acoustic performance, chiefly these are the surface
impedance, the reflection factor and the absorption coefficient. A brief theory of each of
these terms is presented here as it is important for subsequent analysis.
2.2.1 Reflection Factor
For the definition of these terms it is considered that a plane wave is incident normal to a
surface as shown in Figure 2.1:
Figure 2.1 Reflection of a sound wave incident normal to a surface
On incidence to a surface the energy of a plane wave is split into reflected and absorbed
energies. The absorbed energy could be as a result of acoustic transmission though the
surface or as heat conversion in the material. The proportion of energy that is not absorbed
is reflected, this reflected wave will have both a different amplitude and phase from the
incident wave such that the reflected wave can be given as:
x = 0
x
Incident wave, p
i
Reflected wave, p
r
Absorbed wave, p
t
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 10
( )
) (
0
ˆ ,
kx t j
r
e p R t x p
+
=
ω
(2.1)
where R is the reflection factor of the surface. The reflection factor is a complex ratio of the
reflected and incident pressures given by:
( )
( ) t x p
t x p
e R R
i
r j
,
,
= =
φ
(2.2)
2.2.2 Absorption Coefficient
The reflection factor of a surface can be used to determine the absorption coefficient of a
surface. The absorption coefficient of a surface is a very useful parameter as it states the
fraction of energy that is absorbed when sound is incident to a surface. Absorption
coefficient it is a unitless quantity between zero and unity, zero meaning that no acoustic
energy is absorbed resulting in total reflection of the sound wave. An absorption coefficient
of unity means that all of the incident energy is absorbed leaving no reflected energy.
To derive the absorption coefficient the intensity of a plane wave is considered as given by:
c
p
I
0
2
ρ
=
(2.3)
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 11
Therefore on reflection, the reflected wave is reduced in intensity by a fraction of R
2
and
consequently the fraction of energy absorbed can be given by 1 R
2
. The absorption
coefficient of a surface is therefore expressed as:
2
1 R − = α
(2.4)
The absorption coefficient of a material is probably the most widely used quantity when
describing absorbent materials and systems and an absorber’s performance is often given
by a graph of absorption coefficient versus frequency.
2.2.3 Surface Impedance
The surface impedance is a very useful parameter as it is very closely linked to the physical
properties of a surface so it provides clear indication of how the surface behaves given an
incident wave. The surface impedance is given by the ratio of pressure and the particle
velocity normal to the surface:
) , (
) , (
t x u
t x p
z =
(2.5)
With the surface at x = 0 the combined pressure and velocity normal to the surface can be
given by:
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 12
( )
( )
t j
t j
e R
c
p
t u
e R p t p
ω
ω
ρ
− =
+ =
1
ˆ
) , 0 (
1 ˆ ) , 0 (
0
0
0
(2.6)
The surface impedance becomes:
R
R
c z
−
+
=
1
1
0
ρ
(2.7)
Separating the surface impedance into its real and imaginary components reveals
information as to the magnitude of absorption and is resonant characteristics which can be
very useful in analysis.
2.3 Porous Absorbers
When most people think of acoustic absorbers they commonly think of porous absorbers,
this is because there are so many materials that are naturally porous and consequently
absorb sound. Many people, in the pursuit of constructing a home studio or attempting
some rudimentary acoustic treatment of an existing room, will use common materials such
as thick curtains, carpets and sofa’s to control the reverberation time within the room, these
all constitute porous absorbers. Porous absorbers must have open pores as in Figure 2.2 i.e.
pores that can support acoustic propagation where the orifice is at the surface of the
absorber. Porous absorbers can be either granular or fibrous providing they have these open
pores. Granular absorbers can be made from small pieces of almost any rigid or semi rigid
material bound together with glues that do not block pores. Loose granular materials such
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 13
as sand also constitute porous absorbers as the gaps between grains provide a complex path
for the acoustic waves to propagate through, but their loose nature often means they are
impractical to use, especially in room acoustics. An example of a fibrous porous absorbent
is mineral wool, made by spinning molten minerals such as sand and weaving the spun
fibres together to form a complicated structure of pores. This complex pore structure leaves
a material that is highly porous and is commonly used for both acoustic and fire insulation
as its open pores allow restricted airflow through the material thus absorbing sound and
also preventing efficient heat exchange.
When sound propagates in small spaces there are losses in energy, primarily caused by
viscous boundary layer effects, i.e. the friction of the viscous air fluid passing through the
orifice of a small hole/pore. It is this friction that causes viscous and heat losses in porous
absorbers making them efficient for room acoustic applications. For a porous absorber to be
effective, it is important that the pores are open rather than closed. The diagram below
shows the differences between closed and open cell foam:
Figure 2.2 a) Closed cell foam, no propagation path through absorbent as pores are closed and unconnected.
b) Open celled foam, interconnected pores allow for acoustic propagation and consequent thermal/viscous
losses. (From Cox and D’Antonio [8])
Many manmade types of foam can be classified as closed cell foams, these foams have
either closed pores so there is no propagation path or pores that are too small for the sound
b) a)
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 14
wave to propagate through. As waves cannot propagate through the material there will be
no viscous and thermal losses so there will be very little absorption and the material will act
as a reflector. Open cell foams as depicted in Figure 2.2b have a propagation path either
through all or part of the foam generating losses as sound propagates through the pores. In
general the longer and more tortuous the pores, the greater the viscous and thermal losses
generated as sound propagates through them; hence there will be more absorption. The
most efficient porous absorbers have many tortuous and interconnected pores resulting in
what could be considered as a complex system of pipes in which the acoustic wave can
propagate. Obviously if these pores become too small the acoustic wave can no longer
propagate within them as there is not sufficient volume for pressure changes to occur and
the material then can be classified as closed cell. Conversely if the pores become too large
the viscous boundary layer effects become negligible resulting in no significant absorption.
In order for viscous losses to be effective, the particle velocity has to be high, the higher the
particle velocity the larger the viscous and heat losses. This means that the most effective
way to use porous absorption is where the particle velocity is at a maximum. This occurs
away from a rigid boundary by a quarter of a wavelength as at the boundary the particle
velocity would be a minimum. Figures often quoted are that for significant acoustic
absorption the porous material should be at least one tenth of a wavelength thick, and for
maximum absorption the material should be one quarter of a wavelength thick (or away
from the boundary with an air gap such that the surface is a quarter of a wavelength from
the boundary). With this in mind it becomes clear that as the wavelength of the incident
sound increases, the porous material must increase in depth if satisfactory absorption is to
be achieved. This is the reason that porous absorption is unsuitable for treating low
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 15
frequency modal problems in rooms, because the wavelengths are sufficiently large that
much of the room would be taken up by the porous absorption, which is impractical. An
exception to this is in the construction of anechoic chambers where broadband absorption is
needed across the entire audio spectrum; porous absorption is used here so the absorption
coefficient is roughly equal across a large bandwidth (a useful characteristic of porous
absorption). Very thick porous absorption is used to tackle even the low frequencies in this
case as low frequency resonant absorption would reflect and cause problems at higher
frequencies.
2.3.1 Characterising and Modelling Porous Absorbers
It is often important to be able to predict accurately the performance of porous absorbers
both for use on their own and also when used as part of a resonant absorber (see section
2.4). Being able to predict the reverberation time of a room and even to auralise its response
before building or before acoustic treatment is added is becoming increasingly important in
room acoustic design. With the increase in building regulations governing the acoustic
insulation requirements of buildings, it is also imperative that the absorption characteristics
of materials is known before building to ensure the building will reach the necessary
standards on completion. This task is only possible when accurate information can be given
about the absorption within the room. For these reasons and to aid research into the
development of new absorptive materials much attention has been placed on defining the
characteristics of materials and also predicting their acoustic performance. In order to
accurately model porous materials it is important to determine certain physical properties of
the material.
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 16
2.3.1.1 Material Properties
The performance of a porous absorber is governed by two main characteristics; the
material’s porosity and flow resistivity. The porosity is the fraction of the amount of air
volume in the absorbent material, it is calculated by the ratio of pore volume to the total
volume of the absorbent material i.e. a porosity of 0.5 means that half of the volume of the
material constitutes the air in the pores, the other half (the material that supports the pore
structure) would be the ‘frame’ of the material. Closed pores do not count in measurements
of porosity as they cannot be accessed by incident sound waves and are therefore
ineffective for absorption. Foam with entirely closed pores would have a porosity of zero.
Flow resistivity is a metric that defines how easily air can enter a material and the
resistance to flow that it experiences as it passes through, analogous to electrical resistivity.
It is a measure of how much energy will be lost due to propagation through the pores. Flow
resistivity can be defined as the resistance to flow per unit thickness of the material. The
viscous resistance to air flow through a porous material causes a pressure drop across the
material which at low frequencies is proportional to the flow velocity, U and thickness of
the material, d. The ratio of this drop in pressure with the product of the flow velocity and
material thickness gives the material’s flow resistivity:
Ud
p ∆
= σ
(2.8)
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 17
The flow resistance of a material can also be useful and is given by multiplying the flow
resistivity by the material thickness. However flow resistivity is more useful in the
modeling of acoustic materials and is the property used throughout this thesis.
Both porosity and flow resistivity are very important factors but it is the flow resistivity that
varies the most from material to material and therefore is considered the most important
factor. The porosity of an effective porous absorbent is often very close to unity and varies
very little with different materials.
Another factor that will affect the performance of porous absorbers is the tortuousity, which
states how tortuous or ‘wiggly’ the pores of a material are. Tortuosity is basically a metric
of the complexity of the propagation path through the absorbent. A material with a higher
tortuosity will exhibit greater absorption, as a more tortuous path of propagation makes it
harder for the acoustic wave to pass through the material so more energy is lost through
heat as the viscous air fluid is forced through the small pores. Pore shape is also a factor
that influences the amount of absorption from a porous absorber. Pore shape is difficult to
define as materials often exhibit many pores with very different shapes and as such it is a
difficult parameter to accurately define.
There are many different strategies for the modeling of porous materials using a variety of
different approaches with varying degrees of complexity and overview of some of these can
be found in [9]. The primary model used in this thesis is a one parameter empirical
approach by Delany and Bazley [10]. In this model the porosity is considered to be unity
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 18
and the material parameter needed is the flow resistivity. It is therefore important that the
flow resistivity of the material used is accurately measured; the following describes the
process of this measurement.
2.3.1.1.1 Measuring Flow Resistivity
Flow resistivity can be measured using a relatively simple experimental setup as shown in
Figure 2.3. The premise is to induce airflow through the test sample and to measure the
resulting pressure difference across the sample. Details of this procedure are outlined in an
international standard [11]. The standard outlines two different methods for the
measurement of flow resistivity, the first utilising unidirectional airflow and the other an
alternating airflow. The apparatus chosen here typified an apparatus to measure flow
resistivity using unidirectional laminar flow.
Figure 2.3 Test apparatus for measurement of flow resistivity
Differential
pressure gauge, B.
Open to
atmosphere
Flow generator
Manometer, A
Sample
Laminar
flow
through
sample
Sample
holder
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 19
In Figure 2.3 the manometer, A is used to calculate the airflow velocity through the sample,
this is achieved in the test apparatus using the calibration chart for this particular set up
which can be found in appendix A. From this manometer reading the volumetric airflow
rate, q
v
can be determined in cubic meters per second. When divided by area this gives the
linear airflow velocity, V. The pressure difference across the sample with respect to the
atmosphere can be deduced from the differential pressure gauge, B. from these values the
specific airflow resistance, R
s
can be written as:
V
p
q
pA
R
v
s
∆
=
∆
=
(2.9)
Where p ∆ is the pressure drop across the sample measured with the differential pressure
gauge, and A is the cross sectional area of the sample. The flow resistivity σ of the sample
is the specific flow resistance per meter:
Vd
p
d
R
s
∆
= = σ
(2.10)
where d is the depth of the sample.
This gives a measure of flow resistivity which can be used in many acoustic models and
will be used in subsequent sections of this work in a basic one parameter model for rigid
frame porous materials as part of a transfer matrix model presented later.
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 20
2.3.1.2 Prediction Models
Attempting to predict the performance of a porous absorber using an analytical approach is
not easy, many models assume that pores are either slits, circular or at least have a simple
geometry but this is rarely the case in reality and consequently models are fraught with
inaccuracies even when many material parameters are considered; as a result empirical
models such as Delany and Bazley [10] have been formulated, which provide a good basis
for modeling porous materials. The Delany and Bazley model is based on many
measurements taken of fibrous porous absorbents. Using curvefitting techniques they then
put an empirical formula together to allow the prediction of both the characteristic
impedance and the complex wavenumber of fibrous absorbent materials. The formulae
assume porosity close to unity and include the materials flow resistivity, accurate only
between 1000 and 50000 MKS raylm
1
. Delany and Bazley’s is a single parameter model
meaning only the material’s flow resistivity is needed for calculation. The model can be
summed up in the following three equations. First they define a dimensionless variable X,
dependent on the density of air within the pores ρ
0
, the frequency f and the flow
resistivityσ:
σ
ρ f
X
0
=
(2.11)
Then the Characteristic Impedance z
c
and the complex wavenumber k are defined:
z
c
= ρ
0
c
0
(1 + 0.0571X
0.754
 j0.087X
0.732
)
(2.12)
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 21
k = (ω/ c
0
)(1 + 0.0978X
0.700
 j0.189X
0.595
)
(2.13)
where ω is the angular frequency and c
0
is the speed of sound in air. This model is
extremely useful and is widely used as it has proved to accurately predict the performance
of fibrous materials with minimal information of the material needed. It is however only
accurate within a given frequency bandwidth as it may only be used for materials with a
flow resistivities within the aforementioned limits enabling X to be within the allowed
limits of 0.01 and 1.0. The effect of these conditions is that the low frequency accuracy of
the formulation is compromised. This can be a problem and consequently there is a wealth
of more complex models [12, 13] both analytical and empirical that seek to improve the
low frequency predictability of porous absorbents. These are often manifested in multi
parameter models that can be cumbersome to use and lack satisfactory accuracy.
Consequently it is often thought, that the differences between the new formulations and the
original Delany and Bazley formulation are not large enough to cause concern and many
use their model anyway, as is the case in this thesis.
2.3.1.2.1 Acoustic Impedance Modelling of Multiple Porous Layers
Often important in acoustic modeling and applications is the behaviour of acoustic waves
propagating through layers of different media. This encapsulates many scenarios, ranging
from sound traveling through a porous absorbent mounted on a rigid backing through to
more complicated situations where there are many layers all with different characteristic
impedances and the overall impedance needs to be found. In order to study accurately the
behaviour of sound in these cases a modeling system needs to be formulated. Considering a
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 22
wave approach enables a simple model to be put together, often called a two port model as
it has just two ports (both a single input and single output). This type of model can also be
extended to work for more complicated situations where further resonant layers are
introduced (see section 2.4.2.1.1).
Considering plane waves incident only normal to the surface, a diagram of an acoustic
wave incident to a multiple layered absorber can be represented by Figure 2.4:
Figure 2.4 Diagram of sound propagation through multiple layers
At any point the total pressure can be seen as simple addition of the incident, reflected and
transmitted pressures such that:
jkx
r
jkx
i
jkx
t t
e p e p e p x p + = =
− −
) (
(2.14)
So when 0 = x :
r i t
p p p + = ) 0 (
(2.15)
x direction
0 = x d x − =
d
p
i
p
r
p
t
Medium A Medium B
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 23
Velocity is a vector quantity therefore the addition of the velocities before and after the
boundary of the layer is:
( )
r i
c
r i t
p p
z
u u u − = − =
1
) 0 (
(2.16)
where z
c
is the characteristic impedance of material A.
From equations (2.14) and (2.15), the incident and reflected pressures at the boundary
0 = x can be expressed as:
c t i r
c t r i
z u p p
z u p p
) 0 (
) 0 (
− =
+ =
(2.17)
Therefore:
( )
( )
c t t r
c t t i
z u p p
z u p p
) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
1
) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
1
− =
+ =
(2.18)
So the sound pressure at any point x in space (assuming normal incidence) can be given by
equation (2.19):
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 24
(2.19)
Expanding this gives the transmitted pressure as:
( )( )
( )( )
) sin( ) 0 ( ) cos( ) 0 ( ) (
sin( ) cos( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
1
... sin( ) cos( ) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
1
) (
kx j u z kx p e p x p
kx j kx z u p
kx j kx z u p e p x p
t c t
jkx
t t
c t t
c t t
jkx
t t
− = =
+ −
+
− + = =
−
−
(2.20)
And the transmitted velocity as:
(2.21)
The ratio of the transmitted pressure and velocity at a point x gives the acoustic impedance
at that point. So in order to find the impedance at the boundary of material A, d x − = .
Substituting this into the above equations gives:
( ) ( )
jkx
c t t
jkx
c t t
jkx
r
jkx
i
jkx
e z u p e z u p e p e p pe x p ) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
1
) 0 ( ) 0 (
2
1
) ( − + + = + = =
− − −
( ) ( ) ( )
) sin(
1
) cos( ) (
2
1
2
1 1 1
) (
kx j p
z
kx u e u x u
e z u p e z u p
z
e p e p
Zc
e u x u
t
c
t
jkx
t t
jkx
c t t
jkx
c t t
c
jkx
r
jkx
i
jkx
t t
− = =
− + + = − = =
−
− − −
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 25
) cot(
) cot(
) 0 ( ) cot( ) 0 (
) 0 ( ) cot( ) 0 (
) sin( ) 0 ( ) cos( ) 0 (
) sin( ) 0 ( ) cos( ) 0 (
) (
) (
) (
2
2
kd z jz z
z kd z jz
p kd z ju
u z kd z jp
kd p
z
j
kd u
kd u jz kd p
d u
d p
d Z
c t t
c c t
t c t
t c c t
t
c
t
t c t
t
t
−
+ −
=
+ −
+ −
=
+
+
=
−
−
= −
(2.22)
Where z
t
is the surface impedance at 0 = x (termination impedance) given by p
t
(0)/u
t
(0), z
c
is the characteristic impedance of the layer with thickness d. z(d) is the surface impedance
at the point d x − = . k is the wavenumber in the material, this can often be determined by a
simple empirical model for porous absorbents or as c f / 2π if in air.
Equation (2.22) can be used in any general case as long as the wavenumber within and
characteristic impedance of the materials are known. It can also be written in matrix form
which as part of a transfer matrix [14] as represented by equation (2.32):
2.4 Resonant Absorption
Unlike porous absorption, which is used primarily for absorption of mid to high frequency
sound, resonant absorption is most commonly used for treating low frequency acoustic
problems. Resonant absorption is sometimes used for higher frequency applications where
porous absorbers are impractical i.e. where weather or fumes could damage or clog the
pores. It is however not common to use resonant absorption for higher frequency problems
because the bandwidth of absorption is commonly a lot lower than porous absorption if
high absorption coefficients are to be achieved. This narrow bandwidth corresponds to a
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 26
very small fraction of an octave band at higher frequencies so is often considered
impractical.
Resonant absorbers are essentially massspring systems where sound pressure incident on
the absorber causes a mass element to vibrate on a spring which is damped to introduce
energy loss and consequently absorption. Resonant absorbers are most efficient if placed in
areas where acoustic pressures are high, as higher pressures induce greater movement of the
mass. As a result, resonant absorbers are often placed on the boundaries of a room and
often in the corners where room modes have maximum pressure amplitude so maximally
efficient absorption can be achieved. This contrasts with porous absorbers, which are most
effective in areas of maximum particle velocity i.e. away from boundaries.
There are two main types of resonant absorption, namely Helmholtz absorbers named after
Hermmann Von Helmholtz (18211894) and membrane absorbers. Both are commonly
used in room applications and also as silencers in engines and ventilation ducts et cetera.
Theory of both techniques is presented in the following sections.
2.4.1 Helmholtz Absorbers
Helmholtz absorbers consist of a plate with many holes equally spaced in both the x and y
plane, which are usually damped with porous absorption, unless the holes are sufficiently
small as to generate absorption without it. The resonating mass is the plug of air that is in
the holes and the spring is the air compliance of the volume between the front and back
plates. Figure 2.5 shows the construction of a typical Helmholtz absorber:
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 27
Figure 2.5 Schematic representation of a typical Helmholtz absorber
Both membrane and Helmholtz resonant absorption attempt to convert areas of high
acoustic pressure into a region of high particle velocity that can be absorbed by intelligently
positioned porous absorption. In the case of a Helmholtz absorber, incident pressure causes
highest particle velocity in the neck of each orifice so porous materials are often placed
there to maximise absorption efficiency, in practical applications however the porous
absorbent is usually placed in between the two plates for ease of manufacture and cost
efficiency.
2.4.1.1 Predicting the Performance of Helmholtz Absorbers
The performance and resonant frequency of Helmholtz absorbers is easy to predict and can
be done to a high degree of accuracy by considering each orifice to be a short tube forming
individual Helmholtz resonators as shown in Figure 2.6:
Porous Absorbent
Sealed
enclosure
Perforated sheet
Resonant air flow
through perforations
t
D 2a
d
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 28
Figure 2.6 Diagram of a Helmholtz type acoustic resonator
A short tube terminated with a low impedance behaves like an inert mass, [7] therefore the
acoustic mass per unit area of the Helmholtz absorber is given by equation (2.23) assuming
the geometry given in Figure 2.5:
ε
ρ
π
ρ t
a
t D
m
0
2
2
0
= =
(2.23)
where
2
2
D
a π
ε = and is termed the fractional open area or ‘porosity’ of the perforated sheet.
Each plug of air is considered to behave like a baffled piston such that it is subject to a
radiation impedance given by equation (5.19), [15]. The value of this radiation impedance
depends on whether or not the holes are flanged. Considering a flanged termination
introduces an end correction as a result of the radiation impedance which adds an apparent
extra length of a a 85 . 0 3 / 8 ≈ π to each end of the plug of air thus equation (2.23) becomes:
ε
ρ
ε
ρ ' ) 7 . 1 (
0 0
t a t
m =
+
=
(2.24)
d D V
2
=
t
2
a S π =
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 29
where t ′ is the apparent length of each plug as a result of end corrections. The mechanical
impedance of a Helmholtz resonator is the sum of the impedance due to radiation resistance
R
r
, stiffness K, and mass per unit area m, such that:
r M
R
j
K
m j Z + + =
ω
ω
(2.25)
Considering just one plug, ε becomes unity and the stiffness of the plug can be expressed as
[15]:
V
S
c K
2
2
0
ρ =
(2.26)
The resonant frequency can therefore be determined by setting the imaginary part to zero.
The resonant frequency can then be found by:
( )
' 2 ' 2
'
/
2
1
0
0
2 2
0
0
dt
c
Vt
S c
f
t
V s c
f
ε
π π
ρ
ρ
π
= =
=
(2.27)
To formulate the absorption of a Helmholtz absorber it is possible to define a lumped
element model as in chapter 5, it is often more helpful however to consider in the entire
acoustic system as a combination of layers as part of a transfer matrix model (see section
2.4.2.1.1). In this case the impedance of the perforated sheet is simply added onto the
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 30
impedance of the backing to find the overall impedance; from here the absorption
coefficient can easily be found from equations (2.7) and (2.4).
2.4.2 Membrane Absorbers
Membrane or panel absorbers are also massspring systems, this time however the vibrating
mass is a flexible membrane or plate and the spring is the compliance of the sealed air
cavity of the box backing the membrane. A standard design of membrane absorber is
shown below:
Figure 2.7 Schematic representation of a standard membrane absorber
High pressure acoustic waves meeting the surface of a membrane cause it to oscillate at a
frequency governed by its mass, and the stiffness of the air spring of the cavity. The air
spring is considered linear as long as there are no standing waves in the cavity within the
fundamental frequency range, which is almost always the case with membrane absorbers.
The vibration of the membrane creates high particle velocities at its rear that effectively
force air through the porous absorbent thus generating high levels of absorption. This
however is only over a limited bandwidth i.e. the resonance peak of absorption has a high
Qfactor. The bandwidth can be increased by increasing the damping, but as with any mass
Porous Absorbent
Enclosure, with
compliance C
Flexible membrane/panel
Mass/unit area m
Small gap to allow
free movement of
membrane/panel
Movement of membrane
Particle velocity v
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 31
spring system, this has the effect of decreasing the maximum efficiency of the absorber. A
trade off therefore ensues between bandwidth and maximum absorption.
Unlike Helmholtz absorbers, prediction of the behavior of membrane absorbers is difficult
and often inaccurate this is because the exact mounting conditions and properties of the
membrane are hard to predict and model. Not being able to model the mounting conditions
accurately is problematic as membrane absorbers often exhibit losses and hence absorption
from the edges. Many common formulations also assume that the membrane cannot support
higher order modes than the fundamental resonant frequency i.e. they assume that the
membrane moves as a lumped mass system in much the same way as a piston does. These
simpler models do not allow for the membrane to support bending waves and consequently
don’t result in accurate predictions especially at oblique incidence, when bending waves are
more easily excited.
2.4.2.1 Predicting the Performance of Membrane Absorbers
If the membrane is considered to oscillate as a piston and its bending stiffness is ignored
such that the restoring force is entirely due to the compliance per unit area C of the air
volume where:
2
0
c
d
C
ρ
=
(2.28)
An equation of the impedance of the cavity backed membrane can then be written as:
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 32
M
R
C
M j Z + 
.

\

− =
ω
ω
1
(2.29)
where M is the mass per unit area of the membrane or plate and R
M
is the mechanical losses
of the mounting. The resonant frequency of this system can be found by setting the
imaginary part to zero thus:
2
1
2
0
0


.

\

=
Md
c ρ
ω , so
Md
f
60
0
≈
(2.30)
Equation (2.30) is a useful first approximation but it only defines the condition with an
empty cavity. If the cavity contains porous absorbent as is common in the design of such
absorbers the resonant frequencies predicted by this formula tend to be too high. This
formula can therefore be altered to account for the adiabatic case as [7]:
Md
f
50
0
=
(2.31)
These provide a useful first approximation but often yield inaccurate results with errors of
up to 10 per cent. This inaccuracy is largely because the mechanical properties of the panel
are not taken into account. With the edges of the panel fixed its bending stiffness will,
especially for thicker panels, contribute considerably to the restoring force of the system
such that it cannot be approximated simply by equation (2.28). Accurately predicting this
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 33
bending stiffness is particularly difficult especially when the exact boundary conditions of
the membrane or plate are uncertain.
Other formulations and methods are also often used [16, 17], these techniques have the
disadvantage of being complex and need extensive knowledge of the material properties to
be accurate. However even with accurate determination of these properties assumptions are
still made for the mounting conditions which are often inaccurate, leading to errors in the
predicted performance. A more simplistic method for prediction of resonant absorbers is
the transfer matrix method which builds upon the theory of sound traveling through
different layers of porous media mentioned in section 2.3.1.2.1. This technique is often
thought better as it is adaptable for many scenarios of construction and yields results with
reasonable accuracy.
2.4.2.1.1 Transfer Matrix Modelling
The transfer matrix approach is a very useful tool as it allows surface velocities, pressures
to be calculated this enables the more useful determination of the surface impedance.
Writing equation (2.22) in matrix form gives the pressure and velocity at a point x as:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
) 0 (
) 0 (
) cos( ) sin(
) sin( ) cos(
) (
) (
t
t
c
c
t
t
u
p
kd kd
z
j
kd jz kd
x u
x p
(2.32)
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 34
This is part of a transfer matrix that can be found in Allard [14]. The transfer matrix method
uses the surface impedance of one layer as the backing impedance of the next enabling any
number of layers to be combined and the final surface impedance found. It is a very useful
tool for designing absorbers as it eliminates the need for iterative development which is
both costly and time consuming in the design of absorber systems. The transfer matrix
method allows many different systems to be predicted ranging from the simple case of a
porous material mounted on a rigid wall up to multiple porous layers including membrane
and Helmholtz layers. In order to perform calculations, the characteristic impedance of the
material of each layer must be known. This can be achieved easily in many cases such that
a porous layer can be represented by empirical or semiempirical formulations like the
Delany and Bazley model as mentioned in section 2.3.1.1. The characteristic impedance of
membrane and Helmholtz layers can be more problematic to predict with accuracy as often
boundary conditions are not known and as such approximations have to be made. For the
membrane case the membrane is assumed to be very thin such that there are no bending
waves present. It is thereby assumed to move as a pistonic mass. The impedance in this
case can be considered as a series combination (that is the simple addition) of a single
resistive and reactive term. In general membranes are assumed to move pistonically with a
nominal resistance to motion made up from the mounting and resistive losses in the
material. The impedance therefore is given by equation (2.35).
Assuming that only plane waves are incident on the multilayered absorber system and only
considering propagation in the x and y direction, the propagation through the system can be
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 35
represented by Figure 2.8. The initial case is considered with a membrane mounted on a
cabinet filled with absorbent material.
Figure 2.8 Diagrammatic representation of the transfer matrix modeling of sound incident to a membrane
absorber
The equation that links all of the surface pressures and velocities and allows hence the
calculation of the surface impedance is the same as in section 2.3.1.2.1 but with different
notation equation (2.22) can therefore be written as:
r
p
i
p
t
p
2 r
p
2 t
p
d
i
i
th
layer (i1)
th
layer (i+1)
th
layer
1
1
−
−
i
i
z
k
Assume rigid backing:
∞ = ∴
−1 i
z and
0
2
=
t
p i
i
z
k
Resistive losses,
M
R due
to mounting of
membrane
Membrane, mass/unit
area,
M
M assumed to
move as a piston such
that its
reactance,
M M
M j X ω =
M
R
y
x
x
i+1 x
i
x
i1
z
si
z
si+1
p
x
i
u
x
i
p
xi+1
u
xi+1
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 36
( )
( )
i i i si
i i i i si
si
d k jz z
z d k z jz
z
cot
cot
2
1
−
+ −
=
+
(2.33)
Using this notation it easier to keep track of multiple layered systems. Applying this to the
i
th
layer, the backing is considered to have infinite impedance such that ∞ ≈
si
z and the
above equation simplifies to:
) cot(
1 i i i si
d k jz z − =
+
(2.34)
Where k
i
can be determined from a model for porous media such as Delany and Bazley and
d
i
is the depth of the porous material. This value can then be used as z
si
for the next layer
and the impedance calculated for further layers of materials. From this the absorption
coefficient can be calculated and plotted against frequency yielding the standard result for
mineral wool as shown in Figure 2.9:
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 37
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Transfer Matrix Model Using Delany and Bazley Prediction
Mineral Wool 10cm Deep on a Rigid Backing
Figure 2.9 Transfer matrix modeling of porous absorbent with a rigid backing using the Delany and Bazley
model
When adding a membrane to the front of the absorber system the impedances work in series
with each other such that the overall impedance can be determined simply by the addition
of the resistive and reactive impedances of the membrane:
M M M
R M j z + = ω
(2.35)
The surface impedance of the system is then the series addition of the impedance of the
membrane layer and the porous layer:
M si si
z z z + =
+1
(2.36)
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 38
More complex solutions can be obtained if air gaps and/or Helmholtz layers are included,
for now the simplest case is considered as shown in Figure 2.8 with a membrane layer
added to the porous absorbent with a small air gap between the layers to allow for the
membrane’s movement. Plotting this in MATLAB yields the prediction in Figure 2.10:
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Transfer Matrix Model of Simple Membrane Absorber System
Figure 2.10 Transfer matrix prediction of a simple membrane absorber
The graph shows a typical absorption graph for a membrane absorber, exhibiting a resonant
peak with high absorption at lower frequency with less absorption at higher frequencies.
The predictions so far have dealt only with waves incident normal to the surface of an
absorber, this is a useful case and matches closely to the testing of an absorber in an
impedance tube and therefore is very useful for comparison of predictions and
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 39
measurements. There is however scope for extending the transfer matrix approach for
oblique incidence waves by considering the wavenumber in materials as a vector quantity
with components in the x and y direction. Such that:
2 2 2
y x
k k + = k
(2.37)
Using Snell’s law it is then possible to define the refractive effect as the acoustic waves
propagate through each medium. The equation then becomes:
( )
( )
i xi
xi
i si
xi
i
i i xi
xi
i
i si
si
d k
k
ki
jz z
k
k
z d k
k
k
z jz
z
cot
cot
2
1
−


.

\

+ −
=
+
(2.38)
For most porous absorbents the x component of the wavenumber vector, k is equal to the
scalar wavenumber in that material as the angle of incidence tends to the normal. Thus
often the angle of incidence is not needed. For the purposes of this project only normal
incidence will be modeled.
2.5 Conclusion
It has been seen how both porous materials and damped acoustic resonators can be used in
the field of room acoustics to absorb sound in high and low frequency bands. Theory of
these methods has been outlined along with the relevant prediction models that will be used
in subsequent sections of this work. The theory presented in this chapter will serve as a
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 40
useful background to the analysis, modeling and development of more complicated
absorber systems presented in chapters 4, 5 and 6.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 41
3. MEASURING ABSORPTION
COEFFICIENT AND SURFACE
IMPEDANCE
3.1 Introduction
The previous chapter outlined some theory and prediction techniques for the
performance of acoustic absorbers. This chapter describes and demonstrates some
useful techniques for the measurement of absorption characteristics. Of primary interest
is the surface impedance of an absorber, be it porous or resonant. From this quantity, the
reflection factor and the absorption coefficient can be found giving a good idea of the
absorber’s performance with respect to frequency.
Two main methods are used for measuring these absorber characteristics, namely the
reverberation room method and impedance tube method. The former, measures random
incidence absorption coefficient and the latter, the normal incidence absorption
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 42
coefficient and surface impedance. In general, the reverberation chamber method is
used to test larger areas of absorbers such as carpets where samples with large surface
area can easily be obtained. Impedance tubes require much smaller samples and are
often used when developing new absorbers as small samples are more cost effective to
produce. The normal incidence absorption coefficient measured in this case is also
easier to compare with theoretical models than the random incidence absorption
coefficient which is very difficult to predict so is less useful for comparisons.
Both techniques are presented in this chapter along with the design, construction and
commissioning of a low frequency impedance tube especially designed for the
measurement of low frequency absorbers. The cross sectional area of the tube was such
that the entire membrane absorber could fit into it thus allowing accurate testing of its
normal incidence absorption coefficient.
3.2 Reverberation Chamber Method
The basic premise of the reverberation method is to determine how much difference an
absorber makes to the reverberation time in a room, and therefore to determine the
absorption coefficient of the material that would result in this difference. The
reverberation time is measured before and after the addition of the absorption and from
this, the absorption coefficient is derived. The reverberation chamber method is based
on Sabine’s equation for the reverberation time in a room [18]:
cA
V
T
3 . 55
=
(3.1)
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 43
Where T is the time for the noise source within the room to decay by 60dB from a
steady level, V is the volume of the room, c is the speed of sound and A is the total
absorption area of all surfaces. Rearranging this formula and adding a term for the
absorption due to the air (this becomes significant for larger rooms) gives an equation
for the equivalent sound absorption area of the empty reverberation room, A
1
:
1
1
1
4
3 . 55
m
cT
V
A − =
(3.2)
The equation for the equivalent sound absorption area of the reverberation room with
the absorption present, A
2
is then given by:
2
2
2
4
3 . 55
m
cT
V
A − =
(3.3)
where T
1
and T
2
are the reverberation times and m
1
and m
2
, the power
attenuation coefficients of the room, without and with the sample
respectively. Combining these equations gives a formula for the
equivalent sound absorption area of the sample as follows:
( )
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
4
1 1
3 . 55 m m V
T c T c
V A A A
T
− −


.

\

− = − =
(3.4)
The random incidence absorption coefficient of the test sample can then
be easily calculated by:
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 44
S
A
T
s
= α
(3.5)
A more detailed description of this method can be found in an international standard
[19]. The random incidence absorption coefficient measured by the reverberation
chamber method is more true to life than the normal incidence coefficient as sound is
commonly incident to a surface from all angles so this method can be useful to see how
absorbers behave in real applications like determining how much sound energy a carpet
will absorb if used in a domestic setting. Consequently it is the random incidence
absorption coefficient that is most commonly used to define the performance of
materials used in architectural acoustics. A disadvantage of this method is that it doesn’t
allow the impedance of the material to be measured which prevents a complete
understanding of how the material behaves acoustically. Further to this, the method
requires a reverberation chamber and large samples so it can be expensive to undertake.
This method has not been used for any measurements carried out in this project as the
large samples required makes testing of membrane absorbers difficult as such it is the
impedance tube method outlined in section 3.3 that is used for measurements
throughout this work.
3.3 Impedance Tube Method
Impedance tubes offer a more controlled test environment and have the advantage over
the reverberation method that they enable the measurement of the acoustic impedance of
a sample or system. Impedance tubes are cheaper to use than the reverberation chamber
technique because less specialist equipment is needed; also the sample sizes can be
much smaller, cutting down on waste. There are two techniques for using impedance
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 45
tube; the standing wave method and the transfer function or ‘twomicrophone method’.
Both methods are outlined below and can also be found in the relevant International
Standards [20, 21]. Brief theory of both methods is given below.
3.3.1 Standing Wave Method
The standing wave method was the earliest method devised for measuring absorption
using a tube it evolved from August Kundt’s (18391894) tube for measuring the speed
of sound and is simpler in principle than the transfer function approach. The basic
premise is as follows. Plane waves propagate down the tube from the loudspeaker and
are reflected from the other end of the tube where the sample is mounted, consequently
setting up standing waves in the tube. Measuring the relative amplitudes of the maxima
and minima of the standing waves using a moving probe microphone enables the
absorption coefficient to be calculated, for discrete frequencies. A diagram showing the
construction and operation of a standing wave tube is shown in Figure 3.1:
Figure 3.1 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the standing wave method
With the loudspeaker source on, a standing wave will be set up in the tube. The probe
microphone can be moved up and down the tube in order to find the first pressure
maximum and the first pressure minimum from the sample. This can be done by simply
connecting the output from the microphone to a voltmeter. Noting down the values and
their position relative to the sample allow for both magnitude and phase data to be
Rigid
Termination
Sample
Probe Tube
Microphone
Trolley
Loudspeaker
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 46
determined and used to calculate the absorption coefficient and the surface impedance
of the sample. As this procedure has to be done separately for each frequency of interest
it can be rather time consuming and doesn’t give continuous data. It is however a
reliable method and simple equations can be used to calculate the necessary parameters
of the sample as shown below.
The pressure at any point in the tube, assuming plane wave propagation, will be given
by:
r i
p p p + =
(3.6)
where p
i
= Ae
jkz
and p
r
= ARe
jkz
. Therefore:
p = A(e
jkz
+ Re
jkz
)
(3.7)
z is the distance from the sample, k is the wavenumber, R is the reflection factor and A is
a complex constant. For a pressure maximum the incident and reflected waves interfere
constructively and are therefore in phase. For a pressure minimum the incident and
reflected waves interfere destructively and are therefore 180 degrees out of phase,
therefore equations for p
max
and p
min
can be given as follows:
p
max
= 1 + R
p
min
= 1  R
(3.8)
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 47
Knowing only the magnitudes of p
max
and p
min
the reflection factor can be calculated by
finding the standing wave ratio (SWR) between the two pressures.
R
R
p
p
SWR
−
+
= =
1
1
min
max
(3.9)
⇒
1
1
+
−
=
SWR
SWR
R
(3.10)
From this, the absorption coefficient of the sample can be found using equation (2.4).
If the surface impedance is wanted then the position of the first minimum can be noted
and used in equation (3.11) to calculate the argument of R which can then be used to
derive the surface impedance of the sample:
( )
n
kZ n
min,
2 1 2 = − + π φ
(3.11)
φ j
e R R =
(3.12)
Here n is the number of the pressure minimum measured. From this the complex
impedance is given by:
R
R
c Z
−
+
=
1
1
0
ρ
(3.13)
Although this method does allow for any of the pressure minimums to be measured it is
better to use only the first minima as this will eliminate effects from losses in the tube
walls.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 48
Calibration isn’t necessary for the standing wave method because pressure values have a
constant offset, which appears in the complex amplitude, A, and cancels out in the
pressure ratio. This makes things simpler and results in an easy method for measuring
absorption of samples.
There is a low frequency limit of a standing wave tube, which is governed by its length
i.e. ensuring that a maximum and a minimum can be found. The standard dictates that at
least two minima should be able to be found, this imposes a low frequency limit on the
tube of:
l
c
f
l
75 . 0
=
(3.14)
Where l is the length of the tube and c is the wave speed in the tube.
The standing wave method is more reliable and failsafe than the transfer function
method mentioned in section 3.3.2 but it is rather tedious as it can be time consuming to
locate and measure the positions of the minima in order to obtain the phase data, and to
do this for each frequency of interest.
3.3.2 Transfer Function Method
This method is often thought superior to the standing wave method because it allows all
frequencies to be calculated simultaneously thereby producing continuous data in the
frequency domain with just two measurements. As such, this method is less time
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 49
consuming and can be easier to verify results with predictions. Figure 3.2 shows a
diagram of a typical setup of a transfer function impedance tube:
Figure 3.2 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the transfer function method
The transfer function method operates within a certain frequency range, depending on
the microphone positions and diameter of the tube governed by equations (3.17), (3.18)
and (3.19). The lower of the two upper frequency limits should be chosen so that both
equations are satisfied. Although often called the ‘two microphone method’ (as it uses
at least two microphone positions) the transfer function method is a better name as it
describes the process by which the results can be obtained.
The steady state pressure at a point in the tube is given by equation (3.7) where units
and symbols have their usual meanings, z being the distance from the sample to the
microphone. There are two unknowns in this equation namely the magnitude and the
phase of the complex reflection factor. The two microphone positions are used to get
two pressure equations that can be solved simultaneously in order to obtain the two
unknowns. Taking the transfer function of these two pressures gives:
( )
( )
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
.
.
.
.
1
2
12
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
e R e
e R e
e R e A
e R e A
p
p
H
−
−
−
−
+
+
=
+
+
= =
(3.15)
Microphone 1 Microphone 2
Loudspeaker
Rigid
Termination
z
2
z
1
Sample
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 50
Therefore:
1 2
2 1
jkz jkz
jkz jkz
He e
e He
R
− −
−
−
=
(3.16)
From this the impedance and hence the absorption coefficient can easily be derived,
using equations (2.7) and (2.4) respectively.
There are frequency limitations imposed on this method as a consequence of the
microphone positions. If the microphones are too close together the pressure difference
between them is too small to be accurately measured and the method breaks down, the
low frequency limit is usually given by the following equation:
2 1
05 . 0
z z
c
f
l
−
>
(3.17)
If the microphones are too far apart this leads to an upper frequency limit. As the
distance between the microphones becomes equal to a wavelength the pressures at the
two microphones will be the same at the corresponding frequency and the simultaneous
equations will not be solvable. The upper frequency limit imposed by this is therefore
given by:
2 1
45 . 0
z z
c
f
u
−
>
(3.18)
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 51
Both of these upper and lower limits are dictated by the microphone positions, hence
often additional microphone positions are used in order to increase the useable
frequency range of this method, computing the transfer function separately for each pair
of microphone positions.
Microphones cannot be placed too near to the sample or to the source to ensure accurate
measurements. The first microphone should be at least two tube diameters from the
loudspeaker as by this point any cross modes that have been generated by the
loudspeaker will have died away and only plane waves will be incident on the sample,
enabling the normal incidence absorption coefficient to be accurately measured.
Subsequent microphones should be sufficiently far from the sample (usually by about ½
diameter of the tube) this is so that any cross modes generated from the reflection of the
sample will have also died away. This tends to be more of a problem for anisotropic
materials so often greater distances are needed between sample and microphone when
these materials are being tested.
Practically, when using the transfer function method it is common to use a deterministic
noise source such as a swept sine wave or an MLS noise source [22] rather than simply
white noise. This eliminates the need for phasematched microphones, which would
otherwise be needed; these can be expensive and would have to be changed over
anyway to verify each measurement for repeatability checking. With a deterministic
signal a measurement can be made at one microphone position, the microphone moved
and the pressure taken at the second position enabling the transfer function to be
calculated.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 52
The diaphragm of the microphone should always be flush with the side of the tube and
sealed, to enable accurate results. Of utmost importance is that the unused hole be
blocked, with the rubber bung or block being flush with the edge of the tube as these
holes can lead to additional absorption due to a Helmholtz effect.
3.3.3 General Considerations for Impedance Tube Testing
Whichever impedance tube method is being used, some important general principles
need to be applied. It is imperative that a good seal between sample and tube walls is
achieved to prevent extra absorption generated by sound propagating in the small gap or
as a result of a Helmholtz resonance if there is a cavity behind the gap. When mounting
the sample it is also very important to get rid of any unwanted air gaps at the rear of the
sample as these can lead to an increase in low frequency absorption which, if not
intended, could produce misleading results. Samples should also not be squashed into
the tube as the squashing alters the mechanical properties of the sample i.e. the density
could be altered or additional irregularities in the face of the sample could result,
leading to erroneous results. The sample end of the tube should provide a rigid backing
of impedance approaching infinity without a sample in place such that only the
performance of the sample is tested rather than the combined effect of the absorber and
backing.
Losses in the tube need to be minimized, especially for the standing wave method to
ensure it is only the effect of the sample that is measured rather than of the tube. A
constant cross sectional area down the tube, especially near to the sample, is also
required so that only plane waves are incident normal to the surface of the sample.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 53
The diameter of the tube will impose further frequency limits on use of the tube,
governed by the first cross modal frequency of the tube such that:
d
c
f
u
2
=
(3.19)
Where d is the diameter or maximum width of the tube if a square cross section tube is
being used. Therefore if low frequency measurements need to be made larger tubes will
be needed, this is the case for testing membrane absorbers such as in this project as they
are not scalable, for this reason a larger impedance tube was constructed, the design and
construction of which can be found in the section 3.4. The membrane absorber in this
case had to be designed to fit the diameter of the tube as membrane absorbers are
extended reactors therefore the whole sample had to be measured, taking a small section
of a membrane absorber would not work as the mounting conditions are so key in the
performance of these absorbers.
3.4 The Design, Build and Commissioning of a Low Frequency Impedance Tube
For the purposes of this project it was decided that tests would be carried out in an
impedance tube rather than in the reverberation chamber due to ease of testing and the
need for just one absorber to be constructed for accurate tests. Of course this only gives
the normal incidence absorption coefficient, however after development in the
impedance tube the absorber systems could be tested in a reverberation room to obtain
data on the random incidence absorption coefficient if desired.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 54
Impedance tubes tend to be designed to such dimensions that they can be used for
testing samples in the mid frequency band. In order to enable the low frequency
performance of membrane absorbers as in this project a larger tube was commissioned.
This section outlines the design, construction and commissioning of a specially built
low frequency impedance tube used for the testing in this project.
3.4.1 Design
Using an impedance tube to measure the absorption of a membrane absorber presents a
few problems that must be overcome in the design stage to prevent experimental
inaccuracies and flawed testing. A membrane absorber is an extended reactor, meaning
that a small section will not behave in a manner that is representative of the entire
system, so sampling a small section of the absorber for testing will not yield good
results as it would for most porous absorbers. For this reason the impedance tube had to
be made to such dimensions that the membrane in question would fit within the inner
walls of the tube, allowing the entire membrane to be tested. A further problem was the
frequency limitations of the tube dictated by its dimensions as outlined by equations
(3.17), (3.18) and (3.19). This meant that for satisfactorily low frequency performance
certain dimensions were imposed upon the construction. For both the purposes of this
project and for subsequent projects involving low frequency absorption the tube’s
dimensions were chosen to enable the accurate measurement to the lower limit of the
human auditory range, the lowest measurable frequency of the tube was therefore
designed to be 16Hz. The transfer function method was chosen as this provides ease of
measurement and also gives results for a continuous frequency spectrum. In order to
improve the measurable bandwidth of the tube dictated by the microphone positions,
four microphone holes were made allowing six different pairs of microphones positions.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 55
This also enabled accuracy of results to be checked as the frequency limits of each
position overlap allowing tests of continuity for the overlapping frequency regions. A
schematic of the tube’s design is shown in Figure 3.3 with the relevant dimensions
labeled as well as a photograph of the completed tube. The tube was designed in an
upright position both for economy of space and also to allow the testing of granular
materials for other projects.
Figure 3.3 a) Photograph of completed impedance tube b) Schematic of completed impedance tube
1.226m
0.184m
0.368m
0.914m
0.3m
Large
Sample
Holder
2m
Mineral Wool
Bottle Jack
Sample
Holder
22mm thick
mild steel
Supporting
trolley
Mic A
Mic B
Mic C
Mic D
0.1m
Small Sample
Holder
0.346m
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 56
3.4.2 Construction
The tube was constructed from 22mm thick mild steel, this provided enough mass to
significantly reduce losses from the walls of the tube even at the low frequency end of
the measurement bandwidth. The raw materials were ordered from a local steel
merchant and the manufacture performed onsite at The University of Salford. The
impedance tube consists of four sections of steel, two making up the main chamber and
a further two sections to be used as sample holders (a large one and a smaller one)
allowing for different testing conditions i.e. absorbers with different backing volumes.
The sample holder is placed on the trolley and then jacked into place using the bottle
jack to allow for a very tight fit, ensuring no small cracks for leaks between the sections
of tubing. Holes were drilled using a magnetic pillar drill in the positions as outlined
above. Annular rings were welded onto the side of one of the sections of the tube to
prevent the sections from coming apart. Further pieces, also welded on, were used to
support the tube on a stand made from rolled steel joists. On the end of each of the
sample holders a rigid backing was bolted on by drilling and tapping into the end of the
tubing. The rigid backing consisted of 4cm thick MDF providing a termination
impedance approaching infinity. The structure was craned into place and the stand
bolted to the floor as an extra safety measure. The chosen loudspeaker was a 12”
Eminence driver within a standard MDF cabinet. The rim of the cabinet was routed so it
would fit tightly on the top of the tube and could not fall off. Plugs were made to block
the microphone holes not in use during testing so there would be no leaks in the tube.
Mineral wool was placed in the top section of the tube in order to reduce any cross
modes that might be generated by the loudspeaker especially at higher levels and at
higher frequencies when pistonic motion of the driver can no longer be guaranteed,
allowing only plane wave propagating down the tube.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 57
3.4.3 Commissioning
On completion of the tube it had to be commissioned, verifying its accuracy with that of
a tube already deemed reliable. For this a Brüel & Kjær tube within the department was
chosen, problems however with the commissioning occurred due to the dimensions of
the low frequency impedance tube being substantially larger than the tube used to verify
it, some frequency overlap does occur between the two tubes however and testing a
sample of mineral wool with known absorption characteristics with respect to
frequency, it could be confirmed that the tube was measuring accurately. Results of the
commissioning of the tube are presented in Figure 3.6.
3.4.3.1 Processing the Data
Using the multiple microphone transfer function method it is possible to plot six
separate curves pertaining to the transfer function from each combination of
microphone positions. Six plots on a single set of axes does however look rather messy
so processing the data from all six combinations together and plotted as one line across
the whole frequency range is desirable. There has however, recently been developed a
more elegant method of processing results (outlined in section 3.4.3.1.1) from multi
microphone position impedance tubes which allows for greater accuracy at low
frequencies and also allows the results to be plotted with a single line. The improved
method [23] uses least squares curve fitting to optimize the response from all of the
microphone positions to produce a result with minimum error.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 58
3.4.3.1.1 Least Squares Optimization Technique
The least squares method uses an idea of an imaginary source equidistant from the
sample but in the –ve x direction as shown in Figure 3.4. Initially this is considered for
a two microphone case although the theory can be extended to work for multiple
microphone measurements.
Figure 3.4 Impedance tube for the transfer function method with modeled image source technique
Assuming the signal strength from the actual source is of amplitude, A and the
amplitude from the image source is:
RA B =
(3.20)
Where R is the complex reflection factor, the pressure at each microphone can be
deduced from a Green’s function relating the output from each microphone to the input
of the each source (both actual and image):
( )
( )
B A B A
B A B A
Rg g A Bg Ag p
Rg g A Bg Ag p
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
+ = + =
+ = + =
(3.21)
Source, A
m
1
x
2
x
1
Image Source,
B = RA
m
2
d
Cross sectional area,
S = π(d/2)
2
L L
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 59
The Green’s Functions g
1A
, relates the output of microphone 1 to the input source, A,
g
1B
, relates the output of microphone 1 with the input source of the imaginary source, B.
g
2A
and g
2B
are the same but relate to microphone 2. In an impedance tube these Green’s
functions can be approximated, as given by Cho, by equation (3.22) as there is plane
wave propagation in the tube:
,
2
,
2
) 2 ( 0
2
) ( 0
1
1
z L jk
A
z L jk
A
e
s
c
g
e
s
c
g
− −
− −
=
=
ρ
ρ
) 2 ( 0
2
) ( 0
1
2
2
1
z L jk
B
z L jk
B
e
s
c
g
e
s
c
g
+ −
+ −
=
=
ρ
ρ
(3.22)
where s is the cross sectional area of the tube in question. Taking the transfer function
of the pressures from each microphone as given in equation (3.21) gives:
R g g
R g g
p
p
H
B A
B A
1 1
2 2
1
2
12
+
+
= =
(3.23)
Rearranging this equation allows the complex reflection factor to be given as:
B B
A A
g H g
H g g
R
2 12 1
12 1 2
−
−
=
(3.24)
Cho defines both a theoretical and a measured transfer function given as H
12
and Ĥ
12
respectively. He uses a least squares solution to obtain an optimally estimated reflection
factor given as:
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 60
B B
A A
opt
g H g
H g g
R
2 12 1
12 1 2
ˆ
ˆ
−
−
=
(3.25)
This is the same as the theoretical equation (3.24) but the theoretical transfer function is
replaced with the measured transfer function. The theory is initially applied to a two
microphone case but is later extended to work for multiple microphone positions in a
tube as shown in Figure 3.5:
Figure 3.5 Image source technique for multiple microphone positions
Using the same method as above gives an optimised reflection factor from the least
squares solution for multiple microphone positions as:
( )( )
2
2
1 1
2
*
1 1 1 1
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
∑
∑
=
=
−
− −
− =
M
m
mB m B
M
m
mB m B mA m A
opt
g H g
g H g g H g
R
(3.26)
This result is obtained by minimising the sum of the errors between the measured and
the analytically derived pressures. It can be used for any number of microphone
Image Source,
B = RA
Source, A
m
1
x
2
x
1
x
4
x
3
m
2 m
3 m
4
d
Cross sectional area,
S = π(d/2)
2
L L
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 61
positions, M where m is the number of each microphone in the tube. This reflection
factor can then be used to determine the acoustic impedance and absorption coefficient
in the normal way.
In order to commission the low frequency tube, both results from the simple transfer
function code and also the optimised code had to be compared with results from a
known tube or with a sample with known absorption characteristics. The same brand of
mineral wool was tested in both an existing/verified impedance tube and in the specially
designed low frequency impedance tube, the results are seen in Figure 3.6 as compared
with a simple Delany and Bazley prediction model, it shows good accuracy for the low
frequency tube with the prediction model and the trends match up well. The MATLAB
code used to generate Figure 3.6 can be found in appendix B:
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency (Hz)
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Mineral Wool as Measured in Large and Small Impedance Tubes
Large Tube Mic positions A and B
Large Tube Mic positions B and C
Large Tube Mic positions A and D
Small Tube Results
Prediction
Figure 3.6 Results of commissioning of the low frequency impedance tube
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 62
It was difficult to commission an impedance tube that is used for such low frequency
measurements as there was no other impedance tube available to which the results could
be compared. However the results do show strong correlation with the trend from the
measurements of mineral wool from a higher frequency tube and these match up well
with the theoretical absorption graph of mineral wool, confirming that the low
frequency impedance tube does produce reliable results.
The next part of the commissioning was to confirm that the optimised code was giving
reliable results also. A thicker sample of mineral wool was tested in the low frequency
impedance tube. The results were processed using both the standard transfer function
method for microphone combinations with microphone A as the reference and the least
squares optimisation method, results were plotted on the same axes as shown in Figure
3.7:
50 100 150 200 250
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Comparing Standard and Optimised Method
Standard Method [mics AB]
Standard Method [mics AC]
Standard Method [mics AD]
Optimised Mehtod
Figure 3.7 Results, comparing the standard transfer function method and the least squares optimization
method of interpreting the results
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 63
Results show that the optimisation code produces very similar results as the standard
method. The optimised method smoothes out any anomalies and allows just one line to
be plotted instead of having to rely on different lines for different frequency bands, this
has obvious advantages for presenting results with maximum clarity and with minimum
error. The MATLAB code for both the optimised and standard method is found in
appendix C.
It was noted that the existing optimisation method [23] referenced all of the microphone
positions to microphone A and calculated the least squares results from that.
Consequently the optimisation method could be extended referencing all of the possible
permutations of microphone combinations rather than just the three that related to
microphone A. As a result a new equation and code was formulated that calculated the
results based on all five of the microphone transfer functions. With all of the possible
microphone permutations equation (3.26) can be written as:
( )( )
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
−
= + =
−
= + =
−
− −
− =
1
1
2
1
1
1 1
*
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
M
n
M
n m
mB nm nB
M
n
M
n m
mB nm nB mA nm nA
opt
g H g
g H g g H g
R
(3.27)
where n is the number of the reference microphone and m is the number of the second
microphone. The extended version of the optimisation method was compared with the
original optimisation method, the results of which are shown in Figure 3.1:
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 64
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Comparing Standard and Extended Optimised Methods
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Original Optimisation Method
Extended Optimisation Method
Figure 3.8 Comparing the original and the extended version of the least square method
Using the extended method increases the number of transfer functions on which the
least squares routine can be applied to and therefore is deemed to a more accurate
method for processing impedance tube results. As such it is the extended optimised
method that has been used throughout this project to process impedance tube results, the
code for the extended optimization code is in appendix D.
3.5 Conclusion
Theory of the testing of the surface impedance and the absorption coefficient of
materials and systems has been presented. It has been shown that the impedance tube
method is of greater practicality for the testing of the membrane absorber in this
research than the reverberation chamber method as the latter method needs larger
samples and would consequently need more than one membrane absorber to be
constructed. A specially designed impedance tube was constructed and commissioned
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 65
for the purpose of low frequency testing which will be used throughout this project for
testing various permutations of design of the membrane absorber. A least squares
method of processing the measured data was chosen such that the results from all four
microphone positions could be included on one graph for ease of analysis.
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 66
4. USING LOUDSPEAKER SURROUND
AS THE MOUNTING FOR A
MEMBRANE ABSORBER
4.1 Introduction
The main premise of this section of the work was to change the mounting conditions of
the membrane or plate used as the vibrating mass in an absorber system. The resonator
for a membrane absorber can often be approximated as a simply supported or clamped
membrane/plate on an acoustic cavity. This section of the work aimed at changing these
conditions such that the resonator more closely approximates a pistonic oscillator with
mass and stiffness controlled solely by its material and cavity properties. Pistonic
oscillation or an approximation there of, can be achieved by utalising a loudspeaker
surround designed for such oscillation. Surrounds are used within a loudspeaker system
in order to apply a restoring force, kξ to the outer rim of the diaphragm where k is the
stiffness of the spring and ξ is the displacement. Loudspeakers have a spider which also
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 67
acts as a restoring force but on the apex of the diaphragm ensuring equal restoring force
to all parts of the diaphragm so it only moves in one plane. The surround used for
measurements in this section was circular as this could be easily obtained from a
loudspeaker manufacturer and tested in the specially constructed impedance tube, which
has a circular cross section. In practice however, pistonic oscillation could be achieved
for any shaped membrane/plate by using other shaped surrounds or with mountings
such that it moves as a lumped mass in one plane only.
4.2 Theory
By changing the mounting condition of the membrane in the absorber system it was
hoped that the fundamental resonant frequency would be lowered as a consequence of
the larger moving mass imposed by the pistonic condition. Pistonic motion means that
the entire membrane/plate can oscillate rather than some of it being stationary due to the
clamped condition. The efficiency therefore, should also improve as the pistonic
condition allows for larger displacements with less impedance to motion (depending on
the mechanical properties of the surround used). In order to successfully model, predict
and verify tests using a loudspeaker surround mounted plate it was important to look at
the basic theory of plate vibrations. The material used for the tests was a vinyl rubber
used commonly in domestic floor tiles. It was seen that this behaved more as a plate
than a membrane as the Eigen modes were more spread out in frequency suggesting that
its restoring force was controlled primarily by its stiffness rather than its tension thus it
approximated more accurately to a plate than a membrane [15]. In fact in most practical
membrane absorbers the vibrating mass equates more faithfully to a plate rather than a
membrane. However the term ‘membrane absorber’ is often used rather loosely and
refers primarily to a method of acoustic absorption rather than the type of resonator used
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 68
i.e. plate or membrane. As such for the purpose of this thesis the absorber system will
hereafter be referred to as a membrane absorber, but the resonating mass treated as a
plate.
4.2.1 Traditional Mounting Conditions
When looking at the vibrational behaviour of plates and membranes, defining the
boundary conditions accurately is of utmost importance if an accurate model is to be
devised [24]. There are principally three mounting conditions and any anomalies tend to
be variations upon these three, they are simply supported, clamped and freely supported.
The three conditions are briefly summarized below.
4.2.1.1 Simply Supported
The most common representation of the impedance boundary conditions is that of
simply supported, this condition can be represented diagrammatically as Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1 Schematic representation of a simply supported plate
For a simply supported plate it is assumed that the edges are pinned to the support; from
this assumption some physical conditions can be determined. A plate mounted with
these conditions exhibits no deflection at the edges as it is pinned to the support such
that ξ(0) = 0 and ξ (L) = 0. The supports are pin supports so the plate is free to rotate on
0 = x L x =
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 69
the pin and doesn’t experience any torque/bending moment, M as a result, therefore
M(0) = 0 and M(L) = 0. In practice only approximations to simple supports exist as
there will always be a small bending moment at the pin supports even if they are well
greased. However many bars and plates are mounted such that they can be considered to
be a close approximation to this boundary condition. Simplysupported plates are often
used in the modeling of membrane absorbers as exemplified by Mechel [25].
4.2.1.2 Clamped
The clamped condition is different to the simply supported case in that the edges of the
plate cannot pivot on the supporting edges as with the simply supported case there can
be no displacement at the edges of the plate so ξ(0) = 0 and ξ(L) = 0. The plate will also
be horizontal at its edges such that the derivative of displacement is zero, ξ’(0 )= 0 and
ξ’(L )= 0.
The clamped condition can be drawn diagrammatically as:
Figure 4.2 Schematic representation of a clamped plate
A clamped plate is often a good assumption to make when modeling membrane
absorbers as panels are often screwed or glued providing a strong fixing at the boundary
and allowing no pivotal movement.
0 = x L x =
An applied force causes plate
to bend at the boundary
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 70
4.2.1.3 Freely Supported
This case is probably the theoretically the simplest case although is difficult to create in
practice. A freely supported plate has no bending moment at the edges such that, M(0) =
0 and M(L) =0 and there is no force acting on the edges of the plate as there are no
supports.
Diagrammatically a freely supported plate can be drawn as:
Figure 4.3 Schematic representation of a freely supported plate
4.2.2 The Pistonic Case
Aside from these three common boundary conditions a pistonic case can also be
defined. The pistonic case allows the movement of the plate only in one dimension
similar to the freely supported case, the difference is that for the pistonic case there is a
restoring force introduced by a spring of stiffness, k. The spring provides a restoring
force of kξ to the plate, there will also be a damping associated with the spring applying
a force Ru to the system. Finally the mass of the plate will also apply a force of
dt
du
M .
This means that the plate will oscillate with motion governed by these parameters such
that its resonant frequency can be given by:
k
m
f
π 2
1
=
(4.1)
L x = 0 = x
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 71
The pistonic case can be represented diagrammatically as:
Figure 4.4 Schematic presentation of pistonic mounting
In practice if the plate is mounted on a cabinet, the spring stiffness will also depend on
the acoustic compliance of the enclosed volume of air.
Using the pistonic condition for modeling the plate of the membrane absorber is a very
useful tool because it enables the plate to be modeled as a lumped mass; that is, there is
no need to determine the material constants such as its modulus of elasticity or Poisson
ratio. All that is needed is the mass and area of the plate and the stiffness/compliance of
any restoring springs. Damping terms are harder to quantify but techniques borrowed
from modeling porous media and also from loudspeaker design can help.
A perennial problem associated with the design and application of membrane absorbers
is that it is difficult to accurately predict the system’s resonant frequency as seen in
section 2.4.2.1 The main reason for this is that it is very difficult to quantify exactly
what the mounting conditions of the plate are; the interaction between the membrane
and the cavity is also a difficulty even with advanced numerical techniques such as
finite element modeling. With the mounting condition of the plate approximating a
pistonic condition, modeling will be easier and more accurate predictions of the
system’s resonant behaviour will result. Commercially this could lead to an absorber
m k
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 72
design that would resonate at lower frequency with greater efficiency and be designed
more easily such that it would resonate at the designated frequency when built.
4.3 Measurements
The theory of using a loudspeaker surround as the mounting for a membrane absorber
was tested using an accelerometer and the impedance tube. Results showed that the
resonant frequency of the system was decreased dramatically with the introduction of
the surround as a consequence of the additional moving mass.
4.3.1 Initial Measurements Using an Accelerometer
Two scenarios of mounting were tested for the absorber system, firstly with the plate
approximating a clamped condition and secondly with the plate approximating a
pistonic case. Initial tests were carried out on the two conditions, testing the
fundamental resonant frequency of each case using an accelerometer stuck to the centre
of the plate in question. A 12” loudspeaker surround was obtained by request from KEF
Loudspeakers and the vinyl rubber plate fixed to it to test the pistonic case. The
surround’s mechanical properties were such that it had a large stiffness and a reasonably
heavy damping for a surround of its size. Two mounting rings were cut from a sheet of
3mm plywood, these rings were used to clamp the sample being tested, the rings and
sample together then being screwed to a loudspeaker cabinet as per Figure 4.5.
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 73
Figure 4.5 Photos of membrane mounting
The rings were used so the mounting conditions were the same each time hence it was
just the effect of the surround being tested. Using the rings meant that the area being
tested was the same for both conditions i.e. the area of the surround with the plate and
the plate alone was the same. The surround had a mass/unit area of the 2.381 kgm
2
and
the vinyl membrane of 2.81 kgm
2
. The membrane system was excited with a 12 inch
loudspeaker from a distance of 1 metre, using a swept sine signal from a winMLS
controlled computer, an impulse response was generated as measured with the
accelerometer, the windowed Fourier Transform was then taken to obtain a frequency
spectrum from which the results were analysed.
(a) Wooden Mounting Rings (b) Floor tile mounted on surround
(c) Clamped condition (d) Pistonic condition
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 74
Figure 4.6 Experimental setup for the accelerometer tests
Both the driver and the absorber were placed on the ground with absorbent in between
to reduce the effect of first order reflections. The experimental setup is shown in Figure
4.6.
Results were processed in MATLAB using the script in appendix E. The accelerometer
was a Knowles BU1771 with a mass of just 0.28g and dimensions 7.9mm by 5.6mm by
4.1mm. As such it was considered that the additional loading of the accelerometer on
the plate was negligible. The following graph shows the frequency responses obtained
from the measurements.
WinMLS
Accelerometer
Loudspeaker
driver
Power
Amp
Accelerometer
preamp
Sealed
cabinet
1m
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 75
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Frequency, Hz
L
e
v
e
l
,
d
B
Acceleration Level versus Frequency For Different Mounting Conditions
With Surround
Without Surround
55.5Hz
94Hz
Figure 4.7 Results from the accelerometer tests
Figure 4.7 shows clearly the shift in the fundamental resonance frequency of the system
between boundary conditions approximating clamped and pistonic. The decrease in
resonant frequency is approximately 38.5 Hz, a shift of some 41% confirming the
theory that the difference in boundary condition does produce a lower resonant
frequency of significant proportion.
4.3.2 Impedance Tube Tests
The impedance tube as described in chapter 3 had two sample holders of differing
depths (10cm and 30cm), initial tests were carried out using the larger of the two sample
holders as this had a similar volume and hence similar compliant load on the plate as the
loudspeaker cabinet used for the initial accelerometer tests. The membrane was
mounted on the sample holder using two rings (see photo in appendix F) and jacked up
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 76
onto the impedance tube to provide a good seal. The rings were like those used
previously with the accelerometer tests as this corresponded to the similar boundary
conditions, the outer diameter of the rings being larger to allow a tight fit in the tube.
Tests were carried out using a swept sine signal at all four microphone positions and
then processed using MATLAB. The tests yielded the following results:
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Absorption Versus Frequency for Different Mounting Conditions Measured in Impedance Tube
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
With Surround
Without Surround
60Hz
81Hz
Figure 4.8 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in large sample holder
Figure 4.8 shows that when measured in the impedance tube the fundamental resonant
frequency shifts 21Hz from the clamped condition, without the surround to the pistonic
condition, with the surround. This shift in resonant frequency corresponds to a 26%
decrease. This decrease is less than determined from the accelerometer tests; this is due
to the differences in the cabinets that acted as the backing volume in each case. The
sample holder for the impedance tube had a volume of 0.0212m
3
where as the
loudspeaker cabinet had a volume of 0.0434m
3
. An increase in volume corresponds to
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 77
an increase in compliance which leads to a lower resonant frequency; this explains why
the case with the surround in the impedance tube resonates at a higher frequency than
when tested on the cabinet with the accelerometer. A further difference seen between
the two tests is that with the clamped case, measured in the impedance tube, the
resonant frequency is lower than with the accelerometer tests, this is a consequence of
the difference in mounting conditions as shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9 Illustration of differing clamping conditions in accelerometer and impedance tube tests
The rings used for the impedance tube tests had a wider outer diameter to account for
the diameter of the impedance tube; this provided a larger surface area for reception of
the incident wave. The clamping of the sample in the impedance tube acts primarily on
the mounting rings rather than on the edge of the membrane, this means that the
impedance at the edge of the clamped plate is less than for the accelerometer tests. The
mounting rings will therefore also support bending waves (See Figure 4.10), thus there
will be a greater moving mass, as the plate is effectively larger hence the fundamental
frequency is lower in the impedance tube than with the accelerometer.
Test plate
Accelerometer
mounting
Impedance tube
mounting
a
a
Clamping acts on
edge of plate
Clamping acts on
edge of mounting
rings
Less rigid
termination at
edge of plate
a
2
Wall of
impedance
tube
Mounting
rings
Mounting
rings
Fixing
screws
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 78
Figure 4.10 Samples mounted in impedance tube, demonstrating how mounting rings can support modal
behaviour
When the mass of the clamped plate is larger, the change in moving mass will be less
when mounted pistonically, thus the frequency shift between the two will not be as
great. It can therefore be deduced that the effect of adding the surround is less
pronounced at lower frequencies. This is demonstrated more clearly in the tests done on
a hardboard plate below.
If the plate is mounted on a cabinet of smaller volume the difference that the additional
moving mass makes will be less. This can be seen when the plate was tested in the
smaller of the two sample holders:
Rigid backing
Vibration of plate
and mounting
rings
Vibration of
plate on
surround
Porous
absorbent
Impedance tube
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 79
50 100 150 200 250
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Absorption of Membrane With and Without Surround in Small Sample Holder
With Surround
Without Surround
105 Hz 96 Hz
Figure 4.11 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in small sample holder
Figure 4.11 shows a frequency shift of the fundamental resonant peak of just 9Hz
corresponding to shift of just 9%. Secondary peaks have been circled on the graph;
these correspond to a double resonance in the material which is made up from two
distinct layers. The peaks appear at higher amplitudes than with the larger sample holder
case because they are closer in frequency to the fundamental mode of the membrane
thus there is a modal superposition such that the combination of the two peaks results in
greater amplitude at that frequency. The second resonant mode of the system as a whole
can be seen at 230Hz for the clamped condition.
The tests were repeated in the impedance tube using a different material, this time it was
3mm thick hardboard that was tested, results found that the double resonance
disappeared confirming that it was a consequence of the material properties rather than
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 80
the test set up. Results of the hardboard tests in both the large and small sample holder
are given in Figure 4.12.
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Large Sample Holder
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Small Sample Holder
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
With Surround
Without Surround
Hardboard Tested in Small and Large Sample Holders With and Without Surround Mounting
134 Hz 99 Hz
105 Hz
61 Hz
Figure 4.12 Results from impedance tube tests on hardboard with and without surround in small and
large sample holders
Figure 4.12 shows a frequency shift of 26% for the small sample holder case and 42%
for the large sample holder case. It can be observed that the surround mounted
hardboard in the small sample holder resonates at a lower frequency than the clamped
hardboard resonates on the large sample holder. This provides a very useful case where
a membrane absorber can be constructed with much smaller dimensions whilst still
retaining the low frequency performance and high absorption coefficients simply by
mounting the resonating plate on a loudspeaker surround. In this case the depth of the
absorber is a third as thick for with the small sample holder compared to the larger
sample holder yet still resonates at a lower frequency with the surround.
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 81
4.4 Modelling
Two types of model were used in this section, an equivalent circuit model and a transfer
matrix model, it was seen that the pistonic case could be modelled with a good degree
of accuracy using both modelling methods. Comparisons were made between
measurements and predictions using the conventional membrane absorber equations
illustrating that greater accuracy in prediction can be made when considering the
pistonic rather than the clamped case.
4.4.1 Equivalent Circuit Model
The theory for equivalent circuit modeling is found in section 5.3.1.1. The equivalent
circuit for the absorber system described in this section is of a simpler form than that
described in chapters five and six. It consists of only a mechanical and acoustical
section such that the analogue circuit that describes its motion can be given as:
Figure 4.13 Equivalent circuit for a membrane absorber
C
AB
is the compliance of the cabinet, R
AB
is the resistive losses in the cabinet, M
AD
is the
mass of the plate, R
AD
is the resistive losses due to the mounting of the plate, C
AD
is the
compliance of the surround and Z
AF
is the radiation impedance which is dependent on
in
p 2
AD
M
AD
R AD
C
AB
R AB
C
AF
Z
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 82
whether the absorber is in a tube or in free field conditions (see section 5.3.3). All of the
above quantities are in acoustic units.
4.4.1.1 Finding Parameters
Before the above circuit can be modeled and the surface impedance found it is
necessary to determine some of the constants in the system. M
AD
is easily determined by
weighing the plate, Z
AF
is equal to ρ
0
c/S
D
if the absorber is within the impedance tube or
is given by equation (5.19) if in free field. R
AD
, can be estimated from a loudspeaker
model, R
AB
is determined from the Delany and Bazley model of porous media [10] and
C
AB
= V/ρ
0
c
2
. C
AD
is the hardest to determine and requires a simple experimental
procedure as described in section 4.4.1.1.1.
4.4.1.1.1 Determining C
AD
The compliance of the surround is given by its displacement when given a force F.
Assuming Hook’s law the force applied to the spring (surround) should be proportional
to its displacement. In order to find the stiffness of the surround and from that to
determine its compliance the following test set up was used:
Figure 4.14 Experimental setup for measuring compliance of surround
Added mass
Dial Gauge
Surround
Clamped
Support
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 83
Incremental changes in the mass applied to the plate displaced the surround, the
displacement was then measured to a hundredth of a millimeter by the dial gauge which
was held with a clamp stand to keep it from moving. Masses were positioned carefully
such that equal force was applied to the entire surround. The plate used was rigid
hardboard so it was only the compliance of the surround being measured rather than that
of the plate itself. A graph as shown in Figure 4.15 was plotted of force applied versus
displacement from which the stiffness and hence the compliance could be found.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
x 10
4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
Deflection of Surround, m
F
o
r
c
e
A
p
p
l
i
e
d
,
N
Finding Compliance of Surround (Force Applied versus Deflection of Surround)
Measured Data Points
Least Squarres Best Fit Line
Figure 4.15 Results from experiment to determine compliance of surround
A regression analysis was performed on the measured data and the corresponding best
fit line plotted. The gradient of the best fit line gives the stiffness of the surround, the
reciprocal of which gives the compliance. The compliance of the surround was found to
be:
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 84
1
µmN 2.59 205.49 ± =
AB
C
(4.2)
The percentage error in this measurement is given as 1.26% which is significantly less
than the 10% error often quoted as the error in the compliance as measured by MLSSA
in the added mass method of smallsignal parameters [26] (see section 5.3.3).
Having determined the parameters governing the pistonic case the equivalent circuit can
be solved easily. The equivalent circuit for the clamped case is the same but deriving the
compliance and mass are difficult and as such an equivalent piston of the plate can be
considered.
4.4.1.1.2 Finding the Equivalent Piston of a Clamped Plate
Assuming a clamped plate with a Poisson ratio, µ thickness, h and Young’s modulus, E
it is possible to determine the equivalent mass and compliance of the plate as an
equivalent piston. Rossi [27] presents such theory. By calculating the kinetic and
potential energy of the plate as it is deflected by the standard parabolic deflection and
integrating over its area it is possible to find an equivalent mass and compliance as if
the plate were a pistonic resonator. Rossi gives the equivalent mass as one fifth of the
mass of the clamped plate and the compliance as:
( )
3
2 2
1 180
Eh
a
C
ME
µ −
=
(4.3)
These values can be put into the equivalent circuit model such that the pistonic case can
be compared with the clamped case.
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 85
4.4.1.2 Results
The equivalent circuit was implemented in MATLAB using the code in appendix G
plotting the equivalent circuit for the pistonic case and the clamped condition yields
Figure 4.16. The scenario that was modeled was the same as with the initial
accelerometer tests so as to eliminate the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the
mounting rings:
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Equivalent Circuit Model of Membrane Absorber With and Without Surround Mounting
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
With Surround
Without Surround 55 Hz 95 Hz
Figure 4.16 Absorption curve from equivalent circuit model of membrane with and without surround
The model accurately predicts the resonant frequency of both cases suggesting that the
change in frequency is almost entirely due to the increase in moving mass of the
membrane as a result of the surround mounting. The model demonstrates that the
equivalent piston for the vibrating plate can be used to predict the resonant frequency
but not the overall absorption of the system as it shows large inaccuracies in prediction
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 86
of the absorption bandwidth. These inaccuracies result because a plate is a complex
element, the equivalent piston model calculated an equivalent compliance and mass
assuming the plate was at its fundamental resonance so outside of that range it is
unsurprising that the model is inaccurate.
4.4.2 Transfer Matrix Model
A transfer matrix model was formulated using the principles described in section
2.4.2.1.1. The MATLAB script can be found in appendix H. Results were compared to
values as measured in the impedance tube for both the vinyl rubber case and the
hardboard case.
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Vinyl Rubber
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
With Surround
Without Surround
Transfer Matrix Model
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Hardboard
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Measured and Predicted Absorption Graph, With and Without Surround
60 Hz 81 Hz
62 Hz
105 Hz 61 Hz
65 Hz
Figure 4.17 Comparison of measured absorption curves with predictions from a transfer matrix model
Figure 4.17 demonstrates that the accuracy of the transfer matrix modeling approach is
far better when predicting the lumped mass pistonic case than with the clamped
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 87
condition. It illustrates well the problems that are often encountered when designing
membrane absorbers to resonate at a specific frequency. Models are often inaccurate
which is often due to uncertainties in mounting conditions of the resonating mass. When
the plate is mounted on the loudspeaker surround the accuracy of the transfer matrix
model increases greatly, thus using a loudspeaker surround will aid accuracy in
predicting its performance at the design stage.
Results obtained in this section can also be compared with predictions of resonant
frequency from the simple design equation often used for membrane absorbers
mentioned in section 2.4.2.1. Applying equation (2.30), to the above examples yields
resonant frequencies of 65.3 Hz for the vinyl plate (M = 2.81kgm
2
) and 68.3 Hz for the
hardboard plate (M = 2.57kgm
2
). These match up favourably with the pistonic case but
not the clamped case again confirming that greater accuracy in predictions can be
achieved when using a pistonic lumped mass rather than a clamped plate as the mass of
a membrane absorber.
4.5 Conclusion
Two mounting conditions of a membrane absorber have been considered, firstly a
clamped case as is typical of most membrane absorbers and secondly a pistonic
mounting condition with the use of a loudspeaker surround. Tests were initially
performed with an accelerometer on the membrane and results showed a significant
decrease in resonant frequency with the membrane mounted on the surround. Further
tests were carried out with the low frequency impedance tube confirming the findings of
the accelerometer tests. It was shown the decrease in resonant frequency was a result of
the increased moving mass introduced by the surround. These effects were more
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 88
pronounced when the compliance of the cavity was greater i.e. the backing volume was
larger and when the initial mass was smaller. Tests demonstrated that frequency shifts
in excess of 40% could be obtained by using a surround mounting in preference of a
standard clamped condition. It was also shown that a membrane absorber utilising a
loudspeaker surround on the small sample holder (a third of the volume of the larger
one) could produce a lower resonant frequency than the clamped case using the larger
sample holder. This illustrates a significant improvement in the low frequency
performance of membrane type absorbers.
An equivalent circuit model was presented, demonstrating that the difference in
resonant frequency was indeed a result of the increased moving mass. The model
included equivalent mass and stiffness terms of a clamped plate moving as a piston. The
pistonic mass modelled as one fifth of the mass of the clamped plate and the compliance
as a function of the material constants, Poisson ratio and Young’s modulus. The
equivalent circuit model predicted accurately the resonant frequency of both clamped
and pistonic cases, but approximating the clamped plate as an equivalent piston lead to
inaccuracies in predicting the broadband absorption characteristics. A transfer matrix
model was also demonstrated showing that the pistonic case could be modelled to a
much better degree of accuracy than the clamped case thereby aiding the design of
membrane absorbers such that a trial and error approach need not be employed. The
Standard membrane absorber design equations were also shown to produce more
accurate results for the surround mounted condition.
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 89
5. USING A LOUDSPEAKER AS A
RESONANT ABSORBER
4.15.1 Introduction
Having outlined the theory and practice of using a loudspeaker surround as the
mounting for a membrane absorber, a logical progression is to attempt to use the entire
loudspeaker system as part of the resonant absorber. This is a topic that has been
considered previously by Sato and Koyasu [28] although in this case it was the
incidental absorption of low frequencies by obsolete loudspeakers within a room, seen
as a problem rather than a solution that was considered.
This section aims at the purposeful use of loudspeakers as absorber systems. A
loudspeaker within an enclosure very closely approximates a membrane absorber, the
diaphragm as the resonating mass, the compliance of the enclosure as the restoring
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 90
spring and porous material within the enclosure providing additional damping. Using a
loudspeaker as an absorber has several advantages. Firstly loudspeakers already
oscillate naturally, as designed, in a pistonic manner allowing the increased low
frequency performance and accurate predictions outlined in the previous chapter.
Secondly, loudspeakers are cheap and readily available for rudimentary acoustic
treatment. Thirdly, and possibly the greatest advantage of using a loudspeaker, is that it
is an electromagnetic system, hence the electrical and magnetic coefficients of the
system will affect its mechanical behaviour according to Faraday’s laws of
electromagnetism. This has the consequence of allowing the system to be tuned to a
specific resonant frequency, within certain bounds, simply by the addition of resistive
and reactive electrical components across the terminals of the driver, an idea previously
applied to the field of loudspeaker design [29]; this is the focus of chapter six. For now
the simple case of a passive loudspeaker with no additional electronic components is
considered as an absorber system.
A lumped element prediction model of a loudspeaker used as an absorber is first
presented in this chapter followed by results from impedance tube measurements that
confirm the predicted data, demonstrating a loudspeakerabsorber that achieves high
absorption coefficients within its resonance region.
4.25.2 Basic Premise from Loudspeaker Theory
Most loudspeakers work by supplying a varying current i to a coil of wire length l
within a magnetic field of flux density B which consequently induces a force F = Bil on
the coil. If some kind of diaphragm is attached to this coil, air is driven into motion
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 91
causing small localised pressure changes thus producing an audible output. Using a
loudspeaker as an absorber uses this system in reverse, similar to a moving coil
microphone. Alternating acoustic pressures incident to the diaphragm force it into
oscillatory motion thus moving the coil in the magnetic field inducing a voltage in the
connected circuitry. As with a typical membrane absorber the system will have a
characteristic resonant frequency governed by its mechanical and acoustical properties,
such as the volume of the enclosure, stiffness of springs and the mass per unit area of
the membrane. Its resonant characteristics will however also be dependent on its
electrical and magnetic coefficients giving the loudspeakerabsorber an extra dimension.
To predict the behaviour of this absorber system a standard lumped parameter technique
for loudspeaker analysis can be used. In the next section such a model is presented and
used to analyse the behaviour of the absorber.
4.35.3 Lumped Parameter Modelling
Acoustical systems can contain up to three spatial dimensions the components of which
all can change temporally. This leads to very complicated solutions obtainable by the
three dimensional wave equation. In the case of the loudspeaker, there is the added
complication of the coupling between the mechanical and electrical systems. Solutions
using techniques such as Finite Element Analysis can be time consuming and difficult,
consequently it is highly desirable to simplify problems such that they can be
manipulated and solved more easily. The theory of lumped parameter or lumped
element modelling enables such simplification [30].
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 92
4.3.15.3.1 Theory
If the acoustic wavelength in a fluid, such as air, is assumed to be much larger than one
dimension of the system of interest, that dimension need not be considered in
calculations as pressure and velocity are assumed to be constant across it. The problem
therefore is reduced in complexity by elimination of that variable. The application of
this assumption to the acoustics of ducts means that if the diameter of a duct is small
enough with respect to wavelength, plane wave propagation can be assumed down the
duct, this gives rise to the high frequency limit imposed on impedance tubes. Above a
given frequency the acoustic wavelength in air becomes comparable with the
dimensions of the tube and hence propagation can no longer be considered only in the
direction of the tube’s length but also across its width so the plane wave simplification
can not be accurately applied; a more complex propagation model would need to be
considered not making a plane wave assumption.
If this low frequency assumption is taken further, and the wavelength becomes much
larger than all of the dimensions of the device, although varying temporally, each
acoustic variable can be considered constant in the all three directions of the spatial
domain, i.e. pressure and velocity are constant across all of its dimensions at a given
moment in time. If these conditions are applied, the equation of motion is greatly
simplified, such that any spatial dependency is removed, reducing the problem to that of
only a single degree of freedom variant only with time. When these conditions are
assumed the components of the system can be considered as a lumped elements or
lumped parameters. This is a common engineering technique and is used extensively in
loudspeaker design and modelling [31, 32].
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 93
A major advantage of using a lumped element method is that it is very easy to draw a
schematic representation of a system utilising analogies between mechanical, acoustical
and electrical components; this is common practice for engineers and allows each
section to be represented as an electrical, mechanical or acoustical diagram. Electrical
circuits are commonly chosen as the schematic representation because electrical circuit
theory is widely known and understood throughout many spheres of science and
engineering. Drawing a schematic diagram means that the differential equations
governing a given system can be easily determined and solved on inspection. This is
relatively simple if the spatial variables are removed however if the spatial dimensions
are reintroduced for smaller wavelengths or larger devices the differential equations
become very complicated and it becomes profitable to revert to elementary acoustics
and the solution of the wave equation again. As such there is a high frequency limit
imposed on the use of lumped parameter models, which states that the highest
frequency should have a wavelength greater than all the dimensions of the system being
modelled [27].
4.3.1.15.3.1.1 Equivalent Circuits
The premise behind the theory of equivalent circuits is to represent a physical situation,
be it mechanical or acoustical, in the form of an electrical circuit. In order to
successfully do this it is necessary to define analogies between electrical, mechanical
and acoustical domains such that the equivalent circuits retain their integrity. The
following, briefly describes two commonly used analogies for the purpose of equivalent
circuit analysis, these are the impedance and mobility analogues.
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 94
In terms of electrical oscillations (of great importance in the field of electroacoustics)
there are three principle electronic components each one either storing or dissipating
energy:
 Inductors L
E
, store magnetic energy (flux)
 Capacitors C
E
, store electrical energy (charge)
 Resistors R
E
, dissipate energy
If the current is known, an expression for the potential difference across each
component can be formed such that:
dt
di
L v
E
= ,
E
C
dt i
v
∫
=
.
, and i R v
E
= .
(5.1)
Assuming a sinusoidal input current,
t j
e i i
ω
0
= the impedance of these components can
be determined as:
L j
i
v
Z
L j e i e v
t j t j
ω
ω
ω ω
= =
=
0 0
,
C j i
v
Z
C j
e i
e v
t j
t j
ω
ω
ω
ω
1
0
0
= =
=
, R
i
v
Z = =
(5.2)
Analogous to these three electrical components of oscillation are three mechanical
oscillatory components:
 Mass M
M
, stores kinetic energy
 Compliance C
M
, stores potential energy
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 95
 Frictional resistance (damping) R
M
, dissipates energy
For the mechanical case, velocity u is the flow variable so can be thought of as
analogous to electrical current and force F is the potential variable and can be thought
of as analogous to voltage. In the same way as for the electrical components, if the
velocity of each section in the mechanical components is known and assumed to be
sinusoidal, the force across, and the impedance of the components can be determined by
the following equations:
From Newton’s law of force
dt
du
M F
M M
= and
M M
M j Z ω =
From Hook’s law
M
M
C
dt u
F
∫
=
.
and
M
M
C j
Z
ω
1
=
From classical mechanics u R F
M M
= and
M M
R Z =
(5.3)
Aside from Newton’s law of force which is universally valid, these are only first order
approximations and therefore are more accurate when small displacements are
considered, with larger displacements the system is no longer linear which complicates
matters and lumped parameter analysis is no longer valid.
In both the electrical and mechanical cases, the components are assumed to be ideal, so
that, an inductor has no capacitance or resistance and conversely a compliance has no
mass et cetera. This is a useful first approximation and extra components can be added
to a model to account for the fact that they are not in fact ideal, Rossi [27] provides a
more extensive analysis this topic looking at the equivalent mass of an ideal compliance
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 96
et cetera. In most situations the elements in the circuit can be considered as ‘lumped’
such that no mechanical or acoustical component exhibits any wave motion within the
element.
As with mechanical values there are three acoustical quantities that pertain to the
oscillatory electrical components such that:
 Acoustic mass or inertance M
A
, stores kinetic energy
 Acoustic compliance C
A
, stores potential energy
 viscous damping R
A
, dissipates energy
In the acoustic case, volume velocity U is the flow variable (analogous to current) and
pressure p is the potential variable (analogous to voltage). Therefore if the volume
velocity through a component is known then it is possible to calculate the pressure by
across the components given a sinusoidally oscillating volume velocity by:
dt
dU
M p
A
= therefore
A A
M j Z ω =
A
C
dt U
p
∫
=
.
therefore
A
A
C j
Z
ω
1
=
U R p
A
= therefore U R Z
A A
=
(5.4)
Combining these analogies leads to the impedance analogue which can be surmised by
Table 5.1:
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 97
Impedance Analogue
Electrical Mechanical Acoustical
Potential
Variable
Voltage, e Force, F
M
Pressure, p
Flow variable Current, i Velocity, u Volume velocity, U ( =
u×S)
Dissipative
component
Resistance, R
E
E E
R Z =
Damping, R
M
M M
R Z =
Acoustic damping, R
A
A A
R Z =
Kinetic storage
component
Inductance, L
E
E E
L j Z ω =
Mass, M
M
M M
M j Z ω =
Acoustic mass, M
A
A A
M j Z ω =
Potential
storage
component
Capacitance, C
E
E E
C j Z ω / 1 =
Compliance, C
M
M M
C j Z ω / 1 =
Acoustic compliance ,
C
A
,
A A
C j Z ω / 1 =
Table 5.1 Summary of the impedance analogue
This impedance analogue is very useful and can be used to model many practical
scenarios. Using Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws it simply a matter of whether to
connect components in parallel or series. Another analogy also exists which makes use
of the reciprocity of electrical components that is to say that an inductor behaves to
current how a capacitor behaves to voltage and vice versa, i.e.:
dt
de
C i
E
= and
dt
di
L e
E
=
(5.5)
This leads to another analogy which is the reciprocal of the impedance analogy and
consequently called the mobility analogue, so that inductors become capacitors and vice
versa and resistances become conductances (a reciprocal resistance). Any components
that were connected in series will consequently need to be connected in parallel and any
in parallel connected in series in order to obey Kirchoff’s laws. This analogy can be
seen as the direct opposite to the impedance analogue and can be surmised in the
following in Table 5.2. Because they are complete opposites of each other, the results
yielded by both analogies will be identical. The impedance analogue is more intuitive,
M
M
CA
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 98
however it is useful especially in the analysis of loudspeakers to use both impedance
and mobility analogues as it makes combining the circuits somewhat easier as will be
seen later:
Mobility Analogue
Electrical Mechanical Acoustical
Potential
Variable
Current, i Force, F
M
Pressure, p
Flow variable Voltage, e Velocity, u Volume velocity, U ( =
u×S)
Dissipative
component
Conductance, 1/R
E
E E
R Z / 1 =
Damping, R
M
M M
R Z / 1 =
Acoustic damping, R
A
A A
R Z / 1 =
Kinetic storage
component
Capacitance, L
E
E E
L j Z ω / 1 =
Mass, M
M
M M
M j Z ω / 1 =
Acoustic mass, M
A
A A
M j Z ω / 1 =
Potential
storage
component
Inductance, C
E
E E
C j Z ω =
Compliance, C
M
M M
C j Z ω =
Acoustic compliance ,
C
A
,
A A
C j Z ω =
Table 5.2 Summary of the mobility analogue
4.3.25.3.2 Analysis
Subsequent analysis shows how the absorber system can be modelled easily with the
use of lumped elements and equivalent circuits. Analysing electrical, mechanical and
acoustical sections in turn to derive individual equivalent circuits and then combining
the three into a single circuit diagram allows the complex surface impedance of the
absorber to be predicted and as such, calculation of the systems reflection factor and
absorption coefficient.
4.3.2.15.3.2.1 Electrical Section
Electrically, a loudspeaker consists simply of an alternating current through a coil of
wire in the presence of a magnetic field, thus it can be considered as an inductor with
inductance, L
E
and associated resistance, R
E
. In electrical terms the loudspeaker can be
simplistically modelled by Figure 5.1:
M
M
CA
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 99
Figure 5.1 Simple representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker
The impedance of the above circuit is a combination of the resistive and reactive parts
such that the electrical impedance is given by:
E E E
R L j Z + = ω
(5.6)
In a loudspeaker the terminals, A and B would be connected to a sound source i.e. an
AC voltage generator of some description. In the absorber system however the terminals
can be either left open circuit, connected together or connected across a complex
passive load impedance, this will alter the frequency response of the electrical circuit
and will consequently change the impedance presented to the induced current, altering
the mechanical properties of the system. This will be seen in greater detail in the next
chapter.
In many loudspeaker applications the model of the electrical section shown in Figure
5.1 is used and is adequate; in fact in many cases the inductance of the voice coil L
E
is
even ignored as it is predominantly a high frequency component, therefore, in order to
make the modelling more simple it is often omitted from the circuit. In the next chapter
small changes are made to this motor impedance with the addition of further electronic
components, it is important therefore to insure that the base motor impedance is
L
E
R
E
A B
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 100
predicted to the highest degree of accuracy so the effect of the additional components
can be quantified precisely. There are more complicated models available of a
loudspeaker’s motor impedance (electrical section) as demonstrated by Wright [33] who
included additional variable resistance and inductance terms which allow the accurate
prediction of impedance up to higher frequencies; other models take into account eddy
currents within the voice coil [34]. The model chosen for this application however
comes from the MLSSA SPO manual [26] where the motor impedance is represented
such that the voice coil resistance, R
E
is in series with an inductance modelled as an
inductor, L
1
in series with a lossy inductance L
2
R
2
. In this case the circuit becomes as
Figure 5.2.
Figure 5.2 More complicated representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker
This model is more accurate at higher frequencies, it was chosen for this application
because it is the model used by the MLSSA SPO module to obtain the Thiele/Small
parameters of loudspeakers (see section 5.3.3).
4.3.2.25.3.2.2 Mechanical Section
Mechanically a loudspeaker is simply a diaphragm (a paper cone) which is set into
motion by an electromotive force. There is also a spring in the system consisting of the
spider and the surround of the loudspeaker bringing the cone back to its position of
equilibrium each time it is displaced. The spider works at the apex of the cone and the
R
E
L
1
L
2
R
2
A B
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 101
surround on the outside of the cone ensuring equal force is applied to all areas of the
cone with no phase lag of the combined restoring force. The diaphragm of a
loudspeaker is conical in a shape to increase its stiffness in the plane normal to the
intended motion; this ensures that it moves backwards and forwards as a piston. That
the diaphragm moves with pistonic oscillation is an important assumption to make as it
eliminates the need to model complex bending waves on the diaphragm that appear at
higher frequencies otherwise known as ‘cone break up’. Attempting to model a
loudspeaker using lumped parameter techniques at higher frequencies will lead to
spurious results as bending waves alter both the moving mass and the compliance of the
diaphragm making it a nonlinear system. For lower frequency radiation however the
pistonic assumption is valid and enables accurate predictions.
A magnetic field is generated by a large permanent magnet which is held in place by a
chassis so as not to put a load on the diaphragm. As a consequence of this magnetic
field, the induced movement of the cone is governed in frequency and magnitude by the
frequency and strength of the alternating current that is applied across the terminals. The
absorber system uses the loudspeaker in reverse to induce a current in the voice coil
given oscillation of the diaphragm in sympathy with an acoustic pressure. As with a
standard membrane absorber the cone will generate a particle velocity in the cabinet
which is then absorbed by porous material. The absorber will have a resonant frequency
inherently controlled by the moving mass of the diaphragm and the stiffness of the
spring (both the mechanical suspension compliance and the compliance of the air
volume within the cabinet). This enables the resonant frequency to be altered by
changing these parameters, however this is awkward as it involves rebuilding the entire
absorber using different materials and geometry, and this is obviously rather
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 102
impractical. It is possible however to use the electrical section of the absorber to change
the resonance in the mechanical domain. The induced current will be impeded by the
electrical components L
1
, L
2
, R
2
,R
E
and those connected across terminals A and B as
seen from Figure 5.2. These components have a frequency dependence of their own,
thus the electrical impedance will be larger at some frequencies than at others enabling
the induced current to flow more easily at some frequencies. Mechanically the system
will oscillate with greater amplitude when the impedance to the induced current is at a
minimum and as such the electrical section will have ramifications on the resonance
properties of the entire system.
Considering just the mechanical section of the loudspeaker it can be seen that with the
diaphragm moving pistonically, on the combined compliance it can be represented
simply as a mass on a spring as in Figure 5.3:
Figure 5.3 Mechanical representation of a loudspeaker
The mass
M
M
moves on a spring with stiffness
M
K and compliance
M
C , there is also
some inherent damping in the mechanical system
M
R
which comprises of losses within
the mounting and suspension of the diaphragm. The above system can be easily solved
using differential equations, such that the equation of motion becomes:
M
M
u = 0
M
R
M M
C K / 1 =
F
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 103
∫
+ + = dt u K R
dt
du
M F
M M M
.
(5.7)
Assuming sinusoidal oscillation,
t j
e F F
ω
0
= and
t j
e u u
ω
0
=
u
C j
u R u M j F
e u
C j
e u R e u M j e F
M
M M
t j
M
t j
M
t j
M
t j
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω ω ω
1
1
0 0 0 0
+ + =
+ + =
(5.8)
Mechanical impedance can be written as u F Z
M
/ = therefore the total mechanical
impedance of the above system is:
M
M M M
C j
R M j Z
ω
ω
1
+ + =
(5.9)
This is the expected result which can also be obtained by modelling the scenario with
the impedance analogue leading to the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 5.4. This
impedance is in the same format as an electrical impedance with an inductor a resistor
and a capacitor.
Figure 5.4 Impedance analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker
u
M
M
M
R
F
M
C
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 104
The same mechanical system can be modelled with the mobility analogue as the
reciprocal of Figure 5.4 such that the circuit becomes as Figure 5.5:
Figure 5.5 Mobility analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker
The impedance of this circuit can be determined as follows:
n Tot
Z Z Z Z
1
...
1 1 1
2 1
+ + =
M M
M Tot
R M j
C j Z
+ + = ω
ω
1 1
(5.10)
Note that this admittance/mobility in Figure 5.5 is the same as the impedance of the
circuit in Figure 5.4. One circuit therefore is said to be the ‘dual’ of the other. Both
circuits can be used to determine the velocity and the force and yield the same results.
The mechanical system will resonate when the imaginary part becomes zero therefore
the resonant frequency can be calculated using equation (5.11):
M M
M
M
C M
C j
M j
1
0
1
=
= +
ω
ω
ω
(5.11)
u
F M
R / 1
M
C
M
M
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 105
Resistive losses will affect only the Qfactor of the resonant curve.
4.3.2.35.3.2.3 Acoustical Section
For the acoustical section it is assumed that the incident acoustic wave (alternating
pressure source) causes the same volume velocity at both the front and back of the
diaphragm each providing a complex impedance load as such the circuit can be
represented in with the impedance analogue by Figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6 Impedance analogue circuit of the acoustical section of a loudspeaker
AF
Z and
AB
Z are the impedance at the front and back of the diaphragm respectively.
The impedance at the back of the diaphragm is the easier of the two to determine; it
consists predominantly of the compliant air load of the cabinet, C
A
and the resistive
damping provided by the porous absorbent, R
A
. Z
AF
is the radiation impedance as a
result of the air load in front of the absorber and it depends on what space the absorber
‘radiates’ into. When in free space the impedance at the front of the diaphragm is a
combination of an acoustic mass term and a resistive air load on the diaphragm given by
the radiation impedance of a baffled piston as in equation (5.19). Z
AF
is less complicated
if the absorber radiates in tube with plane wave propagation as is modelled in
subsequent sections for comparison with impedance tube tests. In this case the mass
U
AB
Z
p
in
AF
Z
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 106
term disappears and the radiation impedance can be given by equation (5.20). Greater
detail will be paid to these terms in section 5.3.3.
The mobility analogue can also be used to represent the system as an electrical circuit.
Pressure becomes the flow variable (current), volume velocity the potential variable
(voltage).
Figure 5.7 Mobility analogue circuit of the acoustical section of loudspeaker used as a membrane
absorber
4.3.2.45.3.2.4 Combining the Sections
Once all of the sections have been individually derived it is important to link them
together correctly, this is done using ideal transformers forming an electrical link
between the circuits enabling each section to be written in the same units so the overall
impedance of the system can be determined from a combined circuit of all three
sections.
Ideal transformers are electrical transformers where there is assumed to be no losses in
the coils, i.e. they have negligible resistance and inductance such that all power is
conserved. Therefore for the transformer in Figure 5.8 b v a v
1 2
= and b i a i
2 1
= .
AF
Z
1
AB
Z
1
in
p
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 107
Figure 5.8 Idealised transformer
In order to calculate the output voltage, v
2
when multiplying out the transformer it is
simply a matter of multiplying the input voltage, v
1
by the turns ratio (a/b) and to
determine the current in the secondary circuit, the input current is divided by this turns
ratio. With this in mind the equivalent impedance, Z
2
in Figure 5.9 can also be
determined when multiplying out the transformer to form a single circuit such that:
2
1 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1

.

\

⋅ =

.

\

⋅ =

.

\


.

\

= =
b
a
Z Z
b
a
i
v
a
b
i
b
a
v
i
v
Z
(5.12)
The simplified circuit can then be written as Figure 5.9:
Figure 5.9 Simplified idealised transformer
a:b
1
Z
1
v
1
i 2
i
2
v

.

\

a
b
v
2
1 2

.

\

=
a
b
Z Z
2
v
2
i
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 108
Looking from the position of
2
v Figure 5.8 and Figure 5.9 are electrically equivalent.
When applying this transformer theory to the absorber problem, converting the three
circuits into one, it is important to maintain congruence in the circuits, that is to say the
circuits must be converted so that the units are all in the same domain. For example it is
possible to convert all of the sections into either the electrical, mechanical or the
acoustic units. For the purposes of this problem it is the acoustical domain that is of
interest so circuits will be combined accordingly. In order to convert all of the circuits
into the acoustical domain the mechanical and electrical sections can first be combined
to produce a single circuit with mechanical units and then this circuit combined with the
acoustical circuit to produce just one circuit in the acoustic domain.
To successfully multiply out the transformers such that any electrical terms are
converted to mechanical terms, the correct turns ratio must be chosen for the coils of the
transformer. In order to convert an electrical term into a mechanical term Faradays laws
are used as equations (5.13) and (5.14).
Bli F =
(5.13)
Blu v =
(5.14)
where i is the current flowing through the coil, B is the magnetic flux density of the
magnet measured in Tesla’s, l is the length of the coil, u is the velocity of the coil and v
is the voltage across the coil. The common link between these formulae is the force
factor (Bl). As such this can be used as the turns ratio so that a voltage can become a
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 109
force and a current can become a velocity, this means the mechanical section needs to
be represented by the mobility analogue as in Figure 5.5.
The mechanical and acoustical domains can be linked by using the equations:
,
D
S
F
p = and
D
uS U =
(5.15)
The common term here is
D
S which is used as the turns ratio of the transformer for the
conversion, therefore what was a force in mechanical units will become a pressure in
the acoustic section and what was a velocity in the mechanical section will now become
a volume velocity. As such the acoustic section needs also to be modelled with the
mobility analogue to prevent an incongruity of values. The three sections linked with
the transformers then becomes as per Figure 5.10:
Figure 5.10 Equivalent circuit linking electrical, mechanical and acoustical sections with transformers
The transformer linking the mechanical and the electrical sections is removed using the
rules for idealised transformers, dividing impedances by the square of the turns ratio
( 1 / Bl ) thus the circuit becomes:
MD
M
MD
C
MD
R
1
Bl : 1
1 :
D
S
Acoustical section
(Mobility analogue)
Mechanical section
(Mobility analogue)
Electrical section
(Impedance analogue)
in
p
AF
Z
1
AB
Z
1
R
E
L
1
L
2
R
2
p
F i
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 110
Figure 5.11 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical and mechanical sections combined
What was a current in the electrical section has now become a force in the mechanical
domain from equation (5.13) and what was a voltage has become a velocity from
equation (5.14). Thus the right hand side circuit consists now entirely of components
with mechanical units. The mechanoacoustical transformer is now removed by
multiplying all the impedances by the square of the turns ratio ( )
D
S / 1 . It is the
impedance that is multiplied out rather than the component value hence:


.

\

= ×
2
2
1 1
D
MD
D
MD
S
M
j
S
M j
ω
ω
so the component value is
2
D
MD
S
M
(5.16)
Figure 5.12 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical, mechanical and acoustical sections
combined
( )
2
2
Bl
S R
D E
in
p
AD
D
MD
M
S
M
=
2
AD
D MD
C
S C
=
2
p
AF
Z
1
AB
Z
1
AD
MD
D
R
R
S
/ 1
2
=
( )
2
2
Bl
S L
D E
( )
2
2
Bl
S R
D E
MD
M
MD
C
MD
R
1
1 :
D
S
( )
2
2
Bl
R
in
p
AF
Z
1
( )
2
Bl
R
E
( )
2
Bl
L
E
( )
2
2
Bl
L
AB
Z
1
p
F
( )
2
2
Bl
S L
D E
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 111
The circuit in Figure 5.12 can be directly solved to determine the impedance of the
absorber system however it is easier to put the circuit into the impedance analogue by
taking its dual and to rename some of the components such that it is easier to define
their physical values. The components are renamed as they are now in acoustical units
using the relationship that acoustical impedance can be determined by dividing the
mechanical impedance by a factor of area squared (the operation performed when the
transformer was multiplied out). Taking the dual of the circuit gives:
Figure 5.13 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber in impedance analogue
This is the full equivalent circuit in the impedance analogue for the loudspeaker
absorber system upon which all subsequent analysis is based.
4.3.35.3.3 Defining the Parameters
In order to calculate the impedance of this circuit it is important that the component
values can be determined. These can be obtained using direct theory and also by
measuring the driver’s Thiele/Small signal parameters [31, 32]. The parameters are also
often referred to as small signal parameters because they are physical constants
pertaining to a loudspeaker when operating linearly i.e. when a small signal is applied
in
p
AF
Z AD
C
AD
M
AD
R
AB
Z
( )
2
2
2
D
S R
Bl
( )
2
2
2
Bl
S L
D
( )
2
2
D E
S R
Bl
( )
2
2
Bl
S L
D E
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 112
rather than a large signal which would cause nonlinear behaviour. Measuring the
Thiele/Small parameters of a loudspeaker can be done in several ways [35, 36, 37].
The method chosen here was the added mass method. With this method, weights are
added to the diaphragm such that the additional moving mass decreases the driver’s
resonant frequency, f
S
by about 20%. In the added mass technique M
MS
is found first
from equation (5.17):
1
'
2
−


.

\

=
S
S
ADDED
MS
f
f
M
M
(5.17)
Where M
ADDED
is the added mass, f
S
is the drivers’ resonant frequency and s f ′ is the
driver’s resonant frequency with the additional mass. Using this value of M
MS
the free
air mechanical compliance of the driver can be obtained from:
( )
MS S
MS
M f
C
2
2
1
π
=
(5.18)
Other parameters can be obtained from performing electrical impedance tests on the
driver. This procedure was done automatically using a maximum length sequence signal
analyser (MLSSA). The parameters that were obtained were:
g 152 28. M
MS
= , the mechanical moving mass of the driver with an air load
µmN 276 385. = C
MS
, the mechanical compliance of the driver
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 113
Ω 415 12. = R
E
, the DC electrical resistance of the driver voice coil
Ω 02 5
2
. = R , the second equivalent resistance of voice coil
mH 907 0
1
. = L , the inductance of the equivalent lossless inductor
mH 595 1
2
. = L , the inductance of the equivalent lossy inductor
Ω 575 360. = R
ES
, the mechanical losses of the diaphragm in electrical units
Tm 169 20. Bl = , the force factor of the driver
2
m 05768 0. S
D
= , the area of the diaphragm
The subscript notation follows the rules for nomenclature as defined in appendix I.
The acoustic impedance at the front and back of the diaphragm, given by
AF
Z and
AB
Z respectively, can be expanded in order to determine their values. The impedance at
the front is the radiation impedance; this is a combination of the complex air load on the
driver consisting of a reactive part (mass loading) and a resistive part (damping).
Assuming pistonic movement of the diaphragm in an infinite baffle, the radiation
impedance of the diaphragm at low frequencies ( 1 < ka ) can be written as [15]:
a
j
ck
M j R Z
AF AF AF
2
0
2
0
3
8
2 π
ρ
ω
π
ρ
ω + = + =
(5.19)
This would be the radiation impedance if the driver were to be placed in 2π space, i.e.
used within a room. However in order to compare predictions with measurements made
in the impedance tube the radiation impedance is changed such that it more closely
represents this plane wave case. The radiation impedance of the piston can be
determined by considering a plane wave incident to a rigid surface. For such a case the
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 114
ratio of pressure to particle velocity is given as ρ
0
c such that the acoustic impedance is
given as:
S
c
U
p
Z
A
0
ρ
= =
(5.20)
As pressure is scalar the total pressure when a plane wave is reflected from a plane
surface is equal to 2p
i
therefore in the analogue the plane wave can be represented by a
voltage generator of strength 2p
i
with a radiation impedance in front of the piston given
by equation (5.20).
The impedance at the back of the diaphragm is a combination of the compliant load of
the sealed volume of air in the cabinet,
AB
C and the resistive losses due to the porous
absorbent in the cabinet
AB
R . The compliance of a sealed volume can be written as:
2
0
c
V
C
B
AB
ρ
=
(5.21)
where
B
V is the volume of the box. The resistive losses can be determined by an
acoustic model such as the Delany and Bazley empirical model. Although the Delany
and Bazley model is inaccurate at very low frequencies it is sufficient for the purposes
of estimating the value of
AF
R using equations (2.11), (2.12) and (2.13).
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 115
From these parameters all of the component values in the circuit can be determined and
the total impedance found. The circuit in Figure 5.13 can be simplified as shown in
Figure 5.14:
Figure 5.14 Simplified equivalent circuit of membrane absorber
Where:
2
D
MS
AD
S
M
M =
(5.22)
AB
D
MS
AB AD AT
R
S
R
R R R + = + =
2
(5.23)
Where R
AD
is the damping of the diaphragm in acoustical units and ( )
ES MS
R Bl R /
2
= :
AB AD
AB AD
AT
C C
C C
C
+
=
(5.24)
AD
C is the acoustic compliance of the diaphragm, calculated from the mechanical
compliance of the diaphragm with an air load,
MS
C so that:
2
D MS AD
S C C =
(5.25)
in
p 2
AD
M
AT
R
AT
C
AF
Z
AE
Z
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 116
The acoustic impedance as a result of the electrical section, Z
AE
is the parallel
combination of impedance given by equation (5.26):
1
3 2 1
1 1 1
−
+ + =
z z z
Z
AE
Where
( )


.

\

=
2
2
1
1
Bl
S L
j
z
D E
ω
,
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
D
D
S R
Bl
Bl
S L
z + = and
( )
2
2
3
D E
S R
Bl
z =
(5.26)
4.3.45.3.4 Calculating the Absorption of the System
Once the final equivalent circuit has been formed it is a simple matter to determine the
specific acoustic impedance of the system by solving the circuit using basic electronics
theory. From this impedance the reflection factor and the acoustic absorption can be
found using equations (2.7) and (2.4) respectively.
The combined acoustic impedance of the circuit is found by equation (5.27):
AE AF AT
AT
AD TOT
Z Z R
C j
M j Z + + + + =
ω
ω
1
(5.27)
Multiplying this by a factor of the diaphragm area gives the specific acoustic impedance
of the system from which the absorption can be obtained.
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 117
4.45.4 Implementing the Model
The equivalent circuit model was implemented using MATLAB to plot the predicted
absorption versus frequency of the driver. Figure 5.15 shows the predicted and
measured absorption on the same axes. The code used to generate the results can be
found in appendix J.
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Using a Loudspeaker as an Absorber
Results from Impedance Tube
Equivalent Circuit Prediction
Figure 5.15 Comparison of equivalent circuit model with impedance tube measurements
4.4.15.4.1 Discussion
Good correlation between measurement and prediction is shown in terms of absorption
magnitude and resonant frequency. The equivalent circuit model does however predict a
broader Qfactor of absorption than measurements show. This is due the limitations of
the lumped element modelling technique and results in difficulty in accurately
predicting the surface impedance of the system for all frequencies. Looking at the real
part of the impedance (shown in Figure 5.16) for both the measured and the modelled
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 118
cases reveals that there is a dramatic increase in the real part of the measured surface
impedance at higher frequencies which is not present in the predicted data.
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Frequency, Hz
S
u
r
f
a
c
e
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
Real Part of the Surface Impedance of a Loudspeaker used as an Absorber
Measured
Predicted
Figure 5.16 Real part of surface impedance from both predicted and measured data
Accurate prediction of the losses in the system are shown at low frequency but the
accuracy decreases as the frequency increases, this explains why the predicted Qfactor
of the resonant curve is broader than the measured value. With the real part of the
measured impedance tending sharply away from characteristic impedance the system
reaches maximum absorption over only a narrow bandwidth which is contrasted with
the prediction where the real component of the impedance remains roughly equal to
characteristic impedance for the entire frequency range. The inaccuracy in the
prediction model is the result of secondary resonances of the driver diaphragm that
cannot be modelled using the lumped element method as it only predicts the
fundamental resonance of systems. The first three modes of a circular plate can be given
as Figure 5.17 [38].
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 119
Figure 5.17 First three vibrational modes of a circular plate
The second modal frequency given by f
11
is a resonant mode but will not generate any
absorption as there is cancellation on the diaphragm i.e. the diaphragm is ‘pushing’ and
‘pulling’ the same amount of air, consequently there is no resultant transmission of
energy and hence no absorption. It would therefore be expected that the imaginary part
of the surface impedance would exhibit a secondary point of zero crossing at this modal
frequency but which would show insignificant absorption, looking at Figure 5.18 this
becomes clear. The cancellation at this modal frequency causes the real part of the
surface impedance to increase preventing efficient transmission, resulting in minimum
absorption as shown by Figure 5.18:
f
01
f
02

+ +

f
11
(a) (c) (b)
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 120
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
0.5
1
Absorption Coefficient
α
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
1000
2000
3000
Real Impedance
R
e
a
l
(
z
)
,
M
K
S
r
a
y
l
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
4000
2000
0
2000
I
m
a
g
(
z
)
,
M
K
S
r
a
y
l
Imaginary Impedance
Frequency, Hz
Absorption and Surface Impedance of a Loudspeaker Used as an Absorber
Figure 5.18 Multiplot of absorption and surface impedance showing the first two resonant modes of the
loudspeaker
The blue lines on the Figure 5.18 show where the imaginary part of the surface
impedance goes to zero, illustrating the first two resonances of the diaphragm. It can be
seen from the figure that at the second of these modes (corresponding to Figure 5.17b)
there is negligible absorption as the real part of the surface impedance has reached a
maximum and much larger than characteristic. Thus the inability of the model to predict
secondary and tertiary resonances of the driver means that the final predicted absorption
curve exhibits increased Qfactors when compared to the measured data. As a result
there will be inaccuracies in the predictions made by the model but the behavioural
characteristics of the fundamental mode in terms of frequency and magnitude of
absorption will be accurate. Thus the model can be used to obtain predictions of further
scenarios as modelled in chapter 6. It is further shown in chapter 6 that the model
accurately predicts the trends in changing resonant characteristics introduced by
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 121
additional electronic loads connected to the terminals of the driver as shown in Figure
6.4 and Figure 6.11.
4.55.5 Conclusion
Using a loudspeaker as a membrane absorber has been shown to produce high
absorption coefficients at low frequency. The system behaves as a membrane absorber
and could prove to be useful for practical studio applications by using redundant
loudspeakers to absorb unwanted modal components within a room.
The loudspeaker absorber system has been modelled using electroacoustic theory and a
lumped element model. The prediction of acoustic absorption matched up well with the
measured values obtained from impedance tube tests. It was noted that the lumped
element model does not allow for the prediction of the system’s higher order
resonances, causing inaccuracy in the prediction of the surface impedance at higher
frequencies, resulting in the model predicting broader Qfactors than the measured data
shows. The model does however predict accurately the frequency and magnitude of
resonance and can be used as a first approximation of the absorber’s behaviour
especially with a changing electronic load impedance as shown in chapter 6.
The next section of work outlines how a passive electronic load on the driver can be
used to reduce the resonant frequency and Qfactor of the loudspeaker absorber system.
The equivalent circuit model presented in this chapter will be extended to model such
changes in the motor impedance of the loudspeaker.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 122
6. CHANGING THE RESONANT
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
LOUDSPEAKERABSORBER USING
PASSIVE ELECTRONICS
6.1 Introduction
The previous chapter outlined the basic principles of the modelling and use of a
loudspeaker used, in reverse, as an acoustic absorber. Sound incident to the diaphragm
of the loudspeaker, forces it into oscillation in sympathy to the frequency of the incident
wave causing a particle flow in the cabinet which is absorbed by porous material. The
system, as expected, was shown to have a distinct resonant peak, the frequency and
magnitude of which was controlled by the mechanical, acoustical and the electrical
components of the system. This was brought together in the form of a lumped parameter
model which enabled prediction of the overall acoustic impedance of the system from
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 123
an equivalent circuit, which in turn was used to determine the complex reflection factor
and hence the normal incidence absorption coefficient. This model was then compared
to tests performed in an impedance tube and was shown to accurately predict the
frequency and magnitude of the system’s resonance.
In the current chapter, the principles of the previous chapter are built upon such that
parameters concerning the system are changed in order to produce an absorber with
variable resonance characteristics. For a standard membrane absorber it is possible, if
not practical, to alter the mechanical and acoustical compliance, mass and damping
terms within the system to change its resonant characteristics. This is often very
impractical as it means altering physical properties such as the volume/depth of the
cabinet or the material of the membrane. These changes demand a complete
reconstruction of the absorber so are not only time consuming but are also financially
costly. Using a loudspeaker as an absorber can provide a solution to this problem as
there is the addition of an electrical domain in the system. Changing this electrical
section using variable components enables the combined acoustic impedance of the
system to be altered. The real part of the impedance, which determines the magnitude
and the Qfactor of absorption, can be altered by the addition of resistive components.
The imaginary part, which dictates the frequency of the resonance, can be altered by the
inclusion of additional reactive components.
Altering acoustical properties of resonant systems with the use of electronic components
is not a new idea; it has been applied to many areas including design of loudspeakers
with a better low frequency response [29]. In this case Stahl used electronic components
connected to an amplifier thereby changing the impedance load as seen by the
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 124
loudspeaker, Stahl noted that this caused the fundamental resonance to be altered and
enabled tuning to produce a better low frequency response. Stahl’s paper also
demonstrated a lumped element model to back up laboratory tests. This application was
focused on the radiation of sound but the theory of changing an electronic load to alter
an acoustic system has been applied also to the absorption of sound in the field of
aeroacoustics [39]. In this case a Helmholtz absorber was presented with a piezoelectric
backplate, the impedance of which could be varied by the addition of resistive and
reactive electronic components such that the resonant frequency and damping were
altered. Results showed a shift in resonant frequency of up to 20% with the inclusion of
capacitive and inductive components. Resistive components could also be added and
were shown to alter the Qfactor of the resonance by the increase in damping. The
application for this study was in engine liners for aircraft where the frequency of noise
from the engine depends on the velocity of the aircraft therefore an absorber with
variable characteristics is desirable.
Using loudspeakers as absorbing systems has also been used extensively in room
acoustics with active absorption systems [40, 41] these systems use powered electronic
circuits and loudspeakers to cancel out incident sound by radiating a phase inverted
version of that sound which destructively interferes, absorbing the incident wave. It is
also possible to combine active and passive absorption techniques for room acoustic
applications [42]; this patented bass trap uses active control to tune a loudspeaker such
that it will passively absorb acoustic energy at it resonant frequency, Kashani and
Wischmeyer presented results displaying significant attenuation in a low frequency
band. The system allows two room modes to be absorbed simultaneously using this
active tuning. A further example of combining active and passive techniques is in the
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 125
field of space and rocket technology, where noise in the nose cone of a launch vehicle
can get to such large levels (exceeding 140dB) that damage can be inflicted on the
vehicle. Kemp and Clark [43] presented a technique combining a passive and active
control approach using an active input (an accelerometer on a loudspeaker) to actively
change the resonance characteristics of a loudspeaker that was used passively to absorb
the noise in the fairing (nose cone), they demonstrated peak reductions in excess of
12dB using this technique.
Both of the techniques mentioned above, using loudspeakers in the absorption of sound
use an active approach of tuning absorbers; however the absorber system presented here
does not utilise any active control but achieves high absorption coefficients over a range
of two and a half octaves using only passive techniques. As such this technique is an
extension of other methods available. In this work the resonant frequency can be altered
to allow the absorber to be transferred from room to room and retuned to match the
fundamental mode of that room. The magnitude and Qfactor of the absorption curve
can also be altered with the aim of smoothing out the frequency response. Of primary
interest is the effect of a single load resistance or capacitance, these will therefore be
described first. However the complex load impedance connected to the terminals of the
loudspeaker could potentially contain any combination of resistive and reactive
components to produce the optimum resonant characteristics for a given application and
more complex arrangements will hence be analysed in subsequent sections.
Changing the resistive element of the impedance presented to the terminals A and B of
the loudspeaker used as an absorber was analysed first.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 126
6.2 Changing the Load Resistance
It is useful in applications to be able to determine the Qfactor of the absorption
provided by a membrane absorber, the advantage can be seen in two ways. Firstly if the
Qfactor is decreased it enables an increased bandwidth of absorption, something highly
sought after in room acoustics, to result in a room with a flatter response with respect to
frequency over a wider bandwidth. Secondly if the Qfactor could be increased it allows
more selectivity with the frequencies that the system could absorb, such that if there was
a problem with increased modal excitation at a discrete frequency it could be selectively
absorbed without effecting neighbouring frequencies. Varying the load resistance will
be elucidated in the subsequent section altering the Q of the resonance by a degree of
34% allowing for the user to select the Qfactor within certain bounds for the
application of choice. There is also the possibility of applying a negative resistance
across the terminals to decrease the Qfactor still further but this would require an
additional power source and falls outside the scope of this project.
6.2.1 Theory and Prediction
The lumped element model derived in the previous chapter was extended here to allow
the modelling of additional passive electronic components in the electrical section of the
analogue. With the additional variable resistance, R
EV
, the electrical section of the
equivalent circuit as modelled with the impedance analogue then becomes as Figure
6.1:
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 127
Figure 6.1 Electrical section of the absorber equivalent circuit with an additional variable resistor across
terminals A and B.
When this is combined with the mechanical and acoustical sections in the same way as
demonstrated in chapter five and the dual of the circuit taken the final circuit becomes
as Figure 6.2:
Figure 6.2 Full equivalent circuit of absorber with additional variable resistor across terminals
Simplifying this circuit it can be written as:
AT
M
AT
R
AT
C
AE
Z
2p
in
2p
in
AF
Z
AD
C
AD
M
AD
R AB
R
AEV
R
AE
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AB
C
A B
R
E
L
1
L
2
R
2
R
EV
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 128
Figure 6.3 Simplified equivalent circuit of absorber
The impedance of the electrical section in acoustical units is given by Z
AE
the expression
for which is given by equation (6.1):
1
1
2 2
2
−
+
+
+
+
=
AE
AE AE
AE
AEV AE
AEV AE
AE
C j
R C j
C
R R
R R
Z ω
ω
ω
(6.1)
where;
( )
2
2
D EV
AEV
S R
Bl
R = ,
( )
2
2
D E
AE
S R
Bl
R = ,
( )
2
2
2
2
D
AE
S R
Bl
R = ,
( )
2
2
1
1
Bl
S L
C
D
AE
=
and
( )
2
2
2
2
Bl
S L
C
D
AE
=
(6.2)
The variable resistance, R
EV
changes the value of R
AEV
by a factor of its reciprocal, such
that an increase in R
EV
reduces the value of R
AEV
.
This extension to the original model demonstrated in chapter 5 yields the following
absorption coefficient graph for varying the load resistance on the driver:
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 129
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Predicted Absorption Coefficients with Varying Resistive Load
Closed Circuit
1 Ohm
5 Ohms
10 Ohms
50 Ohms
100 Ohms
Open Circuit
Figure 6.4 Changes in absorption curves with a variable resistor connected across loudspeaker terminals
This prediction shows that the Qfactor of the absorption curve rises with an increase in
load resistance; this is counter to intuition which states that additional resistance adds
damping to the circuit and should therefore reduce the Qfactor rather than increase it.
The reason for this is that the final analogue is written in the impedance analogue such
that electrical resistances actually become conductances, so an increase in the load
resistance actually increases the conductance in acoustical units.
The variations in Qfactor are governed by the open and closed circuit limiting
conditions. The closed circuit offers the minimum load resistance and the open circuit
case offers the highest possible load resistance, thus these conditions define the
minimum and maximum Qfactors obtainable with standard linear electrical resistors.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 130
6.2.2 Measurements
Measurements were made using the specially constructed impedance tube in the same
manner as in chapter 5. The electrical load resistance applied to the terminals of the
driver was altered for each measurement using a standard variable resistance box with a
maximum error of 0.1% verified with a digital multimeter. In order to connect the
resistance box to the terminals of the driver, wires had to be fed from the driver under
the mounting rings shown in Figure 6.5:
Figure 6.5 Mounting of loudspeaker in large sample holder for impedance tube testing
Care had to be taken to avoid any leaks between the mounting rings and the top of the
sample holder so as to prevent spurious results. This was achieved by using Blutak to
block any gaps.
Initial measurements were made with no porous absorbent in the sample holder; this
was done so that the Qfactor would be higher in order that the effect of the changing
resistance could be more clearly discernable. On subsequent analysis it was found that
Mounting
rings
Terminals to connect
passive electronics to
Wires fed under
mounting rings
Loudspeaker
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 131
these measurements did not match up well with predictions. The absorption coefficient
curves that were obtained are seen in Figure 6.6:
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Measured Absorption Coefficient Changing Resistive Load [No Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
Closed Cicruit
1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
1000 Ohms
5000 Ohms
Open Circuit
Figure 6.6 Measurements made on absorber in impedance tube changing resistive load on loudspeaker
terminals
It is seen from Figure 6.6 that the trend does not behave as predicted in Figure 6.4. In
Figure 6.4 an increase in resistive load leads to an increase in Qfactor and
consequently higher absorption coefficients, this trend in reversed in Figure 6.6 when
there is no porous absorbent backing to the loudspeaker, thus the measurements behave
in the opposite manner to the predictions. The answer to this quandary of the
incongruity between measurements and prediction can be found on inspection of the
real part of the surface impedance as shown in Figure 6.7.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 132
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
Frequency, Hz
S
u
r
f
a
c
e
I
m
p
e
d
a
n
c
e
,
M
K
S
r
a
y
l
Measured Real Impedance Changing Resistive Load [No Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
Closed Cicruit
1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
1000 Ohms
5000 Ohms
Open Circuit
Characteristic Impedance
Figure 6.7 Real part of the measured surface impedance of absorber with a variable resistive load without
porous absorption in the cabinet
It can be seen from Figure 6.7 that around the resonant frequency (~135 Hz) an increase
in resistive load causes a decrease in the real part of the surface impedance. Initially for
resistances from the closed circuit case to the 10 Ohm case the real part gets
progressively nearer to the characteristic impedance of air (given by the dotted blue
line) and hence the trend is an increase in absorption with and increase in resistance.
After the 10 Ohm load resistance the trend in the real part of the impedance tends away
from characteristic impedance with an increase in resistance which explains the reverse
in trend such that an increase in resistance causes a decrease in absorption. The
prediction model was changed to account for this decrease in real impedance by
removing the porous absorbent in the cabinet. The predicted absorption coefficient for
this case shows better agreement with measurements.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 133
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Predicted Absorption Coefficient Changing Resistive Load [No Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
Closed Cicruit
1 Ohm
10 Ohms
100 Ohms
1000 Ohms
5000 Ohms
Open Circuit
Figure 6.8 Predicted absorption coefficient changing the resistive load on the absorber without porous
absorption in cabinet.
When the model is amended such that there is no porous absorbent in the cabinet
(sample holder) and the real part of the impedance decreased, the trend matches up
more favourably with measurements exhibiting an increase in Qfactor with increasing
resistance. When the porous absorbent is included in the cabinet the overall real part of
the surface impedance rises above characteristic impedance such that with each increase
in resistance the value of the real part gets further from characteristic impedance hence
tends away from maximum absorption and a decrease in Qfactor.
To demonstrate this effect, measurements were repeated with porous absorbent in the
cabinet. Results were again plotted with respect to frequency and yielded the graph in
Figure 6.9.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 134
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Measured Absorption for Different Resistive Loads [With Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Closed Circuit
1 Ohms
5 Ohms
10 Ohms
50 Ohms
100 Ohms
Open Circuit
Figure 6.9 Measured absorption coefficient of absorber with variable resistive load with porous
absorption in the cabinet
This measurement shows good agreement with the predicted values plotted in Figure
6.4 confirming the validity of the model. Graphs with both the measured and predicted
results plotted on the same axes for each individual resistive load can be found in
appendix K. The model, as mentioned in section 5.4.1, tends to slightly over predict the
Qfactor of the resonance but as will be seen in section 6.5.2 the trend of how the Q
factor changes with increasing resistive loads is accurately predicted.
There is a slight shift in resonant frequency that is shown in both the measured and the
predicted data, the resonant frequency decreasing slightly with the additional resistive
load. The reason for this shift is found when analysing the combined complex
impedance of the electrical section Z
AEV
. Expanding equation (6.1) shows that R
AEV
becomes a factor of the
1 AE
C ω and
2 AE
C ω therefore changing the resistive load will
have an effect on the magnitude of the reactive parts and consequently on the resonant
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 135
frequency of the system. This effect is small when compared with the fundamental
resonance frequency with the closed circuit case; the shift is from 142 to 132Hz a shift
of just 7%. Greater shifts in resonant frequency can be obtained if a capacitor is
introduced into the circuit as seen in section 6.2.3.
6.2.3 Summary
Changing the resistive load has been shown to have different effects on the Qfactor of
the resonant peak of absorption in the loudspeaker absorber system. The effect depends
on the initial magnitude of the real part of the surface impedance. It has been shown that
of the real impedance is above characteristic impedance for the closed circuit case then
the trend is an increase in Qfactor and absorption with an increase in resistance as with
each addition of resistance the real surface impedance of the system gets progressively
closer to characteristic impedance of air and hence maximum absorption at resonance.
The trend is reversed if the real part is initially below characteristic impedance for the
closed circuit case, as with each addition of resistance the value at resonance tends away
from characteristic impedance resulting in a decrease in absorption and Qfactor with
increase in resistance.
When designing a resonant absorber of this type it will be useful to change the Qfactor
of the resonance to selectively absorb discrete frequencies to a certain degree to achieve
the flattest possible room response with respect to frequency. Section 6.5 will outline
some useful equations and graphs that could be used to determine what resistive value
should be used to achieve a given Qfactor for a specific driver.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 136
6.3 Changing the Capacitive Load
As well as adding a variable resistor to the terminals of the loudspeaker it is possible
also to include the addition of reactive components, in this section a variable capacitor
was included in the circuit. The desired outcome of this was the lowering of the
system’s resonant frequency. Experiments were performed in the impedance tube and
the scenario modelled using the standard equivalent circuit approach as in previous
sections. Measurements showed that shifts in resonant frequency of up to 39% were
possible with the addition of a single capacitor.
6.3.1 Theory and Prediction
Adding a capacitor into the circuit in Figure 5.13 leads to the equivalent circuit shown
in Figure 6.10 from which predictions of how the absorber system will behave with
changing load capacitance can be made. Thus the new circuit becomes:
Figure 6.10 Equivalent circuit with additional variable capacitor connected to loudspeaker terminals
In this case:
AF
Z
AD
C
AD
M
AD
R AB
R
AEV
L
AE
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AB
C
2p
in
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 137
( )
2
2
D
EV
AEV
S
Bl C
L =
(6.3)
Increasing the variable capacitor C
EV
consequently increases the value of the variable
inductor L
AEV
. Using the adapted circuit and computing the surface impedance yields the
absorption coefficient curves shown Figure 6.11.
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Predicted Absorption Coefficients with Varying Capacitive Load
Closed Circuit
1µF
10µF
22µF
47µF
100µF
220µF
470µF
Open Circuit
Figure 6.11 Predicted absorption curves with a variable capacitor connected to loudspeaker terminals
The graph shows a decrease in resonant frequency with an increase in capacitive load.
Results from the equivalent circuit model suggest that there is an optimum capacitance
where by increasing the capacitance further will begin to increase the resonant
frequency until once again it resonates at the same frequency as the closed circuit case.
The model predicts a resonant frequency shift of some 51% with the system resonating
at 174Hz for the closed circuit case and 85Hz with a 220µF load capacitance.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 138
6.3.2 Measurements
Measurements were once again performed in the low frequency impedance tube. The
results were made with porous absorbent material in the cabinet as this is the most
important case if the absorber were to be used in a practical setting. Standard electrical
component capacitors were used in the measurements with capacities ranging from 1
470µF. Results yielded the following Figure 6.12.
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Measured Absorption Coefficients with Varying Capacitive Load
Closed Circuit
1µF
10µF
22µF
47µF
100µF
220µF
470µF
Open Circuit
Figure 6.12 Measured absorption curves, changing the load capacitance connected across loudspeaker
terminals
Results from the measurements show a similar trend to the predictions such that an
increase in capacitive load leads to a decrease in the system’s resonant frequency. The
lowest frequency was found with a capacitance of 100 µF. The prediction model and the
measurements show that if the capacitance is increased too much then resonant
frequency increases again. The high frequency limit is given by the closed circuit
condition. The measured results show a resonant frequency shift from 172Hz to 105Hz
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 139
which corresponds to a shift of 39% which is slightly less than predicted due to
limitations in the lumped element method of analysis mentioned in section 5.4.1.
6.3.3 Discussion[RGO1]
Results show that with the addition of the reactive component there appears to still be
some resistive losses added into the system manifesting as a reduction in the Qfactor of
the resonance peak. This is due to the construction of the circuit, namely the fact that the
components are connected to the voice coil in series. Looking at the equivalent circuit
of the absorber, it is seen that in the final analogue circuit, what was electrically in
series becomes in parallel in the final model. Combining the complex impedances in
parallel means that the resistive components have impact on the frequency and that
reactive components have an impact on resistive losses, such that the resistive
components become multipliers of frequency dependent terms and capacitors become
multipliers of resistive terms. This means that when trying more complex scenarios such
as adding additional resistive components to achieve high absorption at the lowest
possible frequency, a trade off has to be made. As more resistance is added the resonant
frequency can be shifted less by the reactive component as the resistive component
becomes the dominant term in controlling the motor impedance.
6.3.4 Summary
By adding a capacitive load to the terminals of the driver it has been shown that it is
possible to achieve a resonant frequency shift of 39%. A maximum value of capacitance
was found, a value above which would begin to increase the resonant frequency again.
The optimum capacitance in the model was 220µF where as in measurements was
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 140
100µF. This value is subject to change given a specific driver; this is the topic of section
6.5.1. Increasing the capacitance, as well as lowering the resonant frequency, also
increases the Qfactor of the resonance curve thus there is a trade off between obtaining
the lowest possible frequency of a given system and obtaining maximum absorption.
6.4 Modelling Other Scenarios
So far it has been shown that by adding a variable resistance or capacitance into the
circuit the loudspeaker absorber can be tuned to exhibit different resonant
characteristics such that the Qfactor and the resonant frequency can be altered. A
variable resistor and capacitor constitute the simplest cases of adding both singular
resistive and reactive components. In this next section further scenarios are modelled
using the equivalent circuit model. Being able to change the resonant frequency of the
system is very useful but it is to the detriment of absorption magnitude at resonance.
More complicated combinations of electronic components could present an optimum
situation where the lowest resonant frequency could be achieved but yet exhibit
maximum absorption. Several combinations of additional electronic components are
modelled in this section; firstly, resistors and capacitors in series and in parallel,
secondly, the addition of an inductive component and thirdly, the combination of
capacitive and inductive elements both in series and in parallel.
6.4.1 Resistors and Capacitors in Series
In order to see if there is a greater degree of tunability available with the loudspeaker
absorber system it was seen what would happen if a variable resistor was placed with a
variable capacitor in series, in the final equivalent circuit these appear as a variable
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 141
inductor and conductance in parallel with the other motor impedance terms, the
equivalent in this case is given by Figure 6.13:
Figure 6.13 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable resistor in series with a variable capacitor connected
to the terminals of the loudspeaker
It was hoped that the addition of the extra variable resistor in series with the variable
capacitor would allow the system to resonate at the lowest possible frequency, as
governed by the capacitor whilst having the maximum absorption coefficient at
resonance, governed by the variable resistor. This turned out not to be the case as was
seen when plotting the absorption coefficient versus frequency for varying capacitive
and resistive loads. A multiplot demonstrating how the trend in absorption changes
with differing combinations of resistive and capacitive loads in series is shown in
Figure 6.14.
AF
Z
AT
M
AT
R
AE
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AT
C
2p
in
AEV
R
AEV
L
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 142
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
1 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
5 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
10 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
50 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
100 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
500 Ω
1 µF
10 µF
22 µF
47 µF
100 µF
220 µF
470 µF
Predicted Absorption Curves, Varying Load Capacitance and Resistance
Figure 6.14 Multiplot showing changes in the trend of absorption for different combinations of resistors
in series with capacitors
It can be seen from Figure 6.14, that a change in load resistance on the driver
suppresses the effect of the change in capacitance to increasing amounts with an
increase in resistance. Thus using a capacitor and resistor in series does not have the
desired effect of lowest frequency absorption with maximum absorption coefficient. To
discern the reason for it is helpful to look at the equivalent circuit in Figure 6.13. As the
value of R
EV
increases R
AEV
decreases according to equation (6.2), thus current will flow
more easily through that branch of the circuit. Consequently as R
AEV
decreases, less
current flows through L
AEV
and the circuit tends towards the case with no variable
capacitance at all, i.e. the equivalent circuit becomes as Figure 6.2. As the resistance is
then very high it tends towards the open circuit case as results show in Figure 6.14.
Therefore with a higher load resistance the change in load capacitance makes
continually less difference to the resonant characteristics of the system. Consequently
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 143
the simple series connection of a single resistor and capacitor does not constitute a
useful case when aiming to increase the adaptability of the resonant absorber.
6.4.2 Resistors and Capacitors in Parallel
The combination of the variable resistance and capacitance can also be connected in
parallel to the terminals such that in the final equivalent circuit they become a variable
inductor in series with a conductance, the new equivalent circuit that defines the
oscillation of the system becomes:
Figure 6.15 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable resistor
connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
The effect of connecting a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable resistor will be
the opposite of connecting the two in series. Increasing the resistive load, R
EV
will
decrease R
AEV
causing more current to flow through the L
AEV
. Thus as R
EV
increases the
effect of the variable capacitor increases, this can be seen from the multiplot in
appendix L. Results show that for the minimum resistive load the circuit tends towards
the open circuit case and with a maximum resistive load it tends towards the simple case
AF
Z
AT
M
AT
R
AEV
L
AE
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AT
C
2p
in
AEV
R
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 144
of only a capacitor connected across the terminals, thus this combination behaves, as
expected, in the opposite manner to the previous example of a variable resistor and
capacitor in series. For the case of the components in series; increasing the value of
resistance suppresses the effect of the capacitor in the circuit and conversely increasing
the value of the capacitance suppresses the effect of the resistor. For the parallel circuit
the opposite is true therefore it becomes apparent that it is not possible to obtain the
lowest resonant frequency with maximum absorption using solely resistors and
capacitors hence the next section models the addition of a variable inductor to increase
the degree of freedom of the circuit.
6.4.3 Applying an Variable Inductor
If a variable inductor is added in series into the circuit it manifests itself as a variable
capacitor in parallel with the voice coil impedance terms in addition to the final
equivalent circuit Figure 5.15. The circuit that defines this condition then becomes as
Figure 6.16:
Figure 6.16 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor connected to the terminals of the
loudspeaker
Where
AF
Z
AT
M
AT
R
AE
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AT
C
2p
in
AEV
C
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 145
( )
2
2
Bl
S L
C
D EV
AEV
= ,
AEV
C
C j
Z
AEV
ω
1
=
(6.4)
Plotting the predicted absorption from this equivalent circuit yields Figure 6.17.
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Frequency, Hz
A
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Predicted Absorption Coefficients with Varying Inductive Load
0.5 mH
1 mH
5 mH
10 mH
50 mH
100 mH
500 mH
1000 mH
Figure 6.17 Absorption curves changing inductive load on loudspeaker
When the load inductance L
AEV
is small the impedance of C
AEV
becomes very large
according to equation (6.4), it can therefore be ignored for subsequent circuit analysis.
Consequently current only flows through the other three parallel branches thus the
circuit can be approximated by the closed circuit case with no additional passive
electronics. Conversely if L
AEV
is large the impedance of C
AEV
becomes very small
resulting in very little flow through the voice coil terms C
AE1
, C
AE2
, R
AE2
and R
AE
. In this
case Z
AE
tends to zero thus the circuit approximates to the open circuit case such that the
motor impedance has no effect on the resonant characteristics of the absorber. These
situations govern the limits of the setup. Figure 6.17 demonstrates that with large
inductances the circuit behaves as the closed circuit case and with small inductances as
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 146
the open circuit case, intermediate inductance values cause frequency shifts in between
these values in a similar way to using a capacitor. It is also possible obtain a higher
resonant frequency than governed by the closed circuit condition where using a 10mH
inductor causes a resonant frequency of 197Hz with an absorption coefficient of 0.96.
The use of an inductor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker consequently
enables higher resonant frequencies but still achieving high absorption coefficients, it
could therefore be profitable to combine more than one reactive component in order to
achieve a wider bandwidth of absorption.
6.4.4 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Series
In this section a variable inductor was modelled as connected in series with a variable
capacitor, the equivalent circuit for this scenario is given by Figure 6.18. Utilising an
inductor and a capacitor it was hoped that the advantages of both types of component
could be exploited, the capacitor enabling lower frequency limits and the inductor
enabling higher frequency limits, thus increasing the range of resonant frequencies.
Figure 6.18 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor in series with a variable capacitor connected
to the terminals of the loudspeaker
AF
Z
AT
M
AT
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AT
C
2p
in
AEV
C
AE
R
AEV
L
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 147
With two reactive components in the circuit it is expected to have two resonances
governed by the component values, as the passive electronic load now has an additional
degree of freedom. Figure 6.19 shows that this is the case with two resonant peaks
when using a variable inductor in series with a variable capacitor. Using a large enough
inductor means that the two resonant peaks occur in a similar frequency band such that
the inductor enhances the low frequency effect of the capacitor. This additional degree
of freedom provided by the inductor means that an increased range of frequencies can
be obtained.
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
0 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
1 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
10 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
25 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
100 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
500 mH Inductance
4.7 µF
10 µF
22 µF
47 µF
100 µF
220 µF
470 µF
Load
Capacitance
Predicted Absorption Curves, With a Variable Capacitor and Inductor in Series
Figure 6.19 Multiplot of absorption trends with a variable inductive and capacitive load connected in
series
Figure 6.19 can be easily explained using the equivalent circuit in Figure 6.18. As L
EV
is increased, the impedance of C
AEV
decreases according to equation (6.4). If L
EV
is
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 148
increased still further the impedance of C
AEV
approximates to that of a short circuit and
the equivalent can be given by Figure 5.15 which defines the terminals on the
loudspeaker left open. In this case both the motor impedance terms and the variable
capacitor have no effect on the resonant frequency of the system. With a small value of
inductance the secondary resonant peak appears at a higher frequency not of interest in
this application, however if the value of the inductor is increased, the advantages of
using a variable inductor in series with variable capacitor can be seen. This series
combination could be very useful as it enables a large bandwidth of absorption to be
obtained, this can be seen especially clearly with a 10mH inductor in series with a
220µF capacitor. The resonance of the inductor is within very close proximity to the
resonance as a result of the capacitor such that the final curve is a combination of these
two, leading to a large bandwidth of absorption. This results in over 2.5 octaves (from
50335Hz) of absorption coefficients above 0.8.
6.4.5 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Parallel
A variable inductor in parallel with a variable capacitor can also be added as a passive
impedance load to the driver, the equivalent circuit then becomes as Figure 6.20.
Modelling a variable inductor and capacitor in parallel it was hoped it was possible to
increase still further the tunability of the absorber system:
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 149
Figure 6.20 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable inductor
connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
In this case, when L
EV
is decreased the impedance of C
AEV
increases, consequently less
current flows through that branch of the circuit. When L
EV
is zero this branch becomes
tantamount to an open circuit according to equation (6.4) thereby, Z
AE
is governed only
by the original motor impedance terms. This corresponds to the situation when the
loudspeaker terminals are connected together. When L
EV
is increased, the impedance of
C
AEV
becomes negligible and the impedance is controlled by C
EV
such that the
equivalent circuit approximates the simple case of a capacitor connected across the
terminals as given by Figure 6.21.
AF
Z
AT
M
AT
R
AEV
L
AE
R
2 AE
R
2 AE
C
1 AE
C
AE
Z
AT
C
2p
in
AEV
C
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 150
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
0 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
1 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
10 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
25 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
100 mH Inductance
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
500 mH Inductance
4.7 µF
10 µF
22 µF
47 µF
100 µF
220 µF
470 µF
Predicted Absorption Curves, With a Variable Capacitor and an Inductor in Parallel
Load
Capacitance
Figure 6.21 Multiplot showing predicted absorption trends with a variable inductor and capacitor
connected in parallel to the terminals of the loudspeaker
Results show that by using a capacitor in parallel with an inductor enables a lower
resonant frequency than simply using a capacitor on its own. The optimally low
resonant frequency is seen when a 25mH inductor is connected in parallel with a 470µF
capacitor, this demonstrates a resonant frequency of 65Hz, with an absorption
coefficient in excess of 0.85. The maximum resonant frequency obtained using this
technique is 223Hz, this corresponds to a maximum resonant frequency shift of 70%.
Using a capacitor in parallel with an inductor has been seen to provide a very significant
shift in resonant frequency and as such could be very useful in the creation of a versatile
membrane absorber for room acoustic applications.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 151
6.4.6 Summary
Section 6.4 has demonstrated several complex electrical impedance loads that could be
connected to the terminals of the loudspeakerabsorber to increase its adaptability. Four
special cases can hence be outlined with distinct advantages in the absorption of sound.
Firstly, simply adding a capacitor to the terminals has the effect of lowering the
system’s overall resonant frequency. This resonant frequency can then be reduced and
indeed increased further by the addition of an inductor in parallel, increasing the degree
of freedom of the system and allowing for a greater range of resonant frequencies to be
obtained. Thirdly connecting a resistor across the terminals of the loudspeaker alters the
Qfactor of the resonance, a decrease in resistive load increasing the Qfactor. This is
important as it defines how much acoustic energy the absorber will absorb at the chosen
frequency. The final important case is that of an inductor connected in series with a
capacitor, this is an important case as it results in a broad bandwidth of absorption,
something keenly sort after by the room acoustician.
Further scenario’s of electronic load impedances could also be modelled using more
than two reactive and resistive components to create more complex resistive loads thus
optimising the absorber for the required task but of primary concern here is the simple
case of up to two reactive and resistive components shown in the four important
scenario's above.
6.5 Optimising the Passive Electronic Load for a Given Set of Driver Parameters
In order to be able to fine tune the absorber system such that it achieves maximum
absorption at a set resonant frequency or with a specified Qfactor it is important to
ascertain what component values must be used in order to achieve the desired results.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 152
This section outlines methods of determining capacitance and resistance values to be
able to achieve specific resonant frequencies and Qfactor’s based on a single
component load. This is the first step towards an automated system which could
adaptively change the passive electronic load presented to the driver given a certain
input frequency spectrum. A microphone could be used to determine the fundamental
frequency incident to the driver or that is problematic in a room and some intelligent
hardware could change a combination of electronic components connected to the
terminals accordingly, such that the absorption characteristics were optimum for that
room. On a more simplistic level, if this design of membrane absorber were to be
marketed it would be important to know what capacitance, inductance or resistance was
needed to shift the resonant frequency or Qfactor to avoid iterations in design of the
absorber.
6.5.1 Determining the Capacitance Needed for a Certain Resonant Frequency
Finding the capacitance value needed for a given resonant frequency can be done by
using equations determined from the equivalent circuit analysis. Forming an equation
for when the imaginary part of the surface impedance equals zero, namely when the
system resonates, allows a graph to be plotted of resonant frequency versus capacitance
such that the optimum capacitance can be determined for a desired resonant frequency.
For the simple case of an electrical circuit with an inductor, capacitor and resistor (an
LCR circuit) in series or in parallel such as is represented by the open circuit condition
it is a simple matter to determine the resonant frequency of the system by setting the
imaginary part to zero such that:
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 153
AT AT
res
AT res
AT res
C M
C j
M j
1
1
=
− =
ω
ω
ω
(6.5)
As such it is not difficult to determine the capacitance value needed to result in a given
resonant frequency. For the equivalent circuit in Figure 6.10 it is a slightly more
complicated problem. The parallel LCR circuit making up the complex impedance Z
AE
,
in series with the other impedances means that more attention needs to be paid to the
problem.
Using a simplified formulation of the motor impedance valid for low frequencies but
less accurate for higher frequencies, Figure 6.10 can be written in the form of Figure
6.22 so that Z
AE
become the parallel addition of three complex impedances, z
1
, z
2
and z
3
,
the circuit then becomes:
Figure 6.22 Equivalent circuit of absorber system with simplified motor impedance terms and variable
capacitor connected to terminals
Where,
in
p 2
AF
Z
2
z
3
z
AE
Z
AT
M AT
R
AT
C
1
z
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 154
( )
C j
Bl
S L
j
z
D E
ω
ω
1 1
2
2
1
=


.

\

= ,
( )
R
S R
Bl
z
D E
= =
2
2
2
,
( )
L j
S
Bl C
j z
D
E
ω ω =


.

\

=
2
2
3
(6.6)
And
L j LCR R
LR j
L j R
C j Z
AE
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
+ −
=


.

\

+ + =
−
2
1
1 1
(6.7)
Multipling top and bottom by complex conjugate, L j LCR R ω ω − −
2
Gives:
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
2 2 2 2 3 2
2 1 L C L LC R
R L CR L LR j
Z
AE
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
+ + −
+ −
=
(6.8)
So taking just the imaginary part of Z
AE
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
2 2 3 2
2 1
Im
L C L LC R
CR L LR
Z
AE
ω ω ω
ω ω
+ + −
−
=
(6.9)
Therefore the imaginary parts of the entire system can be given as:
( )
( )
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
2 2 3 2 2
2 1
1
Im
L C L LC R
CR L LR
C
C M
Z
AT
AT AT
TOT
ω ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
+ + −
−
+
−
=
(6.10)
The system resonates when the imaginary component is zero such that:
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 155
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
AT res res res res res res AT AT res
res res res
res res
AT res
AT AT res
C LR CR L L C L LC R C M
L C L LC R
CR L LR
C
C M
ω ω ω ω ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
2 2 3 2 2
2 1 1
2 1
1
− = + + − − ∴
+ + −
−
− =
−
(6.11)
Expanding this gives a quadratic in L so that:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 0 1
... 2 2
...
2 2
2 2 2 2 4
2 2 2 2 4 2 2 6 2
= −
+ + − −
+ − − + −
AT AT res
AT res AT AT res
res AT AT AT res AT AT res
C M R
R C C R C R C M L
C R C M CR C R C C M L
ω
ω ω
ω ω ω
(6.12)
Finding the roots of this equation allows L to be determined for a given resonant
frequency, ω
res
. The capacitance value needed can then be determined from equation
(6.6). Plotting how the resonant frequency changes with capacitance yields the
following graph shown in Figure 6.23:
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
3
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
R
e
s
o
n
a
n
t
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
,
H
z
Capacitance, µF
Calculating Capacitance Value Needed for a Given Resonant Frequency
Measured Data
Predicted Data
Figure 6.23 Resonant frequency versus capacitance value to determine the component value needed for a
given resonant frequency
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 156
Comparing the measured and predicted curves it is seen that the trend of behaviour of
the absorber with changing capacitance is accurately predicted by the equivalent circuit
model. The curve shows that the system initially resonates at the condition governed by
the open circuit case with zero capacitance. As the capacitive load increases the
resonant frequency decreases correspondingly. As the capacitive load increases still
further, the impedance decreases and the circuit tends towards the closed circuit
condition and consequently the resonant frequency rises again as the capacitor has less
effect and resonance is controlled by the other motor impedance terms. An optimum
capacitance value for the lowest resonant frequency can be found by computing the
turning point of the above curve.
6.5.2 Determining How the Qfactor Changes With Resistance
Determining the Qfactor achieved by the addition of a specific value of resistance is
not as simple on first sight as determining the capacitance needed for specific resonant
frequencies. In order to find the Qfactor the 3dB down points need to be known either
side of the resonant peak, this not so straight forward to express mathematically
therefore a different method of determining the Qfactor of the resonance was used.
This was to determine the standard deviation of the absorption curve as shown in Figure
6.24.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 157
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
Load Resistance, Ω
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
D
e
v
i
a
t
i
o
n
o
f
A
l
p
h
a
Changes in Standard Deviation of Absorption Coefficient with Different Resistive Loads
Predicted Standard deviations
Measured standard deviations
Figure 6.24 Standard deviation changes in absorption curve for different load resistances on loudspeaker
terminals, a comparison between measurement and prediction
Results show a similar trend in prediction and model of change in standard deviation
with restive loads on the loudspeaker. There is an offset between the measurements and
prediction which, as outlined in section 5.4.1, is a result of limitations in the lumped
parameter model such that it cannot predict resonances above the fundamental
resonance, resulting in the model predicting broader Qfactors. The trend of behaviour
is however accurately predicted, enabling the model to be used to adjudge change in Q
factors. The prediction shows a change in absorption standard deviation of 38% and the
measurement of 34%.
6.5.3 Determining the Optimum Shunt Inductance of a Capacitor
Defining an equation to determine the optimum combination of inductance and
capacitance is quite involved but can be achieved by a simple graph of resonant
frequency versus capacitance with different inductive shunts, done in MATLAB,
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 158
demonstrating the lowest frequency obtainable using an inductor in parallel with a
capacitor.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
50
100
150
200
250
300
Capacitance, µF
R
e
s
o
n
a
n
t
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
,
H
z
Resonant Frequency Versus Capacitance Value for Different Inductive Shunts
0 mH
0.5 mH
1 mH
5 mH
10 mH
25 mH
100 mH
250 mH
500 mH
Figure 6.25 Resonant frequencies of absorber with varying capacitance and inductance in parallel
connected to the loudspeaker terminals
Figure 6.25 demonstrates that an optimally low resonant frequency can be obtained
using a 25mH inductor in parallel with a 470µF capacitor. It also shows that it is
possible to achieve a high frequency limit for the fundamental resonant frequency,
which is below 250 Hz. This is achieved using 5mH inductor in parallel with a 47µF
capacitor.
6.6 Conclusion
This chapter has outlined the principles, measurement and modelling of changing a
passive electronic load to a loudspeaker absorber system. Results demonstrate that the
addition of a variable resistor enables a change in standard deviation of absorption of
34%. This would be suitable for a situation where maximum absorption would not be
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 159
ideal, for example if the problem was not too severe or if a wider bandwidth is more
highly sought after than maximum absorption.
The addition of a single capacitor had the effect of lowering the overall resonant
frequency of the system. A graph of resonant frequency versus capacitance value can be
constructed from equations of surface impedance that allows the determination of the
correct capacitance to achieve a specific resonant frequency. A decrease in resonant
frequency was shown to the detriment of maximum absorption and hence a wider Q
factor, but still absorption coefficients in excess of 0.6 were shown over a wide
bandwidth. The maximum resonant frequency shift was obtained using a 100µF
capacitor; the change in frequency corresponded to a 39% decrease.
Further passive electronic loads were modelled and it was hence shown that a resistor
and capacitor combination lead to a trade off between desired low frequency
performance and Qfactor, thus a combination of resistors and capacitors was not found
to be useful. Combining a shunt inductor with a capacitor however increased the system
to that of two degrees of freedom, as such two resonant peaks could be observed, one as
a result of the inductive load and the other as a result of the capacitive load. Applying a
large enough inductance meant that the two resonant peaks could coincide with each
other such that a lower frequency limit could be obtained. It was shown that resonant
frequency shifts in excess of 65% could be achieved by using this technique.
Graphs were presented of component value versus resonant frequency for single
capacitors and for a parallel combination of inductors and capacitors. Another graph
was shown of the change in Qfactor with varying load resistance. These graphs can be
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 160
used to select component values for a specific loudspeaker to fit with a desired
application/ room and as such can be used to optimise the performance of the absorber
and can be considered as the first steps towards a system that could actively change the
passive electronic load on the terminals.
Using passive electronics to change the resonant characteristics of a loudspeaker
absorber has been shown to very effective, demonstrating a large degree adjustment,
suggesting suitability for room acoustic applications for the absorption of room modes.
Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work 161
7. FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND
FURTHER WORK
7.1 Final conclusions
Two methods of improving membrane absorbers have been presented, through both
measurement and prediction. The first method utilised the surround of a loudspeaker as
the mounting for a resonating plate in the absorber. The resonating mass was shown to
move pistonically such that its moving mass was increased, thus lowering its resonant
frequency. Results and predictions both showed that the fundamental resonant
frequency of the absorber could be dramatically lowered using this technique with shifts
of 42% measured for a hardboard plate. It was shown that a lower frequency absorber
system could be formed using the same materials and enclosure but simply changing the
mounting conditions of the plate. Results and predictions demonstrated that it is
Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work 162
possible to create an absorber with a pistonically mounted plate that resonates at lower
frequency than a clamped mounted plate even when the depth of the backing was a third
of that used in the clamped case. This demonstrated a useful application of this
mounting technique, allowing membrane absorbers to be built with much smaller
dimensions whilst still exhibiting the same low frequency behaviour. Another
advantage of mounting a plate or membrane using loudspeaker surround is that enables
more accurate prediction of the system’s resonant frequency before the absorber is built,
this means that it can be designed for a specific application and the user can be
confident that it will be tuned to the right frequency when it is built. It was shown that
measurements on the pistonically mounted plate yielded results that matched favourably
to predictions using both the standard membrane absorber design equations and a
transfer matrix model. Conversely the clamped condition produced sizable errors in the
resonant frequencies predicted when compared with measurements as expected.
The second method of improving membrane absorbers used a complete loudspeaker
system in reverse such that sound incident to the diaphragm forced it into oscillation in
sympathy to the amplitude and frequency of the incident wave; the energy of such
oscillation was then absorber by porous damping in the loudspeaker cabinet. Results
showed that high absorption coefficients could be obtained at the system’s fundamental
resonance. It was further showed that the addition of a passive electronic load across the
loudspeaker terminals enabled the resonant characteristics of the absorber to be
changed. Adding a reactive component had the effect of altering the resonant frequency
where as the addition of resistive components changed the magnitude of absorption and
the Qfactor of the system’s resonance. An equivalent circuit model was demonstrated
that allowed many design permutations to be modelled. This model enabled the
Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work 163
optimisation of an absorber given a specific driver. It was shown both experimentally
and through predictions that it is possible to achieve a variable frequency membrane
absorber with resonant frequency shifts of up to 39% using a single capacitor.
Predictions also showed that changes between maximum and minimum resonant
frequencies of over 65% were possible with the addition of capacitor and inductor in
parallel. Connecting a variable capacitor in series with a variable inductor was shown to
produce an absorber with an effective absorption bandwidth of 2.5 octaves; a useful
case for room acoustic applications. The addition of a resistor enabled changes in Q
factor of 38%. Thus a highly variable absorber system was presented with the ability to
tune the absorber for a specific application. Using a loudspeaker as an absorber
consequently means it could transferred to a different room and be tuned to be
maximally efficient, without having to change its physical construction.
7.2 Further work
Further areas of research subsequent to this thesis would be to turn the aforementioned
improved membrane absorbers into marketable products. Mounting a plate/membrane
onto a loudspeaker surround has been shown to produce good results and a low
frequency shift in resonant frequency, a problem with this is that loudspeakers are often
circular; this is an impractical shape if attempting to treat an entire room, as circles to do
not tessellate. A further disadvantage to using a loudspeaker surround itself is that
manufacturing costs would be high relative to currently available designs. Consequently
it would be profitable to examine methods of manufacturing membrane absorbers that
could utilise the principles of pistonic oscillation of the loudspeaker surround system
without using surrounds themselves. Rectangular absorbers could be made which
exhibit the advantages of pistonic movement but also achieve economy of manufacture
Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work 164
and area. One method that could be adopted would is to manufacture membrane out of a
molded rubber compound such that the ‘surround’ mounting is molded from the same
piece of rubber as the membrane its self. This would greatly reduce manufacturing costs
and would allow pistonic oscillation of the membrane. It would also mean that
absorbers could be made to any shape or size relatively easily.
Using a loudspeaker as a membrane absorber could be very useful and opens up several
avenues of further research. Firstly a product could be marketed as an addon to a
loudspeaker to enable a user to turn any loudspeaker into an optimised passive absorber.
The box of electronics could contain a DSP chip allowing the determination of the small
signal parameters of the loudspeaker which it could subsequently be used to perform
calculations given the cabinet size to determine the range of available resonant
frequencies available with the specific loudspeaker. With passive electronics within the
box the user would simply have to turn a knob to tune it to the right frequency (a
variable reactive load) and turn a knob to change the Qfactor. Extensions to this could
be to provide a microphone and a deterministic noise source generator allowing the
measurement of a room’s frequency response at the location of the absorber. A DSP
chip could again be used to determine the most problematic frequency range and could
adjust the electronic load accordingly to deal with the problem most efficiently. The
additional box could allow any obsolete loudspeaker to be used as a controlled absorber
within a room. In a typical studio setup there is often a selection of different
loudspeakers used at different times and for different projects, the additional box would
allow any of them to be turned into controlled absorbers when not being used.
Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work 165
Further extensions to this work could also be to design a ‘semi active’ absorber system
which could utilise a microphone to continually sample the frequency response just in
front of the absorber and change the passive electronic load in real time such that the
most efficient absorption could always be achieved.
Further work could also include the investigation of mounting Helmholtz absorbers on a
loudspeaker surround to extend the low frequency performance still further.
References 166
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rd
Convention
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th
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References 167
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rd
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reverberation room”.
[20] ISO 105341:2001 “Acoustics — Determination of sound absorption coefficient
and impedance in impedance tubes — Part 1: Standing Wave Method”.
[21] ISO 105342:2001 “Acoustics — Determination of sound absorption coefficient
and impedance in impedance tubes — Part 2: Transferfunction method”.
[22] D. D. Rife and J. Vanderkooy, “Transferfunction measurement with maximum
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[28] K. Sato and M. Koyasu, “On the new reverberation chamber with nonparallel
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[29] K. Stahl, “Synthesis of loudspeaker mechanical properties by electrical means:
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Technology Conference, pp. 254258, (1985).
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nd
edn, Butterworth
Heinemann Ltd, pp.45, (1994).
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th
AIA/CEAS
Aeroacoustics Conference and Exhibit, (2003).
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25, pp.11301136, (1953).
[41] G. C. Nicholson, “The active control of acoustic absorption coefficient,
reflection and transmission”, Proc. IoA (UK), 15(3), pp.403409 (1993).
References 171
[42] R. Kashani and J. Wischmeyer, “Electronic Bass Trap”, Proc. 117
th
Convention
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[43] J. D. Kemp and R. L Clark, “Noise reduction in a launch vehicle fairing using
actively tuned loudspeakers”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 113(4) pt 1 (2003).
Appendix A 172
APPENDIX A
Calibration chart for flow resistivity measurement apparatus:
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Volumetric Airflow Rate, m
3
s

1
T
u
b
e
/
M
i
c
r
o
m
a
n
o
m
e
t
e
r
r
e
a
d
i
n
g
,
c
m
Calibration Chart for Flow Resistivity Rig
The above line can be represented by the equation
2 7 5 5
10 2725 . 2 10 2803 . 2 10 9240 . 6 y y q
v
− − −
× + × + × =
Where y, is the manometer reading in cm.
Appendix B 173
APPENDIX B
Verifying results from large tube with small tube results and prediction.
close all
clear all
[I1,Fs]=LOADIMP('bigA.wmb'); % Loading WINMLS mic1 file into matlab
[I2,Fs]=LOADIMP('bigB.wmb');
[I3,Fs]=LOADIMP('bigC.wmb');
[I4,Fs]=LOADIMP('bigD.wmb');
%_PROCESSING RESULTS FROM LARGE IMPEDANCE TUBE_%
t = [(1:1:length(I1))/Fs]; % Generate time series
N = length(I1); % Length of file in samples
w = hanning(N); % Generate hanning window
w(1:round(N/2)) = 1; % assign first half of window to unity
h1 = I1.*w; % Windowed impulse responses
h2 = I2.*w;
h3 = I3.*w;
h4 = I4.*w;
z1 = 0.184; % Position of mic 1 from the sample
z2 = 0.368; % Position of mic 2 from the sample
z3 = 0.9143; % Position of mic 3 from the sample
z4 = 1.2255; % Position of mic 4 from the sample
y = [z1 z2 z3 z4]; % Array of mic positions
rho = 1.21; % Density of air
d = 0.3458; % Tube diameter
N1 = length(I1); % Length, in samples, of the input signal
Nft = 2^16; % Number of frequency points
f = (Fs*(0:((Nft1)/2))/(Nft1))'; % Defining frequency axis
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air
k = (2*pi*f)/c; % Wavenumber in air
flength = length(f);
df = max(f)/flength;
spacingA = abs(y(2)y(1));
spacingB = abs(y(3)y(2));
spacingC = abs(y(4)y(1));
fu1A = c/(2*d); % Tube high frequency limit as result of tube diameter
fu2A = (0.45*c)/spacingA; % Frequency limit as a result of mic spacing
fuA = min(fu1A,fu2A); % Pick the lowest upeer frequency limit
flA = 0.05*c/spacingA; % Low frequency limit as a result of mic spacing
fu1B = c/(2*d);
fu2B = (0.45*c)/spacingB;
fuB = min(fu1B,fu2B);
flB = 0.05*c/spacingB;
fu1C = c/(2*d);
fu2C = (0.45*c)/spacingC;
fuC = min(fu1C,fu2C);
Appendix B 174
flC = 0.05*c/spacingC;
h1_fft = fft(h1,Nft); % Fourier transform of impulse response
h1freq = h1_fft(1:((Nft)/2)); % Get rid of negative frequencies
h2_fft = fft(h2,(Nft));
h2freq = h2_fft(1:((Nft)/2));
h3_fft = fft(h3,(Nft));
h3freq = h3_fft(1:((Nft)/2));
h4_fft = fft(h4,(Nft));
h4freq = h4_fft(1:((Nft)/2));
H12 = h1freq./h2freq; % Transfer functions
H13 = h2freq./h3freq;
H14 = h1freq./h4freq;
RA = (H12exp(j*k*spacingA)).*exp(2*j*k*y(2))./(exp(j*k*spacingA)H12); % Reflection factor
zA = (rho*c)*((RA + 1)./(1  RA)); % Surface impedance
alphaA = (1abs(RA).^2); % Absorption coefficient
RB = (H13exp(j*k*spacingB)).*exp(2*j*k*y(2))./(exp(j*k*spacingB)H13);
zB = (RB + 1)./(1  RB);
alphaB = (1abs(RB).^2);
RC = (H14exp(j*k*spacingC)).*exp(2*j*k*y(2))./(exp(j*k*spacingC)H14);
zC = (RC + 1)./(1  RC);
alphaC = (1abs(RC).^2);
fuAs = fuA/df; % Maximum and minimum frequency limits in samples for eases of plotting
flAs = flA/df;
fuBs = fuB/df;
flBs = flB/df;
fuCs = fuC/df;
flCs = flC/df;
%_PROCESSING RESULTS FROM SMALL IMPEDANCE TUBE_%
[h1D,FsD]=LOADIMP('smallA.wmb');
[h2D,FsD]=LOADIMP('smallB.wmb');
z1D = 0.1; % Mic possitions of small tube
z2D = 0.15;
yD = [z1D z2D]; % Mic distances from sample
spacingD = yD(2)yD(1); % Microphone spacing
N1D = length(h1D); % Length in samples of the input signal
t = [(1:1:length(h1D))/FsD];
wD = hanning(N1D); % Generate hanning window
wD(1:round(N1D/2)) = ones(round(N1D/2),1); % Assign first half of window to unity
imp1D = h1D.*wD; %windowed impulse resopnse
imp2D = h2D.*wD;
fD = (FsD*(0:((N1D1)/2))/(N1D1))'; % Frequency series
k = 2*pi*fD/c;
flengthD = length(fD);
dfD = max(fD)/flengthD; % Frequency interval in samples
fu1D = 5.58*c/0.05;
fu2D = 0.45*c/spacingD;
fuD = min(min(fu1D,fu2D),fD(flengthD));
Appendix B 175
flD = 0.05*c/spacingD;
fuDs = fuD/dfD;
flDs = flD/dfD;
h1_fftD = fft(imp1D,N1D); % FFT of impulse
h1freqD = h1_fftD(1:((N1D)/2));
h2_fftD = fft(imp2D,(N1D));
h2freqD = h2_fftD(1:((N1D)/2));
H12D = h1freqD./h2freqD; % Transfer function
RD = (H12Dexp(j*k*spacingD)).*exp(2*j*k*y(2))./(exp(j*k*spacingD)H12D);
zD = (rho*c)*((RD + 1)./(1  RD));
alphaD = (1abs(RD).^2);
figure(1)
plot(f(flAs:fuAs),alphaA(flAs:fuAs),'r',...
f(flBs:fuBs), alphaB(flBs:fuBs),'y',...
f(flCs:fuCs),alphaC(flCs:fuCs),'g',...
fD(flDs:fuDs),alphaD(flDs:fuDs),'b','LineWidth',2)
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')
ylabel('Absorption Coefficient')
title('Mineral Wool as Measured in Large and Small Impedance Tubes','FontSize',12)
ylim([0 1])
grid on
hold on
%_DELANY AND BAZLEY PREDICTION_%
Z0 = c*rho; %characteristic impedance of air
sigma = 25000; % Flow resisivity of mineral wool
l = 0.055; % Thickness of sample
f = fD
X = rho*f/sigma; % Dimensionless quantity for Delany and Bazley
zc = rho*c*(1+0.0571*(X.^0.754)j*0.087*(X.^0.732)); % Characteristic impedance of mine wool
k = (2*pi/c).*f.*(1+0.0978*(X.^0.700)j*0.189*(X.^0.595)); % Complex wavenumber in min wool
z = j*zc.*cot(k*l); % Surface impedance of mineral wool
R = (zZ0)./(z+Z0); % Reflection factor of mineral wool
alpha = 1abs(R).^2; % Absorption coefficient of mineral wool
figure(1)
plot(f,alpha,'k:','LineWidth',2);
xlim([15 fuD])
legend('Large Tube Mic positions A and B',...
'Large Tube Mic positions B and C',...
'Large Tube Mic positions A and D',...
'Small Tube Results',...
'Prediction',4)
Appendix C 176
APPENDIX C
Comparing standard transfer function with least squares method
close all;
clear all;
rho = 1.21; % Density of air (kg/m3)
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s)
a = 0.3458/2; % Tube radius (m)
S = pi*a^2; % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2)
dL = 0; % Distance between tube end and sample
L = 2 + dL; % Tube length (m)
z1 = 0.184 + dL; % Distance from sample to micA
z2 = 0.368 + dL; % Distance from sample to micB
z3 = 0.9143 + dL; % Distance from sample to micC
z4 = 1.2255 + dL; % Distance from sample to micD
x = [z1;z2;z3;z4];
name{1} = 'Mineral Wool'; % File name
for i=1:length(name) % Loop if processing more than one file
[I1,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'A.wmb')); % Loading WINMLS mic1 file into matlab
[I2,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'B.wmb'));
[I3,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'C.wmb'));
[I4,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'D.wmb'));
%_NORMAL TRANSFER FUNCTION TECHNIQUE_%
N1 = length(I1); % Length of impulse in samples
t = [(1:1:length(I1))/Fs]; % Time series
w = hanning(N1) % Hanning window
w(1:N1/2) = 1; % Set first half of window to unity
h1 = I1.*w; % Window impulses
h2 = I2.*w;
h3 = I3.*w;
h4 = I4.*w;
za = 0.19; % Position of mic 1 from the sample
zb = 0.375; % Position of mic 2 from the sample
zc = 0.9143; % Position of mic 3 from the sample
zd = 1.2255; % Position of mic 4 from the sample
y = [za zb zc zd]; % Array of mic possitions
spacingA = abs(y(1)y(2)); % Combinations of mic spacings
spacingB = abs(y(1)y(3));
spacingC = abs(y(1)y(4));
N1 = length(h1); % Length, in samples, of the input signal
Nft = 2^16; % Number of frequency points
f = (Fs*(0:((Nft1)/2))/(Nft1))'; % Defining frequency axis
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air
k = (2*pi*f)/c; % Wavenumber
flength = length(f);
df = max(f)/flength; % Frequency interval in samples
fu1A = c/(2*d); % Frequency limits of tube
Appendix C 177
fu2A = (0.45*c)/spacingA;
fuA = min(fu1A,fu2A);
flA = 0.05*c/spacingA;
limA = [flA fuA]; % Upper and Lower frequency graph limits
fu1B = c/(2*d);
fu2B = (0.45*c)/spacingB;
fuB = min(fu1B,fu2B);
flB = 0.05*c/spacingB;
limB = [flB fuB];
fu1C = c/(2*d);
fu2C = (0.45*c)/spacingC;
fuC = min(fu1C,fu2C);
flC = 0.05*c/spacingC;
limC = [flC fuC];
h1_fft = fft(h1,Nft); % Fourier transform of impulse response
h1freq = h1_fft(1:((Nft)/2)); % Get rid of negative frequencies
h2_fft = fft(h2,(Nft));
h2freq = h2_fft(1:((Nft)/2));
h3_fft = fft(h3,(Nft));
h3freq = h3_fft(1:((Nft)/2));
h4_fft = fft(h4,(Nft));
h4freq = h4_fft(1:((Nft)/2));
H12 = h2freq./h1freq; % Transfer function
H13 = h3freq./h1freq;
H14 = h4freq./h1freq;
RA = (H12.*(exp(j*k*y(1)))exp(j*k*y(2)))./((exp(j*k*y(2)))(H12.*exp(j*k*y(1)))); % Reflection
factor
RB = (H13.*(exp(j*k*y(1)))exp(j*k*y(3)))./((exp(j*k*y(3)))(H13.*exp(j*k*y(1))));
RC = (H14.*(exp(j*k*y(1)))exp(j*k*y(4)))./((exp(j*k*y(4)))(H14.*exp(j*k*y(1))));
zA = (rho*c)*((RA + 1)./(1  RA)); % Surface impedance
alphaA = (1abs(RA).^2); % Absorption coefficient
zB = (rho*c)*((RB + 1)./(1  RB));
alphaB = (1abs(RB).^2);
zC = (rho*c)*((RC + 1)./(1  RC));
alphaC = (1abs(RC).^2);
fuAs = fuA/df; % Frequency limits in samples
flAs = flA/df;
fuBs = fuB/df;
flBs = flB/df;
fuCs = fuC/df;
flCs = flC/df;
figure(1)
plot(f(flAs:fuAs),alphaA(flAs:fuAs),'r','LineWidth',1.5)
hold on
plot(f(flBs:fuBs),alphaB(flBs:fuBs),'k','LineWidth',1.5)
plot(f(flCs:fuCs),alphaC(flCs:fuCs),'y','LineWidth',1.5)
Appendix C 178
%_OPTIMISED METHOD OF PROCESSING RESULTS_%
maxspace = x(4)x(1); % Maximum microphone spacing
minspace = x(2)x(1); % Minimum microphone spacing
fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)); % Minimum frequency limit (Hz)
fmax1 = 0.45*c/(minspace); % Maximum limit due to mic spacing
fmax2 = c/(2*a); % Maximum limit due to tube diameter
fmax = min(fmax1,fmax2); % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits
H12 = h2freq./h1freq; % Transfer function between mics B/A
H13 = h3freq./h1freq; % Mics C/A
H14 = h4freq./h1freq; % Mics D/A
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)); % Green's function micA > source1
g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1)); % Green's function micA > source2
g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)); % Green's function micB > source1
g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)); % Green's function micB > source2
g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)); % Green's function micC > source1
g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)); % Green's function micC > source2
g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4)); % Green's function micD > source1
g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)); % Green's function micD > source2
Roptimised1 = ((H12.*g11g21).*(conj(H12.*g12g22))+...
(H13.*g11g31).*(conj(H13.*g12g32))+...
(H14.*g11g41).*(conj(H14.*g12g42)))./...
((abs(H12.*g12g22)).^2+(abs(H13.*g12g32)).^2+...
(abs(H14.*g12g42)).^2);
alpha1 = 1abs(Roptimised1).^2; % Optimised absorption coefficient
Z1 = rho*c.*((1+Roptimised1)./(1Roptimised1)); % impedance
figure(1)
plot(f(1:Nft/2),alpha1,'b','LineWidth',2),xlim([17 450])
legend('Standard Method [mics AB]','Standard Method [mics AC]','Standard Method [mics A
D]','Optimised Mehtod')
title('Comparing Standard and Optimised Method','FontSize',12)
xlabel('Frequency, Hz'), ylabel('Absorption Coefficient')
hold on
grid on
end
Appendix D 179
APPENDIX D
Comparing the original least squares technique with the extended version.
close all;
clear all;
rho = 1.21; % Density of air (kg/m3)
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s)
a = 0.3458/2; % Tube radius (m)
S = pi*a^2; % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2)
dL = 0; % Distance between tube end and sample
L = 2 + dL; % Tube length (m)
z1 = 0.184 + dL; % Distance from sample to micA
z2 = 0.368 + dL; % Distance from sample to micB
z3 = 0.9143 + dL; % Distance from sample to micC
z4 = 1.2255 + dL; % Distance from sample to micD
x = [z1;z2;z3;z4];
name{1} = 'Mineral Wool';
for i=1:length(name)
[I1,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'A.wmb')); % Loading WINMLS mic1 file into matlab
[I2,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'B.wmb'));
[I3,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'C.wmb'));
[I4,Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)),'D.wmb'));
N1 = length(I1);
han = hanning(N1)
han(1:N1/2) = 1;
h1 = I1.*han;
h2 = I2.*han;
h3 = I3.*han;
h4 = I4.*han;
za = 0.19; % Position of mic 1 from the sample
zb = 0.375; % Position of mic 2 from the sample
zc = 0.9143; % Position of mic 3 from the sample
zd = 1.2255; % Position of mic 4 from the sample
y = [za zb zc zd]; % Array of mic positions
spacingA = abs(y(1)y(2));
spacingB = abs(y(1)y(3));
spacingC = abs(y(1)y(4));
spacingD = abs(y(2)y(3));
spacingE = abs(y(2)y(4));
spacingF = abs(y(3)y(4));
rho=1.21;
d = 0.3458; %Tube diameter
N1 = length(h1); % Length, in samples, of the input signal
Nft = 2^16; % Number of frequency points
f = (Fs*(0:((Nft1)/2))/(Nft1))'; % Defining frequency axis
k = (2*pi*f)/c;
flength = length(f);
Appendix D 180
df = max(f)/flength;
fname1 = strcat(name(i),'A.wmb');
fname2 = strcat(name(i),'B.wmb');
fname3 = strcat(name(i),'C.wmb');
fname4 = strcat(name(i),'D.wmb');
maxspace = x(4)x(1); % Maximum microphone spacing
minspace = x(2)x(1); % Minimum microphone spacing
fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)); % Minimum frequency limit (Hz)
fmax1= 0.45*c/(minspace); % Maximum limit due to mic spacing
fmax2= c/(2*a); % Maximum limit due to tube diameter
fmax = min(fmax1,fmax2); % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits
[yA, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname1)); % Load WinMLS impulse response for micA
[yB, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname2)); % MicB
[yC, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname3)); % MicC
[yD, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname4)); % MicD
N = length(yA); % Number of sample points
w = hanning(N); % Generate hanning window
w(1:N/2) = ones(N/2,1); % Assign first half of window to unity
yA = (yA(1:N)); % Pick the first N points of yA
yB = (yB(1:N)); % yB
yC = (yC(1:N)); % yC
yD = (yD(1:N)); % yD
ywA = yA.*w; % Apply hanning window to micA impulse reponse
ywB = yB.*w; % MicB
ywC = yC.*w; % MicC
ywD = yD.*w; % MicD
t = [(1:1:length(ywA))/Fs]; % Generate time series (s)
f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'; % Generate frequency series (Hz)
k=(2*pi*f(1:N/2))/c; % Wave number array
YA = fft(ywA); % Fourier Transform on mic A impulse responses
YB = fft(ywB); % Mic B
YC = fft(ywC); % Mic C
YD = fft(ywD); % Mic D
Y1 = (YA(1:N/2)); % Pick the first N/2 points of Y1
Y2 = (YB(1:N/2)); % Y2
Y3 = (YC(1:N/2)); % Y3
Y4 = (YD(1:N/2)); % Y4
H12 = Y2./Y1; % Transfer function between mics B/A
H13 = Y3./Y1; % Mics C/A
H14 = Y4./Y1; % Mics D/A
H23 = Y3./Y2; % Mics C/B
H24 = Y4./Y2; % Mics D/B
H34 = Y4./Y3; % Mics D/C
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)); % Green's function micA > source1
g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1)); % Green's function micA > source2
g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)); % Green's function micB > source1
g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)); % Green's function micB > source2
g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)); % Green's function micC > source1
g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)); % Green's function micC > source2
Appendix D 181
g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4)); % Green's function micD > source1
g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)); % Green's function micD > source2
Roptimised1 = ((H12.*g11g21).*(conj(H12.*g12g22))+... % Original optimised method
(H13.*g11g31).*(conj(H13.*g12g32))+...
(H14.*g11g41).*(conj(H14.*g12g42)))./...
((abs(H12.*g12g22)).^2+(abs(H13.*g12g32)).^2+...
(abs(H14.*g12g42)).^2);
Roptimised2 = ((H12.*g11g21).*(conj(H12.*g12g22))+... % Extended optimised method
(H13.*g11g31).*(conj(H13.*g12g32))+...
(H14.*g11g41).*(conj(H14.*g12g42))+...
(H23.*g21g31).*(conj(H23.*g22g32))+...
(H24.*g21g41).*(conj(H24.*g22g42))+...
(H34.*g31g41).*(conj(H34.*g32g42)))./...
((abs(H12.*g12g22)).^2+(abs(H13.*g12g32)).^2+...
(abs(H14.*g12g42)).^2+(abs(H23.*g22g32)).^2+...
(abs(H24.*g22g42)).^2+(abs(H34.*g32g42)).^2);
alpha1 = 1abs(Roptimised1).^2; % Absorption coefficient original
alpha2 = 1abs(Roptimised2).^2; % Absorption coefficient extended
Z1 = rho*c.*((1+Roptimised1)./(1Roptimised1)); % Surface impedance original
Z2 = rho*c.*((1+Roptimised2)./(1Roptimised2)); % Surface impedance extended
figure(1)
set(gcf,'Name','Absorption Coefficient')
plot(f(1:N/2),alpha1,'b',f(1:N/2),alpha2,'r','LineWidth',2),xlim([17 450])
legend('Original Optimisation Method','Extended Optimisation Method')
grid on
title('Comparing Standard and Extended Optimised Methods','FontSize',12)
xlabel('Frequency, Hz'), ylabel('Absorption Coefficient')
hold on
end
Appendix E 182
APPENDIX E
MATLAB script for processing results from accelerometer data in section 4.3
%____ Processing Accelerometer Measurements ____%
close all;
clear all;
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air
fmax = 200; % max frequency
fmin = 30; % min frequency
str(1,1:2) = 'r'; % String to define order of colours for plot
str(2,1:2) = 'b';
s{1} = 'acc surround'; % Input file names
s{2} = 'acc no surround';
for i = 1:length(s)
files = s(i); % Pick successive files to process
fname = strcat(files,'.wmb'); % Add on suffix to complete file name
[yA, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname)); % Load winMLS files
N = length(yA); % Number of sample points
w = hanning(N); % Generate Hanning window
w(1:N/2) = 1; % Assign first half of window to unity
yA = (yA(1:N)); % Pick the first N points
ywA = yA.*w; % Apply Hanning window to mic A impulse response
t = [(1:1:length(ywA))/Fs]; % Generate time series (s)
f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'; % Generate frequency series (Hz)
k=(2*pi*f(1:N/2))/c; % Wave number array
YA = fft(ywA); % Fourier Transform on impulse responses
YA = 20*log(abs(YA)); % Log of FFT
plot(f,YA,str(i,:),'LineWidth',2)
hold on
grid on
legend('With Surround','Without Surround',4)
xlabel('Frequency, Hz')
ylabel('Level, dB')
title('Acceleration Level versus Frequency For Different Mounting Conditions','FontSize',13)
xlim([fmin fmax])
end
Appendix F 183
APPENDIX F
A: Surround mounted membrane on Large B: Clamped membrane on large sample holder
sample holder
C: Impedance tube mounting rings
The sample holder, with the sample in place between the mounting rings, was jacked
into place to provide a termination at the impedance tube walls approximating a
clamped condition.
Appendix G 184
APPENDIX G
Analogue circuit analysis of absorber with and without surround.
close all;
clear all;
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air
rho = 1.21; % Density of air
Z0 = c*rho; % Characteristic impedance of air
f = 1:1:400; % Frequency spectrum, Hz
w = 2*pi*f; % Angular frequency
k = w/c; % Wavenumber in air
V = 0.035; % Volume of backing
a = 0.135; % Radius of plate with surround plus 1/3 of surround
SD = pi*(a^2); % Area of plate and surround
sigma = 10200; % Flow resistivity of absorbent
X = rho*f/sigma;
Z2 = rho*c*(1+0.0571*(X.^0.754)j*0.087*(X.^0.732));
k2 = (2*pi/c).*f.*(1+0.0978*(X.^0.700)j*0.189*(X.^0.595));
d2 = 0.15;
zs2 = j*rho*c.*cot(k2*d2); % Delany and Bazley prediction for porous absorbent in cabinet
%_ With Surround _%
MSUR = 0.03402; % Mass of moving surround
MMEM = 0.1077; % Mass of moving hardboard
MMS = MSUR+MMEM; % Combined mass of surround and plate (hardboard),kg
RAF1 = (rho*c.*(k.^2))./(2*pi); % Radiation resistance
MAF1 = j*w.*((8*rho)/(3*(pi^2)*a)); % Radiation mass
BL = 15;
RES = 360.575;
RMS = (BL^2)/RES;
RAD = RMS/(SD^2); % Approximate resistive losses in diaphragm based on L/S data
RAB = zs2; % Resistive losses in cabinet
CMS = 205.5E6; % Compliance of surround/plate in mechanical units
CAD = CMS*(SD^2); % Diaphragm compliance in acoustic units
CAB = V/(rho*(c^2)); % Compliance of cabinet in acoustic units
CAT = (1./(j.*w.*((CAD*CAB)/(CAD+CAB)))); % Total compliance in acoustic units
RAT = RAD+RAB+RAF1; % Total resistive damping in acoustical units
MAD = (j.*w.*((MMS/(SD^2)))) + MAF1; % Total mass impedance acoustic units
ZAF = Z0/SD;
Z = SD*(RAT + MAD + CAT + ZAF); % Total surface impedance of system
R = (ZZ0)./(Z+Z0); % Complex reflection factor of system
alpha = 1R.*conj(R); % Absorption coefficient
figure(1)
plot(f,alpha,'b','LineWidth',2)
hold on
%_ Without Surround _%
a = 0.14;
SD = pi*(a^2);
Appendix G 185
MMEM2 = 0.173;
MMS = MMEM2/5; % Combined mass of surround and plate (hardboard),kg
RES = 360.575;
RMS = (BL^2)/RES;
RAD = RMS/(SD^2); % Resistive losses in diaphragm
RAB = zs2; % Resistive losses in cabinet
E = 0.1e6; % Youngs Modulus
mu = 0.7; % Poisson Ratio
h = 3.2e3; % Thickness of plate
CMS = 180*(1(mu^2))*(a^2)/(E*(h^3)); % Compliance of surround/plate in mechanical units
CAD = CMS*(SD^2); % Diaphragm compliance in acoustic units
CAB = V/(rho*(c^2)); % Comliance of cabinet in acoustic units
CAT = 1./(j.*w.*((CAD*CAB)/(CAD+CAB))); % Total compliance in acoustic units
RAT = RAD+RAB+RAF1; % Total resistive damping in acoustical units
MAD = (j.*w.*(MMS/(SD^2)))+MAF1; % Total mass impedance acoustic units
ZAF = Z0/SD;
Z = SD*(RAT + MAD + CAT + ZAF); % Total surface impedance of system
R = (ZZ0)./(Z+Z0); % Complex reflection factor of system
alpha = 1R.*conj(R); % Absorption coefficient
figure(1)
plot(f,alpha,'r','LineWidth',2)
title('Equivalent Circuit Model of Membrane Absorber With and Without Surround
Mounting','FontSize',13)
legend('With Surround','Without Surround')
xlabel('Frequency, Hz'),ylabel('Absorption Coefficient')
ylim([0 1.1])
grid on
Appendix H 186
APPENDIX H
MATLAB script for comparing impedance tube results with transfer matrix models for
hardboard and vinyl rubber membranes.
close all;
clear all;
rho = 1.21; % Density of air (kg/m3)
c = 343; % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s)
Z0 = rho*c; % Characteristic impedance of air
a = 0.3458; % Tube radius (m)
S = pi*a^2; % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2)
dL = 0; % Distance between tube end and sample
L = 2 + dL; % Tube length (m)
z1 = 0.184 + dL; % Distance from sample to micA
z2 = 0.368 + dL; % Distance from sample to micB
z3 = 0.9143 + dL; % Distance from sample to micC
z4 = 1.2255 + dL; % Distance from sample to micD
x = [z1;z2;z3;z4];
name{1} = 'With Surround Min Wool'; % File names
name{2} = 'No Surround Min Wool';
name{3} = 'With Surround Hardboard';
name{4} = 'No Surround Hardboard';
str(1,1:2) = 'r'; % String of colours for plotting
str(2,1:2) = 'b';
str(3,1:2) = 'r';
str(4,1:2) = 'b';
for i = 1:length(name)
fname1 = strcat(name(i),'A.wmb');
fname2 = strcat(name(i),'B.wmb');
fname3 = strcat(name(i),'C.wmb');
fname4 = strcat(name(i),'D.wmb');
maxspace = x(4)x(1); % Maximum microphone spacing
minspace = x(2)x(1); % Minimum microphone spacing
fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)); % Minimum frequency limit (Hz)
fmax1= 0.45*c/(minspace); % Maximum limit due to mic spacing
fmax2= c/(2*a); % Maximum limit due to tube diameter
fmax = min(fmax1,fmax2); % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits
[yA, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname1)); % Load WinMLS impulse response for micA
[yB, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname2)); % MicB
[yC, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname3)); % MicC
[yD, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname4)); % MicD
N = length(yA); % Number of sample points
w = hanning(N); % Generate Hanning window
w(1:N/2) = ones(N/2,1); % Assign first half of window to unity
yA = (yA(1:N)); % Pick the first N points of yA
yB = (yB(1:N)); % yB
yC = (yC(1:N)); % yC
yD = (yD(1:N)); % yD
Appendix H 187
ywA = yA.*w; % Apply Hanning window to micA impulse response
ywB = yB.*w; % MicB
ywC = yC.*w; % MicC
ywD = yD.*w; % MicD
f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'; % Generate frequency series (Hz)
k = (2*pi*f(1:N/2))/c; % Wave number array
YA = fft(ywA); % Fourier Transform on mic A impulse responses
YB = fft(ywB); % Mic B
YC = fft(ywC); % Mic C
YD = fft(ywD); % Mic D
Y1 = (YA(1:N/2)); % Pick the first N/2 points of YA
Y2 = (YB(1:N/2)); % YB
Y3 = (YC(1:N/2)); % YC
Y4 = (YD(1:N/2)); % YD
H12 = Y2./Y1; % Transfer function between mics B/A
H13 = Y3./Y1; % Mics C/A
H14 = Y4./Y1; % Mics D/A
H23 = Y3./Y2; % Mics C/B
H24 = Y4./Y2; % Mics D/B
H34 = Y4./Y3; % Mics D/C
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)); % Green's function micA > source1
g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1)); % Green's function micA > source2
g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)); % Green's function micB > source1
g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)); % Green's function micB > source2
g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)); % Green's function micC > source1
g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)); % Green's function micC > source2
g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4)); % Green's function micD > source1
g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)); % Green's function micD > source2
Roptimised = ((H12.*g11g21).*(conj(H12.*g12g22))+...% Optimised reflection factor from impedance
tube measurments
(H13.*g11g31).*(conj(H13.*g12g32))+...
(H14.*g11g41).*(conj(H14.*g12g42))+...
(H23.*g21g31).*(conj(H23.*g22g32))+...
(H24.*g21g41).*(conj(H24.*g22g42))+...
(H34.*g31g41).*(conj(H34.*g32g42)))./...
((abs(H12.*g12g22)).^2+(abs(H13.*g12g32)).^2+...
(abs(H14.*g12g42)).^2+(abs(H23.*g22g32)).^2+...
(abs(H24.*g22g42)).^2+(abs(H34.*g32g42)).^2);
alpha = 1abs(Roptimised).^2; % Absorption coefficient from impedance tube measurements
Z = Z0.*((1+Roptimised)./(1Roptimised)); % Surface impedance from impedance tube measurements
figure(1)
if i<=2
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(f(1:N/2),alpha,str(i,:),'LineWidth',2)
hold on
else
figure(1)
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(f(1:N/2),alpha,str(i,:),'LineWidth',2)
hold on
end
end
Appendix H 188
%_ TRANSFER MATRIX MODEL _%
d2 = 0.15; % Depth of absorbent
d1 = 0.15; % Air gap depth
mV = 2.81; % Acoustic mass per unit area of membrane (vinyl)
mH = 2.57; % Acoustic mass per unit area of membrane (hardboard)
f = (1:1:300)'; % Array of frequencies
w = 2*pi.*f; % Angular frequency
rm = 10; % Resistive losses due to mounting of the membrane
k1 = w/c; % Wavenumber
sigma = 10200; % Flow resistivity of absorbent
X = rho*f/sigma; % Unitless quantity for Delany and Bazley prediction
Z2 = Z0*(1+0.0571*(X.^0.754)j*0.087*(X.^0.732));
k2 = (2*pi/c).*f.*(1+0.0978*(X.^0.700)j*0.189*(X.^0.595));
zs2 = j*Z2.*cot(k2*d2);
zs3 = (j*zs2.*Z0.*cot(k1*d1)+Z0.^2 )./ (zs2 j*Z0.*cot(k1*d1));
zs4V = zs3 + j*w*mV +rm; %Final surface impedance of vinyl rubber
zs4H = zs3 + j*w*mH +rm; %Final surface impedance of hardboard
RV = (zs4V  Z0)./(zs4V + Z0); % Reflection factor for vinyl rubber
alphaV = 1(abs(RV).^2); % Absorption coefficient for vinyl rubber
RH = (zs4H  Z0)./(zs4H + Z0); % Reflection factor for hardboard
alphaH = 1(abs(RH).^2); % Absorption coefficient for hardboard
figure(1)
set(gcf,'Name','Absorption Coefficient')
subplot(2,1,1)
plot(f,alphaV,'g','LineWidth',2)
xlabel('Frequency, Hz'),ylabel('absorption coefficient')
title('Vinyl Rubber')
legend('With Surround','Without Surround','Transfer Matrix Model')
axis([20 150 0 1])
grid on
subplot(2,1,2)
plot(f,alphaH,'g','LineWidth',2)
xlabel('Frequency, Hz'),ylabel('absorption coefficient')
title('Hardboard')
legend('With Surround','Without Surround','Transfer Matrix Model')
axis([20 150 0 1])
grid on
Appendix I 189
APPENDIX I
Rules for equivalent circuit nomenclature:
In general the symbols are written in the form
xyz
A :
A refers to the quantity, i.e. Mass (M), Resistance (R), Compliance (C), Impedance
(Z)… etc
x refers to the units or type of quantity i.e. Electrical (E), Mechanical (M) or
Acoustic (A)
y refers to other information regarding the value e.g.
Subscript: B, refers to the back of the diaphragm (the cabinet)
D, refers to the diaphragm without an air load
S, refers to the diaphragm with an air load
T, refers to a total
V, refers to a variable component
For example: The total acoustic compliance is written as:
AB
C
The mechanical mass of the diaphragm with an air load is written as,
MS
M
The total damping in acoustic units is written as,
AT
R
Appendix J 190
APPENDIX J
Comparing impedance tube results with lumped parameter predictions
close all;
clear all;
rho = 1.21; % Density of air (kg/m3)
c = 344; % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s)
a = 0.3458; % Tube diameter (m)
S = pi*(a/2)^2; % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2)
dL = 0; % Distance between tube end and sample
L = 2 + dL; % Tube length (m)
z1 = 0.184 + dL; % Distance from sample to micA
z2 = 0.368 + dL; % Distance from sample to micB
z3 = 0.9143 + dL; % Distance from sample to micC
z4 = 1.2255 + dL; % Distance from sample to micD
x = [z1;z2;z3;z4];
values(1) = 1e6; % Approximation to resistance of open circuit case
files{1} ='Open Circuit';
for i = 1:length(files)
fname1 = strcat(files(i),'A.wmb');
fname2 = strcat(files(i),'B.wmb');
fname3 = strcat(files(i),'C.wmb');
fname4 = strcat(files(i),'D.wmb');
maxspace = x(4)x(1); % Maximum microphone spacing
minspace = x(2)x(1); % Minimum microphone spacing
fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)); % Minimum frequency limit (Hz)
fmax1= 0.45*c/(minspace); % Maximum limit due to mic spacing
fmax2= c/(2*a); % Maximum limit due to tube diameter
fmax = min(fmax1,fmax2); % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits
[yA, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname1)); % Load WinMLS impulse response for micA
[yB, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname2)); % MicB
[yC, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname3)); % MicC
[yD, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname4)); % MicD
N = length(yA); % Number of sample points
w = hanning(N); % Generate hanning window
w(1:N/2) = 1; % Assign first half of window to unity
yA = (yA(1:N)); % Pick the first N points of yA
yB = (yB(1:N)); % yB
yC = (yC(1:N)); % yC
yD = (yD(1:N)); % yD
ywA = yA.*w; % Apply hanning window to micA impulse reponse
ywB = yB.*w; % MicB
ywC = yC.*w; % MicC
ywD = yD.*w; % MicD
t = [(1:1:length(ywA))/Fs]; % Generate time series (s)
f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'; % Generate frequency series (Hz)
k=(2*pi.*f(1:N/2))./c; % Wave number array
YA = fft(ywA); % Fourier Transform on mic A impulse responses
Appendix J 191
YB = fft(ywB); % Mic B
YC = fft(ywC); % Mic C
YD = fft(ywD); % Mic D
Y1 = (YA(1:N/2)); % Pick the first N/2 points of YA
Y2 = (YB(1:N/2)); % YB
Y3 = (YC(1:N/2)); % YC
Y4 = (YD(1:N/2)); % YD
H12 = Y2./Y1; % Transfer function between mics B/A
H13 = Y3./Y1; % Mics C/A
H14 = Y4./Y1; % Mics D/A
H23 = Y3./Y2; % Mics C/B
H24 = Y4./Y2; % Mics D/B
H34 = Y4./Y3; % Mics D/C
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)); % Green's function micA > source1
g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1)); % Green's function micA > source2
g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)); % Green's function micB > source1
g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)); % Green's function micB > source2
g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)); % Green's function micC > source1
g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)); % Green's function micC > source2
g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4)); % Green's function micD > source1
g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)); % Green's function micD > source2
Roptimised = ((H12.*g11g21).*(conj(H12.*g12g22))+...
(H13.*g11g31).*(conj(H13.*g12g32))+...
(H14.*g11g41).*(conj(H14.*g12g42))+...
(H23.*g21g31).*(conj(H23.*g22g32))+...
(H24.*g21g41).*(conj(H24.*g22g42))+...
(H34.*g31g41).*(conj(H34.*g32g42)))./...
((abs(H12.*g12g22)).^2+(abs(H13.*g12g32)).^2+...
(abs(H14.*g12g42)).^2+(abs(H23.*g22g32)).^2+...
(abs(H24.*g22g42)).^2+(abs(H34.*g32g42)).^2);
alpha = 1abs(Roptimised).^2;
str(1,1:2) = 'r';
str(2,1:2) = 'b';
Z = rho*c.*((1+Roptimised)./(1Roptimised)); % Impedance
figure(1)
plot(f(1:N/2),alpha,'r','LineWidth',2)
xlim([20 400]),ylim([0 1.1])
hold on
end
%___ LUMPED PARAMETER PREDICTION ___%
% Loudspeaker Parameters
a = 0.1355; % Radius of diaphragm
L1 = 0.907e3; % Electrical inductance of voice coil [1]
L2 = 1.595e3; % Electrical inductance of voice coil [2]
R2 = 5.02;
BL = 20.169; % Force factor of driver
SD = pi*(a^2); % Area of diaphragm
RE = 12.415; % Electrical resistance of driver
MMS = 28.152e3; % Moving mass of diaphragm (with air load)
Appendix J 192
RES = 360.575; % Damping of diaphragm in electrical units
CMS = 385.276e6; % Mechanical compliance of driver with air load
LE=L1;
f = 20:1000;
w = 2*pi*f;
k = w./c;
x = 0.38; % Width of cabinet/sample holder
y = 0.505; % Height of cabinet/sample holder
d = 0.226; % Depth of cabinet/sample holder
V = x*y*d; % Volume of cabinet/sample holder
Z0 = c*rho; % Characteristic impedance of air
RMS = (BL^2)/RES; % Mechanical damping/resistance of diaphragm with airload
RAD = RMS/(SD^2); % Resistance/damping of diaphragm in acoustic units
RAF = 0;
sigma = 10200; % Flow resistivity of absorbent
X = rho*f/sigma; % Delany and Bazley prediction for absorbent in cabinet
Z0 = rho*c;
d2 = 0.3;
Z2 = rho*c*(1+0.0571*(X.^0.754)j*0.087*(X.^0.732));
k2 = k.*(1+0.0978*(X.^0.700)j*0.189*(X.^0.595));
RAB = j*rho*c.*cot(k2*d2);
CAD = CMS*(SD^2); % Compliance of diaphragm in acoustic units
CAB = V/(rho*(c^2)); % Compliance in acoustic units of cabinet
ZAF = Z0/SD;
val = values'; % Array of resistance values
for i = 1:length(val)
REV = val(i); % Variable resistance values
z1 = 1./(j*w*(((SD^2)*LE)/(BL^2))); % Impedance due to electrical inductance in acoustic units
z2 = (BL^2)/(RE*(SD^2)); % Impedance due to electrical resistance in acoustic units
z3 = (BL^2)/(REV*(SD^2)); % Impedance due to variable resistance in acoustic units
z4 = ((BL^2)/(R2*(SD^2)))+(1./(j.*w.*(((SD^2).*L2)./(BL^2))));
ZEA = 1./((1./z1)+(1./z2)+(1./z3)+(1./z4)); % Combined impedance due to electronic
components in acoustic units
CAT = (1./(j*w.*((CAD*CAB)/(CAD+CAB)))); % Combined acoustic compliance of entire system
RAT = RAD+RAB; % Comined acoustic damping of entire system
MAF1 = j*w.*((8*rho)/(3*(pi^2)*a)); % Radiation impedance of a baffled piston
MAT = (j.*w.*(MMS/(SD^2)))MAF1; % Combined mass loading of entire system (minus air load
as MMS was measured in free field)
Z = SD*(ZEA + RAT + MAT + CAT + ZAF); % Specific acoustic impedance of entire system
R = (ZZ0)./(Z+Z0);
alpha = 1R.*conj(R);
figure(1)
plot(f,alpha,'b','LineWidth',1.5)
xlabel('Frequency, Hz'),ylabel('Absorption Coefficient')
title('Using a Loudspeaker as an Absorber', 'FontSize',13)
legend('Results from Impedance Tube', 'Equivalent Circuit Prediction')
grid on
end
Appendix K 193
APPENDIX K
Comparing impedance tube measurements with predictions from the equivalent circuit
model for each load resistance connected to terminals.
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
Closed Circuit
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
1 Ohms
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
5 Ohms
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
10 Ohms
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
50 Ohms
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
100 Ohms
100 200 300 400
0
0.5
1
. Freq, Hz
α
Open Circuit
Measured Data
Predictions
Appendix L 194
APPENDIX L
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
1 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
5 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
10 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
50 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
100 Ω
100 200 300 400
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Freq, Hz
α
500 Ω
1 µF
10 µF
22 µF
47 µF
100 µF
220 µF
470 µF
Predicted Absorption Curves, Varying Load Capacitance and Resistance in Parallel
BIBLIOGRAPHY
F. Alton Everest, Master Handbook of Acoustics, 4
th
edn., McGrawHill, (2001).
M. Barron, Auditorium Acoustics and Architectural Design, E and F. N. Spon (1993).
L. L. Beranek, Acoustics, Acoustical Society of America, (1996).
J. Borwick, Loudspeaker and Headphone handbook, 2
nd
edn, Focal Press, (1994).
J. Borwick, Loudspeaker and Headphone handbook, 3
rd
edn, Focal Press (2001).
M. Colloms, High Performance Loudspeakers, 6
th
edn, John Wiley and sons (2005).
T. J. Cox and P. D’Antonio, Acoustic absorbers and diffusers, Spon Press (2004).
F. Fahy, Foundations of Engineering Acoustics, Academic Press, (2001)
F. A. Fischer, Fundamentals of Electroacoustics, Interscience Publishers, inc., New
York, (1955).
L.E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Copens and J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics,
3
rd
edn, John Wiley and Sons (1982).
H. Kuttruff , Room Acoustics, 4
th
edn., Spon press (2000).
F. P. Mechel, Formulas of Acoustics, Springer, (2002).
P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics, McGrawHill, (1968).
M. Rossi, Acoustics and Electroacoustics, Artech House, (1988).
I. R. Sinclair (ed), Audio and HiFi Handbook, 2
nd
edn, ButterworthHeinemann,
(1993).
M. C. M. Wright (ed), Lecture Notes on the Mathematics of Acoustics, Imperial
College Press, (2005).
Contents
i
CONTENTS
Acknowledgements Abstract Nomenclature List of Tables and Figures 1. 2. v vi vii ix
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1 ABSORPTION METHODS.................................................................................. 7 2.1 2.2 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 7 PRINCIPLES OF ABSORPTION ........................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Reflection Factor ....................................................................................... 9 2.2.2 Absorption Coefficient ............................................................................. 10 2.2.3 Surface Impedance .................................................................................. 11 2.3 POROUS ABSORBERS .................................................................................... 12 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.2 2.4 Material Properties........................................................................... 16 Prediction Models ............................................................................ 20 2.3.1 Characterising and Modelling Porous Absorbers .................................... 15 2.3.1.1.1 Measuring Flow Resistivity.......................................................... 18 2.3.1.2.1 Acoustic Impedance Modelling of Multiple Porous Layers........... 21 RESONANT ABSORPTION............................................................................... 25 2.4.1.1 2.4.2.1 2.5 3. Predicting the Performance of Helmholtz Absorbers ........................ 27 Predicting the Performance of Membrane Absorbers........................ 31 2.4.1 Helmholtz Absorbers ............................................................................... 26 2.4.2 Membrane Absorbers............................................................................... 30 2.4.2.1.1 Transfer Matrix Modelling ........................................................... 33 CONCLUSION................................................................................................ 39
MEASURING ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT AND SURFACE IMPEDANCE .. ............................................................................................................................ 41 3.1 3.2 3.3 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 41 REVERBERATION CHAMBER METHOD ........................................................... 42 IMPEDANCE TUBE METHOD .......................................................................... 44
Contents
ii
3.3.1 Standing Wave Method ............................................................................ 45 3.3.2 Transfer Function Method ....................................................................... 48 3.3.3 General Considerations for Impedance Tube Testing............................... 52 3.4 THE DESIGN, BUILD AND COMMISSIONING OF A LOW FREQUENCY IMPEDANCE FTUBE .................................................................................................................... 53 3.4.1 Design ..................................................................................................... 54 3.4.2 Construction ............................................................................................ 56 3.4.3 Commissioning ........................................................................................ 57 3.4.3.1 3.5 4. Processing the Data.......................................................................... 57 3.4.3.1.1 Least Squares Optimization Technique......................................... 58 CONCLUSION................................................................................................ 64
USING LOUDSPEAKER SURROUND AS THE MOUNTING FOR A
MEMBRANE ABSORBER........................................................................................ 66 4.1 4.2 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 66 THEORY ....................................................................................................... 67 4.2.1.1 4.2.1.2 4.2.1.3 4.3 Simply Supported ............................................................................ 68 Clamped .......................................................................................... 69 Freely Supported.............................................................................. 70
4.2.1 Traditional Mounting Conditions............................................................. 68
4.2.2 The Pistonic Case .................................................................................... 70 MEASUREMENTS .......................................................................................... 72 4.3.1 Initial Measurements Using an Accelerometer......................................... 72 4.3.2 Impedance Tube Tests.............................................................................. 75 4.4 MODELLING ................................................................................................. 81 4.4.1.1 Finding Parameters .......................................................................... 82 4.4.1 Equivalent Circuit Model......................................................................... 81 4.4.1.1.1 Determining CAD .......................................................................... 82 4.4.1.1.2 Finding the Equivalent Piston of a Clamped Plate ........................ 84 4.4.1.2 4.5 5. Results ............................................................................................. 85 4.4.2 Transfer Matrix Model............................................................................. 86 CONCLUSION................................................................................................ 87
USING A LOUDSPEAKER AS A RESONANT ABSORBER ........................... 89
Contents 5.1 5.2 5.3
iii
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 89 BASIC PREMISE FROM LOUDSPEAKER THEORY .............................................. 90 LUMPED PARAMETER MODELLING................................................................ 91 5.3.1.1 5.3.2.1 5.3.2.2 5.3.2.3 5.3.2.4 Equivalent Circuits........................................................................... 93 Electrical Section ............................................................................. 98 Mechanical Section........................................................................ 100 Acoustical Section ......................................................................... 105 Combining the Sections ................................................................. 106
5.3.1 Theory ..................................................................................................... 92 5.3.2 Analysis ................................................................................................... 98
5.3.3 Defining the Parameters ........................................................................ 111 5.3.4 Calculating the Absorption of the System............................................... 116 5.4 5.5 6. IMPLEMENTING THE MODEL ....................................................................... 117 CONCLUSION.............................................................................................. 121 5.4.1 Discussion ............................................................................................. 117
CHANGING THE RESONANT CHARACTERISTICS OF A LOUDSPEAKER
ABSORBER USING PASSIVE ELECTRONICS..................................................... 122 6.1 6.2 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................... 122 CHANGING THE LOAD RESISTANCE............................................................. 126
6.2.1 Theory and Prediction ........................................................................... 126 6.2.2 Measurements........................................................................................ 130 6.2.3 Summary ............................................................................................... 135 6.3 CHANGING THE CAPACITIVE LOAD ............................................................. 136 6.3.1 Theory and Prediction ........................................................................... 136 6.3.2 Measurements........................................................................................ 138 6.3.3 Discussion ............................................................................................. 139 6.3.4 Summary ............................................................................................... 139 6.4 MODELLING OTHER SCENARIOS ................................................................. 140 6.4.1 Resistors and Capacitors in Series......................................................... 140 6.4.2 Resistors and Capacitors in Parallel...................................................... 143 6.4.3 Applying an Variable Inductor............................................................... 144 6.4.4 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Series ......................................... 146 6.4.5 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Parallel ...................................... 148
........................................................................................... 156 6..........................................1 Determining the Capacitance Needed for a Certain Resonant Frequency ..6 7... 152 6....... 151 6...............Contents
iv
6..............................................................5........................................5 OPTIMISING THE PASSIVE ELECTRONIC LOAD FOR A GIVEN SET OF DRIVER PARAMETERS ..................................... 161 7...6 Summary ...................1 7...................... 158
FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK...................... 163 References Appendices 166 172
...... 151 6........................................................................... CONCLUSION............................5..............3 Determining the Optimum Shunt Inductance of a Capacitor ............. 157 6................................................................ ................................2 FINAL CONCLUSIONS ..........................5..2 Determining How the Qfactor Changes With Resistance ..............4.......................... 161 FURTHER WORK ..........
guidance and time during this project.Acknowledgements
v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my thanks to Prof. Mark Avis for his practical suggestions and willingness to offer help whenever it was needed. encouragement and suggestions with particular thanks to Fouad and the team of G61. Finally praise goes to the Almighty God. Thanks also to Dr.
Thanks also to my wonderful parents for their ever present wisdom and encouragement which have never been in short supply and have always been an example to me. Trevor Cox for his inspirational supervision. ‘Great is His faithfulness!’
. Also I would like to thank everyone in the Acoustics department at the University of Salford for their continual support.
Using a loudspeaker surround also allows for more accurate prediction of the absorber’s performance as the mounting conditions are such that the membrane can be more accurately represented by a lumped mass moving as a piston.
The second approach expands upon this technique and uses a loudspeaker within a sealed cabinet to act as the membrane absorber. Passive electronic components can be connected across the terminals of the loudspeaker to adapt the mechanical resonance properties of the system. Varying a solely resistive load has also been shown to alter the absorption bandwidth. Tests were performed on the absorber systems using a specially constructed low frequency impedance tube. thereby lowering the resonant frequency of the system.Abstract
vi
ABSTRACT
This thesis presents research into two novel techniques for improving the low frequency performance. An analogue circuit analysis of the absorber system is presented and demonstrates good agreement with impedance tube measurements. A final model is shown that allows for the system to be optimised using different resistive and reactive components given a specific driver. It was found that varying a complex electrical load connected to the driver terminals enabled the range of obtainable resonant frequencies of the system to be dramatically increased. increasing the moving mass. The first approach uses a loudspeaker surround as the mounting for the membrane.
. tunability and efficiency of membrane absorbers.
Nomenclature
vii
NOMENCLATURE
B Bl CA C AB C AD C AEV
C AT C AE1 C AE 2 CE C EV CM CMD CMS F f i j k kM l LE L AEV M M AB M AD M AF M AS M AT M MD M MS pin q RAB RAD R AE R AEV R AE 2 RAF
Magnetic flux density (T) Force factor (Tm) Acoustic compliance (m5N1) Acoustic compliance of the cabinet (m5N1) Compliance in acoustic units of the diaphragm (m5 N1) Capacitance in acoustical units as a result of variable inductor LEV Total acoustic compliance (m5N1) Capacitance in acoustical units as a result of inductor L1 Capacitance in acoustical units as a result of inductor L2 Electrical capacitance (F) Variable electrical capacitance (F) Mechanical compliance Mechanical compliance of the diaphragm without an air load (mN1) Mechanical compliance of the diaphragm with an air load (mN1) Force (N) Frequency (Hz) Electrical current (Ω) −1 Wavenumber (m1) Mechanical stiffness (Nm1) Length of coil (m) Electrical inductance (H) Inductance in acoustical units as a result of capacitor CEV Mass (kg) Acoustic mass at the back of the diaphragm (kgm4) Acoustic mass of the diaphragm without an air load (kgm4) Acoustic mass at the front of the diaphragm (kgm4) Acoustic mass at of the diaphragm with an air load (kgm4)
Total acoustic mass (kgm4) Mechanical mass of diaphragm without air load (kg) Mechanical mass of diaphragm with air load (kg) Input acoustic pressure (Pa) Electrical charge (C) Acoustic resistance/damping at the back of the diaphragm (Nsm5) Acoustic resistance/damping of the diaphragm without an air load (Nsm5) Resistance in acoustical units as a result of resistor RE Resistance in acoustical units as a result of resistor REV Resistance in acoustical units as a result of resistor R2 Acoustic resistance/damping in front of the diaphragm (Nsm5)
.
Nomenclature RAS RAT RE REV RM RMD RMS S SD t U u V v vin VB x ZA Z AB Z AF ZE ZM
Acoustic resistance/damping of the diaphragm with an air load (Nsm5) Total acoustic resistance/damping (Nsm5) Electrical resistance of loudspeaker coil (Ω) Variable electrical resistance (Ω) Mechanical resistance/damping (Nsm1) Mechanical resistance/damping of diaphragm without air load (Nsm1) Mechanical resistance/damping of diaphragm with air load (Nsm1) Area (m2) Area of diaphragm (m2) Time (s) Volume velocity (m3s1) Particle velocity (ms1) Volume (m3) Voltage (V) Input voltage (V) Volume of cabinet (m3) Displacement (m) Acoustic impedance (Pasm1 or MKS rayl) Acoustic impedance at the back of the diaphragm (Pasm1 or MKS rayl) Acoustic impedance at the front of the diaphragm (Pasm1 or MKS rayl) Electrical impedance (Ω) Mechanical impedance (Nsm1) Absorption coefficient Wavelength (m) Density (kgm3) Density of air (1.21kgm3) Angular frequency (s1)
viii
α λ ρ ρ0 ω
For the rules of equivalent circuit nomenclature see appendix I
.
................... 55
Figure 3........................................... 60 Figure 3... (From Cox and D’Antonio [8])....................................5 Image source technique for multiple microphone positions ....................................... 62
..................................... 18 Figure 2......................................... 30 Figure 2....... 45
Figure 3. 61 Figure 3..1 Reflection of a sound wave incident normal to a surface .4 Impedance tube for the transfer function method with modelled image source
technique...................................................................................................5 Schematic representation of a typical Helmholtz absorber..6 Diagram of a Helmholtz type acoustic resonator ......................3 a) Photograph of completed impedance tube b) Schematic of completed
impedance tube .........................3 Test apparatus for measurement of flow resistivity .....................2 Summary of the mobility analogue .... 38 Figure 3.......... 27 Figure 2...2 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the transfer
function method ............................................................... comparing the standard transfer function method and the least
squares optimization method of interpreting the results ......2 a) Closed cell foam................10 Transfer matrix prediction of a simple membrane absorber ...List of Tables and Figures
ix
LIST OF TABLES
Table 5..................................... 22 Figure 2...... 13 Figure 2.............. 97 Table 5......... 98
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.................8 Diagrammatic representation of the transfer matrix modelling of sound
incident to a membrane absorber ........................................... b) Open celled foam......................................1 Summary of the impedance analogue.............................. 37
Figure 2......9 Transfer matrix modeling of porous absorbent with a rigid backing using the
Delany and Bazley model......................... 58
Figure 3...... 35
Figure 2...............................7 Results...............1 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the standing wave
method ........................... 28 Figure 2..4 Diagram of sound propagation through multiple layers ..... 9 Figure 2.......................................................................7 Schematic representation of a standard membrane absorber ..............................................................6 Results of commissioning of the low frequency impedance tube ........................ 49
Figure 3...................................
........ 74 Figure 4............1 Simple representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker ......................................................... 105
. 75 Figure 4........8 Comparing the original and the extended version of the least square method
............................................................ 86
Figure 5............11 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in small
sample holder .............14 Experimental setup for measuring compliance of surround .......3 Schematic representation of a freely supported plate ...................................................5 Photos of membrane mounting................. 70 Figure 4.....6 Impedance analogue circuit of the acoustical section of a loudspeaker ......... 73 Figure 4......................... 104 Figure 5........ 81 Figure 4......................................................................................................17 Comparison of measured absorption curves with predictions from a transfer
matrix model .........13 Equivalent circuit for a membrane absorber .......................................................... 82 Figure 4....... 64
Figure 4........ 85
Figure 4.List of Tables and Figures
x
Figure 3............... 83 Figure 4....... 102 Figure 5............................................4 Schematic presentation of pistonic mounting ........................................7 Results from the accelerometer tests ................... 99 Figure 5..................... 78
Figure 4....... 80
Figure 4............................................................................. demonstrating how mounting rings
can support modal behaviour....................................................8 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in large sample
holder................................4 Impedance analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker ............................................................................. 76
Figure 4........ 100
Figure 5... 79
Figure 4.2 More complicated representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker
....12 Results from impedance tube tests on hardboard with and without surround
in small and large sample holders .................16 Absorption curve from equivalent circuit model of membrane with and
without surround ......................................10 Samples mounted in impedance tube....9 Illustration of differing clamping conditions in accelerometer and impedance
tube tests .................. 103 Figure 5................................................................................... 71 Figure 4............................... 68 Figure 4..............2 Schematic representation of a clamped plate ...............................................................1 Schematic representation of a simply supported plate..............................5 Mobility analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker ............................................15 Results from experiment to determine compliance of surround .....................6 Experimental setup for the accelerometer tests.......3 Mechanical representation of a loudspeaker ...... 69 Figure 4................................ 77
Figure 4.......................................................................................................................................
....... 110
Figure 5.......14 Simplified equivalent circuit of membrane absorber......................................7 Mobility analogue circuit of the acoustical section of loudspeaker used as a
membrane absorber .................12 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical............................................................ 127
Figure 6........................................9 Simplified idealised transformer .................13 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber in impedance analogue.............11 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical and mechanical
sections combined ................................................. .....6 Measurements made on absorber in impedance tube changing resistive load
on loudspeaker terminals ............................................. 130
Figure 6.....8 Predicted absorption coefficient changing the resistive load on the absorber
without porous absorption in cabinet.. 118 Figure 5.........7 Real part of the measured surface impedance of absorber with a variable
resistive load without porous absorption in the cabinet .............. mechanical and acoustical sections
with transformers ......... 128 Figure 6...............18 Multiplot of absorption and surface impedance showing the first two
resonant modes of the loudspeaker ....... 120
Figure 6........................................... mechanical and
acoustical sections combined..17 First three vibrational modes of a circular plate............................. ....................... 119 Figure 5..........................................16 Real part of surface impedance from both predicted and measured data ........................................................15 Comparison of equivalent circuit model with impedance tube
measurements.................................5 Mounting of loudspeaker in large sample holder for impedance tube testing
........................................4 Changes in absorption curves with a variable resistor connected across
loudspeaker terminals................ 133
................. 107 Figure 5.................................................................... 117
Figure 5.................................................. 131
Figure 6.........................................................................................List of Tables and Figures
xi
Figure 5......... 111 Figure 5........ 129
Figure 6..................... 127
Figure 6........................................3 Simplified equivalent circuit of absorber.......................................................................2 Full equivalent circuit of absorber with additional variable resistor across
terminals .. 106
Figure 5............................................................................. 109
Figure 5................................................. 107 Figure 5. 110
Figure 5...................................................10 Equivalent circuit linking electrical................................................................................................................1 Electrical section of the absorber equivalent circuit with an additional
variable resistor across terminals A and B................... 132
Figure 6................ 115 Figure 5.8 Idealised transformer ...................................
.......................List of Tables and Figures
xii
Figure 6... 134
Figure 6............. 155
Figure 6..... 137
Figure 6................................................16 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor connected to the terminals
of the loudspeaker .............. 145 Figure 6................................... 158
......................20 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable
inductor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker .12 Measured absorption curves.........................................................18 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor in series with a variable
capacitor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker..........................11 Predicted absorption curves with a variable capacitor connected to
loudspeaker terminals...................................................................... 141
Figure 6....24 Standard deviation changes in absorption curve for different load
resistances on loudspeaker terminals............................................ 136
Figure 6. 149
Figure 6...................................................23 Resonant frequency versus capacitance value to determine the component
value needed for a given resonant frequency ......25 Resonant frequencies of absorber with varying capacitance and inductance
in parallel connected to the loudspeaker terminals ...................................................................14 Multiplot showing changes in the trend of absorption for different
combinations of resistors in series with capacitors................................................................................ 150
Figure 6.................................................................................. a comparison between measurement and prediction.19 Multiplot of absorption trends with a variable inductive and capacitive
load connected in series........................... 146
Figure 6......... 153
Figure 6...17 Absorption curves changing inductive load on loudspeaker................................. 138
Figure 6.........................15 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable resistor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker ......... 142 Figure 6.......................... changing the load capacitance connected
across loudspeaker terminals ..9 Measured absorption coefficient of absorber with variable resistive load with
porous absorption in the cabinet ............10 Equivalent circuit with additional variable capacitor connected to
loudspeaker terminals.. 144
Figure 6....21 Multiplot showing predicted absorption trends with a variable inductor and
capacitor connected in parallel to the terminals of the loudspeaker ............................22 Equivalent circuit of absorber system with simplified motor impedance
terms and variable capacitor connected to terminals .... 143
Figure 6............................................. 147
Figure 6........... 157
Figure 6..................................................................13 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable resistor in series with a variable
capacitor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker..............................................
Absorption will reduce the reverberation time in the room and consequently will reduce the level of the reverberant field enabling the direct sound to be heard at sufficiently high amplitude in comparison to the reverberant field thus aiding speech intelligibility. Without sufficient absorption. In many situations creating a completely reflection free
.e. INTRODUCTION
This thesis is focused primarily upon low frequency absorption for room acoustic applications. a change in frequency content or timbre between the radiated and received signal as a result of strong reflections at discrete frequencies [1]. these reflections cause the reverberant level in the room to be high as a result of long decay times. Absorption can thus help to produce a room with a flatter response with respect to frequency. Absorption also helps to reduce colouration i. or objects within.Chapter 1: Introduction
1
1. a given room. Absorption is paramount in room acoustics for reducing the intensity of reflections from the boundaries of.
Creating an entirely anechoic room by using too much absorption has a rather eerie quality which impedes the perceived enjoyability of a performance. Problems with room modes occur primarily at longer wavelengths.
A room will have a different temporal and frequency response at different frequencies so it is important that acoustic treatment is considered across the entire audio bandwidth. Room modes occur when standing waves are set up between the boundaries of a room.
Many precautions can be taken in order to prevent the occurrence. adding to the perceived spaciousness of the room [2]. these standing waves lead to regions in space of higher and lower amplitude at discrete frequencies governed by the geometrical dimensions of the room. Placing loudspeakers and sound sources in places where they will not excite the antinodes and optimising the geometry of room [3. practical
. with the particular problem of room modes.Chapter 1: Introduction
2
listening environment is undesirable as reflections tend to enhance the enjoyment of listening. The absorption of mid to high frequency sound can be achieved relatively easily and cheaply with the use of porous absorbers. however repositioning sources only tackles half the problem and it is not always possible. There are also temporal problems as at modal frequency the decay times are longer. as here the modes are further apart in frequency with respect to each other and are subsequently detected more easily as discrete modes by the ear. low frequency absorption however is harder to achieve and is often the most necessary. Thus the room will have an uneven response both spatially and with respect to frequency. subjectively this is commonly the most noticeable consequence of room modes. of room modes. 4] can both help. and to control the extent.
e. One method of absorption is to use porous absorbers. resulting in a flatter frequency and spatial response. the magnitude of boundary reflections is reduced thus lessening the severity of the standing waves i. consequently this project focuses primarily on passive low frequency absorption techniques. however this only deals with sound reproduction systems and not problems as a result of acoustic stimuli.
Low frequency absorption can be difficult to achieve without using very large and cumbersome absorbers due to the large wavelengths involved. Attempting to diffuse these low frequency reflections.Chapter 1: Introduction
3
or cost efficient to resize and shape a room. is by and large unfeasible as the scattering surfaces needed have to have deep irregularities to be optimally effective for longer wavelength sound. Work has been done on treating room modes by active equalization using digital signal processing [5]. Another method is to use damped resonators to provide absorption such as with membrane absorbers which provide a smaller/shallower solution. it is therefore an incomplete solution. thus where space is a premium this is seldom a practical solution. By absorbing sound at the discrete modal frequencies of a room. thereby preventing room modes. decreasing the pressure ratio between antinodes and nodes. Porous absorption is a broadband solution but the depth of material needed for it to be effective increases as the wavelength gets longer. thus it is often impractical for treating low frequency problems. Incident sound forces a cavity backed membrane into
. Absorption is therefore often the best way to treat room modes. Absorption at modal frequencies can be achieved using either active [6] or passive techniques however active techniques often fraught with practical difficulties and are therefore not widely used. where viscous and thermal losses of sound passing through small pores in a material generate absorption.
in most cases this is not true and the exact boundary conditions are very difficult to accurately predict. Using loudspeaker surround means that approximating the movement of the membrane to that of a piston will be more accurate and thus prediction models will be more useful when designing an absorber for a specific application. which can only be achieved by reconstruction with different materials and/or geometry. simple relationships do exist [7] that can predict the resonant frequency but these often rely on the assumption that the membrane in question is moving as a piston. Loudspeaker surround is designed so that the diaphragm of a loudspeaker can move like a piston i. controlled in frequency by the physical and geometrical properties of the device. each point on the diaphragm moves with the same velocity and phase.e.Chapter 1: Introduction
4
oscillation. As membrane absorbers are resonant systems they tend to have a narrow bandwidth of effective absorption. However because of their small size and relatively simple design membrane absorbers are commonly used in the control of low frequency sound in rooms. The use of a loudspeaker surround will also increase the moving mass of the membrane thus
. In loudspeaker technology this is useful both in terms of predicting the behaviour of loudspeakers and also in ensuring the radiation characteristics are as flat with respect to frequency as possible. the energy of which is absorbed using acoustic damping. The first question of this thesis addresses this problem by considering the possibility of using loudspeaker surround as the mounting for a membrane in a membrane absorber.
Designing a room where membrane absorbers are to be used can be rather problematic as there are no accurate prediction models available for predicting their performance. These absorbers also suffer from poor tunability.
in chapter two. the resonance of the induced current produced as the coil oscillates within the magnetic field can be changed. this will then result in a change in the mechanical resonant frequency.Chapter 1: Introduction
5
lowering its resonant frequency. readily available and are already configured to absorb. firstly they are cheap.
This thesis will. thus they have the potential to work as membrane absorbers if used in reverse. Loudspeakers are already designed to be massspring systems with damping in the cabinet. Secondly they can be tuned by connecting a passive electronic load to the terminals of the driver.
The second part of the project expands this theme. tuned to the frequency of a troublesome room mode and damped to the required level in order to produce the optimally flat frequency response. Using these techniques leads to an absorber that could be moved from room to room and tuned to meet the requirements of that room. highlight the main principles of both porous and resonant absorption and.
.e. i. There are a number of advantages in using loudspeakers as absorbers. allowing for a tunable absorber. allowing absorbers to be built with smaller dimensions whilst still achieving the same low frequency performance. in chapter three. Chapter four will consider using loudspeaker surround as the mounting of a membrane. By adding a reactive electronic component. In addition. adding electrically resistive components will alter the electrical and mechanical damping and hence the Qfactor of the system. how these absorbers can be tested including the design and build of a specially constructed low frequency impedance tube. looking first at the theory and prediction and later at experimental studies undertaken in order to verify this theory. using an entire loudspeaker as an absorber system.
prediction and experimentation are included. Chapter seven concludes and outlines any further work and commercial possibilities that could result from this research. . again theory.
.Chapter 1: Introduction
6
Chapters five and six will look at using a loudspeaker as an absorber and how it can be tuned and optimized by the use of a passive electronic load on the driver.
the particle velocity however will be a relative minimum. Absorption in this case is greater when there is a larger particle velocity. such that the surface of the absorbent should be in a region of higher particle velocity. Porous absorbers make use of the movement of the air particles in acoustic waves through the pores of the material and absorb energy through viscous and thermal losses as sound propagates through these small orifices. At a boundary the pressure will be a relative maximum. Here lies the reason why this technique is well suited to the absorption of mid to high frequency sound.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
7
2. ABSORPTION METHODS
2. this means that the porous material will not be effective if on the boundary itself.1
Introduction
Absorbing mid band and high frequency sound is easily achieved and is done with high efficiency using porous absorbers. such as mineral wool. The positioning of these absorbers for maximum efficiency reflects this.
.
maximum particle velocity.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
8
it will have to protrude from the wall to such an extent that its surface will be in the place of a higher. problems occur as the material needed has to be very thick to absorb efficiently. so called because it utilises damped resonators to absorb sound. Acoustic pressures induce the vibration of a massspring system which. This is not a problem for higher frequency waves but when the incident wavelength is larger. Damping is introduced into the system usually by adding some porous absorbent either in the holes of Helmholtz absorbers or at the rear of the membrane in a membrane absorber. This project is primarily concerned with resonant absorption but as porous materials are needed in resonant absorbers to provide greatest efficiency across a larger bandwidth. This is undesirable as the useable volume of the room is reduced to make space for the acoustic treatment. A solution to this problem is to create an absorber that would exhibit maximum absorption in a region where the pressure was a maximum rather particle velocity i.e. This would reduce the need for thick porous absorbers to treat longer wavelengths.
. A technique that fits this criterion is resonant absorption. Damping this movement will introduce loss of energy into the system and consequently absorb the incident sound. at a given frequency will resonate. the theory of both methods has been detailed in this chapter. Resonant absorbers are effectively velocity transducers. as they convert incident pressure into movement of a membrane that creates a high particle velocity through the porous absorbent thus absorbing sound at the resonant frequency of the system. a solution that could be used close to the boundary of a room. the spring in both cases is usually an air spring as a result of an enclosed volume. producing maximum excursion of the mass. The mass in resonant absorbers is usually in the form of a semirigid plate or membrane in the case of membrane absorbers or a plug of air in Helmholtz absorbers. or ideally.
pi Absorbed wave.1:
Incident wave.1 Reflection of a sound wave incident normal to a surface
On incidence to a surface the energy of a plane wave is split into reflected and absorbed energies.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
9
2. this reflected wave will have both a different amplitude and phase from the incident wave such that the reflected wave can be given as:
. The proportion of energy that is not absorbed is reflected. chiefly these are the surface impedance.2
Principles of Absorption
Several parameters of absorbent materials and systems can be derived or measured that give good indication as to its acoustic performance.1 Reflection Factor
For the definition of these terms it is considered that a plane wave is incident normal to a surface as shown in Figure 2.2. The absorbed energy could be as a result of acoustic transmission though the surface or as heat conversion in the material. pr
x
x=0
Figure 2.
2. the reflection factor and the absorption coefficient. pt Reflected wave. A brief theory of each of these terms is presented here as it is important for subsequent analysis.
2. zero meaning that no acoustic energy is absorbed resulting in total reflection of the sound wave. t ) (2.2)
2. t ) = Rp 0 e j (ωt + kx )
(2.3)
.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
10
ˆ p r ( x.1)
where R is the reflection factor of the surface. The reflection factor is a complex ratio of the reflected and incident pressures given by:
R = R e jφ =
p r ( x.2 Absorption Coefficient The reflection factor of a surface can be used to determine the absorption coefficient of a surface. Absorption coefficient it is a unitless quantity between zero and unity. An absorption coefficient of unity means that all of the incident energy is absorbed leaving no reflected energy. t ) pi ( x.
To derive the absorption coefficient the intensity of a plane wave is considered as given by:
I=
p2 ρ0c (2. The absorption coefficient of a surface is a very useful parameter as it states the fraction of energy that is absorbed when sound is incident to a surface.
2. t ) (2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
11
Therefore on reflection. The absorption coefficient of a surface is therefore expressed as:
α = 1− R
2
(2. The surface impedance is given by the ratio of pressure and the particle velocity normal to the surface:
z=
p ( x. t ) u ( x.
2. the reflected wave is reduced in intensity by a fraction of R2 and consequently the fraction of energy absorbed can be given by 1.R2.4)
The absorption coefficient of a material is probably the most widely used quantity when describing absorbent materials and systems and an absorber’s performance is often given by a graph of absorption coefficient versus frequency.5)
With the surface at x = 0 the combined pressure and velocity normal to the surface can be given by:
.3 Surface Impedance
The surface impedance is a very useful parameter as it is very closely linked to the physical properties of a surface so it provides clear indication of how the surface behaves given an incident wave.
2. Porous absorbers must have open pores as in Figure 2. t ) = 0 (1 − R )e jωt ρ0c
12
(2.6)
The surface impedance becomes:
z = ρ 0c
1+ R 1− R
(2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods ˆ p(0. Loose granular materials such
.7)
Separating the surface impedance into its real and imaginary components reveals information as to the magnitude of absorption and is resonant characteristics which can be very useful in analysis.e. Granular absorbers can be made from small pieces of almost any rigid or semi rigid material bound together with glues that do not block pores. carpets and sofa’s to control the reverberation time within the room. Many people.2 i. pores that can support acoustic propagation where the orifice is at the surface of the absorber.3
Porous Absorbers
When most people think of acoustic absorbers they commonly think of porous absorbers. t ) = p 0 (1 + R )e jωt ˆ p u (0. will use common materials such as thick curtains. Porous absorbers can be either granular or fibrous providing they have these open pores. these all constitute porous absorbers. in the pursuit of constructing a home studio or attempting some rudimentary acoustic treatment of an existing room. this is because there are so many materials that are naturally porous and consequently absorb sound.
i. primarily caused by viscous boundary layer effects. For a porous absorber to be effective.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
13
as sand also constitute porous absorbers as the gaps between grains provide a complex path for the acoustic waves to propagate through. The diagram below shows the differences between closed and open cell foam:
a)
b)
Figure 2. b) Open celled foam.
When sound propagates in small spaces there are losses in energy. An example of a fibrous porous absorbent is mineral wool. especially in room acoustics. no propagation path through absorbent as pores are closed and unconnected.e. it is important that the pores are open rather than closed. but their loose nature often means they are impractical to use. (From Cox and D’Antonio [8])
Many manmade types of foam can be classified as closed cell foams. This complex pore structure leaves a material that is highly porous and is commonly used for both acoustic and fire insulation as its open pores allow restricted airflow through the material thus absorbing sound and also preventing efficient heat exchange. these foams have either closed pores so there is no propagation path or pores that are too small for the sound
. the friction of the viscous air fluid passing through the orifice of a small hole/pore. It is this friction that causes viscous and heat losses in porous absorbers making them efficient for room acoustic applications. interconnected pores allow for acoustic propagation and consequent thermal/viscous losses.2 a) Closed cell foam. made by spinning molten minerals such as sand and weaving the spun fibres together to form a complicated structure of pores.
With this in mind it becomes clear that as the wavelength of the incident sound increases. the particle velocity has to be high. This occurs away from a rigid boundary by a quarter of a wavelength as at the boundary the particle velocity would be a minimum.2b have a propagation path either through all or part of the foam generating losses as sound propagates through the pores. The most efficient porous absorbers have many tortuous and interconnected pores resulting in what could be considered as a complex system of pipes in which the acoustic wave can propagate. This is the reason that porous absorption is unsuitable for treating low
. Open cell foams as depicted in Figure 2. This means that the most effective way to use porous absorption is where the particle velocity is at a maximum. the greater the viscous and thermal losses generated as sound propagates through them. In general the longer and more tortuous the pores. As waves cannot propagate through the material there will be no viscous and thermal losses so there will be very little absorption and the material will act as a reflector. In order for viscous losses to be effective. and for maximum absorption the material should be one quarter of a wavelength thick (or away from the boundary with an air gap such that the surface is a quarter of a wavelength from the boundary). Figures often quoted are that for significant acoustic absorption the porous material should be at least one tenth of a wavelength thick.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
14
wave to propagate through. hence there will be more absorption. Conversely if the pores become too large the viscous boundary layer effects become negligible resulting in no significant absorption. the porous material must increase in depth if satisfactory absorption is to be achieved. the higher the particle velocity the larger the viscous and heat losses. Obviously if these pores become too small the acoustic wave can no longer propagate within them as there is not sufficient volume for pressure changes to occur and the material then can be classified as closed cell.
An exception to this is in the construction of anechoic chambers where broadband absorption is needed across the entire audio spectrum. Very thick porous absorption is used to tackle even the low frequencies in this case as low frequency resonant absorption would reflect and cause problems at higher frequencies.4). porous absorption is used here so the absorption coefficient is roughly equal across a large bandwidth (a useful characteristic of porous absorption). Being able to predict the reverberation time of a room and even to auralise its response before building or before acoustic treatment is added is becoming increasingly important in room acoustic design. because the wavelengths are sufficiently large that much of the room would be taken up by the porous absorption. For these reasons and to aid research into the development of new absorptive materials much attention has been placed on defining the characteristics of materials and also predicting their acoustic performance.
2. which is impractical. it is also imperative that the absorption characteristics of materials is known before building to ensure the building will reach the necessary standards on completion. With the increase in building regulations governing the acoustic insulation requirements of buildings.1 Characterising and Modelling Porous Absorbers
It is often important to be able to predict accurately the performance of porous absorbers both for use on their own and also when used as part of a resonant absorber (see section 2.3.
.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
15
frequency modal problems in rooms. This task is only possible when accurate information can be given about the absorption within the room. In order to accurately model porous materials it is important to determine certain physical properties of the material.
1.e. The ratio of this drop in pressure with the product of the flow velocity and material thickness gives the material’s flow resistivity:
σ=
∆p Ud
(2. the material’s porosity and flow resistivity. a porosity of 0.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
16
2.
Flow resistivity is a metric that defines how easily air can enter a material and the resistance to flow that it experiences as it passes through. U and thickness of the material. d. analogous to electrical resistivity.5 means that half of the volume of the material constitutes the air in the pores. it is calculated by the ratio of pore volume to the total volume of the absorbent material i. Flow resistivity can be defined as the resistance to flow per unit thickness of the material. Closed pores do not count in measurements of porosity as they cannot be accessed by incident sound waves and are therefore ineffective for absorption. the other half (the material that supports the pore structure) would be the ‘frame’ of the material. The viscous resistance to air flow through a porous material causes a pressure drop across the material which at low frequencies is proportional to the flow velocity.1 Material Properties The performance of a porous absorber is governed by two main characteristics. It is a measure of how much energy will be lost due to propagation through the pores. The porosity is the fraction of the amount of air volume in the absorbent material. Foam with entirely closed pores would have a porosity of zero.3.8)
.
Pore shape is difficult to define as materials often exhibit many pores with very different shapes and as such it is a difficult parameter to accurately define.
There are many different strategies for the modeling of porous materials using a variety of different approaches with varying degrees of complexity and overview of some of these can be found in [9]. The porosity of an effective porous absorbent is often very close to unity and varies very little with different materials.
Another factor that will affect the performance of porous absorbers is the tortuousity. A material with a higher tortuosity will exhibit greater absorption. which states how tortuous or ‘wiggly’ the pores of a material are. Tortuosity is basically a metric of the complexity of the propagation path through the absorbent. However flow resistivity is more useful in the modeling of acoustic materials and is the property used throughout this thesis. Pore shape is also a factor that influences the amount of absorption from a porous absorber.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
17
The flow resistance of a material can also be useful and is given by multiplying the flow resistivity by the material thickness. as a more tortuous path of propagation makes it harder for the acoustic wave to pass through the material so more energy is lost through heat as the viscous air fluid is forced through the small pores. In this model the porosity is considered to be unity
. The primary model used in this thesis is a one parameter empirical approach by Delany and Bazley [10].
Both porosity and flow resistivity are very important factors but it is the flow resistivity that varies the most from material to material and therefore is considered the most important factor.
the first utilising unidirectional airflow and the other an alternating airflow. the following describes the process of this measurement. Details of this procedure are outlined in an international standard [11].3.1. A Laminar flow through sample Differential pressure gauge. It is therefore important that the flow resistivity of the material used is accurately measured.1 Measuring Flow Resistivity Flow resistivity can be measured using a relatively simple experimental setup as shown in
Figure 2.3 Test apparatus for measurement of flow resistivity
. B.3. The premise is to induce airflow through the test sample and to measure the
resulting pressure difference across the sample.
Sample holder Manometer. Open to atmosphere
Flow generator Sample
Figure 2. The standard outlines two different methods for the measurement of flow resistivity.
2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
18
and the material parameter needed is the flow resistivity.1. The apparatus chosen here typified an apparatus to measure flow resistivity using unidirectional laminar flow.
This gives a measure of flow resistivity which can be used in many acoustic models and will be used in subsequent sections of this work in a basic one parameter model for rigid frame porous materials as part of a transfer matrix model presented later.3 the manometer. V.
. Rs can be written as:
Rs =
∆pA ∆p = qv V
(2. and A is the cross sectional area of the sample. From this manometer reading the volumetric airflow rate. this is achieved in the test apparatus using the calibration chart for this particular set up which can be found in appendix A.10)
where d is the depth of the sample. from these values the specific airflow resistance. qv can be determined in cubic meters per second. When divided by area this gives the linear airflow velocity.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
19
In Figure 2. A is used to calculate the airflow velocity through the sample.9)
Where ∆p is the pressure drop across the sample measured with the differential pressure gauge. B. The pressure difference across the sample with respect to the atmosphere can be deduced from the differential pressure gauge. The flow resistivity σ of the sample is the specific flow resistance per meter:
σ=
Rs ∆p = d Vd
(2.
732)
(2. Delany and Bazley’s is a single parameter model meaning only the material’s flow resistivity is needed for calculation.3. The formulae assume porosity close to unity and include the materials flow resistivity. as a result empirical models such as Delany and Bazley [10] have been formulated.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 2.1. Using curvefitting techniques they then put an empirical formula together to allow the prediction of both the characteristic impedance and the complex wavenumber of fibrous absorbent materials. The model can be summed up in the following three equations. which provide a good basis for modeling porous materials. the frequency f and the flow resistivityσ:
X=
ρ0 f σ
(2.754 .11)
Then the Characteristic Impedance zc and the complex wavenumber k are defined:
zc = ρ0c0(1 + 0. many models assume that pores are either slits.2 Prediction Models
20
Attempting to predict the performance of a porous absorber using an analytical approach is not easy.j0. dependent on the density of air within the pores ρ0.12)
. circular or at least have a simple geometry but this is rarely the case in reality and consequently models are fraught with inaccuracies even when many material parameters are considered.087X0.0571X0. First they define a dimensionless variable X. accurate only between 1000 and 50000 MKS raylm1. The Delany and Bazley model is based on many measurements taken of fibrous porous absorbents.
The effect of these conditions is that the low frequency accuracy of the formulation is compromised.1.01 and 1. ranging from sound traveling through a porous absorbent mounted on a rigid backing through to more complicated situations where there are many layers all with different characteristic impedances and the overall impedance needs to be found.0. It is however only accurate within a given frequency bandwidth as it may only be used for materials with a flow resistivities within the aforementioned limits enabling X to be within the allowed limits of 0.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
k = (ω/ c0)(1 + 0. This model is extremely useful and is widely used as it has proved to accurately predict the performance of fibrous materials with minimal information of the material needed. as is the case in this thesis.189X0. This can be a problem and consequently there is a wealth of more complex models [12. 13] both analytical and empirical that seek to improve the low frequency predictability of porous absorbents. This encapsulates many scenarios.3. Considering a
.1 Acoustic Impedance Modelling of Multiple Porous Layers Often important in acoustic modeling and applications is the behaviour of acoustic waves propagating through layers of different media. Consequently it is often thought.595)
21
(2.2.j0. that the differences between the new formulations and the original Delany and Bazley formulation are not large enough to cause concern and many use their model anyway.700 . These are often manifested in multi parameter models that can be cumbersome to use and lack satisfactory accuracy.13)
where ω is the angular frequency and c0 is the speed of sound in air.
2.0978X0. In order to study accurately the behaviour of sound in these cases a modeling system needs to be formulated.
1).
Considering plane waves incident only normal to the surface. reflected and transmitted pressures such that:
pt ( x) = pt e − jkx = p i e − jkx + p r e jkx
(2.4 Diagram of sound propagation through multiple layers
x=0
pi
At any point the total pressure can be seen as simple addition of the incident.14)
So when x = 0 :
p t (0) = p i + p r (2. This type of model can also be extended to work for more complicated situations where further resonant layers are introduced (see section 2. a diagram of an acoustic wave incident to a multiple layered absorber can be represented by Figure 2. often called a two port model as it has just two ports (both a single input and single output).1.4.15)
.2.4:
x = −d
d pt pr Medium A Medium B x direction Figure 2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
22
wave approach enables a simple model to be put together.
From equations (2.14) and (2. the incident and reflected pressures at the boundary
x = 0 can be expressed as:
pi = p r + u t (0) z c p r = pi − u t (0) z c (2.19):
.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
23
Velocity is a vector quantity therefore the addition of the velocities before and after the boundary of the layer is:
u t (0) = u i − u r =
1 ( pi − pr ) zc
(2.15).17)
Therefore:
1 ( pt (0) + ut (0) z c ) 2 1 p r = ( p t (0) − u t (0) z c ) 2 pi = (2.16)
where zcis the characteristic impedance of material A.18) So the sound pressure at any point x in space (assuming normal incidence) can be given by equation (2.
20) And the transmitted velocity as:
1 1 1 1 − jkx + ( p t − u t z c )e jkx p i e − jkx − p r e jkx = 2 ( p t + u t z c )e 2 Zc zc 1 = u t cos( kx ) − p t j sin( kx ) zc
u t ( x ) = u t e − jkx = u t ( x ) = u t e − jkx
(
)
(2. Substituting this into the above equations gives:
.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
p ( x ) = pe − jkx = p i e − jkx + p r e jkx = 1 ( p t (0) + u t (0) z c )e − jkx + 1 ( p t (0) − u t (0) z c )e jkx 2 2
24
(2. 2 1 2 ( pt (0) − u t (0) z c )(cos( kx) + j sin( kx )
pt ( x) = pt e − jkx = pt (0) cos(kx ) − z c u t (0) j sin( kx) (2..21) The ratio of the transmitted pressure and velocity at a point x gives the acoustic impedance at that point. x = − d . So in order to find the impedance at the boundary of material A..19) Expanding this gives the transmitted pressure as:
1 pt ( x) = pt e − jkx = ( pt (0) + u t (0) z c )(cos(kx) − j sin( kx ) + .
This narrow bandwidth corresponds to a
. where weather or fumes could damage or clog the pores. It is however not common to use resonant absorption for higher frequency problems because the bandwidth of absorption is commonly a lot lower than porous absorption if high absorption coefficients are to be achieved. It can also be written in matrix form which as part of a transfer matrix [14] as represented by equation (2. resonant absorption is most commonly used for treating low frequency acoustic problems.4
Resonant Absorption
Unlike porous absorption. Resonant absorption is sometimes used for higher frequency applications where porous absorbers are impractical i.
Equation (2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods Z (−d ) = pt (−d ) pt (0) cos( kd ) + jz c u t (0) sin(kd ) = j u t (−d ) u t (0) cos(kd ) + p t (0) sin( kd ) zc
2
25
− jp t (0) z c cot(kd ) + z c u t (0) = − ju t (0) z c cot(kd ) + pt (0) = − jz t z c cot(kd ) + z c z t − jz t z c cot(kd )
2
(2. zc is the characteristic impedance of the layer with thickness d. z(d) is the surface impedance at the point x = − d .22) Where zt is the surface impedance at x = 0 (termination impedance) given by pt(0)/ut(0).22) can be used in any general case as long as the wavenumber within and characteristic impedance of the materials are known. which is used primarily for absorption of mid to high frequency sound. k is the wavenumber in the material. this can often be determined by a simple empirical model for porous absorbents or as 2πf / c if in air.e.32):
2.
4. unless the holes are sufficiently small as to generate absorption without it. namely Helmholtz absorbers named after Hermmann Von Helmholtz (18211894) and membrane absorbers.
2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
26
very small fraction of an octave band at higher frequencies so is often considered impractical. This contrasts with porous absorbers.e. Theory of both techniques is presented in the following sections.
There are two main types of resonant absorption. Figure 2. resonant absorbers are often placed on the boundaries of a room and often in the corners where room modes have maximum pressure amplitude so maximally efficient absorption can be achieved. as higher pressures induce greater movement of the mass. The resonating mass is the plug of air that is in the holes and the spring is the air compliance of the volume between the front and back plates.
Resonant absorbers are essentially massspring systems where sound pressure incident on the absorber causes a mass element to vibrate on a spring which is damped to introduce energy loss and consequently absorption. which are most effective in areas of maximum particle velocity i.5 shows the construction of a typical Helmholtz absorber:
.1 Helmholtz Absorbers
Helmholtz absorbers consist of a plate with many holes equally spaced in both the x and y plane. As a result. Both are commonly used in room applications and also as silencers in engines and ventilation ducts et cetera. which are usually damped with porous absorption. Resonant absorbers are most efficient if placed in areas where acoustic pressures are high. away from boundaries.
5 Schematic representation of a typical Helmholtz absorber
Both membrane and Helmholtz resonant absorption attempt to convert areas of high acoustic pressure into a region of high particle velocity that can be absorbed by intelligently positioned porous absorption.1.4.
2.6:
.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
27
Resonant air flow through perforations
D t d
2a
Porous Absorbent
Sealed enclosure
Perforated sheet
Figure 2. incident pressure causes highest particle velocity in the neck of each orifice so porous materials are often placed there to maximise absorption efficiency.1 Predicting the Performance of Helmholtz Absorbers The performance and resonant frequency of Helmholtz absorbers is easy to predict and can be done to a high degree of accuracy by considering each orifice to be a short tube forming individual Helmholtz resonators as shown in Figure 2. in practical applications however the porous absorbent is usually placed in between the two plates for ease of manufacture and cost efficiency. In the case of a Helmholtz absorber.
23) becomes:
m=
ρ 0 (t + 1. [15]. Considering a flanged termination introduces an end correction as a result of the radiation impedance which adds an apparent extra length of 8a / 3π ≈ 0.24)
.5:
ρ 0 D 2t ρ 0t = m= ε πa 2
(2. [7] therefore the acoustic mass per unit area of the Helmholtz absorber is given by equation (2.6 Diagram of a Helmholtz type acoustic resonator
A short tube terminated with a low impedance behaves like an inert mass.
Each plug of air is considered to behave like a baffled piston such that it is subject to a radiation impedance given by equation (5.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
S = πa 2
28
t
V = D2d
Figure 2. The value of this radiation impedance depends on whether or not the holes are flanged.7 a ) ρ 0 t ' = ε ε
(2.23)
where ε =
πa 2
D2
and is termed the fractional open area or ‘porosity’ of the perforated sheet.19).23) assuming the geometry given in Figure 2.85a to each end of the plug of air thus equation (2.
it is often more helpful however to consider in the entire acoustic system as a combination of layers as part of a transfer matrix model (see section 2.1).1. stiffness K. ε becomes unity and the stiffness of the plug can be expressed as [15]:
K = ρ0c 2
S2 V
(2.4.2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
29
where t ′ is the apparent length of each plug as a result of end corrections. such that:
Z M = jωm +
K + Rr jω (2. and mass per unit area m.26)
The resonant frequency can therefore be determined by setting the imaginary part to zero. The mechanical impedance of a Helmholtz resonator is the sum of the impedance due to radiation resistance
Rr.27)
To formulate the absorption of a Helmholtz absorber it is possible to define a lumped element model as in chapter 5. The resonant frequency can then be found by:
1 f0 = 2π f0 = c 2π
ρ 0 c 2 (s 2 / V ) ρ 0t'
S c = Vt ' 2π
ε
dt ' (2. In this case the impedance of the perforated sheet is simply added onto the
.25)
Considering just one plug.
7 Schematic representation of a standard membrane absorber
High pressure acoustic waves meeting the surface of a membrane cause it to oscillate at a frequency governed by its mass.e.
2. The air spring is considered linear as long as there are no standing waves in the cavity within the fundamental frequency range.2 Membrane Absorbers Membrane or panel absorbers are also massspring systems. the resonance peak of absorption has a high Qfactor.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
30
impedance of the backing to find the overall impedance. This however is only over a limited bandwidth i. and the stiffness of the air spring of the cavity. with compliance C
Flexible membrane/panel Mass/unit area m
Figure 2. from here the absorption coefficient can easily be found from equations (2. this time however the vibrating mass is a flexible membrane or plate and the spring is the compliance of the sealed air cavity of the box backing the membrane.4). but as with any mass
. The bandwidth can be increased by increasing the damping. The vibration of the membrane creates high particle velocities at its rear that effectively force air through the porous absorbent thus generating high levels of absorption. which is almost always the case with membrane absorbers.4.7) and (2. A standard design of membrane absorber is shown below:
Movement of membrane
Particle velocity v
Small gap to allow free movement of membrane/panel
Porous Absorbent
Enclosure.
Not being able to model the mounting conditions accurately is problematic as membrane absorbers often exhibit losses and hence absorption from the edges. A trade off therefore ensues between bandwidth and maximum absorption.
Unlike Helmholtz absorbers. Many common formulations also assume that the membrane cannot support higher order modes than the fundamental resonant frequency i.1 Predicting the Performance of Membrane Absorbers If the membrane is considered to oscillate as a piston and its bending stiffness is ignored such that the restoring force is entirely due to the compliance per unit area C of the air volume where:
C=
d ρ0c 2 (2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
31
spring system. prediction of the behavior of membrane absorbers is difficult and often inaccurate this is because the exact mounting conditions and properties of the membrane are hard to predict and model. These simpler models do not allow for the membrane to support bending waves and consequently don’t result in accurate predictions especially at oblique incidence.e. this has the effect of decreasing the maximum efficiency of the absorber. they assume that the membrane moves as a lumped mass system in much the same way as a piston does. when bending waves are more easily excited.2.28)
An equation of the impedance of the cavity backed membrane can then be written as:
.4.
2.
30) is a useful first approximation but it only defines the condition with an empty cavity.
1
so
f0 ≈
60
Md (2.29) where M is the mass per unit area of the membrane or plate and RM is the mechanical losses of the mounting.31)
These provide a useful first approximation but often yield inaccurate results with errors of up to 10 per cent. contribute considerably to the restoring force of the system such that it cannot be approximated simply by equation (2. especially for thicker panels. This inaccuracy is largely because the mechanical properties of the panel are not taken into account.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods 1 Z = j ωM − + RM ωC
32
(2.28). Accurately predicting this
.30)
Equation (2. If the cavity contains porous absorbent as is common in the design of such absorbers the resonant frequencies predicted by this formula tend to be too high. This formula can therefore be altered to account for the adiabatic case as [7]:
f0 =
50
Md (2. With the edges of the panel fixed its bending stiffness will. The resonant frequency of this system can be found by setting the imaginary part to zero thus:
ρ c2 ω0 = 0 Md
2 .
32)
. leading to errors in the predicted performance.
Writing equation (2.4. A more simplistic method for prediction of resonant absorbers is the transfer matrix method which builds upon the theory of sound traveling through different layers of porous media mentioned in section 2.
2.22) in matrix form gives the pressure and velocity at a point x as:
cos(kd ) pt ( x) = j u t ( x) sin(kd ) zc
jz c sin(kd ) p t ( 0) cos(kd ) u (0) t
(2. However even with accurate determination of these properties assumptions are still made for the mounting conditions which are often inaccurate. This technique is often thought better as it is adaptable for many scenarios of construction and yields results with reasonable accuracy. pressures to be calculated this enables the more useful determination of the surface impedance.1.1.2.1.1 Transfer Matrix Modelling
The transfer matrix approach is a very useful tool as it allows surface velocities. 17].
Other formulations and methods are also often used [16. these techniques have the disadvantage of being complex and need extensive knowledge of the material properties to be accurate.3.2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
33
bending stiffness is particularly difficult especially when the exact boundary conditions of the membrane or plate are uncertain.
The impedance therefore is given by equation (2. The transfer matrix method uses the surface impedance of one layer as the backing impedance of the next enabling any number of layers to be combined and the final surface impedance found.
Assuming that only plane waves are incident on the multilayered absorber system and only considering propagation in the x and y direction. The transfer matrix method allows many different systems to be predicted ranging from the simple case of a porous material mounted on a rigid wall up to multiple porous layers including membrane and Helmholtz layers. The impedance in this case can be considered as a series combination (that is the simple addition) of a single resistive and reactive term. It is a very useful tool for designing absorbers as it eliminates the need for iterative development which is both costly and time consuming in the design of absorber systems.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
34
This is part of a transfer matrix that can be found in Allard [14]. This can be achieved easily in many cases such that a porous layer can be represented by empirical or semiempirical formulations like the Delany and Bazley model as mentioned in section 2.35).1.3. In order to perform calculations. For the membrane case the membrane is assumed to be very thin such that there are no bending waves present. the propagation through the system can be
. the characteristic impedance of the material of each layer must be known. The characteristic impedance of membrane and Helmholtz layers can be more problematic to predict with accuracy as often boundary conditions are not known and as such approximations have to be made. It is thereby assumed to move as a pistonic mass. In general membranes are assumed to move pistonically with a nominal resistance to motion made up from the mounting and resistive losses in the material.1.
(i+1)th layer
ith layer
(i1)th layer
RM pi
ki −1 di ki zi zi −1
Assume rigid backing: ∴ zi −1 = ∞ and
pt 2 = 0
pr
Membrane. RM due to mounting of membrane
xi1 zsi
x
Figure 2.1.
pt pr 2 pxi+1 uxi+1 px
i
pt 2
X M = jωM M
ux
i
y
xi+1 xi zsi+1
Resistive losses.1 but with different notation equation (2.8. M M assumed to move as a piston such that its reactance.8 Diagrammatic representation of the transfer matrix modeling of sound incident to a membrane absorber
The equation that links all of the surface pressures and velocities and allows hence the calculation of the surface impedance is the same as in section 2. The initial case is considered with a membrane mounted on a cabinet filled with absorbent material.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
35
represented by Figure 2. mass/unit area.3.2.22) can therefore be written as:
.
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
− jz si zi cot (ki d i ) + zi z si − jzi cot (ki di )
2
36
z si +1 =
(2.34)
Where ki can be determined from a model for porous media such as Delany and Bazley and
di is the depth of the porous material. This value can then be used as zsi for the next layer
and the impedance calculated for further layers of materials. From this the absorption coefficient can be calculated and plotted against frequency yielding the standard result for mineral wool as shown in Figure 2. Applying this to the ith layer. the backing is considered to have infinite impedance such that zsi ≈ ∞ and the above equation simplifies to:
zsi +1 = − jzi cot(ki d i ) (2.33)
Using this notation it easier to keep track of multiple layered systems.9:
.
9 Transfer matrix modeling of porous absorbent with a rigid backing using the Delany and Bazley model
When adding a membrane to the front of the absorber system the impedances work in series with each other such that the overall impedance can be determined simply by the addition of the resistive and reactive impedances of the membrane:
z M = jωM M + RM (2.3
0.9
0.4
0.1 Mineral Wool 10cm Deep on a Rigid Backing 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Frequency.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
37
Transfer Matrix Model Using Delany and Bazley Prediction
1
0.5
0.8
0.7 Absorption Coefficient
0.2
0.6
0.36)
. Hz 350 400 450 500
Figure 2.35)
The surface impedance of the system is then the series addition of the impedance of the membrane layer and the porous layer:
z si +1 = z si + z M (2.
3
0. exhibiting a resonant peak with high absorption at lower frequency with less absorption at higher frequencies.4
0. Plotting this in MATLAB yields the prediction in Figure 2. for now the simplest case is considered as shown in Figure 2.6
0.10 Transfer matrix prediction of a simple membrane absorber
The graph shows a typical absorption graph for a membrane absorber.
The predictions so far have dealt only with waves incident normal to the surface of an absorber.5
0.8 with a membrane layer added to the porous absorbent with a small air gap between the layers to allow for the membrane’s movement.8
0.1
0
0
50
100
150
200
250 300 Frequency.2
0.7 Absorption Coefficient
0. this is a useful case and matches closely to the testing of an absorber in an impedance tube and therefore is very useful for comparison of predictions and
.9
0.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
38
More complex solutions can be obtained if air gaps and/or Helmholtz layers are included.10:
Transfer Matrix Model of Simple Membrane Absorber System
1
0. Hz
350
400
450
500
Figure 2.
2. There is however scope for extending the transfer matrix approach for oblique incidence waves by considering the wavenumber in materials as a vector quantity with components in the x and y direction.37)
Using Snell’s law it is then possible to define the refractive effect as the acoustic waves propagate through each medium. Such that:
k2 = kx + ky
2
2
(2. The theory presented in this chapter will serve as a
. k is equal to the scalar wavenumber in that material as the angle of incidence tends to the normal. The equation then becomes:
k k − jzsi zi i cot (k xi d i ) + zi i k k xi xi zsi +1 = ki zsi − jzi cot (k xi d i ) k xi
2
(2.Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
39
measurements. For the purposes of this project only normal incidence will be modeled.38) For most porous absorbents the x component of the wavenumber vector.5
Conclusion
It has been seen how both porous materials and damped acoustic resonators can be used in the field of room acoustics to absorb sound in high and low frequency bands. Theory of these methods has been outlined along with the relevant prediction models that will be used in subsequent sections of this work. Thus often the angle of incidence is not needed.
Chapter 2: Absorption Methods
40
useful background to the analysis.
. modeling and development of more complicated absorber systems presented in chapters 4. 5 and 6.
Of primary interest is the surface impedance of an absorber.
Two main methods are used for measuring these absorber characteristics.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
41
3. From this quantity. namely the reverberation room method and impedance tube method. This chapter describes and demonstrates some useful techniques for the measurement of absorption characteristics. The former. the normal incidence absorption
. be it porous or resonant. the reflection factor and the absorption coefficient can be found giving a good idea of the absorber’s performance with respect to frequency. MEASURING ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT AND SURFACE IMPEDANCE
3. measures random incidence absorption coefficient and the latter.1
Introduction
The previous chapter outlined some theory and prediction techniques for the performance of acoustic absorbers.
The reverberation time is measured before and after the addition of the absorption and from this. The reverberation chamber method is based on Sabine’s equation for the reverberation time in a room [18]:
T=
55.
Both techniques are presented in this chapter along with the design.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
42
coefficient and surface impedance. and therefore to determine the absorption coefficient of the material that would result in this difference.2
Reverberation Chamber Method
The basic premise of the reverberation method is to determine how much difference an absorber makes to the reverberation time in a room. The normal incidence absorption coefficient measured in this case is also easier to compare with theoretical models than the random incidence absorption coefficient which is very difficult to predict so is less useful for comparisons. In general. Impedance tubes require much smaller samples and are often used when developing new absorbers as small samples are more cost effective to produce. the absorption coefficient is derived. The cross sectional area of the tube was such that the entire membrane absorber could fit into it thus allowing accurate testing of its normal incidence absorption coefficient.1)
.3V cA
(3. the reverberation chamber method is used to test larger areas of absorbers such as carpets where samples with large surface area can easily be obtained. construction and commissioning of a low frequency impedance tube especially designed for the measurement of low frequency absorbers.
3.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
43
Where T is the time for the noise source within the room to decay by 60dB from a steady level. A1:
A1 =
55.3V − c T c T − 4V (m2 − m1 ) 1 1 2 2
(3. c is the speed of sound and A is the total absorption area of all surfaces.2)
The equation for the equivalent sound absorption area of the reverberation room with the absorption present.3)
where T1 and T2 are the reverberation times and m1 and m2.4)
The random incidence absorption coefficient of the test sample can then be easily calculated by:
. Rearranging this formula and adding a term for the absorption due to the air (this becomes significant for larger rooms) gives an equation for the equivalent sound absorption area of the empty reverberation room.3V − 4m2 cT2
(3. A2 is then given by:
A2 =
55. without and with the sample respectively. Combining these equations gives a formula for the equivalent sound absorption area of the sample as follows:
1 1 AT = A2 − A1 = 55. V is the volume of the room. the power attenuation coefficients of the room.3V − 4m1 cT1
(3.
5)
A more detailed description of this method can be found in an international standard [19].Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
44
αs =
AT S
(3.3
Impedance Tube Method
Impedance tubes offer a more controlled test environment and have the advantage over the reverberation method that they enable the measurement of the acoustic impedance of a sample or system. Consequently it is the random incidence absorption coefficient that is most commonly used to define the performance of materials used in architectural acoustics.
This method has not been used for any measurements carried out in this project as the large samples required makes testing of membrane absorbers difficult as such it is the impedance tube method outlined in section 3. There are two techniques for using impedance
. Further to this. cutting down on waste.3 that is used for measurements throughout this work.
3. Impedance tubes are cheaper to use than the reverberation chamber technique because less specialist equipment is needed. The random incidence absorption coefficient measured by the reverberation chamber method is more true to life than the normal incidence coefficient as sound is commonly incident to a surface from all angles so this method can be useful to see how absorbers behave in real applications like determining how much sound energy a carpet will absorb if used in a domestic setting. also the sample sizes can be much smaller. the method requires a reverberation chamber and large samples so it can be expensive to undertake. A disadvantage of this method is that it doesn’t allow the impedance of the material to be measured which prevents a complete understanding of how the material behaves acoustically.
consequently setting up standing waves in the tube. the standing wave method and the transfer function or ‘twomicrophone method’.
3.3.1 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the standing wave method
With the loudspeaker source on.1 Standing Wave Method
The standing wave method was the earliest method devised for measuring absorption using a tube it evolved from August Kundt’s (18391894) tube for measuring the speed of sound and is simpler in principle than the transfer function approach. a standing wave will be set up in the tube. Noting down the values and their position relative to the sample allow for both magnitude and phase data to be
. Both methods are outlined below and can also be found in the relevant International Standards [20. for discrete frequencies. Measuring the relative amplitudes of the maxima and minima of the standing waves using a moving probe microphone enables the absorption coefficient to be calculated. The probe microphone can be moved up and down the tube in order to find the first pressure maximum and the first pressure minimum from the sample. The basic premise is as follows.1:
Microphone
Loudspeaker Sample Probe Tube Rigid Termination
Trolley
Figure 3. A diagram showing the construction and operation of a standing wave tube is shown in Figure 3. Plane waves propagate down the tube from the loudspeaker and are reflected from the other end of the tube where the sample is mounted.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
45
tube. This can be done by simply connecting the output from the microphone to a voltmeter. 21]. Brief theory of both methods is given below.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
46
determined and used to calculate the absorption coefficient and the surface impedance of the sample. Therefore:
p = A(ejkz + Rejkz) (3.R (3.
The pressure at any point in the tube.7) z is the distance from the sample. k is the wavenumber. assuming plane wave propagation.8)
.6)
where pi = Aejkz and pr = ARejkz. For a pressure maximum the incident and reflected waves interfere constructively and are therefore in phase. R is the reflection factor and A is
a complex constant. As this procedure has to be done separately for each frequency of interest it can be rather time consuming and doesn’t give continuous data. will be given by:
p = pi + p r (3. therefore equations for pmax and pmin can be given as follows:
pmax = 1 + R pmin = 1 . For a pressure minimum the incident and reflected waves interfere destructively and are therefore 180 degrees out of phase. It is however a reliable method and simple equations can be used to calculate the necessary parameters of the sample as shown below.
the absorption coefficient of the sample can be found using equation (2.9)
(3. From this the complex impedance is given by:
Z = ρ0c
1+ R 1− R
(3.n
(3.11)
R = Re
jφ
(3.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
47
Knowing only the magnitudes of pmax and pmin the reflection factor can be calculated by finding the standing wave ratio (SWR) between the two pressures.13)
Although this method does allow for any of the pressure minimums to be measured it is better to use only the first minima as this will eliminate effects from losses in the tube walls.11) to calculate the argument of R which can then be used to derive the surface impedance of the sample:
φ + (2n − 1)π = 2kZ min.4).12)
Here n is the number of the pressure minimum measured.
.10)
From this.
If the surface impedance is wanted then the position of the first minimum can be noted and used in equation (3.
SWR =
p max 1 + R = pmin 1 − R
⇒
R=
SWR − 1 SWR + 1
(3.
75c l
(3.3. The standard dictates that at least two minima should be able to be found. this method is less time
.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
48
Calibration isn’t necessary for the standing wave method because pressure values have a constant offset. A. which appears in the complex amplitude. ensuring that a maximum and a minimum can be found.2 Transfer Function Method
This method is often thought superior to the standing wave method because it allows all frequencies to be calculated simultaneously thereby producing continuous data in the frequency domain with just two measurements. this imposes a low frequency limit on the tube of:
fl =
0. This makes things simpler and results in an easy method for measuring absorption of samples. which is governed by its length i.
There is a low frequency limit of a standing wave tube.e. and cancels out in the pressure ratio.3.
3.2 but it is rather tedious as it can be time consuming to locate and measure the positions of the minima in order to obtain the phase data. As such.
The standing wave method is more reliable and failsafe than the transfer function method mentioned in section 3.14)
Where l is the length of the tube and c is the wave speed in the tube. and to do this for each frequency of interest.
Figure 3. The lower of the two upper frequency limits should be chosen so that both equations are satisfied.15)
( (
) )
. There are two unknowns in this equation namely the magnitude and the phase of the complex reflection factor.
The steady state pressure at a point in the tube is given by equation (3.19).Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
49
consuming and can be easier to verify results with predictions.2 shows a diagram of a typical setup of a transfer function impedance tube:
Loudspeaker
Microphone 2
Microphone 1 Rigid Termination Sample
z1 z2
Figure 3. z being the distance from the sample to the microphone.18) and (3.17). (3. depending on the microphone positions and diameter of the tube governed by equations (3. Taking the transfer function of these two pressures gives:
H 12 =
p 2 A e jkz 2 + R.7) where units and symbols have their usual meanings.e − jkz 2 = = jkz1 p1 A e jkz1 + R.e − jkz1 e + R. Although often called the ‘two microphone method’ (as it uses at least two microphone positions) the transfer function method is a better name as it describes the process by which the results can be obtained.e − jkz1 (3.e − jkz2 e jkz 2 + R.2 Diagram of the typical setup of an impedance tube using the transfer function method
The transfer function method operates within a certain frequency range. The two microphone positions are used to get two pressure equations that can be solved simultaneously in order to obtain the two unknowns.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance Therefore:
50
He jkz1 − e jkz 2 R = − jkz2 e − He − jkz1
(3.7) and (2.17)
If the microphones are too far apart this leads to an upper frequency limit.05c z1 − z 2
(3. If the microphones are too close together the pressure difference between them is too small to be accurately measured and the method breaks down.16)
From this the impedance and hence the absorption coefficient can easily be derived.4) respectively.45c z1 − z 2
(3. As the distance between the microphones becomes equal to a wavelength the pressures at the two microphones will be the same at the corresponding frequency and the simultaneous equations will not be solvable. the low frequency limit is usually given by the following equation:
fl >
0. using equations (2.
There are frequency limitations imposed on this method as a consequence of the microphone positions. The upper frequency limit imposed by this is therefore given by:
fu >
0.18)
.
enabling the normal incidence absorption coefficient to be accurately measured. computing the transfer function separately for each pair of microphone positions. when using the transfer function method it is common to use a deterministic noise source such as a swept sine wave or an MLS noise source [22] rather than simply white noise. the microphone moved and the pressure taken at the second position enabling the transfer function to be calculated.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
51
Both of these upper and lower limits are dictated by the microphone positions. Subsequent microphones should be sufficiently far from the sample (usually by about ½ diameter of the tube) this is so that any cross modes generated from the reflection of the sample will have also died away.
Microphones cannot be placed too near to the sample or to the source to ensure accurate measurements. The first microphone should be at least two tube diameters from the loudspeaker as by this point any cross modes that have been generated by the loudspeaker will have died away and only plane waves will be incident on the sample. This tends to be more of a problem for anisotropic materials so often greater distances are needed between sample and microphone when these materials are being tested.
Practically. these can be expensive and would have to be changed over anyway to verify each measurement for repeatability checking. This eliminates the need for phasematched microphones. hence often additional microphone positions are used in order to increase the useable frequency range of this method.
. With a deterministic signal a measurement can be made at one microphone position. which would otherwise be needed.
could produce misleading results.e. to enable accurate results. When mounting the sample it is also very important to get rid of any unwanted air gaps at the rear of the sample as these can lead to an increase in low frequency absorption which. especially for the standing wave method to ensure it is only the effect of the sample that is measured rather than of the tube. especially near to the sample. the density could be altered or additional irregularities in the face of the sample could result. A constant cross sectional area down the tube.
3. Samples should also not be squashed into the tube as the squashing alters the mechanical properties of the sample i.3.
. some important general principles need to be applied. is also required so that only plane waves are incident normal to the surface of the sample. Of utmost importance is that the unused hole be blocked.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
52
The diaphragm of the microphone should always be flush with the side of the tube and sealed.
Losses in the tube need to be minimized. leading to erroneous results.3 General Considerations for Impedance Tube Testing
Whichever impedance tube method is being used. The sample end of the tube should provide a rigid backing of impedance approaching infinity without a sample in place such that only the performance of the sample is tested rather than the combined effect of the absorber and backing. It is imperative that a good seal between sample and tube walls is achieved to prevent extra absorption generated by sound propagating in the small gap or as a result of a Helmholtz resonance if there is a cavity behind the gap. with the rubber bung or block being flush with the edge of the tube as these holes can lead to additional absorption due to a Helmholtz effect. if not intended.
Therefore if low frequency measurements need to be made larger tubes will be needed. this is the case for testing membrane absorbers such as in this project as they are not scalable.
3. the design and construction of which can be found in the section 3. Of course this only gives the normal incidence absorption coefficient.19)
Where d is the diameter or maximum width of the tube if a square cross section tube is being used. governed by the first cross modal frequency of the tube such that:
fu =
c 2d
(3. for this reason a larger impedance tube was constructed. however after development in the impedance tube the absorber systems could be tested in a reverberation room to obtain data on the random incidence absorption coefficient if desired. The membrane absorber in this case had to be designed to fit the diameter of the tube as membrane absorbers are extended reactors therefore the whole sample had to be measured.4
The Design. taking a small section of a membrane absorber would not work as the mounting conditions are so key in the performance of these absorbers.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
53
The diameter of the tube will impose further frequency limits on use of the tube. Build and Commissioning of a Low Frequency Impedance Tube
For the purposes of this project it was decided that tests would be carried out in an impedance tube rather than in the reverberation chamber due to ease of testing and the need for just one absorber to be constructed for accurate tests.
.4.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
54
Impedance tubes tend to be designed to such dimensions that they can be used for testing samples in the mid frequency band. In order to enable the low frequency performance of membrane absorbers as in this project a larger tube was commissioned. This section outlines the design, construction and commissioning of a specially built low frequency impedance tube used for the testing in this project.
3.4.1 Design
Using an impedance tube to measure the absorption of a membrane absorber presents a few problems that must be overcome in the design stage to prevent experimental inaccuracies and flawed testing. A membrane absorber is an extended reactor, meaning that a small section will not behave in a manner that is representative of the entire system, so sampling a small section of the absorber for testing will not yield good results as it would for most porous absorbers. For this reason the impedance tube had to be made to such dimensions that the membrane in question would fit within the inner walls of the tube, allowing the entire membrane to be tested. A further problem was the frequency limitations of the tube dictated by its dimensions as outlined by equations
(3.17), (3.18) and (3.19). This meant that for satisfactorily low frequency performance
certain dimensions were imposed upon the construction. For both the purposes of this project and for subsequent projects involving low frequency absorption the tube’s dimensions were chosen to enable the accurate measurement to the lower limit of the human auditory range, the lowest measurable frequency of the tube was therefore designed to be 16Hz. The transfer function method was chosen as this provides ease of measurement and also gives results for a continuous frequency spectrum. In order to improve the measurable bandwidth of the tube dictated by the microphone positions, four microphone holes were made allowing six different pairs of microphones positions.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
55
This also enabled accuracy of results to be checked as the frequency limits of each position overlap allowing tests of continuity for the overlapping frequency regions. A schematic of the tube’s design is shown in Figure 3.3 with the relevant dimensions labeled as well as a photograph of the completed tube. The tube was designed in an upright position both for economy of space and also to allow the testing of granular materials for other projects.
Mineral Wool
22mm thick mild steel
Mic D 0.346m 2m 1.226m Mic C 0.914m
0.368m
Mic B Mic A 0.1m
Sample Holder
0.184m
Bottle Jack Supporting trolley
Small Sample Holder
0.3m Large Sample Holder
Figure 3.3 a) Photograph of completed impedance tube b) Schematic of completed impedance tube
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
56
3.4.2 Construction
The tube was constructed from 22mm thick mild steel, this provided enough mass to significantly reduce losses from the walls of the tube even at the low frequency end of the measurement bandwidth. The raw materials were ordered from a local steel merchant and the manufacture performed onsite at The University of Salford. The impedance tube consists of four sections of steel, two making up the main chamber and a further two sections to be used as sample holders (a large one and a smaller one) allowing for different testing conditions i.e. absorbers with different backing volumes. The sample holder is placed on the trolley and then jacked into place using the bottle jack to allow for a very tight fit, ensuring no small cracks for leaks between the sections of tubing. Holes were drilled using a magnetic pillar drill in the positions as outlined above. Annular rings were welded onto the side of one of the sections of the tube to prevent the sections from coming apart. Further pieces, also welded on, were used to support the tube on a stand made from rolled steel joists. On the end of each of the sample holders a rigid backing was bolted on by drilling and tapping into the end of the tubing. The rigid backing consisted of 4cm thick MDF providing a termination impedance approaching infinity. The structure was craned into place and the stand bolted to the floor as an extra safety measure. The chosen loudspeaker was a 12” Eminence driver within a standard MDF cabinet. The rim of the cabinet was routed so it would fit tightly on the top of the tube and could not fall off. Plugs were made to block the microphone holes not in use during testing so there would be no leaks in the tube. Mineral wool was placed in the top section of the tube in order to reduce any cross modes that might be generated by the loudspeaker especially at higher levels and at higher frequencies when pistonic motion of the driver can no longer be guaranteed, allowing only plane wave propagating down the tube.
Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
57
3.4.3 Commissioning
On completion of the tube it had to be commissioned, verifying its accuracy with that of a tube already deemed reliable. For this a Brüel & Kjær tube within the department was chosen, problems however with the commissioning occurred due to the dimensions of the low frequency impedance tube being substantially larger than the tube used to verify it, some frequency overlap does occur between the two tubes however and testing a sample of mineral wool with known absorption characteristics with respect to frequency, it could be confirmed that the tube was measuring accurately. Results of the commissioning of the tube are presented in Figure 3.6.
3.4.3.1 Processing the Data Using the multiple microphone transfer function method it is possible to plot six separate curves pertaining to the transfer function from each combination of microphone positions. Six plots on a single set of axes does however look rather messy so processing the data from all six combinations together and plotted as one line across the whole frequency range is desirable. There has however, recently been developed a more elegant method of processing results (outlined in section 3.4.3.1.1) from multi microphone position impedance tubes which allows for greater accuracy at low frequencies and also allows the results to be plotted with a single line. The improved method [23] uses least squares curve fitting to optimize the response from all of the microphone positions to produce a result with minimum error.
4.3.1. A
m1 Image Source.4.20)
Where R is the complex reflection factor.
m2 Source.4 Impedance tube for the transfer function method with modeled image source technique
Assuming the signal strength from the actual source is of amplitude.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance 3.1 Least Squares Optimization Technique
58
The least squares method uses an idea of an imaginary source equidistant from the sample but in the –ve x direction as shown in Figure 3. the pressure at each microphone can be deduced from a Green’s function relating the output from each microphone to the input of the each source (both actual and image):
p1 = Ag1A + Bg1B = A( g1A + Rg1B ) p2 = Ag 2 A + Bg 2 B = A( g 2 A + Rg 2 B ) (3. B = RA x2 x1 d Cross sectional area.21)
. A and the amplitude from the image source is:
B = RA
(3. S = π(d/2)2
L
L
Figure 3. Initially this is considered for a two microphone case although the theory can be extended to work for multiple microphone measurements.
g1B. g2A and g2B are the same but relate to microphone 2.22)
e − jk ( L+ z1 )
where s is the cross sectional area of the tube in question.22) as there is plane wave propagation in the tube:
g1 A = g2 A
ρ0c
2s ρc = 0 e − jk ( L − z 2) . relates the output of microphone 1 to the input source. by equation (3.21) gives:
H 12 =
p2 g 2 A + g 2B R = p1 g1A + g1B R (3. B. relates the output of microphone 1 with the input source of the imaginary source.24)
Cho defines both a theoretical and a measured transfer function given as H12 and Ĥ12 respectively. 2s
e − jk ( L− z1 ) . In an impedance tube these Green’s
functions can be approximated. A.23)
Rearranging this equation allows the complex reflection factor to be given as:
R=
g 2 A − g1 A H 12 g1B H 12 − g 2 B (3.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
59
The Green’s Functions g1A. as given by Cho.
g1B = g 2B
ρ0c
2s ρc = 0 e − jk ( L + z 2) 2s
(3. He uses a least squares solution to obtain an optimally estimated reflection factor given as:
. Taking the transfer function of the pressures from each microphone as given in equation (3.
25)
This is the same as the theoretical equation (3.24) but the theoretical transfer function is replaced with the measured transfer function. S = π(d/2)2
x4
x3
L
L
Figure 3. A
m3
m2
m1 Image Source.5 Image source technique for multiple microphone positions
Using the same method as above gives an optimised reflection factor from the least squares solution for multiple microphone positions as:
Ropt = − m= 2
∑ (g
M
1A
ˆ ˆ H 1m − g mA g1B H 1m − g mB
)(
)
*
m= 2
∑
M
ˆ g1B H 1m − g mB
2
(3. The theory is initially applied to a two microphone case but is later extended to work for multiple microphone positions in a tube as shown in Figure 3.5:
m4 Source. B = RA x2 x1 d Cross sectional area.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
ˆ g 2 A − g1 A H 12 ˆ g1B H 12 − g 2 B
60
Ropt =
(3.26) This result is obtained by minimising the sum of the errors between the measured and the analytically derived pressures. It can be used for any number of microphone
.
M where m is the number of each microphone in the tube.9 0.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
61
positions.6 0. The MATLAB code used to generate Figure 3.7 0.3 0.8 0. The same brand of mineral wool was tested in both an existing/verified impedance tube and in the specially designed low frequency impedance tube. This reflection factor can then be used to determine the acoustic impedance and absorption coefficient in the normal way.6 can be found in appendix B:
Mineral Wool as Measured in Large and Small Impedance Tubes
1 0.6 Results of commissioning of the low frequency impedance tube
Absorption Coefficient
.6 as compared with a simple Delany and Bazley prediction model.4 0. both results from the simple transfer function code and also the optimised code had to be compared with results from a known tube or with a sample with known absorption characteristics.2 0.5 0.1 0 Large Tube Mic positions A and B Large Tube Mic positions B and C Large Tube Mic positions A and D Small Tube Results Prediction 500 1000 1500 2000 Frequency (Hz) 2500 3000
Figure 3.
In order to commission the low frequency tube. the results are seen in Figure 3. it shows good accuracy for the low frequency tube with the prediction model and the trends match up well.
7 Results.1 Standard Method [mics AB] Standard Method [mics AC] Standard Method [mics AD] Optimised Mehtod 50 100 150 Frequency. Hz 200 250
Figure 3.4 0. results were plotted on the same axes as shown in Figure 3.6 0.7:
Comparing Standard and Optimised Method
0.2 0.8 0. A thicker sample of mineral wool was tested in the low frequency impedance tube.7 Absorption Coefficient 0.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
62
It was difficult to commission an impedance tube that is used for such low frequency measurements as there was no other impedance tube available to which the results could be compared.3 0. However the results do show strong correlation with the trend from the measurements of mineral wool from a higher frequency tube and these match up well with the theoretical absorption graph of mineral wool.
The next part of the commissioning was to confirm that the optimised code was giving reliable results also.5 0.9 0. comparing the standard transfer function method and the least squares optimization method of interpreting the results
. The results were processed using both the standard transfer function method for microphone combinations with microphone A as the reference and the least squares optimisation method. confirming that the low frequency impedance tube does produce reliable results.
The optimised method smoothes out any anomalies and allows just one line to be plotted instead of having to rely on different lines for different frequency bands. As a result a new equation and code was formulated that calculated the results based on all five of the microphone transfer functions. Consequently the optimisation method could be extended referencing all of the possible permutations of microphone combinations rather than just the three that related to microphone A. this has obvious advantages for presenting results with maximum clarity and with minimum error.26) can be written as:
M −1 M
Ropt = −
∑ ∑ (g
n =1 m = n +1
nA
ˆ ˆ H nm − g mA g nB H nm − g mB
M
)(
)
*
M −1
∑∑
n =1 m = n +1
ˆ g nB H nm − g mB
2
(3.
It was noted that the existing optimisation method [23] referenced all of the microphone positions to microphone A and calculated the least squares results from that. With all of the possible microphone permutations equation (3. the results of which are shown in Figure 3. The extended version of the optimisation method was compared with the original optimisation method. The MATLAB code for both the optimised and standard method is found in appendix C.1:
.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
63
Results show that the optimisation code produces very similar results as the standard method.27) where n is the number of the reference microphone and m is the number of the second microphone.
As such it is the extended optimised method that has been used throughout this project to process impedance tube results.5
Conclusion
Theory of the testing of the surface impedance and the absorption coefficient of materials and systems has been presented.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
64
Comparing Standard and Extended Optimised Methods
0.9 0. the code for the extended optimization code is in appendix D. Hz 300 350 400 450
Figure 3. It has been shown that the impedance tube method is of greater practicality for the testing of the membrane absorber in this research than the reverberation chamber method as the latter method needs larger samples and would consequently need more than one membrane absorber to be constructed.8 Comparing the original and the extended version of the least square method
Using the extended method increases the number of transfer functions on which the least squares routine can be applied to and therefore is deemed to a more accurate method for processing impedance tube results.8 0. A specially designed impedance tube was constructed and commissioned
.4 0.
3.2 Original Optimisation Method Extended Optimisation Method 0.3 0.1 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency.5 0.7 Absorption Coefficient 0.6 0.
A least squares method of processing the measured data was chosen such that the results from all four microphone positions could be included on one graph for ease of analysis.Chapter 3: Measuring Absorption Coefficient and Surface Impedance
65
for the purpose of low frequency testing which will be used throughout this project for testing various permutations of design of the membrane absorber.
.
Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
66
4. The resonator for a membrane absorber can often be approximated as a simply supported or clamped membrane/plate on an acoustic cavity.1
Introduction
The main premise of this section of the work was to change the mounting conditions of the membrane or plate used as the vibrating mass in an absorber system. Loudspeakers have a spider which also
. This section of the work aimed at changing these conditions such that the resonator more closely approximates a pistonic oscillator with mass and stiffness controlled solely by its material and cavity properties. Pistonic oscillation or an approximation there of. kξ to the outer rim of the diaphragm where k is the stiffness of the spring and ξ is the displacement. can be achieved by utalising a loudspeaker surround designed for such oscillation. USING LOUDSPEAKER SURROUND AS THE MOUNTING FOR A MEMBRANE ABSORBER
4. Surrounds are used within a loudspeaker system in order to apply a restoring force.
The efficiency therefore. In fact in most practical membrane absorbers the vibrating mass equates more faithfully to a plate rather than a membrane. should also improve as the pistonic condition allows for larger displacements with less impedance to motion (depending on the mechanical properties of the surround used).Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
67
acts as a restoring force but on the apex of the diaphragm ensuring equal restoring force to all parts of the diaphragm so it only moves in one plane. In order to successfully model.2
Theory
By changing the mounting condition of the membrane in the absorber system it was hoped that the fundamental resonant frequency would be lowered as a consequence of the larger moving mass imposed by the pistonic condition. pistonic oscillation could be achieved for any shaped membrane/plate by using other shaped surrounds or with mountings such that it moves as a lumped mass in one plane only. The surround used for measurements in this section was circular as this could be easily obtained from a loudspeaker manufacturer and tested in the specially constructed impedance tube. which has a circular cross section. In practice however. The material used for the tests was a vinyl rubber used commonly in domestic floor tiles.
4. Pistonic motion means that the entire membrane/plate can oscillate rather than some of it being stationary due to the clamped condition. predict and verify tests using a loudspeaker surround mounted plate it was important to look at the basic theory of plate vibrations. It was seen that this behaved more as a plate than a membrane as the Eigen modes were more spread out in frequency suggesting that its restoring force was controlled primarily by its stiffness rather than its tension thus it approximated more accurately to a plate than a membrane [15]. However the term ‘membrane absorber’ is often used rather loosely and refers primarily to a method of acoustic absorption rather than the type of resonator used
.
2.1. A plate mounted with these conditions exhibits no deflection at the edges as it is pinned to the support such that ξ(0) = 0 and ξ (L) = 0. There are principally three mounting conditions and any anomalies tend to be variations upon these three. but the resonating mass treated as a plate.e.1 Simply Supported The most common representation of the impedance boundary conditions is that of simply supported. from this assumption some physical conditions can be determined.
4. As such for the purpose of this thesis the absorber system will hereafter be referred to as a membrane absorber. they are simply supported.2.1
x=0
x=L
Figure 4. plate or membrane.1 Schematic representation of a simply supported plate
For a simply supported plate it is assumed that the edges are pinned to the support. The three conditions are briefly summarized below. this condition can be represented diagrammatically as Figure 4.1 Traditional Mounting Conditions When looking at the vibrational behaviour of plates and membranes.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
68
i. defining the boundary conditions accurately is of utmost importance if an accurate model is to be devised [24]. The supports are pin supports so the plate is free to rotate on
. clamped and freely supported.
4.
However many bars and plates are mounted such that they can be considered to be a close approximation to this boundary condition.2.
4. The plate will also be horizontal at its edges such that the derivative of displacement is zero.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
69
the pin and doesn’t experience any torque/bending moment.1.
.2 Schematic representation of a clamped plate
A clamped plate is often a good assumption to make when modeling membrane absorbers as panels are often screwed or glued providing a strong fixing at the boundary and allowing no pivotal movement. Simplysupported plates are often used in the modeling of membrane absorbers as exemplified by Mechel [25]. M as a result. therefore M(0) = 0 and M(L) = 0.
The clamped condition can be drawn diagrammatically as:
An applied force causes plate to bend at the boundary
x=0
x=L
Figure 4. In practice only approximations to simple supports exist as there will always be a small bending moment at the pin supports even if they are well greased. ξ’(0 )= 0 and ξ’(L )= 0.2 Clamped The clamped condition is different to the simply supported case in that the edges of the plate cannot pivot on the supporting edges as with the simply supported case there can be no displacement at the edges of the plate so ξ(0) = 0 and ξ(L) = 0.
The pistonic case allows the movement of the plate only in one dimension similar to the freely supported case.3 Freely Supported
70
This case is probably the theoretically the simplest case although is difficult to create in practice. k.2. dt
This means that the plate will oscillate with motion governed by these parameters such that its resonant frequency can be given by:
f =
1 2π
m k
(4. the difference is that for the pistonic case there is a restoring force introduced by a spring of stiffness.3 Schematic representation of a freely supported plate
4.2. M(0) = 0 and M(L) =0 and there is no force acting on the edges of the plate as there are no supports.1. Finally the mass of the plate will also apply a force of M
du .1)
. there will also be a damping associated with the spring applying a force Ru to the system.2 The Pistonic Case Aside from these three common boundary conditions a pistonic case can also be defined.
Diagrammatically a freely supported plate can be drawn as:
x=0
x=L
Figure 4.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber 4. The spring provides a restoring force of kξ to the plate. A freely supported plate has no bending moment at the edges such that.
1 The main reason for this is that it is very difficult to quantify exactly what the mounting conditions of the plate are. modeling will be easier and more accurate predictions of the system’s resonant behaviour will result. the spring stiffness will also depend on the acoustic compliance of the enclosed volume of air. the interaction between the membrane and the cavity is also a difficulty even with advanced numerical techniques such as finite element modeling. there is no need to determine the material constants such as its modulus of elasticity or Poisson ratio. With the mounting condition of the plate approximating a pistonic condition.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
71
The pistonic case can be represented diagrammatically as:
k
m
Figure 4. Commercially this could lead to an absorber
.2.4 Schematic presentation of pistonic mounting
In practice if the plate is mounted on a cabinet. Damping terms are harder to quantify but techniques borrowed from modeling porous media and also from loudspeaker design can help.
A perennial problem associated with the design and application of membrane absorbers is that it is difficult to accurately predict the system’s resonant frequency as seen in section 2. All that is needed is the mass and area of the plate and the stiffness/compliance of any restoring springs. that is.4.
Using the pistonic condition for modeling the plate of the membrane absorber is a very useful tool because it enables the plate to be modeled as a lumped mass.
Initial tests were carried out on the two conditions.5. The surround’s mechanical properties were such that it had a large stiffness and a reasonably heavy damping for a surround of its size. testing the fundamental resonant frequency of each case using an accelerometer stuck to the centre of the plate in question.3
Measurements
The theory of using a loudspeaker surround as the mounting for a membrane absorber was tested using an accelerometer and the impedance tube. A 12” loudspeaker surround was obtained by request from KEF Loudspeakers and the vinyl rubber plate fixed to it to test the pistonic case.1 Initial Measurements Using an Accelerometer Two scenarios of mounting were tested for the absorber system. the rings and sample together then being screwed to a loudspeaker cabinet as per Figure 4. firstly with the plate approximating a clamped condition and secondly with the plate approximating a pistonic case. Two mounting rings were cut from a sheet of 3mm plywood. these rings were used to clamp the sample being tested.3.
4.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
72
design that would resonate at lower frequency with greater efficiency and be designed more easily such that it would resonate at the designated frequency when built.
4.
. Results showed that the resonant frequency of the system was decreased dramatically with the introduction of the surround as a consequence of the additional moving mass.
381 kgm2 and the vinyl membrane of 2. the windowed Fourier Transform was then taken to obtain a frequency spectrum from which the results were analysed.
. The surround had a mass/unit area of the 2. Using the rings meant that the area being tested was the same for both conditions i.e.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
73
(a) Wooden Mounting Rings
(b) Floor tile mounted on surround
(c) Clamped condition Figure 4. The membrane system was excited with a 12 inch loudspeaker from a distance of 1 metre. an impulse response was generated as measured with the accelerometer.5 Photos of membrane mounting
(d) Pistonic condition
The rings were used so the mounting conditions were the same each time hence it was just the effect of the surround being tested. the area of the surround with the plate and the plate alone was the same.81 kgm2. using a swept sine signal from a winMLS controlled computer.
9mm by 5. The accelerometer was a Knowles BU1771 with a mass of just 0.28g and dimensions 7.6. The experimental setup is shown in Figure 4. As such it was considered that the additional loading of the accelerometer on the plate was negligible. The following graph shows the frequency responses obtained from the measurements.6 Experimental setup for the accelerometer tests
Both the driver and the absorber were placed on the ground with absorbent in between to reduce the effect of first order reflections.
Results were processed in MATLAB using the script in appendix E.1mm.6mm by 4.
.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
74
Accelerometer Loudspeaker driver Sealed cabinet
1m Power Amp
WinMLS
Accelerometer preamp
Figure 4.
The decrease in resonant frequency is approximately 38. The membrane was mounted on the sample holder using two rings (see photo in appendix F) and jacked up
.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
75
Acceleration Level versus Frequency For Different Mounting Conditions
0 55.5 Hz. a shift of some 41% confirming the theory that the difference in boundary condition does produce a lower resonant frequency of significant proportion. dB
60
80
100
With Surround Without Surround 120 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency.
4.7 Results from the accelerometer tests
Figure 4.5Hz 20 94Hz
40
Level.7 shows clearly the shift in the fundamental resonance frequency of the system between boundary conditions approximating clamped and pistonic. initial tests were carried out using the larger of the two sample holders as this had a similar volume and hence similar compliant load on the plate as the loudspeaker cabinet used for the initial accelerometer tests.3. Hz 140 160 180 200
Figure 4.2 Impedance Tube Tests The impedance tube as described in chapter 3 had two sample holders of differing depths (10cm and 30cm).
0212m3 where as the loudspeaker cabinet had a volume of 0. The sample holder for the impedance tube had a volume of 0.8 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in large sample holder
Figure 4. This decrease is less than determined from the accelerometer tests.0434m3. The rings were like those used previously with the accelerometer tests as this corresponded to the similar boundary conditions. The tests yielded the following results:
Absorption Versus Frequency for Different Mounting Conditions Measured in Impedance Tube
1 60Hz 81Hz With Surround Without Surround
0.4
0.8
Absorption Coefficient
0. Tests were carried out using a swept sine signal at all four microphone positions and then processed using MATLAB.8 shows that when measured in the impedance tube the fundamental resonant frequency shifts 21Hz from the clamped condition.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
76
onto the impedance tube to provide a good seal. Hz
180
200
220
240
Figure 4.2
0
40
60
80
100
120
140 160 Frequency. This shift in resonant frequency corresponds to a 26% decrease. the outer diameter of the rings being larger to allow a tight fit in the tube.6
0. without the surround to the pistonic condition. An increase in volume corresponds to
. this is due to the differences in the cabinets that acted as the backing volume in each case. with the surround.
The mounting rings will therefore also support bending waves (See Figure 4. as the plate is effectively larger hence the fundamental frequency is lower in the impedance tube than with the accelerometer. A further difference seen between the two tests is that with the clamped case.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
77
an increase in compliance which leads to a lower resonant frequency. thus there will be a greater moving mass. measured in the impedance tube. The clamping of the sample in the impedance tube acts primarily on the mounting rings rather than on the edge of the membrane. this is a consequence of the difference in mounting conditions as shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.
. this provided a larger surface area for reception of the incident wave. this explains why the case with the surround in the impedance tube resonates at a higher frequency than when tested on the cabinet with the accelerometer. this means that the impedance at the edge of the clamped plate is less than for the accelerometer tests. the resonant frequency is lower than with the accelerometer tests.10).
Accelerometer mounting Mounting Wall of impedance tube Impedance tube mounting Less rigid termination at edge of plate
rings
Fixing screws
a
a a2
Mounting rings
Clamping acts on edge of plate
Test plate
Clamping acts on edge of mounting rings
Figure 4.9.9 Illustration of differing clamping conditions in accelerometer and impedance tube tests
The rings used for the impedance tube tests had a wider outer diameter to account for the diameter of the impedance tube.
10 Samples mounted in impedance tube. This is demonstrated more clearly in the tests done on a hardboard plate below. the change in moving mass will be less when mounted pistonically.
If the plate is mounted on a cabinet of smaller volume the difference that the additional moving mass makes will be less. It can therefore be deduced that the effect of adding the surround is less pronounced at lower frequencies.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
78
Impedance tube
Vibration of plate and mounting rings
Vibration of plate on surround
Porous absorbent
Rigid backing Figure 4. This can be seen when the plate was tested in the smaller of the two sample holders:
. thus the frequency shift between the two will not be as great. demonstrating how mounting rings can support modal behaviour
When the mass of the clamped plate is larger.
5
0. this time it was 3mm thick hardboard that was tested.7 Absorption Coefficient
0.3
0.11 shows a frequency shift of the fundamental resonant peak of just 9Hz corresponding to shift of just 9%. results found that the double resonance disappeared confirming that it was a consequence of the material properties rather than
. Hz
200
250
Figure 4. Secondary peaks have been circled on the graph. The peaks appear at higher amplitudes than with the larger sample holder case because they are closer in frequency to the fundamental mode of the membrane thus there is a modal superposition such that the combination of the two peaks results in greater amplitude at that frequency.1
0 50
100
150 Frequency.
The tests were repeated in the impedance tube using a different material.9
0.11 Results from impedance tube tests with and without surround in small sample holder
Figure 4.6
0.4
0. these correspond to a double resonance in the material which is made up from two distinct layers.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
79
Absorption of Membrane With and Without Surround in Small Sample Holder
1 96 Hz 105 Hz With Surround Without Surround
0. The second resonant mode of the system as a whole can be seen at 230Hz for the clamped condition.8
0.2
0.
6 0.12 shows a frequency shift of 26% for the small sample holder case and 42% for the large sample holder case. Hz
180
200
220
240
Large Sample Holder 1 61 Hz Absorption Coefficient 0. It can be observed that the surround mounted hardboard in the small sample holder resonates at a lower frequency than the clamped hardboard resonates on the large sample holder.4 0. Results of the hardboard tests in both the large and small sample holder are given in Figure 4.2 0 105 Hz
With Surround Without Surround
40
60
80
100
120
140 160 Frequency. This provides a very useful case where a membrane absorber can be constructed with much smaller dimensions whilst still retaining the low frequency performance and high absorption coefficients simply by mounting the resonating plate on a loudspeaker surround.
.8 0.12.12 Results from impedance tube tests on hardboard with and without surround in small and large sample holders
Figure 4.
Hardboard Tested in Small and Large Sample Holders With and Without Surround Mounting
Small Sample Holder 1 Absorption Coefficient 0.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
80
the test set up. Hz
180
200
220
240
Figure 4.2 0 99 Hz 134 Hz
40
60
80
100
120
140 160 Frequency.6 0. In this case the depth of the absorber is a third as thick for with the small sample holder compared to the larger sample holder yet still resonates at a lower frequency with the surround.4 0.8 0.
1 Equivalent Circuit Model The theory for equivalent circuit modeling is found in section 5. it was seen that the pistonic case could be modelled with a good degree of accuracy using both modelling methods. RAD is the resistive losses due to the mounting of the plate. MAD is the mass of the plate. an equivalent circuit model and a transfer matrix model.3.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
81
4. It consists of only a mechanical and acoustical section such that the analogue circuit that describes its motion can be given as:
Z AF
C AB
RAB
M AD
RAD
C AD
2 pin
Figure 4.1.1.
4.13 Equivalent circuit for a membrane absorber
CAB is the compliance of the cabinet.4. CAD is the compliance of the surround and ZAF is the radiation impedance which is dependent on
. RAB is the resistive losses in the cabinet.4
Modelling
Two types of model were used in this section. Comparisons were made between measurements and predictions using the conventional membrane absorber equations illustrating that greater accuracy in prediction can be made when considering the pistonic rather than the clamped case. The equivalent circuit for the absorber system described in this section is of a simpler form than that described in chapters five and six.
4.4.3).
4.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
82
whether the absorber is in a tube or in free field conditions (see section 5. RAD. can be estimated from a loudspeaker model.1.1.3.
4. CAD is the hardest to determine and requires a simple experimental procedure as described in section 4. ZAF is equal to ρ0c/SD if the absorber is within the impedance tube or is given by equation (5. MAD is easily determined by weighing the plate.1 Determining CAD The compliance of the surround is given by its displacement when given a force F.1.1 Finding Parameters Before the above circuit can be modeled and the surface impedance found it is necessary to determine some of the constants in the system.1. RAB is determined from the Delany and Bazley model of porous media [10] and CAB = V/ρ0c2.1.4.19) if in free field. All of the above quantities are in acoustic units.14 Experimental setup for measuring compliance of surround
.1. In order to find the stiffness of the surround and from that to determine its compliance the following test set up was used:
Dial Gauge
Clamped Support
Added mass
Surround Figure 4. Assuming Hook’s law the force applied to the spring (surround) should be proportional to its displacement.
N
1.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
83
Incremental changes in the mass applied to the plate displaced the surround.5 2 2. A graph as shown in Figure 4. The gradient of the best fit line gives the stiffness of the surround.8
1. Masses were positioned carefully such that equal force was applied to the entire surround.15 was plotted of force applied versus displacement from which the stiffness and hence the compliance could be found.6
1.2 Measured Data Points Least Squarres Best Fit Line 0 0 0. The plate used was rigid hardboard so it was only the compliance of the surround being measured rather than that of the plate itself.5 1 1.
Finding Compliance of Surround (Force Applied versus Deflection of Surround)
2
1. m 3 3.4
Force Applied. the displacement was then measured to a hundredth of a millimeter by the dial gauge which was held with a clamp stand to keep it from moving. The compliance of the surround was found to be:
.5 Deflection of Surround.6
0. the reciprocal of which gives the compliance.8
0.5 x 10
4
Figure 4.5 4 4.15 Results from experiment to determine compliance of surround
A regression analysis was performed on the measured data and the corresponding best fit line plotted.4
0.2
1
0.
The equivalent circuit for the clamped case is the same but deriving the compliance and mass are difficult and as such an equivalent piston of the plate can be considered. Rossi [27] presents such theory.59 µmN 1
84
(4.3)
These values can be put into the equivalent circuit model such that the pistonic case can be compared with the clamped case.49 ± 2. E it is possible to determine the equivalent mass and compliance of the plate as an equivalent piston. By calculating the kinetic and potential energy of the plate as it is deflected by the standard parabolic deflection and integrating over its area it is possible to find an equivalent mass and compliance as if the plate were a pistonic resonator. µ thickness.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber C AB = 205.1. Rossi gives the equivalent mass as one fifth of the mass of the clamped plate and the compliance as:
C ME
180 1 − µ 2 a 2 = Eh 3
(
)
(4.2) The percentage error in this measurement is given as 1.26% which is significantly less than the 10% error often quoted as the error in the compliance as measured by MLSSA in the added mass method of smallsignal parameters [26] (see section 5. h and Young’s modulus.
4.3).3.
Having determined the parameters governing the pistonic case the equivalent circuit can be solved easily.2 Finding the Equivalent Piston of a Clamped Plate Assuming a clamped plate with a Poisson ratio.1.
.4.
1.16 Absorption curve from equivalent circuit model of membrane with and without surround
The model accurately predicts the resonant frequency of both cases suggesting that the change in frequency is almost entirely due to the increase in moving mass of the membrane as a result of the surround mounting.4
0.16. The scenario that was modeled was the same as with the initial accelerometer tests so as to eliminate the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the mounting rings:
Equivalent Circuit Model of Membrane Absorber With and Without Surround Mounting
1 55 Hz 95 Hz With Surround Without Surround
0.2 Results The equivalent circuit was implemented in MATLAB using the code in appendix G plotting the equivalent circuit for the pistonic case and the clamped condition yields Figure 4. The model demonstrates that the equivalent piston for the vibrating plate can be used to predict the resonant frequency but not the overall absorption of the system as it shows large inaccuracies in prediction
.4.8
Absorption Coefficient
0.2
0
0
50
100
150
200 Frequency. Hz
250
300
350
400
Figure 4.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
85
4.6
0.
1.1.4.
Measured and Predicted Absorption Graph.6 0.2. Hz Hardboard
100
120
140 With Surround Without Surround Transfer Matrix Model
1 Absorption Coefficient 0.17 demonstrates that the accuracy of the transfer matrix modeling approach is far better when predicting the lumped mass pistonic case than with the clamped
.2 0 20
40
60
80 Frequency. the equivalent piston model calculated an equivalent compliance and mass assuming the plate was at its fundamental resonance so outside of that range it is unsurprising that the model is inaccurate.4.4 0. These inaccuracies result because a plate is a complex element.17 Comparison of measured absorption curves with predictions from a transfer matrix model
Figure 4. With and Without Surround
Vinyl Rubber 1 Absorption Coefficient 0. Results were compared to values as measured in the impedance tube for both the vinyl rubber case and the hardboard case.
4.8 0.8
61 Hz
105 Hz
65 Hz 0. The MATLAB script can be found in appendix H.4 0.2 0 20 60 Hz 62 Hz 81 Hz
40
60
80 Frequency.2 Transfer Matrix Model A transfer matrix model was formulated using the principles described in section 2. Hz
100
120
140
Figure 4.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
86
of the absorption bandwidth.6 0.
4.57kgm2).3 Hz for the hardboard plate (M = 2. It was shown the decrease in resonant frequency was a result of the increased moving mass introduced by the surround.30). Further tests were carried out with the low frequency impedance tube confirming the findings of the accelerometer tests.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
87
condition. These effects were more
. thus using a loudspeaker surround will aid accuracy in predicting its performance at the design stage. Tests were initially performed with an accelerometer on the membrane and results showed a significant decrease in resonant frequency with the membrane mounted on the surround. Applying equation (2. Models are often inaccurate which is often due to uncertainties in mounting conditions of the resonating mass.
Results obtained in this section can also be compared with predictions of resonant frequency from the simple design equation often used for membrane absorbers mentioned in section 2.5
Conclusion
Two mounting conditions of a membrane absorber have been considered.2.1. These match up favourably with the pistonic case but not the clamped case again confirming that greater accuracy in predictions can be achieved when using a pistonic lumped mass rather than a clamped plate as the mass of a membrane absorber.
4.81kgm2) and 68. firstly a clamped case as is typical of most membrane absorbers and secondly a pistonic mounting condition with the use of a loudspeaker surround. When the plate is mounted on the loudspeaker surround the accuracy of the transfer matrix model increases greatly. It illustrates well the problems that are often encountered when designing membrane absorbers to resonate at a specific frequency. to the above examples yields resonant frequencies of 65.3 Hz for the vinyl plate (M = 2.
The Standard membrane absorber design equations were also shown to produce more accurate results for the surround mounted condition. the backing volume was larger and when the initial mass was smaller. A transfer matrix model was also demonstrated showing that the pistonic case could be modelled to a much better degree of accuracy than the clamped case thereby aiding the design of membrane absorbers such that a trial and error approach need not be employed.e.
An equivalent circuit model was presented. Poisson ratio and Young’s modulus.
. This illustrates a significant improvement in the low frequency performance of membrane type absorbers. The pistonic mass modelled as one fifth of the mass of the clamped plate and the compliance as a function of the material constants. Tests demonstrated that frequency shifts in excess of 40% could be obtained by using a surround mounting in preference of a standard clamped condition. The equivalent circuit model predicted accurately the resonant frequency of both clamped and pistonic cases. demonstrating that the difference in resonant frequency was indeed a result of the increased moving mass.Chapter 4: Using Loudspeaker Surround as the Mounting for a Membrane Absorber
88
pronounced when the compliance of the cavity was greater i. It was also shown that a membrane absorber utilising a loudspeaker surround on the small sample holder (a third of the volume of the larger one) could produce a lower resonant frequency than the clamped case using the larger sample holder. The model included equivalent mass and stiffness terms of a clamped plate moving as a piston. but approximating the clamped plate as an equivalent piston lead to inaccuracies in predicting the broadband absorption characteristics.
the compliance of the enclosure as the restoring
. This is a topic that has been considered previously by Sato and Koyasu [28] although in this case it was the incidental absorption of low frequencies by obsolete loudspeakers within a room.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
89
5.1 Introduction
Having outlined the theory and practice of using a loudspeaker surround as the mounting for a membrane absorber.15. seen as a problem rather than a solution that was considered. a logical progression is to attempt to use the entire loudspeaker system as part of the resonant absorber.
This section aims at the purposeful use of loudspeakers as absorber systems. A loudspeaker within an enclosure very closely approximates a membrane absorber. the diaphragm as the resonating mass. USING A LOUDSPEAKER AS A RESONANT ABSORBER
4.
4. this is the focus of chapter six. in a pistonic manner allowing the increased low frequency performance and accurate predictions outlined in the previous chapter. hence the electrical and magnetic coefficients of the system will affect its mechanical behaviour according to Faraday’s laws of electromagnetism. within certain bounds. loudspeakers are cheap and readily available for rudimentary acoustic treatment.
A lumped element prediction model of a loudspeaker used as an absorber is first presented in this chapter followed by results from impedance tube measurements that confirm the predicted data. is that it is an electromagnetic system. as designed. and possibly the greatest advantage of using a loudspeaker. Firstly loudspeakers already oscillate naturally. air is driven into motion
. This has the consequence of allowing the system to be tuned to a specific resonant frequency. For now the simple case of a passive loudspeaker with no additional electronic components is considered as an absorber system.2 Basic Premise from Loudspeaker Theory
Most loudspeakers work by supplying a varying current i to a coil of wire length l within a magnetic field of flux density B which consequently induces a force F = Bil on the coil. demonstrating a loudspeakerabsorber that achieves high absorption coefficients within its resonance region.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
90
spring and porous material within the enclosure providing additional damping. Using a loudspeaker as an absorber has several advantages. Secondly. If some kind of diaphragm is attached to this coil. Thirdly. simply by the addition of resistive and reactive electrical components across the terminals of the driver.25. an idea previously applied to the field of loudspeaker design [29].
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
91
causing small localised pressure changes thus producing an audible output. similar to a moving coil microphone. there is the added complication of the coupling between the mechanical and electrical systems. Solutions using techniques such as Finite Element Analysis can be time consuming and difficult.
To predict the behaviour of this absorber system a standard lumped parameter technique for loudspeaker analysis can be used. As with a typical membrane absorber the system will have a characteristic resonant frequency governed by its mechanical and acoustical properties. stiffness of springs and the mass per unit area of the membrane. The theory of lumped parameter or lumped element modelling enables such simplification [30]. In the case of the loudspeaker. In the next section such a model is presented and used to analyse the behaviour of the absorber. such as the volume of the enclosure. This leads to very complicated solutions obtainable by the three dimensional wave equation. Alternating acoustic pressures incident to the diaphragm force it into oscillatory motion thus moving the coil in the magnetic field inducing a voltage in the connected circuitry.
.3 Lumped Parameter Modelling
Acoustical systems can contain up to three spatial dimensions the components of which all can change temporally. Its resonant characteristics will however also be dependent on its electrical and magnetic coefficients giving the loudspeakerabsorber an extra dimension.
4. Using a loudspeaker as an absorber uses this system in reverse. consequently it is highly desirable to simplify problems such that they can be manipulated and solved more easily.35.
This is a common engineering technique and is used extensively in loudspeaker design and modelling [31. such as air. and the wavelength becomes much larger than all of the dimensions of the device. the equation of motion is greatly simplified.3. that dimension need not be considered in calculations as pressure and velocity are assumed to be constant across it. 32]. pressure and velocity are constant across all of its dimensions at a given moment in time.15. reducing the problem to that of only a single degree of freedom variant only with time. The application of this assumption to the acoustics of ducts means that if the diameter of a duct is small enough with respect to wavelength.1
92
Theory
If the acoustic wavelength in a fluid. The problem therefore is reduced in complexity by elimination of that variable.3. Above a given frequency the acoustic wavelength in air becomes comparable with the dimensions of the tube and hence propagation can no longer be considered only in the direction of the tube’s length but also across its width so the plane wave simplification can not be accurately applied. When these conditions are assumed the components of the system can be considered as a lumped elements or lumped parameters. a more complex propagation model would need to be considered not making a plane wave assumption. plane wave propagation can be assumed down the duct. each acoustic variable can be considered constant in the all three directions of the spatial domain.
.
If this low frequency assumption is taken further.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber 4.e. is assumed to be much larger than one dimension of the system of interest. this gives rise to the high frequency limit imposed on impedance tubes. such that any spatial dependency is removed. although varying temporally. If these conditions are applied. i.
be it mechanical or acoustical.1. which states that the highest frequency should have a wavelength greater than all the dimensions of the system being modelled [27].15.
4. acoustical and electrical components. Drawing a schematic diagram means that the differential equations governing a given system can be easily determined and solved on inspection. these are the impedance and mobility analogues. In order to successfully do this it is necessary to define analogies between electrical. Electrical circuits are commonly chosen as the schematic representation because electrical circuit theory is widely known and understood throughout many spheres of science and engineering.1. As such there is a high frequency limit imposed on the use of lumped parameter models.1 Equivalent Circuits The premise behind the theory of equivalent circuits is to represent a physical situation. This is relatively simple if the spatial variables are removed however if the spatial dimensions are reintroduced for smaller wavelengths or larger devices the differential equations become very complicated and it becomes profitable to revert to elementary acoustics and the solution of the wave equation again.3.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
93
A major advantage of using a lumped element method is that it is very easy to draw a schematic representation of a system utilising analogies between mechanical. The following. in the form of an electrical circuit. mechanical or acoustical diagram.
. mechanical and acoustical domains such that the equivalent circuits retain their integrity.3. this is common practice for engineers and allows each section to be represented as an electrical. briefly describes two commonly used analogies for the purpose of equivalent circuit analysis.
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
94
In terms of electrical oscillations (of great importance in the field of electroacoustics) there are three principle electronic components each one either storing or dissipating energy:

Inductors LE. stores kinetic energy Compliance CM. i = i0 e jωt the impedance of these components can be determined as:
v0 e jωt = i0 e jωt jωL v Z = = jωL i . dissipate energy
If the current is known. store magnetic energy (flux) Capacitors CE. v 1 Z= = i jω C
Z=
v =R i
(5. (5. stores potential energy
.2) Analogous to these three electrical components of oscillation are three mechanical oscillatory components:

Mass MM. and
v = RE i .dt
CE
.
v0 e jωt =
i0 e jωt jω C . an expression for the potential difference across each component can be formed such that:
v = LE
di . dt
v=
∫ i.1)
Assuming a sinusoidal input current. store electrical energy (charge) Resistors RE.
the components are assumed to be ideal. This is a useful first approximation and extra components can be added to a model to account for the fact that they are not in fact ideal. velocity u is the flow variable so can be thought of as analogous to electrical current and force F is the potential variable and can be thought of as analogous to voltage.3) Aside from Newton’s law of force which is universally valid. if the velocity of each section in the mechanical components is known and assumed to be sinusoidal. so that. an inductor has no capacitance or resistance and conversely a compliance has no mass et cetera.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber Frictional resistance (damping) RM.dt
CM
and Z M =
1 jω C M
From classical mechanics FM = RM u and Z M = RM (5. these are only first order approximations and therefore are more accurate when small displacements are considered.
In both the electrical and mechanical cases. Rossi [27] provides a more extensive analysis this topic looking at the equivalent mass of an ideal compliance
. with larger displacements the system is no longer linear which complicates matters and lumped parameter analysis is no longer valid. and the impedance of the components can be determined by the following equations:
From Newton’s law of force FM = M M
du and Z M = jωM M dt
From Hook’s law FM =
∫ u. In the same way as for the electrical components. the force across. dissipates energy
95
For the mechanical case.
Therefore if the volume velocity through a component is known then it is possible to calculate the pressure by across the components given a sinusoidally oscillating volume velocity by:
p=MA
dU therefore Z A = jωM A dt
p=
∫U . stores kinetic energy Acoustic compliance CA. stores potential energy viscous damping RA. volume velocity U is the flow variable (analogous to current) and pressure p is the potential variable (analogous to voltage).4) Combining these analogies leads to the impedance analogue which can be surmised by Table 5. In most situations the elements in the circuit can be considered as ‘lumped’ such that no mechanical or acoustical component exhibits any wave motion within the element.
As with mechanical values there are three acoustical quantities that pertain to the oscillatory electrical components such that:

Acoustic mass or inertance MA. dissipates energy
In the acoustic case.dt
CA
therefore Z A =
1 jω C A
p = R AU therefore Z A = R AU (5.1:
.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
96
et cetera.
CE Z E = 1 / jωC E
Table 5. The impedance analogue is more intuitive. RE Z E = RE Inductance.:
i = CE
de di and e = LE dt dt
(5. Another analogy also exists which makes use of the reciprocity of electrical components that is to say that an inductor behaves to current how a capacitor behaves to voltage and vice versa. Using Kirchoff’s current and voltage laws it simply a matter of whether to connect components in parallel or series. LE Z E = jωLE Capacitance. Any components that were connected in series will consequently need to be connected in parallel and any in parallel connected in series in order to obey Kirchoff’s laws. e
Current.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
97
Potential Variable Flow variable Dissipative component Kinetic storage component Potential storage component
Electrical Voltage. U ( = u×S) Acoustic damping. RM Z M = RM Mass. Z A = 1 / jωC A CA
Resistance.e. This analogy can be seen as the direct opposite to the impedance analogue and can be surmised in the following in Table 5. i.1 Summary of the impedance analogue
This impedance analogue is very useful and can be used to model many practical scenarios. MA Z A = jω M A Acoustic compliance .5) This leads to another analogy which is the reciprocal of the impedance analogy and consequently called the mobility analogue. CM Z M = 1 / jωC M
Acoustical Pressure. CA . i
Impedance Analogue Mechanical Force. FM
Velocity. RA Z A = RA Acoustic mass. p
Volume velocity. Because they are complete opposites of each other. so that inductors become capacitors and vice versa and resistances become conductances (a reciprocal resistance). u Damping.
. the results yielded by both analogies will be identical.2. MM MM Z M = jωM M Compliance.
u Damping. MM MM Z M = 1 / jωM M Compliance. 1/RE Z E = 1 / RE Capacitance. CM Z M = jωC M
Acoustical Pressure. mechanical and acoustical sections in turn to derive individual equivalent circuits and then combining the three into a single circuit diagram allows the complex surface impedance of the absorber to be predicted and as such.1 Electrical Section Electrically.2. FM
Velocity. CA . thus it can be considered as an inductor with inductance.25. i
Voltage. Z A = jωC A CA
Conductance. calculation of the systems reflection factor and absorption coefficient. Analysing electrical.2
Analysis
Subsequent analysis shows how the absorber system can be modelled easily with the use of lumped elements and equivalent circuits.1:
.3.
4. RA Z A = 1 / RA Acoustic mass. CE Z E = jω C E
Table 5. LE and associated resistance. RM Z M = 1 / RM Mass.3. RE. In electrical terms the loudspeaker can be simplistically modelled by Figure 5.2 Summary of the mobility analogue
4. p
Volume velocity. a loudspeaker consists simply of an alternating current through a coil of wire in the presence of a magnetic field. LE Z E = 1 / jω L E Inductance.3. e
Mobility Analogue Mechanical Force.2.3. U ( = u×S) Acoustic damping. MA Z A = 1 / jωM A Acoustic compliance .15.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
98
however it is useful especially in the analysis of loudspeakers to use both impedance and mobility analogues as it makes combining the circuits somewhat easier as will be seen later:
Potential Variable Flow variable Dissipative component Kinetic storage component Potential storage component
Electrical Current.
In many loudspeaker applications the model of the electrical section shown in Figure 5. connected together or connected across a complex passive load impedance. it is important therefore to insure that the base motor impedance is
. in order to make the modelling more simple it is often omitted from the circuit. In the absorber system however the terminals can be either left open circuit. A and B would be connected to a sound source i.1 Simple representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker
The impedance of the above circuit is a combination of the resistive and reactive parts such that the electrical impedance is given by:
Z E = jωLE + RE (5. In the next chapter small changes are made to this motor impedance with the addition of further electronic components. therefore.6) In a loudspeaker the terminals. altering the mechanical properties of the system. in fact in many cases the inductance of the voice coil LE is even ignored as it is predominantly a high frequency component.1 is used and is adequate.e. This will be seen in greater detail in the next chapter. this will alter the frequency response of the electrical circuit and will consequently change the impedance presented to the induced current.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
99
LE A B
RE
Figure 5. an AC voltage generator of some description.
3.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
100
predicted to the highest degree of accuracy so the effect of the additional components can be quantified precisely.25. There is also a spring in the system consisting of the spider and the surround of the loudspeaker bringing the cone back to its position of equilibrium each time it is displaced. L1 in series with a lossy inductance L2R2.2.3. it was chosen for this application because it is the model used by the MLSSA SPO module to obtain the Thiele/Small parameters of loudspeakers (see section 5. In this case the circuit becomes as Figure 5.2. The spider works at the apex of the cone and the
.2 Mechanical Section Mechanically a loudspeaker is simply a diaphragm (a paper cone) which is set into motion by an electromotive force.
L2 L1 R2 A B RE
Figure 5.2.3). The model chosen for this application however comes from the MLSSA SPO manual [26] where the motor impedance is represented such that the voice coil resistance. RE is in series with an inductance modelled as an inductor.2 More complicated representation of the electrical section of a loudspeaker
This model is more accurate at higher frequencies. There are more complicated models available of a loudspeaker’s motor impedance (electrical section) as demonstrated by Wright [33] who included additional variable resistance and inductance terms which allow the accurate prediction of impedance up to higher frequencies.
4. other models take into account eddy currents within the voice coil [34].3.
Attempting to model a loudspeaker using lumped parameter techniques at higher frequencies will lead to spurious results as bending waves alter both the moving mass and the compliance of the diaphragm making it a nonlinear system. That the diaphragm moves with pistonic oscillation is an important assumption to make as it eliminates the need to model complex bending waves on the diaphragm that appear at higher frequencies otherwise known as ‘cone break up’. The absorber system uses the loudspeaker in reverse to induce a current in the voice coil given oscillation of the diaphragm in sympathy with an acoustic pressure. The diaphragm of a loudspeaker is conical in a shape to increase its stiffness in the plane normal to the intended motion. the induced movement of the cone is governed in frequency and magnitude by the frequency and strength of the alternating current that is applied across the terminals. The absorber will have a resonant frequency inherently controlled by the moving mass of the diaphragm and the stiffness of the spring (both the mechanical suspension compliance and the compliance of the air volume within the cabinet). and this is obviously rather
. this ensures that it moves backwards and forwards as a piston. For lower frequency radiation however the pistonic assumption is valid and enables accurate predictions.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
101
surround on the outside of the cone ensuring equal force is applied to all areas of the cone with no phase lag of the combined restoring force.
A magnetic field is generated by a large permanent magnet which is held in place by a chassis so as not to put a load on the diaphragm. As a consequence of this magnetic field. however this is awkward as it involves rebuilding the entire absorber using different materials and geometry. This enables the resonant frequency to be altered by changing these parameters. As with a standard membrane absorber the cone will generate a particle velocity in the cabinet which is then absorbed by porous material.
such that the equation of motion becomes:
.
Considering just the mechanical section of the loudspeaker it can be seen that with the diaphragm moving pistonically.3 Mechanical representation of a loudspeaker
The mass M M moves on a spring with stiffness K M and compliance C M . on the combined compliance it can be represented simply as a mass on a spring as in Figure 5. The above system can be easily solved using differential equations. These components have a frequency dependence of their own. The induced current will be impeded by the electrical components L1.3:
MM K M = 1/ C M
F
RM
u=0
Figure 5. thus the electrical impedance will be larger at some frequencies than at others enabling the induced current to flow more easily at some frequencies. R2 .RE and those connected across terminals A and B as seen from Figure 5. It is possible however to use the electrical section of the absorber to change the resonance in the mechanical domain.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
102
impractical. there is also some inherent damping in the mechanical system RM which comprises of losses within the mounting and suspension of the diaphragm. Mechanically the system will oscillate with greater amplitude when the impedance to the induced current is at a minimum and as such the electrical section will have ramifications on the resonance properties of the entire system.2. L2.
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
du + RM + K M ∫ u.dt dt
103
F = MM
(5.7) Assuming sinusoidal oscillation, F = F0 e jωt and u = u 0 e jωt
F0 e jωt = jωM M u 0 e jωt + RM u 0 e jωt + F = jωM M u + RM u + 1 u jωC M
1 u 0 e jωt jω C M
(5.8) Mechanical impedance can be written as Z M = F / u therefore the total mechanical impedance of the above system is:
Z M = jωM M + RM +
1 jωC M (5.9)
This is the expected result which can also be obtained by modelling the scenario with the impedance analogue leading to the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 5.4. This impedance is in the same format as an electrical impedance with an inductor a resistor and a capacitor. MM u F CM RM
Figure 5.4 Impedance analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
104
The same mechanical system can be modelled with the mobility analogue as the reciprocal of Figure 5.4 such that the circuit becomes as Figure 5.5:
F
CM
1 / RM
MM
u
Figure 5.5 Mobility analogue circuit of the mechanical section of a loudspeaker
The impedance of this circuit can be determined as follows:
1 1 1 1 = + ... + Z Tot Z1 Z 2 Zn 1 1 = + jωM M + RM Z Tot jωC M (5.10) Note that this admittance/mobility in Figure 5.5 is the same as the impedance of the circuit in Figure 5.4. One circuit therefore is said to be the ‘dual’ of the other. Both circuits can be used to determine the velocity and the force and yield the same results.
The mechanical system will resonate when the imaginary part becomes zero therefore the resonant frequency can be calculated using equation (5.11):
jωM M +
1 =0 jω C M
ω=
1 M M CM (5.11)
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
105
Resistive losses will affect only the Qfactor of the resonant curve.
4.3.2.35.3.2.3 Acoustical Section For the acoustical section it is assumed that the incident acoustic wave (alternating pressure source) causes the same volume velocity at both the front and back of the diaphragm each providing a complex impedance load as such the circuit can be represented in with the impedance analogue by Figure 5.6.
Z AF U pin
Z AB
Figure 5.6 Impedance analogue circuit of the acoustical section of a loudspeaker
Z AF and Z AB are the impedance at the front and back of the diaphragm respectively. The impedance at the back of the diaphragm is the easier of the two to determine; it consists predominantly of the compliant air load of the cabinet, CA and the resistive damping provided by the porous absorbent, RA. ZAF is the radiation impedance as a result of the air load in front of the absorber and it depends on what space the absorber ‘radiates’ into. When in free space the impedance at the front of the diaphragm is a combination of an acoustic mass term and a resistive air load on the diaphragm given by the radiation impedance of a baffled piston as in equation (5.19). ZAF is less complicated if the absorber radiates in tube with plane wave propagation as is modelled in subsequent sections for comparison with impedance tube tests. In this case the mass
Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
106
term disappears and the radiation impedance can be given by equation (5.20). Greater detail will be paid to these terms in section 5.3.3.
The mobility analogue can also be used to represent the system as an electrical circuit. Pressure becomes the flow variable (current), volume velocity the potential variable (voltage).
pin
1 Z AB
1 Z AF
Figure 5.7 Mobility analogue circuit of the acoustical section of loudspeaker used as a membrane absorber
4.3.2.45.3.2.4 Combining the Sections Once all of the sections have been individually derived it is important to link them together correctly, this is done using ideal transformers forming an electrical link between the circuits enabling each section to be written in the same units so the overall impedance of the system can be determined from a combined circuit of all three sections.
Ideal transformers are electrical transformers where there is assumed to be no losses in the coils, i.e. they have negligible resistance and inductance such that all power is conserved. Therefore for the transformer in Figure 5.8 v2 a = v1b and i1a = i2b .
9:
b Z 2 = Z1 a
2
i2
b v a
v2
Figure 5.9 can also be determined when multiplying out the transformer to form a single circuit such that:
a v2 2 v1 b = v2 ⋅ a Z1 = = i1 b i2 b i2 a a Z 2 = Z1 ⋅ b
2
(5. With this in mind the equivalent impedance. v2 when multiplying out the transformer it is simply a matter of multiplying the input voltage.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber Z1
107
i1
a:b
i2
v1
v2
Figure 5. Z2 in Figure 5. the input current is divided by this turns ratio. v1 by the turns ratio (a/b) and to determine the current in the secondary circuit.12) The simplified circuit can then be written as Figure 5.9 Simplified idealised transformer
.8 Idealised transformer
In order to calculate the output voltage.
converting the three circuits into one.
When applying this transformer theory to the absorber problem.13) and (5. B is the magnetic flux density of the magnet measured in Tesla’s.13) (5. that is to say the circuits must be converted so that the units are all in the same domain. For example it is possible to convert all of the sections into either the electrical.9 are electrically equivalent. In order to convert an electrical term into a mechanical term Faradays laws are used as equations (5.8 and Figure 5.
F = Bli v = Blu
(5.14).
To successfully multiply out the transformers such that any electrical terms are converted to mechanical terms. For the purposes of this problem it is the acoustical domain that is of interest so circuits will be combined accordingly. As such this can be used as the turns ratio so that a voltage can become a
.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
108
Looking from the position of v2 Figure 5. The common link between these formulae is the force factor (Bl). u is the velocity of the coil and v is the voltage across the coil. l is the length of the coil. the correct turns ratio must be chosen for the coils of the transformer. In order to convert all of the circuits into the acoustical domain the mechanical and electrical sections can first be combined to produce a single circuit with mechanical units and then this circuit combined with the acoustical circuit to produce just one circuit in the acoustic domain. mechanical or the acoustic units.14)
where i is the current flowing through the coil. it is important to maintain congruence in the circuits.
5.10 Equivalent circuit linking electrical. The three sections linked with the transformers then becomes as per Figure 5. As such the acoustic section needs also to be modelled with the mobility analogue to prevent an incongruity of values. this means the mechanical section needs to be represented by the mobility analogue as in Figure 5.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
109
force and a current can become a velocity. mechanical and acoustical sections with transformers
The transformer linking the mechanical and the electrical sections is removed using the rules for idealised transformers.15)
The common term here is S D which is used as the turns ratio of the transformer for the conversion. dividing impedances by the square of the turns ratio ( Bl / 1 ) thus the circuit becomes:
.
The mechanical and acoustical domains can be linked by using the equations:
p=
F . therefore what was a force in mechanical units will become a pressure in the acoustic section and what was a velocity in the mechanical section will now become a volume velocity.10:
Acoustical section (Mobility analogue)
Mechanical section (Mobility analogue)
Electrical section (Impedance analogue)
SD :1 p pin 1 Z AF 1 Z AB F M MD C MD 1 RMD
1 : Bl
L1
L2
i
R2 RE
Figure 5. and U = uS D SD (5.
12 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical.13) and what was a voltage has become a velocity from equation (5. The mechanoacoustical transformer is now removed by multiplying all the impedances by the square of the turns ratio (1 / S D ) . Thus the right hand side circuit consists now entirely of components with mechanical units.11 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber with electrical and mechanical sections combined
What was a current in the electrical section has now become a force in the mechanical domain from equation (5. mechanical and acoustical sections combined
.16)
LE S D
2
p M MD SD
2
(Bl )2
2
LE S D
2
(Bl )2
2
RE S D
2
(Bl )2
pin
1 Z AF
1 Z AB
C MD S D = C AD
2
SD RMD = 1 / R AD
RE S D
= M AD
(Bl )2
Figure 5. It is the impedance that is multiplied out rather than the component value hence:
1 2 × SD = jωM MD
1
M jω MD S 2 D
so the component value is
M MD SD
2
(5.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber LE (Bl )2 F 1 Z AF 1 Z AB M MD C MD 1 RMD L2
110
SD :1 p pin
(Bl )
R2
2
RE (Bl )2
(Bl )2
Figure 5.14).
e.3
Defining the Parameters
In order to calculate the impedance of this circuit it is important that the component values can be determined.35. The parameters are also often referred to as small signal parameters because they are physical constants pertaining to a loudspeaker when operating linearly i.
4.13 Equivalent circuit of membrane absorber in impedance analogue
This is the full equivalent circuit in the impedance analogue for the loudspeaker absorber system upon which all subsequent analysis is based. Taking the dual of the circuit gives:
LE S D (Bl )2 L2 S D (Bl )2
2 2
Z AF
Z AB
M AD
C AD
R AD
(Bl )2
R2 S D
2
(Bl )2
pin
RE S D
2
Figure 5.3. These can be obtained using direct theory and also by measuring the driver’s Thiele/Small signal parameters [31. 32]. The components are renamed as they are now in acoustical units using the relationship that acoustical impedance can be determined by dividing the mechanical impedance by a factor of area squared (the operation performed when the transformer was multiplied out).Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
111
The circuit in Figure 5.3. when a small signal is applied
.12 can be directly solved to determine the impedance of the absorber system however it is easier to put the circuit into the impedance analogue by taking its dual and to rename some of the components such that it is easier to define their physical values.
Using this value of MMS the freeair mechanical compliance of the driver can be obtained from:
C MS =
(2πf S )2 M MS
(5.
The method chosen here was the added mass method. fS by about 20%.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
112
rather than a large signal which would cause nonlinear behaviour. The parameters that were obtained were:
M MS = 28.152g . 37].276µmN .18)
1
Other parameters can be obtained from performing electrical impedance tests on the driver. Measuring the Thiele/Small parameters of a loudspeaker can be done in several ways [35. 36. the mechanical moving mass of the driver with an air load C MS = 385. This procedure was done automatically using a maximum length sequence signal analyser (MLSSA).17):
M MS =
M ADDED fS f ' −1 S (5. the mechanical compliance of the driver
. weights are added to the diaphragm such that the additional moving mass decreases the driver’s resonant frequency. With this method. fS is the drivers’ resonant frequency and fs ′ is the driver’s resonant frequency with the additional mass.17)
2
Where MADDED is the added mass. In the added mass technique MMS is found first from equation (5.
the area of the diaphragm
The subscript notation follows the rules for nomenclature as defined in appendix I.
The acoustic impedance at the front and back of the diaphragm. Assuming pistonic movement of the diaphragm in an infinite baffle. used within a room. However in order to compare predictions with measurements made in the impedance tube the radiation impedance is changed such that it more closely represents this plane wave case. The radiation impedance of the piston can be determined by considering a plane wave incident to a rigid surface. the inductance of the equivalent lossless inductor L2 = 1.575Ω .Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber RE = 12. For such a case the
.02Ω . the inductance of the equivalent lossy inductor RES = 360.595mH . can be expanded in order to determine their values.05768m 2 . the second equivalent resistance of voice coil L1 = 0. this is a combination of the complex air load on the driver consisting of a reactive part (mass loading) and a resistive part (damping). given by Z AF and Z AB respectively.415Ω .19)
This would be the radiation impedance if the driver were to be placed in 2π space. the force factor of the driver
113
S D = 0. The impedance at the front is the radiation impedance.907mH .e. the DC electrical resistance of the driver voice coil R2 = 5. the mechanical losses of the diaphragm in electrical units
Bl = 20.169Tm . the radiation impedance of the diaphragm at low frequencies ( ka < 1 ) can be written as [15]:
Z AF = R AF + jωM AF =
8ρ ρ 0 ck 2 + jω 20 2π 3π a
(5. i.
21)
where VB is the volume of the box. C AB and the resistive losses due to the porous absorbent in the cabinet R AB .13).20). The compliance of a sealed volume can be written as:
C AB =
VB ρ 0c 2 (5.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
114
ratio of pressure to particle velocity is given as ρ0c such that the acoustic impedance is given as:
ZA =
p ρ0c = U S
(5.12) and (2.20) As pressure is scalar the total pressure when a plane wave is reflected from a plane surface is equal to 2pi therefore in the analogue the plane wave can be represented by a voltage generator of strength 2pi with a radiation impedance in front of the piston given by equation (5.
The impedance at the back of the diaphragm is a combination of the compliant load of the sealed volume of air in the cabinet. The resistive losses can be determined by an acoustic model such as the Delany and Bazley empirical model. Although the Delany and Bazley model is inaccurate at very low frequencies it is sufficient for the purposes of estimating the value of R AF using equations (2. (2.11).
.
CMS so that:
C AD = C MS S D
2
(5. calculated from the mechanical compliance of the diaphragm with an air load.22) R AT = R AD + R AB = RMS SD
2
+ R AB (5.14 Simplified equivalent circuit of membrane absorber
Where: M AD = M MS SD
2
(5.14: Z AF M AD RAT C AT Z AE
2 pin
Figure 5.13 can be simplified as shown in Figure 5.23)
Where RAD is the damping of the diaphragm in acoustical units and R MS = (Bl ) / R ES :
2
C AT =
C ADC AB C AD + C AB (5. The circuit in Figure 5.25)
.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
115
From these parameters all of the component values in the circuit can be determined and the total impedance found.24)
C AD is the acoustic compliance of the diaphragm.
7) and (2.
.45.
The combined acoustic impedance of the circuit is found by equation (5. z2 =
L2 S D
2
(Bl )2
+
(Bl )2
R2 S D
2
and z 3 =
(Bl )2
RE S D
2
(5.27):
Z TOT = jωM AD +
1 + R AT + Z AF + Z AE jωC AT (5.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
116
The acoustic impedance as a result of the electrical section. ZAE is the parallel combination of impedance given by equation (5.3.27)
Multiplying this by a factor of the diaphragm area gives the specific acoustic impedance of the system from which the absorption can be obtained. From this impedance the reflection factor and the acoustic absorption can be found using equations (2.26)
4.4
Calculating the Absorption of the System
Once the final equivalent circuit has been formed it is a simple matter to determine the specific acoustic impedance of the system by solving the circuit using basic electronics theory.3.4) respectively.26):
Z AE
1 1 1 = + + z1 z 2 z 3
1
−1
Where z1 =
LE S D 2 jω (Bl )2
.
1
Discussion
Good correlation between measurement and prediction is shown in terms of absorption magnitude and resonant frequency.6
0. The code used to generate the results can be found in appendix J. The equivalent circuit model does however predict a broader Qfactor of absorption than measurements show.16) for both the measured and the modelled
.
Using a Loudspeaker as an Absorber
1
0.4. Looking at the real part of the impedance (shown in Figure 5.15.4
0.4 Implementing the Model
The equivalent circuit model was implemented using MATLAB to plot the predicted absorption versus frequency of the driver. Hz 300 350 400
Figure 5.45.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
117
4. This is due the limitations of the lumped element modelling technique and results in difficulty in accurately predicting the surface impedance of the system for all frequencies.2
Results from Impedance Tube Equivalent Circuit Prediction 0 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency.15 shows the predicted and measured absorption on the same axes. Figure 5.4.15 Comparison of equivalent circuit model with impedance tube measurements
4.8
Absorption Coefficient
0.
.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
118
cases reveals that there is a dramatic increase in the real part of the measured surface impedance at higher frequencies which is not present in the predicted data. Hz 300 350 400 450
Figure 5. The inaccuracy in the prediction model is the result of secondary resonances of the driver diaphragm that cannot be modelled using the lumped element method as it only predicts the fundamental resonance of systems.17 [38].16 Real part of surface impedance from both predicted and measured data
Accurate prediction of the losses in the system are shown at low frequency but the accuracy decreases as the frequency increases.
Real Part of the Surface Impedance of a Loudspeaker used as an Absorber
3000
2500
2000 Surface Impedance
1500
1000
500 Measured Predicted 0 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency. The first three modes of a circular plate can be given as Figure 5. this explains why the predicted Qfactor of the resonant curve is broader than the measured value. With the real part of the measured impedance tending sharply away from characteristic impedance the system reaches maximum absorption over only a narrow bandwidth which is contrasted with the prediction where the real component of the impedance remains roughly equal to characteristic impedance for the entire frequency range.
18 this becomes clear.e.18:
.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber (a) (b) (c)
119
f01 f11
+

+
f02
Figure 5. looking at Figure 5. the diaphragm is ‘pushing’ and ‘pulling’ the same amount of air. consequently there is no resultant transmission of energy and hence no absorption. It would therefore be expected that the imaginary part of the surface impedance would exhibit a secondary point of zero crossing at this modal frequency but which would show insignificant absorption.17 First three vibrational modes of a circular plate
The second modal frequency given by f11 is a resonant mode but will not generate any absorption as there is cancellation on the diaphragm i. resulting in minimum absorption as shown by Figure 5. The cancellation at this modal frequency causes the real part of the surface impedance to increase preventing efficient transmission.
As a result there will be inaccuracies in the predictions made by the model but the behavioural characteristics of the fundamental mode in terms of frequency and magnitude of absorption will be accurate. Thus the inability of the model to predict secondary and tertiary resonances of the driver means that the final predicted absorption curve exhibits increased Qfactors when compared to the measured data. It is further shown in chapter 6 that the model accurately predicts the trends in changing resonant characteristics introduced by
.17b) there is negligible absorption as the real part of the surface impedance has reached a maximum and much larger than characteristic.18 show where the imaginary part of the surface impedance goes to zero. illustrating the first two resonances of the diaphragm. Hz
300
350
400
450
Figure 5.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
Absorption and Surface Impedance of a Loudspeaker Used as an Absorber
Absorption Coefficient 1
120
α
0. Thus the model can be used to obtain predictions of further scenarios as modelled in chapter 6.18 Multiplot of absorption and surface impedance showing the first two resonant modes of the loudspeaker
The blue lines on the Figure 5. MKS rayl 2000 1000 0 2000 Imag(z).5
0 3000 Real(z). It can be seen from the figure that at the second of these modes (corresponding to Figure 5. MKS rayl 0 2000 4000
50
100
150
200 250 Real Impedance
300
350
400
450
50
100
150
200 250 Imaginary Impedance
300
350
400
450
50
100
150
200 250 Frequency.
11. The system behaves as a membrane absorber and could prove to be useful for practical studio applications by using redundant loudspeakers to absorb unwanted modal components within a room.
. resulting in the model predicting broader Qfactors than the measured data shows. It was noted that the lumped element model does not allow for the prediction of the system’s higher order resonances.Chapter 5: Using a Loudspeaker as a Resonant Absorber
121
additional electronic loads connected to the terminals of the driver as shown in Figure 6. The prediction of acoustic absorption matched up well with the measured values obtained from impedance tube tests.
The loudspeaker absorber system has been modelled using electroacoustic theory and a lumped element model. causing inaccuracy in the prediction of the surface impedance at higher frequencies.
4.55.5 Conclusion
Using a loudspeaker as a membrane absorber has been shown to produce high absorption coefficients at low frequency. The model does however predict accurately the frequency and magnitude of resonance and can be used as a first approximation of the absorber’s behaviour especially with a changing electronic load impedance as shown in chapter 6.
The next section of work outlines how a passive electronic load on the driver can be used to reduce the resonant frequency and Qfactor of the loudspeaker absorber system. The equivalent circuit model presented in this chapter will be extended to model such changes in the motor impedance of the loudspeaker.4 and Figure 6.
Sound incident to the diaphragm of the loudspeaker. as expected. as an acoustic absorber. acoustical and the electrical components of the system.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
122
6. CHANGING THE RESONANT CHARACTERISTICS OF A LOUDSPEAKERABSORBER USING PASSIVE ELECTRONICS
6. in reverse. was shown to have a distinct resonant peak. the frequency and magnitude of which was controlled by the mechanical. The system.1
Introduction
The previous chapter outlined the basic principles of the modelling and use of a loudspeaker used. This was brought together in the form of a lumped parameter model which enabled prediction of the overall acoustic impedance of the system from
. forces it into oscillation in sympathy to the frequency of the incident wave causing a particle flow in the cabinet which is absorbed by porous material.
mass and damping terms within the system to change its resonant characteristics. Using a loudspeaker as an absorber can provide a solution to this problem as there is the addition of an electrical domain in the system. the principles of the previous chapter are built upon such that parameters concerning the system are changed in order to produce an absorber with variable resonance characteristics. can be altered by the inclusion of additional reactive components. These changes demand a complete reconstruction of the absorber so are not only time consuming but are also financially costly. to alter the mechanical and acoustical compliance. which determines the magnitude and the Qfactor of absorption.
In the current chapter. can be altered by the addition of resistive components. Changing this electrical section using variable components enables the combined acoustic impedance of the system to be altered. In this case Stahl used electronic components connected to an amplifier thereby changing the impedance load as seen by the
. if not practical. This is often very impractical as it means altering physical properties such as the volume/depth of the cabinet or the material of the membrane. which in turn was used to determine the complex reflection factor and hence the normal incidence absorption coefficient.
Altering acoustical properties of resonant systems with the use of electronic components is not a new idea. For a standard membrane absorber it is possible. The real part of the impedance. which dictates the frequency of the resonance. The imaginary part.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
123
an equivalent circuit. This model was then compared to tests performed in an impedance tube and was shown to accurately predict the frequency and magnitude of the system’s resonance. it has been applied to many areas including design of loudspeakers with a better low frequency response [29].
In this case a Helmholtz absorber was presented with a piezoelectric backplate. Results showed a shift in resonant frequency of up to 20% with the inclusion of capacitive and inductive components. The system allows two room modes to be absorbed simultaneously using this active tuning. Kashani and Wischmeyer presented results displaying significant attenuation in a low frequency band. It is also possible to combine active and passive absorption techniques for room acoustic applications [42]. Stahl noted that this caused the fundamental resonance to be altered and enabled tuning to produce a better low frequency response. Stahl’s paper also demonstrated a lumped element model to back up laboratory tests. This application was focused on the radiation of sound but the theory of changing an electronic load to alter an acoustic system has been applied also to the absorption of sound in the field of aeroacoustics [39]. 41] these systems use powered electronic circuits and loudspeakers to cancel out incident sound by radiating a phase inverted version of that sound which destructively interferes. Resistive components could also be added and were shown to alter the Qfactor of the resonance by the increase in damping. the impedance of which could be varied by the addition of resistive and reactive electronic components such that the resonant frequency and damping were altered. A further example of combining active and passive techniques is in the
. this patented bass trap uses active control to tune a loudspeaker such that it will passively absorb acoustic energy at it resonant frequency. The application for this study was in engine liners for aircraft where the frequency of noise from the engine depends on the velocity of the aircraft therefore an absorber with variable characteristics is desirable.
Using loudspeakers as absorbing systems has also been used extensively in room acoustics with active absorption systems [40. absorbing the incident wave.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
124
loudspeaker.
using loudspeakers in the absorption of sound use an active approach of tuning absorbers.
. As such this technique is an extension of other methods available. however the absorber system presented here does not utilise any active control but achieves high absorption coefficients over a range of two and a half octaves using only passive techniques. In this work the resonant frequency can be altered to allow the absorber to be transferred from room to room and retuned to match the fundamental mode of that room. where noise in the nose cone of a launch vehicle can get to such large levels (exceeding 140dB) that damage can be inflicted on the vehicle. However the complex load impedance connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker could potentially contain any combination of resistive and reactive components to produce the optimum resonant characteristics for a given application and more complex arrangements will hence be analysed in subsequent sections.
Both of the techniques mentioned above.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
125
field of space and rocket technology. these will therefore be described first. they demonstrated peak reductions in excess of 12dB using this technique.
Changing the resistive element of the impedance presented to the terminals A and B of the loudspeaker used as an absorber was analysed first. The magnitude and Qfactor of the absorption curve can also be altered with the aim of smoothing out the frequency response. Kemp and Clark [43] presented a technique combining a passive and active control approach using an active input (an accelerometer on a loudspeaker) to actively change the resonance characteristics of a loudspeaker that was used passively to absorb the noise in the fairing (nose cone). Of primary interest is the effect of a single load resistance or capacitance.
such that if there was a problem with increased modal excitation at a discrete frequency it could be selectively absorbed without effecting neighbouring frequencies.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
126
6.1:
. to result in a room with a flatter response with respect to frequency over a wider bandwidth.2. Varying the load resistance will be elucidated in the subsequent section altering the Q of the resonance by a degree of 34% allowing for the user to select the Qfactor within certain bounds for the application of choice. the electrical section of the equivalent circuit as modelled with the impedance analogue then becomes as Figure 6. Firstly if the Qfactor is decreased it enables an increased bandwidth of absorption. the advantage can be seen in two ways. something highly sought after in room acoustics.2
Changing the Load Resistance
It is useful in applications to be able to determine the Qfactor of the absorption provided by a membrane absorber. Secondly if the Qfactor could be increased it allows more selectivity with the frequencies that the system could absorb. REV.1 Theory and Prediction The lumped element model derived in the previous chapter was extended here to allow the modelling of additional passive electronic components in the electrical section of the analogue. There is also the possibility of applying a negative resistance across the terminals to decrease the Qfactor still further but this would require an additional power source and falls outside the scope of this project. With the additional variable resistance.
6.
2: R AEV
R AE
Z AF
C AB
RAB
M AD
C AD
R AD R AE 2 C AE 2 C AE1 Z AE
2pin
Figure 6.2 Full equivalent circuit of absorber with additional variable resistor across terminals
Simplifying this circuit it can be written as:
M AT
RAT
C AT
Z AE
2pin
.1 Electrical section of the absorber equivalent circuit with an additional variable resistor across terminals A and B.
When this is combined with the mechanical and acoustical sections in the same way as demonstrated in chapter five and the dual of the circuit taken the final circuit becomes as Figure 6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
L2 L1 R2 A B RE
127
REV
Figure 6.
REV changes the value of RAEV by a factor of its reciprocal.
R AE 2 =
(Bl )2
R2 S D
2
.2)
The variable resistance.1):
Z AE
R + R AEV ωC AE 2 = AE + + jωC AE1 j + ωC AE 2 R AE 2 R AE R AEV
−1
(6.
R AE =
(Bl )2
RE S D L1 S D
2 2
. such that an increase in REV reduces the value of RAEV.
This extension to the original model demonstrated in chapter 5 yields the following absorption coefficient graph for varying the load resistance on the driver:
.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
Figure 6.1) where.
R AEV =
(Bl )2
R EV S D
2
.
C AE1 =
(Bl )2
2
and
C AE 2 =
L2 S D
(Bl )2
(6.3 Simplified equivalent circuit of absorber
128
The impedance of the electrical section in acoustical units is given by ZAE the expression for which is given by equation (6.
Hz
500
600
700
Figure 6. this is counter to intuition which states that additional resistance adds damping to the circuit and should therefore reduce the Qfactor rather than increase it. so an increase in the load resistance actually increases the conductance in acoustical units. The closed circuit offers the minimum load resistance and the open circuit case offers the highest possible load resistance.
.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
129
Predicted Absorption Coefficients with Varying Resistive Load
1 Closed Circuit 1 Ohm 5 Ohms 10 Ohms 50 Ohms 100 Ohms Open Circuit
0. The reason for this is that the final analogue is written in the impedance analogue such that electrical resistances actually become conductances.4
0.
The variations in Qfactor are governed by the open and closed circuit limiting conditions.6
0.4 Changes in absorption curves with a variable resistor connected across loudspeaker terminals
This prediction shows that the Qfactor of the absorption curve rises with an increase in load resistance.8
Absorption Coefficient
0. thus these conditions define the minimum and maximum Qfactors obtainable with standard linear electrical resistors.2
0
100
200
300 400 Frequency.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 6. wires had to be fed from the driver under the mounting rings shown in Figure 6.
Initial measurements were made with no porous absorbent in the sample holder. In order to connect the resistance box to the terminals of the driver.5:
Mounting rings Loudspeaker
Wires fed under mounting rings
Terminals to connect passive electronics to
Figure 6.1% verified with a digital multimeter. this was done so that the Qfactor would be higher in order that the effect of the changing resistance could be more clearly discernable.2 Measurements
130
Measurements were made using the specially constructed impedance tube in the same manner as in chapter 5. On subsequent analysis it was found that
.5 Mounting of loudspeaker in large sample holder for impedance tube testing
Care had to be taken to avoid any leaks between the mounting rings and the top of the sample holder so as to prevent spurious results. The electrical load resistance applied to the terminals of the driver was altered for each measurement using a standard variable resistance box with a maximum error of 0. This was achieved by using Blutak to block any gaps.2.
this trend in reversed in Figure 6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
131
these measurements did not match up well with predictions.8
Absorption Coefficient
0. The answer to this quandary of the incongruity between measurements and prediction can be found on inspection of the real part of the surface impedance as shown in Figure 6. Hz
350
400
450
Figure 6.6 Measurements made on absorber in impedance tube changing resistive load on loudspeaker terminals
It is seen from Figure 6. thus the measurements behave in the opposite manner to the predictions.4 an increase in resistive load leads to an increase in Qfactor and consequently higher absorption coefficients.6
0.
.2
0
50
100
150
200
250 300 Frequency.6:
Measured Absorption Coefficient Changing Resistive Load [No Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
1 Closed Cicruit 1 Ohm 10 Ohms 100 Ohms 1000 Ohms 5000 Ohms Open Circuit
0. The absorption coefficient curves that were obtained are seen in Figure 6.4
0. In Figure 6.6 that the trend does not behave as predicted in Figure 6.4.7.6 when there is no porous absorbent backing to the loudspeaker.
.7 Real part of the measured surface impedance of absorber with a variable resistive load without porous absorption in the cabinet
It can be seen from Figure 6. MKS rayl
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
50
100
150
200 250 Frequency. After the 10 Ohm load resistance the trend in the real part of the impedance tends away from characteristic impedance with an increase in resistance which explains the reverse in trend such that an increase in resistance causes a decrease in absorption. The prediction model was changed to account for this decrease in real impedance by removing the porous absorbent in the cabinet.7 that around the resonant frequency (~135 Hz) an increase in resistive load causes a decrease in the real part of the surface impedance. Initially for resistances from the closed circuit case to the 10 Ohm case the real part gets progressively nearer to the characteristic impedance of air (given by the dotted blue line) and hence the trend is an increase in absorption with and increase in resistance. The predicted absorption coefficient for this case shows better agreement with measurements.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
132
Measured Real Impedance Changing Resistive Load [No Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
9000 Closed Cicruit 1 Ohm 10 Ohms 100 Ohms 1000 Ohms 5000 Ohms Open Circuit Characteristic Impedance
8000
7000
6000 Surface Impedance. Hz
300
350
400
450
Figure 6.
8 Predicted absorption coefficient changing the resistive load on the absorber without porous absorption in cabinet.2
0
50
100
150
200 250 Frequency. Hz
300
350
400
450
Figure 6. Results were again plotted with respect to frequency and yielded the graph in Figure 6.8
Absorption Coefficient
0.
To demonstrate this effect.
When the model is amended such that there is no porous absorbent in the cabinet (sample holder) and the real part of the impedance decreased. When the porous absorbent is included in the cabinet the overall real part of the surface impedance rises above characteristic impedance such that with each increase in resistance the value of the real part gets further from characteristic impedance hence tends away from maximum absorption and a decrease in Qfactor. the trend matches up more favourably with measurements exhibiting an increase in Qfactor with increasing resistance.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
133
Predicted Absorption Coefficient Changing Resistive Load [No Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
1 Closed Cicruit 1 Ohm 10 Ohms 100 Ohms 1000 Ohms 5000 Ohms Open Circuit
0.4
0.9.6
0. measurements were repeated with porous absorbent in the cabinet.
.
2
Closed Circuit 1 Ohms 5 Ohms 10 Ohms 50 Ohms 100 Ohms Open Circuit 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
134
Measured Absorption for Different Resistive Loads [With Porous Absorbent in Cabinet]
1
0.2 the trend of how the Qfactor changes with increasing resistive loads is accurately predicted. as mentioned in section 5. Graphs with both the measured and predicted results plotted on the same axes for each individual resistive load can be found in appendix K. The reason for this shift is found when analysing the combined complex impedance of the electrical section ZAEV. tends to slightly over predict the Qfactor of the resonance but as will be seen in section 6.9 Measured absorption coefficient of absorber with variable resistive load with porous absorption in the cabinet
This measurement shows good agreement with the predicted values plotted in Figure 6.
There is a slight shift in resonant frequency that is shown in both the measured and the predicted data.1) shows that RAEV becomes a factor of the ωC AE1 and ωC AE 2 therefore changing the resistive load will have an effect on the magnitude of the reactive parts and consequently on the resonant
.4.4
0. Expanding equation (6.1. the resonant frequency decreasing slightly with the additional resistive load. Hz 300 350 400 450
0
Figure 6.8
Absorption Coefficient
0. The model.5.6
0.4 confirming the validity of the model.
.
6.
When designing a resonant absorber of this type it will be useful to change the Qfactor of the resonance to selectively absorb discrete frequencies to a certain degree to achieve the flattest possible room response with respect to frequency. the shift is from 142 to 132Hz a shift of just 7%. Greater shifts in resonant frequency can be obtained if a capacitor is introduced into the circuit as seen in section 6. as with each addition of resistance the value at resonance tends away from characteristic impedance resulting in a decrease in absorption and Qfactor with increase in resistance. The effect depends on the initial magnitude of the real part of the surface impedance. Section 6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
135
frequency of the system. The trend is reversed if the real part is initially below characteristic impedance for the closed circuit case. It has been shown that of the real impedance is above characteristic impedance for the closed circuit case then the trend is an increase in Qfactor and absorption with an increase in resistance as with each addition of resistance the real surface impedance of the system gets progressively closer to characteristic impedance of air and hence maximum absorption at resonance.2.3 Summary Changing the resistive load has been shown to have different effects on the Qfactor of the resonant peak of absorption in the loudspeaker absorber system.5 will outline some useful equations and graphs that could be used to determine what resistive value should be used to achieve a given Qfactor for a specific driver.3. This effect is small when compared with the fundamental resonance frequency with the closed circuit case.2.
Experiments were performed in the impedance tube and the scenario modelled using the standard equivalent circuit approach as in previous sections. Thus the new circuit becomes:
L AEV R AE Z AF C AB RAB M AD C AD R AD R AE 2 C AE 2
2pin
C AE1
Z AE
Figure 6.3
Changing the Capacitive Load
As well as adding a variable resistor to the terminals of the loudspeaker it is possible also to include the addition of reactive components.
6. The desired outcome of this was the lowering of the system’s resonant frequency.10 from which predictions of how the absorber system will behave with changing load capacitance can be made.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
136
6. Measurements showed that shifts in resonant frequency of up to 39% were possible with the addition of a single capacitor. in this section a variable capacitor was included in the circuit.13 leads to the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 6.1 Theory and Prediction Adding a capacitor into the circuit in Figure 5.10 Equivalent circuit with additional variable capacitor connected to loudspeaker terminals
In this case:
.3.
8
Absorption Coefficient
0.
Predicted Absorption Coefficients with Varying Capacitive Load
1
0.11 Predicted absorption curves with a variable capacitor connected to loudspeaker terminals
The graph shows a decrease in resonant frequency with an increase in capacitive load.4 Closed Circuit 1µF 10µF 22µF 47µF 100µF 220µF 470µF Open Circuit 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
C EV (Bl ) SD
2 2
137
L AEV =
(6.
.3) Increasing the variable capacitor CEV consequently increases the value of the variable inductor LAEV. Using the adapted circuit and computing the surface impedance yields the absorption coefficient curves shown Figure 6.6
0. Hz 300 350 400
0.2
0
Figure 6. The model predicts a resonant frequency shift of some 51% with the system resonating at 174Hz for the closed circuit case and 85Hz with a 220µF load capacitance.11. Results from the equivalent circuit model suggest that there is an optimum capacitance where by increasing the capacitance further will begin to increase the resonant frequency until once again it resonates at the same frequency as the closed circuit case.
Measured Absorption Coefficients with Varying Capacitive Load
1
0.3. changing the load capacitance connected across loudspeaker terminals
Results from the measurements show a similar trend to the predictions such that an increase in capacitive load leads to a decrease in the system’s resonant frequency. Standard electrical component capacitors were used in the measurements with capacities ranging from 1470µF.6
0. Hz 300 350 400
0.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 6.12 Measured absorption curves. The lowest frequency was found with a capacitance of 100 µF.2 Measurements
138
Measurements were once again performed in the low frequency impedance tube.4 Closed Circuit 1µF 10µF 22µF 47µF 100µF 220µF 470µF Open Circuit 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency.2
0
Figure 6.12.8
Absorption Coefficient
0. The measured results show a resonant frequency shift from 172Hz to 105Hz
. The results were made with porous absorbent material in the cabinet as this is the most important case if the absorber were to be used in a practical setting. The prediction model and the measurements show that if the capacitance is increased too much then resonant frequency increases again. The high frequency limit is given by the closed circuit condition. Results yielded the following Figure 6.
1.4 Summary By adding a capacitive load to the terminals of the driver it has been shown that it is possible to achieve a resonant frequency shift of 39%. A maximum value of capacitance was found. what was electrically in series becomes in parallel in the final model. The optimum capacitance in the model was 220µF where as in measurements was
. namely the fact that the components are connected to the voice coil in series.3 Discussion[RGO1] Results show that with the addition of the reactive component there appears to still be some resistive losses added into the system manifesting as a reduction in the Qfactor of the resonance peak. This is due to the construction of the circuit.
6. This means that when trying more complex scenarios such as adding additional resistive components to achieve high absorption at the lowest possible frequency.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
139
which corresponds to a shift of 39% which is slightly less than predicted due to limitations in the lumped element method of analysis mentioned in section 5. a value above which would begin to increase the resonant frequency again. it is seen that in the final analogue circuit. As more resistance is added the resonant frequency can be shifted less by the reactive component as the resistive component becomes the dominant term in controlling the motor impedance. Looking at the equivalent circuit of the absorber. such that the resistive components become multipliers of frequency dependent terms and capacitors become multipliers of resistive terms.
6. Combining the complex impedances in parallel means that the resistive components have impact on the frequency and that reactive components have an impact on resistive losses.3.4. a trade off has to be made.3.
In this next section further scenarios are modelled using the equivalent circuit model.4
Modelling Other Scenarios
So far it has been shown that by adding a variable resistance or capacitance into the circuit the loudspeaker absorber can be tuned to exhibit different resonant characteristics such that the Qfactor and the resonant frequency can be altered. Being able to change the resonant frequency of the system is very useful but it is to the detriment of absorption magnitude at resonance.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
140
100µF.
6. as well as lowering the resonant frequency. More complicated combinations of electronic components could present an optimum situation where the lowest resonant frequency could be achieved but yet exhibit maximum absorption. Increasing the capacitance. This value is subject to change given a specific driver. also increases the Qfactor of the resonance curve thus there is a trade off between obtaining the lowest possible frequency of a given system and obtaining maximum absorption.1 Resistors and Capacitors in Series In order to see if there is a greater degree of tunability available with the loudspeaker absorber system it was seen what would happen if a variable resistor was placed with a variable capacitor in series.1. this is the topic of section 6.
6. in the final equivalent circuit these appear as a variable
.4. the combination of capacitive and inductive elements both in series and in parallel. the addition of an inductive component and thirdly. firstly.5. Several combinations of additional electronic components are modelled in this section. resistors and capacitors in series and in parallel. A variable resistor and capacitor constitute the simplest cases of adding both singular resistive and reactive components. secondly.
This turned out not to be the case as was seen when plotting the absorption coefficient versus frequency for varying capacitive and resistive loads. governed by the variable resistor.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
141
inductor and conductance in parallel with the other motor impedance terms. as governed by the capacitor whilst having the maximum absorption coefficient at resonance.14.13: LAEV RAEV Z AF M AT C AT RAT R AE R AE 2 2pin C AE1 C AE 2
Z AE
Figure 6.13 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable resistor in series with a variable capacitor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
It was hoped that the addition of the extra variable resistor in series with the variable capacitor would allow the system to resonate at the lowest possible frequency. A multiplot demonstrating how the trend in absorption changes with differing combinations of resistive and capacitive loads in series is shown in Figure 6.
. the equivalent in this case is given by Figure 6.
6 0.2 0
10 Ω
α
α
100
200 300 Freq. that a change in load resistance on the driver suppresses the effect of the change in capacitance to increasing amounts with an increase in resistance. less current flows through LAEV and the circuit tends towards the case with no variable capacitance at all.2 1 µF 10 µF 22 µF 47 µF 100 µF 220 µF 470 µF 0 1 0.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
Predicted Absorption Curves. Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq.4 0. the equivalent circuit becomes as Figure 6.e.4 0.2).13.8 0.6 0.4 0. Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq. As the value of REV increases RAEV decreases according to equation (6.14 Multiplot showing changes in the trend of absorption for different combinations of resistors in series with capacitors
It can be seen from Figure 6. Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq.8 0.4 0. Consequently
.8 0. Hz
400
Figure 6.2 0 1 0.2 0
500 Ω
α
α
100
200 300 Freq.2. thus current will flow more easily through that branch of the circuit.8 0.8 0. Varying Load Capacitance and Resistance
1Ω
1 0.4 0.6 0.2 0
142
5Ω
1 0.8 0. To discern the reason for it is helpful to look at the equivalent circuit in Figure 6.14.6 0. Hz
400
50 Ω
1 0.2 0
100 Ω
1 0. i. As the resistance is then very high it tends towards the open circuit case as results show in Figure 6.14. Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq. Thus using a capacitor and resistor in series does not have the desired effect of lowest frequency absorption with maximum absorption coefficient.4 0. Therefore with a higher load resistance the change in load capacitance makes continually less difference to the resonant characteristics of the system.6 0. Consequently as RAEV decreases.6 0.
Increasing the resistive load. Thus as REV increases the effect of the variable capacitor increases.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
143
the simple series connection of a single resistor and capacitor does not constitute a useful case when aiming to increase the adaptability of the resonant absorber. this can be seen from the multiplot in appendix L.15 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable resistor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
The effect of connecting a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable resistor will be the opposite of connecting the two in series.
6. Results show that for the minimum resistive load the circuit tends towards the open circuit case and with a maximum resistive load it tends towards the simple case
.4. REV will decrease RAEV causing more current to flow through the LAEV. the new equivalent circuit that defines the oscillation of the system becomes:
LAEV R AE Z AF M AT C AT RAT R AE 2
RAEV
C AE 2 C AE1
2pin Z AE
Figure 6.2 Resistors and Capacitors in Parallel The combination of the variable resistance and capacitance can also be connected in parallel to the terminals such that in the final equivalent circuit they become a variable inductor in series with a conductance.
thus this combination behaves.3 Applying an Variable Inductor If a variable inductor is added in series into the circuit it manifests itself as a variable capacitor in parallel with the voice coil impedance terms in addition to the final equivalent circuit Figure 5. For the parallel circuit the opposite is true therefore it becomes apparent that it is not possible to obtain the lowest resonant frequency with maximum absorption using solely resistors and capacitors hence the next section models the addition of a variable inductor to increase the degree of freedom of the circuit.15. as expected. The circuit that defines this condition then becomes as Figure 6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
144
of only a capacitor connected across the terminals.
6. For the case of the components in series. increasing the value of resistance suppresses the effect of the capacitor in the circuit and conversely increasing the value of the capacitance suppresses the effect of the resistor.4.16 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
2pin
Where
.16: C AEV R AE Z AF M AT C AT RAT R AE 2 C AE 2 C AE1 Z AE
Figure 6. in the opposite manner to the previous example of a variable resistor and capacitor in series.
Conversely if LAEV is large the impedance of CAEV becomes very small resulting in very little flow through the voice coil terms CAE1.17 demonstrates that with large inductances the circuit behaves as the closed circuit case and with small inductances as
. Figure 6.
Z C AEV =
1 jωC AEV (6.17 Absorption curves changing inductive load on loudspeaker
When the load inductance LAEV is small the impedance of CAEV becomes very large according to equation (6.6
0.8
Absorption Coefficient
0.4)
Plotting the predicted absorption from this equivalent circuit yields Figure 6. In this case ZAE tends to zero thus the circuit approximates to the open circuit case such that the motor impedance has no effect on the resonant characteristics of the absorber.5 mH 1 mH 5 mH 10 mH 50 mH 100 mH 500 mH 1000 mH 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency. Hz 300 350 400 450
0. These situations govern the limits of the setup.4). CAE2.4 0. it can therefore be ignored for subsequent circuit analysis. RAE2 and RAE.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
LEV S D
2
145
C AEV =
(Bl )
2
.17.
Predicted Absorption Coefficients with Varying Inductive Load
1
0.2
0
Figure 6. Consequently current only flows through the other three parallel branches thus the circuit can be approximated by the closed circuit case with no additional passive electronics.
the equivalent circuit for this scenario is given by Figure 6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
146
the open circuit case.
6.96. The use of an inductor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker consequently enables higher resonant frequencies but still achieving high absorption coefficients. LAEV C AEV Z AF M AT C AT RAT R AE R AE 2 2pin C AE1 C AE 2
Z AE
Figure 6.4. it could therefore be profitable to combine more than one reactive component in order to achieve a wider bandwidth of absorption.4 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Series In this section a variable inductor was modelled as connected in series with a variable capacitor. the capacitor enabling lower frequency limits and the inductor enabling higher frequency limits. Utilising an inductor and a capacitor it was hoped that the advantages of both types of component could be exploited. intermediate inductance values cause frequency shifts in between these values in a similar way to using a capacitor.18. thus increasing the range of resonant frequencies. It is also possible obtain a higher resonant frequency than governed by the closed circuit condition where using a 10mH inductor causes a resonant frequency of 197Hz with an absorption coefficient of 0.18 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable inductor in series with a variable capacitor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
.
8 0.2 0
1 mH Inductance
1 0.4 0. Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq.4 Load 0.7 µF 10 µF 22 µF 47 µF 100 µF 220 µF 470 µF 0 100 200 300 Freq. as the passive electronic load now has an additional degree of freedom.6 0.2 0
500 mH Inductance
α
α
100
200 300 Freq.2 0 1 0.8 0. Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq.6 0.8 0.2 0
100 mH Inductance
1 0. Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq.8 0. As LEV is increased.4 0.8 0.2 Capacitance 4.19 can be easily explained using the equivalent circuit in Figure 6. This additional degree of freedom provided by the inductor means that an increased range of frequencies can be obtained. Hz
400
25 mH Inductance
1 0.18. Hz
400
Figure 6.4).4 0.19 shows that this is the case with two resonant peaks when using a variable inductor in series with a variable capacitor. Using a large enough inductor means that the two resonant peaks occur in a similar frequency band such that the inductor enhances the low frequency effect of the capacitor.4 0.6 0.8 0.19 Multiplot of absorption trends with a variable inductive and capacitive load connected in series
Figure 6. Figure 6. the impedance of CAEV decreases according to equation (6.6 0. If LEV is
.6 0. With a Variable Capacitor and Inductor in Series
0 mH Inductance
1 0.4 0.6 0. Hz 400 1 0.
Predicted Absorption Curves.2 0
10 mH Inductance
α
α
100
200 300 Freq.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
147
With two reactive components in the circuit it is expected to have two resonances governed by the component values.
15 which defines the terminals on the loudspeaker left open.5 A Variable Inductor and Capacitor in Parallel A variable inductor in parallel with a variable capacitor can also be added as a passive impedance load to the driver.8. this can be seen especially clearly with a 10mH inductor in series with a 220µF capacitor. the advantages of using a variable inductor in series with variable capacitor can be seen. Modelling a variable inductor and capacitor in parallel it was hoped it was possible to increase still further the tunability of the absorber system:
. This series combination could be very useful as it enables a large bandwidth of absorption to be obtained. leading to a large bandwidth of absorption.20.4. The resonance of the inductor is within very close proximity to the resonance as a result of the capacitor such that the final curve is a combination of these two.
6. With a small value of inductance the secondary resonant peak appears at a higher frequency not of interest in this application. In this case both the motor impedance terms and the variable capacitor have no effect on the resonant frequency of the system.5 octaves (from 50335Hz) of absorption coefficients above 0. the equivalent circuit then becomes as Figure 6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
148
increased still further the impedance of CAEV approximates to that of a short circuit and the equivalent can be given by Figure 5. however if the value of the inductor is increased. This results in over 2.
the impedance of CAEV becomes negligible and the impedance is controlled by CEV such that the equivalent circuit approximates the simple case of a capacitor connected across the terminals as given by Figure 6. When LEV is zero this branch becomes tantamount to an open circuit according to equation (6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
149
LAEV R AE Z AF M AT C AT RAT R AE 2
C AEV
C AE 2 C AE1
2pin Z AE
Figure 6.4) thereby.20 Equivalent circuit modelling a variable capacitor in parallel with a variable inductor connected to the terminals of the loudspeaker
In this case. ZAE is governed only by the original motor impedance terms.
. When LEV is increased. This corresponds to the situation when the loudspeaker terminals are connected together. when LEV is decreased the impedance of CAEV increases. consequently less current flows through that branch of the circuit.21.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
Predicted Absorption Curves, With a Variable Capacitor and an Inductor in Parallel
0 mH Inductance
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 Load Capacitance 0.2 4.7 µF 10 µF 22 µF 47 µF 100 µF 220 µF 470 µF 0 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
150
1 mH Inductance
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
10 mH Inductance
α
α
100
200 300 Freq, Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq, Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq, Hz
400
25 mH Inductance
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
100 mH Inductance
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
500 mH Inductance
α
α
100
200 300 Freq, Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq, Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq, Hz
400
Figure 6.21 Multiplot showing predicted absorption trends with a variable inductor and capacitor connected in parallel to the terminals of the loudspeaker
Results show that by using a capacitor in parallel with an inductor enables a lower resonant frequency than simply using a capacitor on its own. The optimally low resonant frequency is seen when a 25mH inductor is connected in parallel with a 470µF capacitor, this demonstrates a resonant frequency of 65Hz, with an absorption coefficient in excess of 0.85. The maximum resonant frequency obtained using this technique is 223Hz, this corresponds to a maximum resonant frequency shift of 70%.
Using a capacitor in parallel with an inductor has been seen to provide a very significant shift in resonant frequency and as such could be very useful in the creation of a versatile membrane absorber for room acoustic applications.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 6.4.6 Summary
151
Section 6.4 has demonstrated several complex electrical impedance loads that could be connected to the terminals of the loudspeakerabsorber to increase its adaptability. Four special cases can hence be outlined with distinct advantages in the absorption of sound. Firstly, simply adding a capacitor to the terminals has the effect of lowering the system’s overall resonant frequency. This resonant frequency can then be reduced and indeed increased further by the addition of an inductor in parallel, increasing the degree of freedom of the system and allowing for a greater range of resonant frequencies to be obtained. Thirdly connecting a resistor across the terminals of the loudspeaker alters the Qfactor of the resonance, a decrease in resistive load increasing the Qfactor. This is important as it defines how much acoustic energy the absorber will absorb at the chosen frequency. The final important case is that of an inductor connected in series with a capacitor, this is an important case as it results in a broad bandwidth of absorption, something keenly sort after by the room acoustician.
Further scenario’s of electronic load impedances could also be modelled using more than two reactive and resistive components to create more complex resistive loads thus optimising the absorber for the required task but of primary concern here is the simple case of up to two reactive and resistive components shown in the four important scenario's above.
6.5
Optimising the Passive Electronic Load for a Given Set of Driver Parameters
In order to be able to fine tune the absorber system such that it achieves maximum absorption at a set resonant frequency or with a specified Qfactor it is important to ascertain what component values must be used in order to achieve the desired results.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
152
This section outlines methods of determining capacitance and resistance values to be able to achieve specific resonant frequencies and Qfactor’s based on a single component load. This is the first step towards an automated system which could adaptively change the passive electronic load presented to the driver given a certain input frequency spectrum. A microphone could be used to determine the fundamental frequency incident to the driver or that is problematic in a room and some intelligent hardware could change a combination of electronic components connected to the terminals accordingly, such that the absorption characteristics were optimum for that room. On a more simplistic level, if this design of membrane absorber were to be marketed it would be important to know what capacitance, inductance or resistance was needed to shift the resonant frequency or Qfactor to avoid iterations in design of the absorber.
6.5.1 Determining the Capacitance Needed for a Certain Resonant Frequency Finding the capacitance value needed for a given resonant frequency can be done by using equations determined from the equivalent circuit analysis. Forming an equation for when the imaginary part of the surface impedance equals zero, namely when the system resonates, allows a graph to be plotted of resonant frequency versus capacitance such that the optimum capacitance can be determined for a desired resonant frequency.
For the simple case of an electrical circuit with an inductor, capacitor and resistor (an LCR circuit) in series or in parallel such as is represented by the open circuit condition it is a simple matter to determine the resonant frequency of the system by setting the imaginary part to zero such that:
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics jω res M AT = − 1 jω res C AT
153
ω res =
1 M AT C AT (6.5)
As such it is not difficult to determine the capacitance value needed to result in a given resonant frequency. For the equivalent circuit in Figure 6.10 it is a slightly more complicated problem. The parallel LCR circuit making up the complex impedance ZAE, in series with the other impedances means that more attention needs to be paid to the problem.
Using a simplified formulation of the motor impedance valid for low frequencies but less accurate for higher frequencies, Figure 6.10 can be written in the form of Figure 6.22 so that ZAE become the parallel addition of three complex impedances, z1, z2 and z3, the circuit then becomes:
Z AF
M AT
C AT
RAT
z1 z2 z3
2 pin
Z AE
Figure 6.22 Equivalent circuit of absorber system with simplified motor impedance terms and variable capacitor connected to terminals
Where,
C (Bl )2 z 3 = jω E 2 S D
(6.10)
The system resonates when the imaginary component is zero such that:
.8)
So taking just the imaginary part of ZAE
ωLR 2 − ω 3 L2CR 2 Im(Z AE ) = 2 R (1 − 2ω 2 LC + ω 4 L2C 2 ) + ω 2 L2
(6.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics 1
L S jω E D2 (Bl )
2
154
= jωL
z1 =
=
1 .7) Multipling top and bottom by complex conjugate.9)
Therefore the imaginary parts of the entire system can be given as:
Im(Z TOT
ω 2 M AT C AT − 1 ωLR 2 − ω 3 L2CR 2 ) = ωC + 2 R (1 − 2ω 2 LC + ω 4 L2C 2 ) + ω 2 L2 AT
(6. jωC
z2 =
(Bl )2
RE S D
2
= R.6) And
Z AE 1 1 jωLR = jωC + + = 2 R jωL R − ω LCR + jωL (6. R − ω 2 LCR − jωL Gives:
−1
Z AE =
j ωLR 2 − ω 3 L2CR 2 + ω 2 L2 R R 2 1 − 2ω 2 LC + ω 4 L2C 2 + ω 2 L2
( (
)
)
(6.
Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
155
∴ ω res M AT C AT − 1 R 1 − 2ω res LC + ω res L C + ω res L2 = ω res L2 CR 2 − ω res LR 2 (ω res C AT )
2 2 2 4 2 2 2 3
ω res 2 M AT C AT − 1 ω res LR 2 − ω res 3 L2 CR 2 =− 2 2 4 2 ω res C AT R 1 − 2ω res LC + ω res L2 C 2 + ω res L2
(
)( (
(
)
)
) (
)
(6.6)..23 Resonant frequency versus capacitance value to determine the component value needed for a given resonant frequency
.11) Expanding this gives a quadratic in L so that:
L2 ω res M AT C AT C 2 R 2 − ω res C AT CR 2 + M AT C AT − R 2 C 2 − ω res + .8 x 10
1
3
Figure 6. Plotting how the resonant frequency changes with capacitance yields the following graph shown in Figure 6.12)
Finding the roots of this equation allows L to be determined for a given resonant frequency.
6 4 2
L ω res − 2M AT C AT R 2 C − ω res 2 R 2 C + C AT R 2 + .6
0.. The capacitance value needed can then be determined from equation (6... µF
0. ωres.
4 2
(
(
R 2 ω res M AT C AT − 1 = 0
2
(
(
)
)
(
(
))
)
)
(6. Hz
120
110
100
90
0
0.2
0.4 Capacitance.23:
Calculating Capacitance Value Needed for a Given Resonant Frequency
150 Measured Data Predicted Data
140
130 Resonant Frequency.
24.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
156
Comparing the measured and predicted curves it is seen that the trend of behaviour of the absorber with changing capacitance is accurately predicted by the equivalent circuit model.
.2 Determining How the Qfactor Changes With Resistance Determining the Qfactor achieved by the addition of a specific value of resistance is not as simple on first sight as determining the capacitance needed for specific resonant frequencies. the impedance decreases and the circuit tends towards the closed circuit condition and consequently the resonant frequency rises again as the capacitor has less effect and resonance is controlled by the other motor impedance terms. This was to determine the standard deviation of the absorption curve as shown in Figure 6.
6. this not so straight forward to express mathematically therefore a different method of determining the Qfactor of the resonance was used. As the capacitive load increases the resonant frequency decreases correspondingly. In order to find the Qfactor the 3dB down points need to be known either side of the resonant peak. As the capacitive load increases still further.5. An optimum capacitance value for the lowest resonant frequency can be found by computing the turning point of the above curve. The curve shows that the system initially resonates at the condition governed by the open circuit case with zero capacitance.
6.24 Standard deviation changes in absorption curve for different load resistances on loudspeaker terminals.35 Standard Deviation of Alpha
0. The prediction shows a change in absorption standard deviation of 38% and the measurement of 34%.3 Determining the Optimum Shunt Inductance of a Capacitor Defining an equation to determine the optimum combination of inductance and capacitance is quite involved but can be achieved by a simple graph of resonant frequency versus capacitance with different inductive shunts.1. Ω
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
Figure 6. There is an offset between the measurements and prediction which.45 Predicted Standard deviations Measured standard deviations 0. a comparison between measurement and prediction
Results show a similar trend in prediction and model of change in standard deviation with restive loads on the loudspeaker. resulting in the model predicting broader Qfactors. enabling the model to be used to adjudge change in Qfactors. done in MATLAB.25
0. The trend of behaviour is however accurately predicted.5.4.15
0. is a result of limitations in the lumped parameter model such that it cannot predict resonances above the fundamental resonance.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
157
Changes in Standard Deviation of Absorption Coefficient with Different Resistive Loads
0.2
0.1 1 10
10
0
10
1
10 Load Resistance. as outlined in section 5.3
0.
.4
0.
6
Conclusion
This chapter has outlined the principles.25 demonstrates that an optimally low resonant frequency can be obtained using a 25mH inductor in parallel with a 470µF capacitor.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
158
demonstrating the lowest frequency obtainable using an inductor in parallel with a capacitor. This is achieved using 5mH inductor in parallel with a 47µF capacitor. It also shows that it is possible to achieve a high frequency limit for the fundamental resonant frequency. measurement and modelling of changing a passive electronic load to a loudspeaker absorber system. Hz
200
150
100
50
0
100
200
300 Capacitance.
6.25 Resonant frequencies of absorber with varying capacitance and inductance in parallel connected to the loudspeaker terminals
Figure 6. which is below 250 Hz.5 mH 1 mH 5 mH 10 mH 25 mH 100 mH 250 mH 500 mH
250
Resonant Frequency. Results demonstrate that the addition of a variable resistor enables a change in standard deviation of absorption of 34%. µF
400
500
600
Figure 6. This would be suitable for a situation where maximum absorption would not be
.
Resonant Frequency Versus Capacitance Value for Different Inductive Shunts
300 0 mH 0.
Applying a large enough inductance meant that the two resonant peaks could coincide with each other such that a lower frequency limit could be obtained.
Further passive electronic loads were modelled and it was hence shown that a resistor and capacitor combination lead to a trade off between desired low frequency performance and Qfactor.6 were shown over a wide bandwidth.
The addition of a single capacitor had the effect of lowering the overall resonant frequency of the system. as such two resonant peaks could be observed. for example if the problem was not too severe or if a wider bandwidth is more highly sought after than maximum absorption. the change in frequency corresponded to a 39% decrease. A decrease in resonant frequency was shown to the detriment of maximum absorption and hence a wider Qfactor. Combining a shunt inductor with a capacitor however increased the system to that of two degrees of freedom. These graphs can be
.
Graphs were presented of component value versus resonant frequency for single capacitors and for a parallel combination of inductors and capacitors.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
159
ideal. It was shown that resonant frequency shifts in excess of 65% could be achieved by using this technique. Another graph was shown of the change in Qfactor with varying load resistance. The maximum resonant frequency shift was obtained using a 100µF capacitor. one as a result of the inductive load and the other as a result of the capacitive load. thus a combination of resistors and capacitors was not found to be useful. A graph of resonant frequency versus capacitance value can be constructed from equations of surface impedance that allows the determination of the correct capacitance to achieve a specific resonant frequency. but still absorption coefficients in excess of 0.
demonstrating a large degree adjustment. suggesting suitability for room acoustic applications for the absorption of room modes.
.
Using passive electronics to change the resonant characteristics of a loudspeaker absorber has been shown to very effective.Chapter 6: Changing the Resonant Characteristics Using Passive Electronics
160
used to select component values for a specific loudspeaker to fit with a desired application/ room and as such can be used to optimise the performance of the absorber and can be considered as the first steps towards a system that could actively change the passive electronic load on the terminals.
Results and predictions demonstrated that it is
. through both measurement and prediction. FINAL CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK
7.Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work
161
7. The resonating mass was shown to move pistonically such that its moving mass was increased. Results and predictions both showed that the fundamental resonant frequency of the absorber could be dramatically lowered using this technique with shifts of 42% measured for a hardboard plate. thus lowering its resonant frequency. It was shown that a lower frequency absorber system could be formed using the same materials and enclosure but simply changing the mounting conditions of the plate.1
Final conclusions
Two methods of improving membrane absorbers have been presented. The first method utilised the surround of a loudspeaker as the mounting for a resonating plate in the absorber.
the energy of such oscillation was then absorber by porous damping in the loudspeaker cabinet. allowing membrane absorbers to be built with much smaller dimensions whilst still exhibiting the same low frequency behaviour. Adding a reactive component had the effect of altering the resonant frequency where as the addition of resistive components changed the magnitude of absorption and the Qfactor of the system’s resonance. This demonstrated a useful application of this mounting technique. Conversely the clamped condition produced sizable errors in the resonant frequencies predicted when compared with measurements as expected. It was shown that measurements on the pistonically mounted plate yielded results that matched favourably to predictions using both the standard membrane absorber design equations and a transfer matrix model. An equivalent circuit model was demonstrated that allowed many design permutations to be modelled.
The second method of improving membrane absorbers used a complete loudspeaker system in reverse such that sound incident to the diaphragm forced it into oscillation in sympathy to the amplitude and frequency of the incident wave.Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work
162
possible to create an absorber with a pistonically mounted plate that resonates at lower frequency than a clamped mounted plate even when the depth of the backing was a third of that used in the clamped case. this means that it can be designed for a specific application and the user can be confident that it will be tuned to the right frequency when it is built. Results showed that high absorption coefficients could be obtained at the system’s fundamental resonance. It was further showed that the addition of a passive electronic load across the loudspeaker terminals enabled the resonant characteristics of the absorber to be changed. Another
advantage of mounting a plate or membrane using loudspeaker surround is that enables more accurate prediction of the system’s resonant frequency before the absorber is built. This model enabled the
.
Predictions also showed that changes between maximum and minimum resonant frequencies of over 65% were possible with the addition of capacitor and inductor in parallel. Using a loudspeaker as an absorber consequently means it could transferred to a different room and be tuned to be maximally efficient. It was shown both experimentally and through predictions that it is possible to achieve a variable frequency membrane absorber with resonant frequency shifts of up to 39% using a single capacitor.5 octaves.Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work
163
optimisation of an absorber given a specific driver. Rectangular absorbers could be made which exhibit the advantages of pistonic movement but also achieve economy of manufacture
. The addition of a resistor enabled changes in Qfactor of 38%. a problem with this is that loudspeakers are often circular. Connecting a variable capacitor in series with a variable inductor was shown to produce an absorber with an effective absorption bandwidth of 2.
7. this is an impractical shape if attempting to treat an entire room. without having to change its physical construction. Mounting a plate/membrane onto a loudspeaker surround has been shown to produce good results and a low frequency shift in resonant frequency. Thus a highly variable absorber system was presented with the ability to tune the absorber for a specific application.2
Further work
Further areas of research subsequent to this thesis would be to turn the aforementioned improved membrane absorbers into marketable products. a useful case for room acoustic applications. as circles to do not tessellate. A further disadvantage to using a loudspeaker surround itself is that manufacturing costs would be high relative to currently available designs. Consequently it would be profitable to examine methods of manufacturing membrane absorbers that could utilise the principles of pistonic oscillation of the loudspeaker surround system without using surrounds themselves.
A DSP chip could again be used to determine the most problematic frequency range and could adjust the electronic load accordingly to deal with the problem most efficiently. It would also mean that absorbers could be made to any shape or size relatively easily. One method that could be adopted would is to manufacture membrane out of a molded rubber compound such that the ‘surround’ mounting is molded from the same piece of rubber as the membrane its self. The box of electronics could contain a DSP chip allowing the determination of the small signal parameters of the loudspeaker which it could subsequently be used to perform calculations given the cabinet size to determine the range of available resonant frequencies available with the specific loudspeaker.
. Firstly a product could be marketed as an addon to a loudspeaker to enable a user to turn any loudspeaker into an optimised passive absorber. In a typical studio setup there is often a selection of different loudspeakers used at different times and for different projects.Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work
164
and area. the additional box would allow any of them to be turned into controlled absorbers when not being used. The additional box could allow any obsolete loudspeaker to be used as a controlled absorber within a room. With passive electronics within the box the user would simply have to turn a knob to tune it to the right frequency (a variable reactive load) and turn a knob to change the Qfactor. This would greatly reduce manufacturing costs and would allow pistonic oscillation of the membrane. Extensions to this could be to provide a microphone and a deterministic noise source generator allowing the measurement of a room’s frequency response at the location of the absorber.
Using a loudspeaker as a membrane absorber could be very useful and opens up several avenues of further research.
Further work could also include the investigation of mounting Helmholtz absorbers on a loudspeaker surround to extend the low frequency performance still further.
.Chapter 7: Final Conclusions and Further Work
165
Further extensions to this work could also be to design a ‘semi active’ absorber system which could utilise a microphone to continually sample the frequency response just in front of the absorber and change the passive electronic load in real time such that the most efficient absorption could always be achieved.
UK (1995). 4th edn. Poster 116th Convention Audio Eng. “Room Optimizer: A Computer Program to Optimize the Placement Listener.
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4
0.Appendix A
172
APPENDIX A
Calibration chart for flow resistivity measurement apparatus:
Calibration Chart for Flow Resistivity Rig
30
25
Tube/Micromanometer reading. is the manometer reading in cm.2
0.2725 × 10 −7 y 2
Where y. cm
20
15
10
5
0
0
0. m3s 1
The above line can be represented by the equation
qv = 6.9240 × 10 −5 + 2.6
0.
.2803 × 10 −5 y + 2.8 x 10
1
3
Volumetric Airflow Rate.
05*c/spacingA. rho = 1. [I3. fu2C = (0. k = (2*pi*f)/c.Fs]=LOADIMP('bigA. c = 343. z4 = 1. % Loading WINMLS mic1 file into matlab
%_PROCESSING RESULTS FROM LARGE IMPEDANCE TUBE_% t = [(1:1:length(I1))/Fs]. [I2.9143. h4 = I4. fuB = min(fu1B.
close all clear all [I1.368.wmb'). f = (Fs*(0:((Nft1)/2))/(Nft1))'.wmb').*w. N = length(I1). in samples. y = [z1 z2 z3 z4].Fs]=LOADIMP('bigC. w = hanning(N).wmb').3458. z3 = 0. h1 = I1. spacingC = abs(y(4)y(1)).2255. flength = length(f). fu2A = (0.*w.fu2A). z1 = 0. N1 = length(I1). flA = 0. d = 0. spacingA = abs(y(2)y(1)). w(1:round(N/2)) = 1.05*c/spacingB.Fs]=LOADIMP('bigD.fu2C).Fs]=LOADIMP('bigB. of the input signal % Number of frequency points % Defining frequency axis % Speed of sound in air % Wavenumber in air
. spacingB = abs(y(3)y(2)).184. z2 = 0.45*c)/spacingA. Nft = 2^16. % Tube high frequency limit as result of tube diameter % Frequency limit as a result of mic spacing % Pick the lowest upeer frequency limit % Low frequency limit as a result of mic spacing % Generate time series % Length of file in samples % Generate hanning window % assign first half of window to unity % Windowed impulse responses
% Position of mic 1 from the sample % Position of mic 2 from the sample % Position of mic 3 from the sample % Position of mic 4 from the sample % Array of mic positions % Density of air % Tube diameter % Length. flB = 0. fu1A = c/(2*d). fuA = min(fu1A. [I4.fu2B). h2 = I2.wmb').21.*w.45*c)/spacingC. df = max(f)/flength.*w.45*c)/spacingB. h3 = I3. fuC = min(fu1C.Appendix B
173
APPENDIX B
Verifying results from large tube with small tube results and prediction. fu1C = c/(2*d). fu2B = (0. fu1B = c/(2*d).
FsD]=LOADIMP('smallA./(1 . h1_fft = fft(h1.*exp(2*j*k*y(2)).*wD. % Frequency interval in samples fu1D = 5. flAs = flA/df./(exp(j*k*spacingB)H13).15./(exp(j*k*spacingA)H12).(Nft)). h4freq = h4_fft(1:((Nft)/2)). fuAs = fuA/df.*wD.
. % Frequency series k = 2*pi*fD/c. % Surface impedance alphaA = (1abs(RA). h3_fft = fft(h3.FsD]=LOADIMP('smallB.fu2D). % Mic possitions of small tube % Mic distances from sample % Microphone spacing
N1D = length(h1D). alphaC = (1abs(RC).58*c/0./h3freq. % Fourier transform of impulse response % Get rid of negative frequencies
174
% Transfer functions
RA = (H12exp(j*k*spacingA))./(1 .^2). spacingD = yD(2)yD(1). H14 = h1freq.*exp(2*j*k*y(2)). imp2D = h2D. fuCs = fuC/df. H12 = h1freq. % Maximum and minimum frequency limits in samples for eases of plotting
%_PROCESSING RESULTS FROM SMALL IMPEDANCE TUBE_% [h1D.RC). alphaB = (1abs(RB). [h2D.wmb'). fu2D = 0. fuD = min(min(fu1D.05.1.Nft).Appendix B
flC = 0.(Nft)).^2). dfD = max(fD)/flengthD.(Nft)).45*c/spacingD. flengthD = length(fD).wmb'). fuBs = fuB/df.^2). yD = [z1D z2D]. h1freq = h1_fft(1:((Nft)/2)).RB). wD = hanning(N1D). H13 = h2freq.1). h2freq = h2_fft(1:((Nft)/2))./(1 . h3freq = h3_fft(1:((Nft)/2)). z1D = 0.RA)). % Reflection factor zA = (rho*c)*((RA + 1). h4_fft = fft(h4. % Assign first half of window to unity imp1D = h1D. % Absorption coefficient RB = (H13exp(j*k*spacingB)). flBs = flB/df. zB = (RB + 1)./h4freq.*exp(2*j*k*y(2)). flCs = flC/df.fD(flengthD)). %windowed impulse resopnse
fD = (FsD*(0:((N1D1)/2))/(N1D1))'. h2_fft = fft(h2. % Generate hanning window wD(1:round(N1D/2)) = ones(round(N1D/2). RC = (H14exp(j*k*spacingC)). zC = (RC + 1). z2D = 0.05*c/spacingC. % Length in samples of the input signal t = [(1:1:length(h1D))/FsD]./h2freq./(exp(j*k*spacingC)H14).
2) xlabel('Frequency (Hz)') ylabel('Absorption Coefficient') title('Mineral Wool as Measured in Large and Small Impedance Tubes'. h2_fftD = fft(imp2D.*(1+0.2). fD(flDs:fuDs).^0...N1D)..^2..'r'.'k:'../h2freqD.^2).12) ylim([0 1]) grid on hold on %_DELANY AND BAZLEY PREDICTION_% Z0 = c*rho..0978*(X.alphaC(flCs:fuCs)..732)).. % Surface impedance of mineral wool % Reflection factor of mineral wool % Absorption coefficient of mineral wool
figure(1) plot(f..700)j*0.. alpha = 1abs(R).. % Transfer function % FFT of impulse
175
RD = (H12Dexp(j*k*spacingD)). h2freqD = h2_fftD(1:((N1D)/2)). f(flBs:fuBs).4)
..alpha. f(flCs:fuCs).(N1D)).'b'.'LineWidth'.'FontSize'.. h1freqD = h1_fftD(1:((N1D)/2)). zD = (rho*c)*((RD + 1).754)j*0./(exp(j*k*spacingD)H12D). fuDs = fuD/dfD. H12D = h1freqD.^0.'LineWidth'./(z+Z0).. h1_fftD = fft(imp1D... 'Large Tube Mic positions A and D'.^0.*cot(k*l).055.^0. alphaB(flBs:fuBs). 'Large Tube Mic positions B and C'. R = (zZ0)...595)).189*(X.'g'. flDs = flD/dfD.alphaA(flAs:fuAs).*f.RD)). sigma = 25000.05*c/spacingD.alphaD(flDs:fuDs)..087*(X./(1 .. % Complex wavenumber in min wool z = j*zc. xlim([15 fuD]) legend('Large Tube Mic positions A and B'..0571*(X. f = fD %characteristic impedance of air % Flow resisivity of mineral wool % Thickness of sample
X = rho*f/sigma. % Dimensionless quantity for Delany and Bazley zc = rho*c*(1+0.*exp(2*j*k*y(2)).Appendix B
flD = 0. l = 0. 'Small Tube Results'.'y'. figure(1) plot(f(flAs:fuAs). 'Prediction'. % Characteristic impedance of mine wool k = (2*pi/c). alphaD = (1abs(RD).
% Loading WINMLS mic1 file into matlab [I2.wmb')).'B. za = 0. Nft = 2^16.*w.2255 + dL. h3 = I3.3458/2. rho = 1. of the input signal % Number of frequency points % Defining frequency axis % Speed of sound in air % Wavenumber % Frequency interval in samples % Frequency limits of tube
. % File name % Density of air (kg/m3) % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s) % Tube radius (m) % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2) % Distance between tube end and sample % Tube length (m) % Distance from sample to micA % Distance from sample to micB % Distance from sample to micC % Distance from sample to micD
for i=1:length(name) % Loop if processing more than one file [I1. z2 = 0. z4 = 1. h4 = I4. spacingB = abs(y(1)y(3)). z3 = 0.375. c = 343. w = hanning(N1) w(1:N1/2) = 1.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)).
% Length. x = [z1. S = pi*a^2.*w.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)).368 + dL. y = [za zb zc zd].'A. [I4. dL = 0.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)).z2.wmb')).z3. h1 = I1. %_NORMAL TRANSFER FUNCTION TECHNIQUE_% N1 = length(I1). k = (2*pi*f)/c.wmb')).2255. in samples. t = [(1:1:length(I1))/Fs]. L = 2 + dL.19.184 + dL. c = 343.9143.*w.21. h2 = I2. df = max(f)/flength. z1 = 0.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)). clear all. % Length of impulse in samples % Time series % Hanning window % Set first half of window to unity % Window impulses
% Position of mic 1 from the sample % Position of mic 2 from the sample % Position of mic 3 from the sample % Position of mic 4 from the sample % Array of mic possitions % Combinations of mic spacings
spacingA = abs(y(1)y(2)). a = 0.z4].Appendix C
176
APPENDIX C
Comparing standard transfer function with least squares method
close all. zd = 1. spacingC = abs(y(1)y(4)).9143 + dL.wmb')). zc = 0.'D. [I3. flength = length(f). name{1} = 'Mineral Wool'.'C. N1 = length(h1). zb = 0.*w. fu1A = c/(2*d). f = (Fs*(0:((Nft1)/2))/(Nft1))'.
alphaA = (1abs(RA). % Reflection factor RB = (H13. fu1C = c/(2*d).1.05*c/spacingC. limC = [flC fuC].5) hold on plot(f(flBs:fuBs).*(exp(j*k*y(1)))exp(j*k*y(4))).^2). fuBs = fuB/df.Appendix C
fu2A = (0. fuA = min(fu1A.5) plot(f(flCs:fuCs). h2freq = h2_fft(1:((Nft)/2)).*exp(j*k*y(1)))). zB = (rho*c)*((RB + 1). limB = [flB fuB].*(exp(j*k*y(1)))exp(j*k*y(2))).RC)). h2_fft = fft(h2. fu2C = (0. H14 = h4freq. h4_fft = fft(h4.1./(1 .'LineWidth'. fu2B = (0. zC = (rho*c)*((RC + 1).'r'. alphaC = (1abs(RC). h1freq = h1_fft(1:((Nft)/2)). flB = 0. fu1B = c/(2*d).Nft). % Transfer function % Fourier transform of impulse response % Get rid of negative frequencies
177
% Upper and Lower frequency graph limits
RA = (H12.45*c)/spacingA. zA = (rho*c)*((RA + 1).RB)).(Nft))./((exp(j*k*y(3)))(H13. fuB = min(fu1B.'LineWidth'. flAs = flA/df.fu2C). fuAs = fuA/df. flBs = flB/df.5)
.(Nft)).45*c)/spacingB. limA = [flA fuA].^2). h4freq = h4_fft(1:((Nft)/2)).*exp(j*k*y(1)))).^2).1. h1_fft = fft(h1. H13 = h3freq.fu2A).'k'.fu2B). h3_fft = fft(h3. flA = 0.alphaA(flAs:fuAs). RC = (H14.RA))./h1freq.45*c)/spacingC.alphaC(flCs:fuCs)./h1freq.'y'. H12 = h2freq.alphaB(flBs:fuBs). flCs = flC/df. alphaB = (1abs(RB).'LineWidth'. flC = 0./(1 ./h1freq. h3freq = h3_fft(1:((Nft)/2))./((exp(j*k*y(2)))(H12.*(exp(j*k*y(1)))exp(j*k*y(3))).(Nft)). fuC = min(fu1C.05*c/spacingB.05*c/spacingA./((exp(j*k*y(4)))(H14./(1 .*exp(j*k*y(1)))). fuCs = fuC/df. % Frequency limits in samples % Surface impedance % Absorption coefficient
figure(1) plot(f(flAs:fuAs).
*g11g21)..'FontSize'. fmax2 = c/(2*a). ylabel('Absorption Coefficient') hold on grid on end
.alpha1.*g12g32))+.^2.
figure(1) plot(f(1:Nft/2). % Green's function micA > source2 g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2))./(1Roptimised1)).fmax2).xlim([17 450]) legend('Standard Method [mics AB]'. fmax = min(fmax1. % Green's function micC > source1 g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)). minspace = x(2)x(1). H13 = h3freq.2)..*g12g22))+.*g11g31).. (H13..*((1+Roptimised1).*(conj(H12. % Green's function micD > source1 g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)). % Green's function micB > source1 g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)).*(conj(H14.45*c/(minspace). ((abs(H12./h1freq.'Standard Method [mics AD]'./h1freq. % Green's function micD > source2 Roptimised1 = ((H12. (H14.'b'.*g12g32)). H14 = h4freq.^2+. alpha1 = 1abs(Roptimised1).'Optimised Mehtod') title('Comparing Standard and Optimised Method'...'LineWidth'./h1freq. % Green's function micA > source1 g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1)).*g12g22)).12) xlabel('Frequency.Appendix C
%_OPTIMISED METHOD OF PROCESSING RESULTS_% maxspace = x(4)x(1). H12 = h2freq.^2+(abs(H13.*g11g41).. Hz'). % Green's function micB > source2 g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)).*(conj(H13.'Standard Method [mics AC]'.*g12g42))).*g12g42)). % Maximum microphone spacing % Minimum microphone spacing % Minimum frequency limit (Hz) % Maximum limit due to mic spacing % Maximum limit due to tube diameter % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits % Transfer function between mics B/A % Mics C/A % Mics D/A
178
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1))./.. (abs(H14. % Optimised absorption coefficient % impedance
Z1 = rho*c. fmax1 = 0. fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)).^2). % Green's function micC > source2 g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4)).
L = 2 + dL.184 + dL.z3.2255. spacingE = abs(y(2)y(4)).wmb')). flength = length(f). k = (2*pi*f)/c. zd = 1.'C. x = [z1. in samples. rho = 1.2255 + dL.*han.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)). [I4.z2. spacingC = abs(y(1)y(4)). zc = 0. h4 = I4.*han.9143. h3 = I3. a = 0. c = 343.'D. Nft = 2^16.'B. za = 0.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)).21. spacingD = abs(y(2)y(3)).375.368 + dL. S = pi*a^2. clear all. zb = 0. z1 = 0.wmb')). h1 = I1. N1 = length(I1). d = 0.
close all. for i=1:length(name) [I1.wmb')). of the input signal % Number of frequency points % Defining frequency axis % Position of mic 1 from the sample % Position of mic 2 from the sample % Position of mic 3 from the sample % Position of mic 4 from the sample % Array of mic positions % Loading WINMLS mic1 file into matlab % Density of air (kg/m3) % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s) % Tube radius (m) % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2) % Distance between tube end and sample % Tube length (m) % Distance from sample to micA % Distance from sample to micB % Distance from sample to micC % Distance from sample to micD
. spacingF = abs(y(3)y(4)). [I2. han = hanning(N1) han(1:N1/2) = 1.21.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)).*han. name{1} = 'Mineral Wool'.z4]. spacingA = abs(y(1)y(2)).wmb')). h2 = I2. spacingB = abs(y(1)y(3)). [I3. y = [za zb zc zd].3458/2. f = (Fs*(0:((Nft1)/2))/(Nft1))'. N1 = length(h1). rho=1.19.Appendix D
179
APPENDIX D
Comparing the original least squares technique with the extended version. z4 = 1.'A.*han. z2 = 0.9143 + dL.Fs]=LOADIMP(strcat(char(name(i)). dL = 0. z3 = 0. %Tube diameter % Length.3458.
ywD = yD. fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)). f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'. yD = (yD(1:N)). fname2 = strcat(name(i). YC = fft(ywC). [yA. Y1 = (YA(1:N/2)).wmb')./Y1. H12 = Y2. minspace = x(2)x(1).'C. YB = fft(ywB). YA = fft(ywA).*w.fmax2).
. ywB = yB. g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)). g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1))./Y2. fmax = min(fmax1.*w./Y2.*w. k=(2*pi*f(1:N/2))/c. fmax1= 0. g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)).'D. [yD./Y1. Y2 = (YB(1:N/2)).1). Fs] = loadimp(char(fname4)). Fs] = loadimp(char(fname2)). H13 = Y3. fname3 = strcat(name(i). Fs] = loadimp(char(fname3)).wmb'). g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)).'A./Y3.*w. yA = (yA(1:N)). g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)). yB = (yB(1:N)).45*c/(minspace). Y3 = (YC(1:N/2)). yC = (yC(1:N)).wmb'). fmax2= c/(2*a). t = [(1:1:length(ywA))/Fs]. w(1:N/2) = ones(N/2.'B. ywC = yC. H34 = Y4. w = hanning(N). fname1 = strcat(name(i). [yC. H14 = Y4. YD = fft(ywD)./Y1. % Maximum microphone spacing % Minimum microphone spacing % Minimum frequency limit (Hz) % Maximum limit due to mic spacing % Maximum limit due to tube diameter % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits % Load WinMLS impulse response for micA % MicB % MicC % MicD % Number of sample points % Generate hanning window % Assign first half of window to unity % Pick the first N points of yA % yB % yC % yD % Apply hanning window to micA impulse reponse % MicB % MicC % MicD % Generate time series (s) % Generate frequency series (Hz) % Wave number array % Fourier Transform on mic A impulse responses % Mic B % Mic C % Mic D % Pick the first N/2 points of Y1 % Y2 % Y3 % Y4 % Transfer function between mics B/A % Mics C/A % Mics D/A % Mics C/B % Mics D/B % Mics D/C % Green's function micA > source1 % Green's function micA > source2 % Green's function micB > source1 % Green's function micB > source2 % Green's function micC > source1 % Green's function micC > source2
180
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)). H23 = Y3. H24 = Y4. [yB. maxspace = x(4)x(1). Fs] = loadimp(char(fname1)). ywA = yA.wmb'). fname4 = strcat(name(i). N = length(yA). Y4 = (YD(1:N/2)).Appendix D
df = max(f)/flength.
*g22g32)).*g12g22)). g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)).*(conj(H12.^2.*(conj(H34.*g12g42))+.xlim([17 450]) legend('Original Optimisation Method'.*g11g21). (abs(H14.. (abs(H24. % Original optimised method (H13.*g12g32)).^2+(abs(H13...^2+(abs(H13. ylabel('Absorption Coefficient') hold on end
.*((1+Roptimised2).. % Green's function micD > source1 % Green's function micD > source2
181
Roptimised1 = ((H12.'b'.^2).^2+.*g22g42)).. (H14..alpha1.*g12g42)).'r'.^2). Z2 = rho*c. ((abs(H12.f(1:N/2)..*(conj(H13././(1Roptimised2)).*g12g32))+..*(conj(H14. alpha1 = 1abs(Roptimised1)../(1Roptimised1)).*((1+Roptimised1).*g12g22))+.^2+.*g12g22))+.'Name'. (H24.12) xlabel('Frequency.*g22g42))+. Z1 = rho*c.*g31g41).alpha2.Appendix D
g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4))..*g11g31)..^2+. Hz'). % Absorption coefficient original % Absorption coefficient extended % Surface impedance original % Surface impedance extended
figure(1) set(gcf.2)..^2+(abs(H23..*g21g41).*g12g42)). Roptimised2 = ((H12. (H23.*g21g31).*(conj(H14. alpha2 = 1abs(Roptimised2).. ((abs(H12..'LineWidth'.*g12g32))..'FontSize'..*g12g22))./.*g32g42)).'Extended Optimisation Method') grid on title('Comparing Standard and Extended Optimised Methods'.*g12g42))). (H14.. (H34..^2.*(conj(H12.*(conj(H23..*g11g41).. % Extended optimised method (H13..*(conj(H13.^2+(abs(H34.*g11g41).*(conj(H24.*g11g21)..*g22g32))+.*g12g32))+.*g32g42)))..*g11g31).'Absorption Coefficient') plot(f(1:N/2). (abs(H14.
f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'.'Without Surround'. s{2} = 'acc no surround'. [yA.'.str(i.YA. fname = strcat(files.2) hold on grid on legend('With Surround'. w(1:N/2) = 1. Hz') ylabel('Level. str(1. fmin = 30. s{1} = 'acc surround'. t = [(1:1:length(ywA))/Fs]. YA = fft(ywA).1:2) = 'b'. fmax = 200. c = 343.'FontSize'. k=(2*pi*f(1:N/2))/c.'LineWidth'. ywA = yA.1:2) = 'r'. w = hanning(N).:). Fs] = loadimp(char(fname)).13) xlim([fmin fmax]) end
. YA = 20*log(abs(YA)).*w.
% Pick successive files to process % Add on suffix to complete file name % Load winMLS files
% Number of sample points % Generate Hanning window % Assign first half of window to unity % Pick the first N points % Apply Hanning window to mic A impulse response % Generate time series (s) % Generate frequency series (Hz) % Wave number array % Fourier Transform on impulse responses % Log of FFT
plot(f. N = length(yA). % Speed of sound in air % max frequency % min frequency % String to define order of colours for plot % Input file names
for i = 1:length(s) files = s(i). str(2.wmb').4) xlabel('Frequency. clear all.3
%____ Processing Accelerometer Measurements ____% close all. dB') title('Acceleration Level versus Frequency For Different Mounting Conditions'.Appendix E
182
APPENDIX E
MATLAB script for processing results from accelerometer data in section 4. yA = (yA(1:N)).
with the sample in place between the mounting rings.
.Appendix F
183
APPENDIX F
A: Surround mounted membrane on Large sample holder
B: Clamped membrane on large sample holder
C: Impedance tube mounting rings
The sample holder. was jacked into place to provide a termination at the impedance tube walls approximating a clamped condition.
*(k. zs2 = j*rho*c.^0. figure(1) plot(f.*((MMS/(SD^2)))) + MAF1. SD = pi*(a^2).Appendix G
184
APPENDIX G
Analogue circuit analysis of absorber with and without surround.*cot(k2*d2). % Mass of moving hardboard MMS = MSUR+MMEM. CAD = CMS*(SD^2).^0.15. RMS = (BL^2)/RES.^0. % Radiation resistance MAF1 = j*w. k = w/c. % Speed of sound in air % Density of air % Characteristic impedance of air % Frequency spectrum. f = 1:1:400.0978*(X.700)j*0.1077. SD = pi*(a^2).595)).*((8*rho)/(3*(pi^2)*a))./(Z+Z0). % Compliance of surround/plate in mechanical units % Diaphragm compliance in acoustic units % Compliance of cabinet in acoustic units
CAT = (1.754)j*0. % Total surface impedance of system
% Complex reflection factor of system % Absorption coefficient
. Z = SD*(RAT + MAD + CAT + ZAF)./(2*pi).14.kg RAF1 = (rho*c. Z2 = rho*c*(1+0. clear all.*((CAD*CAB)/(CAD+CAB)))). RES = 360.732)). % Mass of moving surround MMEM = 0.2) hold on %_ Without Surround _% a = 0.*w. Z0 = c*rho.*f. V = 0. R = (ZZ0).'LineWidth'.087*(X. % Total resistive damping in acoustical units MAD = (j.alpha.*(1+0. a = 0.
close all.03402. % Flow resistivity of absorbent X = rho*f/sigma. w = 2*pi*f. RAD = RMS/(SD^2).575./(j.035. % Approximate resistive losses in diaphragm based on L/S data RAB = zs2. alpha = 1R. % Delany and Bazley prediction for porous absorbent in cabinet %_ With Surround _% MSUR = 0.189*(X. % Total compliance in acoustic units RAT = RAD+RAB+RAF1.21.5E6.*conj(R). k2 = (2*pi/c). c = 343. d2 = 0. rho = 1. % Radiation mass BL = 15. Hz % Angular frequency % Wavenumber in air % Volume of backing % Radius of plate with surround plus 1/3 of surround % Area of plate and surround
sigma = 10200.*w. % Combined mass of surround and plate (hardboard). % Total mass impedance acoustic units ZAF = Z0/SD. % Resistive losses in cabinet CMS = 205.0571*(X.^2)).135.^0.'b'. CAB = V/(rho*(c^2)).
alpha.*((CAD*CAB)/(CAD+CAB))). % Total mass impedance acoustic units ZAF = Z0/SD. % Total compliance in acoustic units RAT = RAD+RAB+RAF1. % Youngs Modulus mu = 0. % Thickness of plate CMS = 180*(1(mu^2))*(a^2)/(E*(h^3)). RMS = (BL^2)/RES.173.575./(Z+Z0). RAB = zs2. % Total resistive damping in acoustical units MAD = (j. % Diaphragm compliance in acoustic units CAB = V/(rho*(c^2)). RAD = RMS/(SD^2).*w.'LineWidth'.'FontSize'.Appendix G
MMEM2 = 0.7. Z = SD*(RAT + MAD + CAT + ZAF). MMS = MMEM2/5.1e6.2e3. % Total surface impedance of system R = (ZZ0).*w.2) title('Equivalent Circuit Model of Membrane Absorber With and Without Surround Mounting'. Hz').kg
% Resistive losses in diaphragm % Resistive losses in cabinet
E = 0.13) legend('With Surround'. % Comliance of cabinet in acoustic units CAT = 1. alpha = 1R.1]) grid on
. % Poisson Ratio h = 3.
185
% Combined mass of surround and plate (hardboard).'r'./(j.'Without Surround') xlabel('Frequency.*(MMS/(SD^2)))+MAF1. % Complex reflection factor of system % Absorption coefficient
figure(1) plot(f.*conj(R).ylabel('Absorption Coefficient') ylim([0 1. % Compliance of surround/plate in mechanical units CAD = CMS*(SD^2). RES = 360.
'B. yD = (yD(1:N)).1:2) = 'b'. fmax = min(fmax1. name{2} = 'No Surround Min Wool'. w(1:N/2) = ones(N/2. w = hanning(N).1:2) = 'b'. x = [z1. Fs] = loadimp(char(fname1)). S = pi*a^2.Appendix H
186
APPENDIX H
MATLAB script for comparing impedance tube results with transfer matrix models for hardboard and vinyl rubber membranes. Fs] = loadimp(char(fname3)). str(3.
% String of colours for plotting
for i = 1:length(name) fname1 = strcat(name(i).1).'D. Fs] = loadimp(char(fname2)). fmax1= 0.
close all. fname2 = strcat(name(i). [yA.1:2) = 'r'. % Density of air (kg/m3) % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s) % Characteristic impedance of air % Tube radius (m) % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2) % Distance between tube end and sample % Tube length (m) % Distance from sample to micA % Distance from sample to micB % Distance from sample to micC % Distance from sample to micD % File names
name{1} = 'With Surround Min Wool'.wmb').wmb').wmb'). name{3} = 'With Surround Hardboard'.wmb'). str(4. Fs] = loadimp(char(fname4)). yC = (yC(1:N)).fmax2).184 + dL.2255 + dL. c = 343. rho = 1. z1 = 0.'C. maxspace = x(4)x(1). yB = (yB(1:N)). fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)). a = 0. z2 = 0. str(2. clear all.z3. [yB. Z0 = rho*c. z4 = 1.368 + dL. z3 = 0. L = 2 + dL.z2. str(1. name{4} = 'No Surround Hardboard'.z4]. [yC. N = length(yA). fmax2= c/(2*a). fname4 = strcat(name(i). minspace = x(2)x(1). yA = (yA(1:N)).45*c/(minspace). dL = 0.9143 + dL.21. [yD.3458.1:2) = 'r'. % Maximum microphone spacing % Minimum microphone spacing % Minimum frequency limit (Hz) % Maximum limit due to mic spacing % Maximum limit due to tube diameter % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits % Load WinMLS impulse response for micA % MicB % MicC % MicD % Number of sample points % Generate Hanning window % Assign first half of window to unity % Pick the first N points of yA % yB % yC % yD
.'A. fname3 = strcat(name(i).
% Absorption coefficient from impedance tube measurements Z = Z0. g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1))... H12 = Y2.*g32g42))).*(conj(H14.:). H23 = Y3. Y4 = (YD(1:N/2)).'LineWidth'...*(conj(H13.^2+(abs(H34.^2+(abs(H23. H24 = Y4.*((1+Roptimised). g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4)).2) hold on end end
.*(conj(H24.str(i.*g22g42))+./Y2../Y1.alpha.:).*g22g32))+.*g11g31).*g12g22))+./Y1.*g11g41). g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)).*(conj(H23.*g21g41). YC = fft(ywC).*w.*g11g21).^2+(abs(H13. (H34.1.*g22g32))..alpha. H13 = Y3.str(i.*(conj(H34.*(conj(H12.*g12g42))+. g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2))./Y2. YD = fft(ywD).^2)..*w.*g12g42)). ywD = yD..1. k = (2*pi*f(1:N/2))/c. alpha = 1abs(Roptimised).*g21g31).*g12g22)). (H14. (H24.
Roptimised = ((H12./Y1. % Apply Hanning window to micA impulse response % MicB % MicC % MicD % Generate frequency series (Hz) % Wave number array % Fourier Transform on mic A impulse responses % Mic B % Mic C % Mic D % Pick the first N/2 points of YA % YB % YC % YD % Transfer function between mics B/A % Mics C/A % Mics D/A % Mics C/B % Mics D/B % Mics D/C % Green's function micA > source1 % Green's function micA > source2 % Green's function micB > source1 % Green's function micB > source2 % Green's function micC > source1 % Green's function micC > source2 % Green's function micD > source1 % Green's function micD > source2
187
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)). (abs(H14..*g32g42)).*g31g41)./Y3. (abs(H24. f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'. g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)). ywC = yC.*g22g42)).Appendix H
ywA = yA..'LineWidth'..*w. % Surface impedance from impedance tube measurements figure(1) if i<=2 subplot(2. Y2 = (YB(1:N/2)). (H23.2) plot(f(1:N/2). ((abs(H12.. ywB = yB.. g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)). YA = fft(ywA).2) hold on else figure(1) subplot(2.^2+. H34 = Y4.*g12g32))+. H14 = Y4.^2+.1) plot(f(1:N/2). YB = fft(ywB)./(1Roptimised))..^2.% Optimised reflection factor from impedance tube measurments (H13. Y1 = (YA(1:N/2)).*g12g32))..*w. g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4))./.. Y3 = (YC(1:N/2)).
'g'.087*(X.^0.*Z0. Hz').^0.*cot(k1*d1)+Z0. rm = 10.81.alphaH.*cot(k1*d1)).2) xlabel('Frequency. % Unitless quantity for Delany and Bazley prediction Z2 = Z0*(1+0.^2).*f.1.'g'.alphaV.^2).Z0).189*(X. zs3 = (j*zs2.Z0).'Without Surround'.15. d1 = 0.'Without Surround'.'LineWidth'.'LineWidth'.2) plot(f.^2 ). Hz').595)). zs2 = j*Z2.*cot(k2*d2).754)j*0.*f.700)j*0. zs4H = zs3 + j*w*mH +rm.15. %Final surface impedance of vinyl rubber %Final surface impedance of hardboard % Reflection factor for vinyl rubber % Absorption coefficient for vinyl rubber % Reflection factor for hardboard % Absorption coefficient for hardboard
figure(1) set(gcf.2) xlabel('Frequency. w = 2*pi.^0. mH = 2.^0.732)).ylabel('absorption coefficient') title('Hardboard') legend('With Surround'. mV = 2./(zs4V + Z0)./(zs4H + Z0). % Depth of absorbent % Air gap depth % Acoustic mass per unit area of membrane (vinyl) % Acoustic mass per unit area of membrane (hardboard) % Array of frequencies % Angular frequency % Resistive losses due to mounting of the membrane % Wavenumber
sigma = 10200. f = (1:1:300)'.0978*(X.'Absorption Coefficient') subplot(2.1. RV = (zs4V .'Name'.ylabel('absorption coefficient') title('Vinyl Rubber') legend('With Surround'.0571*(X.Appendix H
188
%_ TRANSFER MATRIX MODEL _% d2 = 0.'Transfer Matrix Model') axis([20 150 0 1]) grid on subplot(2. k2 = (2*pi/c)./ (zs2 j*Z0. alphaV = 1(abs(RV).57.*(1+0. zs4V = zs3 + j*w*mV +rm. k1 = w/c. % Flow resistivity of absorbent X = rho*f/sigma.1) plot(f. alphaH = 1(abs(RH).'Transfer Matrix Model') axis([20 150 0 1]) grid on
. RH = (zs4H .
Resistance (R). Impedance (Z)… etc refers to the units or type of quantity i. Compliance (C).g. refers to the diaphragm without an air load S. Subscript: B. refers to a total V. RAT
. M MS The total damping in acoustic units is written as.Appendix I
189
APPENDIX I
Rules for equivalent circuit nomenclature:
In general the symbols are written in the form Axyz : A x y refers to the quantity.e. Mass (M). refers to the diaphragm with an air load T. refers to a variable component
For example: The total acoustic compliance is written as: C AB The mechanical mass of the diaphragm with an air load is written as. i. Mechanical (M) or Acoustic (A) refers to other information regarding the value e. Electrical (E). refers to the back of the diaphragm (the cabinet) D.e.
Appendix J
190
APPENDIX J
Comparing impedance tube results with lumped parameter predictions
close all; clear all; rho = 1.21; c = 344; a = 0.3458; S = pi*(a/2)^2; dL = 0; L = 2 + dL; z1 = 0.184 + dL; z2 = 0.368 + dL; z3 = 0.9143 + dL; z4 = 1.2255 + dL; x = [z1;z2;z3;z4]; % Density of air (kg/m3) % Speed of sound in air at 23C (m/s) % Tube diameter (m) % Crosssectional area of the tube (m2) % Distance between tube end and sample % Tube length (m) % Distance from sample to micA % Distance from sample to micB % Distance from sample to micC % Distance from sample to micD
values(1) = 1e6; % Approximation to resistance of open circuit case files{1} ='Open Circuit'; for i = 1:length(files) fname1 = strcat(files(i),'A.wmb'); fname2 = strcat(files(i),'B.wmb'); fname3 = strcat(files(i),'C.wmb'); fname4 = strcat(files(i),'D.wmb'); maxspace = x(4)x(1); minspace = x(2)x(1); fmin = c/(20*abs(maxspace)); fmax1= 0.45*c/(minspace); fmax2= c/(2*a); fmax = min(fmax1,fmax2); [yA, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname1)); [yB, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname2)); [yC, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname3)); [yD, Fs] = loadimp(char(fname4)); N = length(yA); w = hanning(N); w(1:N/2) = 1; yA = (yA(1:N)); yB = (yB(1:N)); yC = (yC(1:N)); yD = (yD(1:N)); ywA = yA.*w; ywB = yB.*w; ywC = yC.*w; ywD = yD.*w; t = [(1:1:length(ywA))/Fs]; f = (Fs*(0:((N1)))/(N1))'; k=(2*pi.*f(1:N/2))./c; YA = fft(ywA); % Maximum microphone spacing % Minimum microphone spacing % Minimum frequency limit (Hz) % Maximum limit due to mic spacing % Maximum limit due to tube diameter % Pick the lowest of high frequency limits % Load WinMLS impulse response for micA % MicB % MicC % MicD
% Number of sample points % Generate hanning window % Assign first half of window to unity % Pick the first N points of yA % yB % yC % yD % Apply hanning window to micA impulse reponse % MicB % MicC % MicD % Generate time series (s) % Generate frequency series (Hz) % Wave number array % Fourier Transform on mic A impulse responses
Appendix J
YB = fft(ywB); YC = fft(ywC); YD = fft(ywD); Y1 = (YA(1:N/2)); Y2 = (YB(1:N/2)); Y3 = (YC(1:N/2)); Y4 = (YD(1:N/2)); H12 = Y2./Y1; H13 = Y3./Y1; H14 = Y4./Y1; H23 = Y3./Y2; H24 = Y4./Y2; H34 = Y4./Y3; % Mic B % Mic C % Mic D % Pick the first N/2 points of YA % YB % YC % YD % Transfer function between mics B/A % Mics C/A % Mics D/A % Mics C/B % Mics D/B % Mics D/C % Green's function micA > source1 % Green's function micA > source2 % Green's function micB > source1 % Green's function micB > source2 % Green's function micC > source1 % Green's function micC > source2 % Green's function micD > source1 % Green's function micD > source2
191
g11 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz1)); g12 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z1)); g21 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz2)); g22 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z2)); g31 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz3)); g32 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z3)); g41 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(Lz4)); g42 = ((rho*c)/(2*S))*exp(j*k*(L+z4));
Roptimised = ((H12.*g11g21).*(conj(H12.*g12g22))+... (H13.*g11g31).*(conj(H13.*g12g32))+... (H14.*g11g41).*(conj(H14.*g12g42))+... (H23.*g21g31).*(conj(H23.*g22g32))+... (H24.*g21g41).*(conj(H24.*g22g42))+... (H34.*g31g41).*(conj(H34.*g32g42)))./... ((abs(H12.*g12g22)).^2+(abs(H13.*g12g32)).^2+... (abs(H14.*g12g42)).^2+(abs(H23.*g22g32)).^2+... (abs(H24.*g22g42)).^2+(abs(H34.*g32g42)).^2); alpha = 1abs(Roptimised).^2; str(1,1:2) = 'r'; str(2,1:2) = 'b'; Z = rho*c.*((1+Roptimised)./(1Roptimised)); % Impedance figure(1) plot(f(1:N/2),alpha,'r','LineWidth',2) xlim([20 400]),ylim([0 1.1]) hold on end %___ LUMPED PARAMETER PREDICTION ___% % Loudspeaker Parameters a = 0.1355; L1 = 0.907e3; L2 = 1.595e3; R2 = 5.02; BL = 20.169; SD = pi*(a^2); RE = 12.415; MMS = 28.152e3; % Radius of diaphragm % Electrical inductance of voice coil [1] % Electrical inductance of voice coil [2] % Force factor of driver % Area of diaphragm % Electrical resistance of driver % Moving mass of diaphragm (with air load)
Appendix J
RES = 360.575; CMS = 385.276e6; LE=L1; f = 20:1000; w = 2*pi*f; k = w./c; x = 0.38; y = 0.505; d = 0.226; V = x*y*d; Z0 = c*rho; RMS = (BL^2)/RES; RAD = RMS/(SD^2); RAF = 0; % Damping of diaphragm in electrical units % Mechanical compliance of driver with air load
192
% Width of cabinet/sample holder % Height of cabinet/sample holder % Depth of cabinet/sample holder % Volume of cabinet/sample holder % Characteristic impedance of air % Mechanical damping/resistance of diaphragm with airload % Resistance/damping of diaphragm in acoustic units
sigma = 10200; % Flow resistivity of absorbent X = rho*f/sigma; % Delany and Bazley prediction for absorbent in cabinet Z0 = rho*c; d2 = 0.3; Z2 = rho*c*(1+0.0571*(X.^0.754)j*0.087*(X.^0.732)); k2 = k.*(1+0.0978*(X.^0.700)j*0.189*(X.^0.595)); RAB = j*rho*c.*cot(k2*d2); CAD = CMS*(SD^2); CAB = V/(rho*(c^2)); ZAF = Z0/SD; val = values'; for i = 1:length(val) % Compliance of diaphragm in acoustic units % Compliance in acoustic units of cabinet % Array of resistance values
REV = val(i); % Variable resistance values z1 = 1./(j*w*(((SD^2)*LE)/(BL^2))); % Impedance due to electrical inductance in acoustic units z2 = (BL^2)/(RE*(SD^2)); % Impedance due to electrical resistance in acoustic units z3 = (BL^2)/(REV*(SD^2)); % Impedance due to variable resistance in acoustic units z4 = ((BL^2)/(R2*(SD^2)))+(1./(j.*w.*(((SD^2).*L2)./(BL^2)))); ZEA = 1./((1./z1)+(1./z2)+(1./z3)+(1./z4)); % Combined impedance due to electronic components in acoustic units CAT = (1./(j*w.*((CAD*CAB)/(CAD+CAB)))); % Combined acoustic compliance of entire system RAT = RAD+RAB; % Comined acoustic damping of entire system MAF1 = j*w.*((8*rho)/(3*(pi^2)*a)); % Radiation impedance of a baffled piston MAT = (j.*w.*(MMS/(SD^2)))MAF1; % Combined mass loading of entire system (minus air load as MMS was measured in free field) Z = SD*(ZEA + RAT + MAT + CAT + ZAF); % Specific acoustic impedance of entire system R = (ZZ0)./(Z+Z0); alpha = 1R.*conj(R); figure(1) plot(f,alpha,'b','LineWidth',1.5) xlabel('Frequency, Hz'),ylabel('Absorption Coefficient') title('Using a Loudspeaker as an Absorber', 'FontSize',13) legend('Results from Impedance Tube', 'Equivalent Circuit Prediction') grid on end
Appendix K
193
APPENDIX K
Comparing impedance tube measurements with predictions from the equivalent circuit model for each load resistance connected to terminals.
Closed Circuit
1 1
1 Ohms
1
5 Ohms
α
α
0.5
0.5
α
100 200 300
0.5
0 . 1
100
10 Ohms
200
300
0 400 Freq, Hz . 1
50 Ohms
0 400 Freq, Hz . 1
100
100 Ohms
200
300
400 Freq, Hz
α
α
0.5
0.5
α
100 200 300
0.5
0 . 1
100
200
300
Open Circuit
0 400 Freq, Hz .
0 400 Freq, Hz .
100
200
300
400 Freq, Hz
α
0.5
Measured Data Predictions
0 .
100
200
300
400 Freq, Hz
Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq.6 0.8 0.Appendix L
194
APPENDIX L
Predicted Absorption Curves. Varying Load Capacitance and Resistance in Parallel
1Ω 5Ω 10 Ω
1 0. Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq.2 0
α
α
100
200 300 Freq.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0. Hz
400
. Hz
400
50 Ω
1 0.2 0
500 Ω
α
α
100
200 300 Freq.2 0 1 0.4 0.4 0. Hz
400
100
200 300 Freq.8 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0. Hz
400
α
100
200 300 Freq.8 0.2 0 1 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.2 1 µF 10 µF 22 µF 47 µF 100 µF 220 µF 470 µF 0 1 0.6 0.2 0
100 Ω
1 0.
Spon (1993).. Kinsler. Interscience Publishers. ButterworthHeinemann. M. High Performance Loudspeakers. B. Colloms. Fundamentals of Acoustics. (1968). M. Academic Press. Barron. (1996). P.. Formulas of Acoustics. Copens and J. Beranek. Spon press (2000). 6th edn.. Springer. J. I. T. (1955). 3rd edn. Acoustical Society of America. inc. John Wiley and sons (2005). Fischer. Acoustics and Electroacoustics. Ingard.
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F. Kuttruff . Fundamentals of Electroacoustics. McGrawHill. E and F. Loudspeaker and Headphone handbook. D’Antonio. Borwick. 3rd edn. Wright (ed). Borwick. P. F. L. Artech House. 2nd edn. (1988). Theoretical Acoustics. Room Acoustics. H. L. Audio and HiFi Handbook. Focal Press. V. Acoustics.