Working Paper Series

The Influence of Critical Success Factors on International Internet Marketing Riyad Eid Myfanwy Trueman Abdel Moneim Ahmed Working Paper No 02/02 January 2002

The working papers are produced by the Bradford University School of Management and are to be circulated for discussion purposes only. Their contents should be considered to be preliminary. The papers are expected to be published in due course, in a revised form and should not be quoted without the author’s permission.

eid@bradford.uk ABSTRACT Business2Business International Internet Marketing (B2B IIM) has emerged as one of the key drivers in sustaining an organisation’s competitive advantage. Dip PhD MASQ Bradford University School of Management Emm Lane Bradford West Yorkshire BD9 4JL E-mail: r. Best Practice 3 . Business2Business.ac. KEYWORDS International Marketing. Global. The significance. market entry and communication via the Internet have affected the dynamics and traditional process in B2B commerce. Web Sites. However. importance and implications for each category are discussed and then recommendations are made. This research presents a comprehensive review in this field.a. Critical Success Factors. Difficulties resulting from these new trends have been cited in the literature. These factors were classified into five categories: Marketing Strategy. Internet. Research into identifying what are the critical success factors for global market entry is rare. The study identified twenty-one critical success factors applicable to most of the B2B IIM.m.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S THE INFLUENCE OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS ON INTERNATIONAL INTERNET MARKETING Riyad Eid BSc (Hons) MSc Myfanwy Trueman BA MSc PhD MCIMA Abdel Moneim Ahmed BEng (Hon) MSc Pg. Internal and External Related Factors.

industry structure analysis. they have to represent managerial areas. Porter (2001). The technique again narrows the focus of analysis and cannot provide more CSFs. Web Site. Digman (1990). It concentrates analysis on competition. Companies often link environmental scanning technique to the threats and opportunities evaluation. provide the analyst with rich data. Definitions. substitutable products. • Competitors’ Analysis This technique focuses on the competitive environment. and Guynes and Vanecek (1996) defined critical factors for success as the areas or functions where things must go right to ensure successful competitive performance for an organisation. • Best Practice Analysis This technique is very useful in industries dominated by one or a few firms such as Dell. These included environment scanning. Oakland (1995) links these factors to what an organisation must accomplish to achieve its mission. AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES Leidecker and Bruno (1984) proposed several techniques for identifying the critical success factors (CSFs). and information technology were studied. empirical research. 4 . • Industrial Expert’s Opinions This technique depends on people who have an excellent working knowledge of the industry/business. The focus here is to explore what the company does well and not so well. Internet. • Internal Assessment This technique identifies the CSFs for a particular firm. Hamill and Gregory (1997). assessment of the company’ internal feels or judgement and gathered data of Profit Impact of Market Strategy (PIMS). industrial expert’s opinions competitors’ analysis. Quelch and Klien (1996) conducted indepth studies to understand those factors that are needed to enhance B2B IIM implementation. which makes its application for individual firms inappropriate. By evaluating each component and the interrelationships between them leads to gathering considerable data that assist in identifying the critical factors for success. Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000). . and secondary case studies on B2B. The technique is used only to industry wide. how firms compete. • PIMS PIMS identify the key determinants of profitability that provides inputs for CSFs analysis. in the computer industry. • Environmental Scanning This technique is used to identify the economical. Global dimension. This technique depends more on subjective opinions. one does not dilute efforts. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS DEFINITIONS • Industry Structure Analysis This type of analysis is based on five components barriers to entry. • Intuitive Factors This technique depends on the intuition and insight of individuals who are familiar with the firm and leads to identification of important short run CSFs that may be unclear in more formal reviews. But this technique narrow focus of analysis might limit inputs of more CSFs. Butler and Fitzgerald (1999). Hoffman (1999). These factors were classified into five categories Marketing Strategy. This research attempts to identify and discuss in the following sections those areas or functions through the secondary case studies and reviewing literature. buyers and inter-firm competition. Further discussion on each category is also underpinned. techniques and discussion on these factors are described in the following sections. The findings of these studies identified twenty-one factors that have a direct impact on successful implementation of the B2B IIM. The only problem attached with this technique is the difficulty of operational it into specific industry or to an organisation’s CSFs. This will guide an organisation while implementing B2B IIM. Various articles. which require continual attention to lead to high performance. However. political and social forces that surround an organisation and influence its performance. Kanji and Tambi (1999) stated that for these factors to be more effective. Internal and External Related Factors. The logic behind this technique understands what the firm does successfully in determining the CSFs. but it depends on subjective opinions. suppliers. the intuitive feel of an industry insider often is an excellent source of CSFs and coupled with more objective techniques. International marketing. But this technique may lead to general nature of the factors. But it cannot provide CSFs not linked to the analysis of how firms compete. best practice analysis.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S INTRODUCTION In recent years B2B IIM has received wide spread attention.

identifying potential valuable partners. thinking globally and doing business in the Internet time (speed) are critical factors for B2B IIM successful implementation. Poon and Jevons (1997). Bramer (1996) agreed that correct planning for training sessions. SECONDARY CASE STUDY Table 1 illustrates a brief summary of varies secondary case studies been published in the field of B-to-B IIM. Newsfactor. organisational and communications play made possible by new technology. activities. management support and staff awareness programmes are important to B2B IIM implementation.Com ETA SA Encyclopaedia Britannica Welding Firm KDM International IBM Sun Microsoft Grey Matter EDS: part of General Motors W.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S PROPOSED FACTORS A number of studies were carried out to identify those factors most critical to B2B IIM success. Cronin (1996b) added the security factor to the marketing strategy and culture.fromages.W. culture and the use of both the traditional and online marketing. as well as. which is based primarily on the quality and quantity of exchanged information over the Internet. Software and Services Garden Products Flooring Products 5 .ukonlineforbusiness. customer acceptance and the language used were also critical success factors.NUA.uk/ Naude and Holland (1996) Porter (2001) Kalakota and Robinson (1999) Jones (1996) www. Herbig and Hale (1997) emphasises that customer needs must be identified.uk/ Allen and Fjermestad (2001) www. Duggan and Deveney (2000) indicated that the integration between off and on-line marketing efforts.gov. The table includes a description of the companies’ names. Damanpour (2001) showed the importance of meeting client demand as necessary to fulfils obligations in Internet-based marketing. Gogan (1997) cited that selecting the appropriate technologies infrastructure is a key factor for Internet marketing.ukonlineforbusiness. Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000) noted that sales force has a central role to play in the Internet marketing strategies implementation if the appropriate training is provided. Furnell and Karweni (1999) agreed that the development of successful inter-organisational relationships is another critical factor.CIO.Com Honeycutt et al (1998) www.com DELL Delap and Waller Nabisco MMM. E-commerce is not a technology play! It is a relationship.CIO. nationalities and references source.Grainger Cisco Digital Equipment Corporation Garden Flooring Company Activity/Industry Steel Clothes Cheese Car High Technology Furniture Computer Design. However top management team’s support is one of the keys to integrate the Internet effectively with the strategic marketing plan.gov.Com Honeycutt et al (1998) TABLE 1: A LIST OF THE PUBLISHED SECONDARY CASE STUDIES Company BHP Steel VF Playwear Fromages Toyota Millipore Furniture.com Osterle et al (2001) www.ukonlineforbusiness.ie Kalakota and Robinson (1999) www. Hamill and Gregory (1997) suggested that well designed web sites provide an organisation with a leading edge in the global market.gov. Nationality Australian USA French UK USA USA UK UK USA USA Switzerland USA USA UK USA USA UK USA USA MNC USA USA USA Source Chan and Swatman (2000) Angeles (2001) www.uk/ Naude and Holland (1996) www. Production and Customer Service Snack Food Variety of products Swatch Leather Welding Agriculture Computer Computer Software & Electronics Equipment Car Maintenance Products Computer and internetworking Network Computer System. Being flexible when collaborating with the trading community.Zdnet.com Chaffy et al (2000) Anderson (1996) www. partnership. Hoffman (1999) and Zairi (2001 a&b) all agreed that trust and confidence between vendor and potential customer is another critical factor.com www. Chan and Swatman (2000) pointed out other factors such as supplier and customer involvement.

FACTORS CATEGORIZATION The twenty one critical factors for B2B IIM successful implementation have been grouped into five related factors categories A. C. Hardware Equipment. CATEGORY A: MARKETING STRATEGY RELATED FACTORS Chaffy et al (2000) argued that the Internet is an integral part. Different industries such as Manufacturing Equipment. Home Equipment. B. Scientific and Medical Equipment.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S Figure 1 shows that 62% of the companies involved in the published case studies illustrated in table 1 were USA based. Textile Industry. Telecommunications. This indicates the leading role American companies are taking towards B2B IIM implementation. Each category is discussed in more details in the following sub-sections. which supports business-marketing FIGURE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES BY NATIONALITIES (© EID. D and E as shown in Figure 2. TRUEMAN AND AHMED) 6 . Management Consulting and Software Development adopt the Internet for marketing purposes. TRUEMAN AND AHMED) FIGURE 2: CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS CATEGORISATION (© EID.

It has been widely accepted that the Internet is cannibalistic. This report indicates that there were a correlation between the investment on the Internet and the revenue received by a company. Allen and Fjermestad (2001) provided three examples of companies rejecting the idea of using Internet marketing. Chan and Swatman (2000) emphasised that management at the supervisory level plays the most critical role in implementing B2B IIM successfully. Chaffy et al (2000) and Chan and Swatman (2000) identified top management support and commitment as key factors for successful implementation of innovation processes for an organisation. Damanpour 2001. the Sun Microsystems Company. Porter 2001 and Quelch and Klien 1996 all agreed that factors related to marketing strategy are vital to the success of B2B IIM implementation. Hofacker 2001. Chan and Swatman 2000. Naude and Holland 1996. These factors related to marketing strategy includes: 1. Second. regulatory agencies and external data basses. Porter (2001) indicated that customers who purchase on-line also continue to purchase through other means. “. Chaffey et al (2000) cited that management commitment to the Internet medium helps promotes implementation across the company. The majority of companies in the secondary case studies mentioned in the previous sections have agreed that setting strategic goals is critical factor to B2B IIM success. Naude and Holland (1996) provided an example of Ford in implementing its global marketing strategy that addresses homogenisation across national markets in terms of realising the cost savings through internal rationalisation. Nabisco marketing manager stated “the company could work with bricks and mortar retailers to trying to preserve the current way of doing business”. Integrating Internet with Marketing Strategy Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000).W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S strategies and should be treated as a separate plan. Cronin 1996. First. Grainger who rejected the assumption that Internet would undermine its strategy. That is a vast exaggeration. Chaffey et al (2000) pointed out that Internet marketing must be consistent with business objectives.. Second. Duggan and Deveney 2000. which was produced by KPMG group of consultants. 3 M’s. Ford’s global marketing strategy is identical to its IT strategy. Duggan and Deveney (2000). Honeycutt et al (1998). and Sun Microsystems in the secondary case studies considered integrating the Internet with their marketing Strategy as critical factor for B2B IIM success. 3. executives and entrepreneurs alike need to change their point of view on how to capitalise on the Internet’s strategic potential. which includes both the internal reorganisation that centres on shared worldwide databases and relationships with customers and suppliers. the complete cannibalisation will be exceedingly rare. Nabisco. but this will requires financial support.” Companies such as Toyota. product. Porter (2001) stated. Chan and Swatman (2000) showed that successful Internet marketers are those who build systems able to integrate with existing applications and serve the needs of trading partners at either end of the value chain. Top management support & commitment Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000). which does not consider the Web to be an individual channel or an alternative vehicle of their customer to deal with the company. Honeycutt et al (1998) cited that companies must consider Internet 7 . Porter (2001) and Quelch and Klien (1996) argued that integrating the Internet with a business marketing strategy is an important component for successful implementation of B2B IIM. Cronin (1996). However.. that it will replace all conventional ways of doing business and overturn all traditional advantages. Chan and Swatman (2000). Avlonitis and Karayanni 2000. In their study. instead it tightly co-ordinated its aggressive on-line efforts with traditional business and the results so far are revealing. to enable Millipore’s marketers to deal with strategic partners. Third. First. This requires personal and managerial knowledge of Internet marketing potential and is proactively involved in its internal diffusion. Chaffey et al included the 1998 report. news and ordering aspects. Anderson (1996) and Honeycutt et al (1998) provided another example of Millipore flooring company who decided on two strategic goals for its Web site to increase international business opportunities. Honeycutt et al 1998. 2. Chaffy et al 2000. to enable the existing and potential customers to interact directly with the company’s information on various technical. application. While the Internet will replace certain elements. Setting Strategic Goals Successful implementation of the B2B IIM depends on how clearly defined the strategic goals are for an organisation. Dell.

finance and Information Technology (IT). rather than a replacement for other marketing programmes already in place. Chan and Swatman (2000) provided another dimension to collaboration when they mentioned trading partners’ relationships as the critical issue that faces a companies attempt to achieve its objectives to getting closer to customers. either to purchase online (if the web site has various facilities) or to order in the real world approaches. so organisations that provide more data on their company and products are more likely to succeed in implementing Internet marketing. External audience include external customers. which produced a disorganised Web site with little logic. and the increasing competitiveness of the medium. interesting or informative information to their consumers. 1. Kotab and Helsen (2000). Like all other marketing media. this lead to several international transactions and an increased number of inquiries from customers globally. unattractively coloured backgrounds. Cronin (1996) demonstrated the example of Millipore Corporation on how company’s can attract customers and potential buyers to its Web sites by offering a well-designed and comprehensive value to the pharmaceutical and microelectronics industries. resellers and other business partners. This means customers might evaluate the product online or in the real world. Hofacker (2001) pointed out that the nature of the Internet is that Web site is automatically an international marketing tool. Then have two options. Honeycutt et al (1998) highlighted that industry experts suggest that a web site must have clear and consistent information. Samiee (1998) agreed that an effective web site depends on its design. Defining who are the Internet audiences to be targeted is one of the primary tasks for the Web designers because it determines how and when both the internal and external actors should be involved. CATEGORY B: WEB SITE RELATED FACTORS Anderson (1996). Also. the company changed the Web advertising agency quickly. Herbig and Hale (1997) added that current speed of technological innovation in web site design. The company’s homepage must be kept up-to-date to make available the most recent information. the key to successful implementation of their B2B IIM was the relational database of its product Hofacker (2001) defined the Web as a tool that companies employ to convey promotional messages. The majority of on-line users come to the Internet for information. However. telephone or fax machines. Herbig and Hale (1997). 4. Quelch and Klien (1996) pointed out that the creation of a web site is not a one-time effort. Quelch and Klien (1996). Hamill and Gregory (1997). 5. sales. White (1997) stated that companies that are prepared to make international sales should indicate that on their World Wide Web (WWW) pages. it is used to sell products directly to the customer or to provide consumers with various computing or communication services. Organizations can by-pass the traditional interaction patterns and form virtual value chains. Andderson (1996) noted that in Millipore Corporation. such as using personal appearance. Quelch and Klien (1996) and Samiee (1998) identified the welldesigned corporate Web site as the company’s marketing showpiece and the crucial component that contribute to the success for any of the B2B IIM efforts. customers compare the value of information they get and its helpfulness in aiding them in decision-making. There are a number of well-designed web site characteristics. it must sub-contract others service providers for managing connectivity. Deciding on who are the potential audiences? Hollensen (2001) divided Internet audiences into internal and external. changing content that will not only attract new customers from many countries but also encourage them to return. Damanpour (2001) added that an organization only succeeds when top management develops dynamic and just-in-time collaborations’ attitude and responsiveness. Web sites must provide valuable. and numerous spelling errors. vendors. Web Site Design Hamill and Gregory (1997). channel sales. Poon and Jevons (1997) indicated that collaboration should include appropriate utilisation of the resources needed for the Internet Implementation. Bremer (1996) pointed out that if a company lacks technical resources to manage the Internet connection and enable security technology. suppliers. Hofacker (2001). Kotab and Helsen (2000). requires global marketers continue assessing their Internet sites’ perceived value among target groups across countries.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S marketing as a complement to. 8 . Internal audience include marketing. Hofacker (2001). Honeycutt et al (1998) reported that Millipore flooring firm previously experienced dissatisfaction with designing agencies. Herbig and Hale (1997). Collaboration (deciding on the strategic partners) Collaboration emphases clear partnership between the trading community and other stakeholders.

“Web site must not only serve as an electronic order-taking interface but also have high value added informational content. Kotab and Helsen (2000). *(For example. customer support and service requirements. These include: 1. promoting a Web site differs from any other media promotion. Allen and Fjermestad (2001) noted that the manager of Nabisco indicated that information on the Web site must include products. Chaffey et al (2001) stated that the basic quality of good information is be accessed rapidly. CATEGORY C: GLOBAL RELATED FACTORS (1996). which play an important role in facilitating B-to-B IIM implementation. Understanding Foreign Marketing Environment Marketing environments vary from one country to another. export currency and payment issues. The majority of the secondary case studies agreed upon these factors as critical to B2B IIM successful implementation. Gogan (1997). Quelch and Klien (1996) noted that companies who want to use the Internet to do business internationally have to revise their operations. depended on a number of global related factors. Hofacker (2001) emphasised that companies have to study the foreign marketing environments including trade regulations and package delivery options to assess the advantages of its own products and services. Duggan and Deveney (2000). strategies. and business models if they want to exploit the opportunities offered by the Internet. target market pricing and competitive factors.com 9 . Chaffey et al (2000) indicated that while the Internet increases the potential market size. Hofacker (2001). Effective marketing of the site (online and offline promotion) Chaffey et al (2000) cascaded the importance of promoting the web site for two reasons. Companies in the secondary case studies discovered that they had to be prepared to deal with an entirely new customer segment once they were established on the Internet.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S catalogues developed prior to Web site designing process. Kotab and Helsen (2001). Honeycutt et al (1998) provided an example of a welding firm faced by dealing with new customers on both Chaffey et al (2000). None of these issues will be solely derived from access to the Internet or developing Web site. many companies might not have the resources required to deal with international markets. the level of economic development might be the key in another. and relevant to users. Hofacker (2001). Hamill and Gregory (1997). while an advanced infrastructure may place one foreign market more favourably ahead of another for one industry. an organisation must distinguish its web site from those of its competitors. and integrating the Web site with other marketing channels be used. Quelch and Klien (1996) identified resources as one of the global related factors. Hamill and Gregory (1997) supported this view by stating that Web site needs to be marketed in an appropriate manner to ensure high accessibility. a company must have a 24-hour order taking. delivery. Chan and Swatman (2000). Resources Required to Working Globally Chaffey et al (2000). customer service response capability and regulatory and custom-handling experience to ship internationally. Quelch and Klien www www. Likewise. Hamill and Gregory (1997) added regular updating to encourage repeat visits. First. Second.fromages. legal and regulatory considerations. Herbig and Hale (1997). This can be done in various ways including registering the site with all of the online search engines establishing reciprocal cross-linkages to other sites and ensuring that the URL address is used in all company correspondence. 2. It requires expertise and technical knowledge of how customers can easily find information on the Internet. allowing information gathering about users. Hofacker (2001). Fromages Manager said. Quelch and Klien (1996). price and services support. Samiee (1998) pointed that international marketing involves many macro and micro planning and management considerations including meeting local product standards. Wood and Roberson (2000) stated that while the political climate in one country or region could be perceived as a key dimension to an international venture’s success (or failure). the existence of a stable and transparent legal system might do the same for another industry. interactivity and responsiveness to user feedback. Samiee (1998) and White (1997) described the Internet ability in making sales to overseas markets. easy to find. 2. Samiee (1998) and Wood and Roberson (2000) agree that web site design should reflect the country’s environment requirements. clear navigation paths to allow smooth movement around the site. Therefore.

Quelch and Klein (1996) note that the growth of the use of the Internet for business will accelerate the trend for English to become the Lingua Franca of commerce. manuals. According to Hofacker (2001) even nonverbal elements can cause cultural problems. language barriers have launched a new Web-oriented translation industry. Kotab and Helsen (2000). CATEGORY D: INTERNAL RELATED FACTORS Researchers and practitioners such as Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000). Building a global Internet marketing strategy. 3. is to hire a firm like World Point. Kotab and Helsen (2000) suggest that by the year 2005. Cronin (1996). Hofacker (2001) stated companies who want to use the Internet for international marketing must translate their Web sites into a number of languages. it is important to design a logistical system that allows a firm to deliver its products/services across nations efficiently before soliciting orders from abroad White (1997) underpinned that shipping charges may be beyond a company’s control. the sales force role and the importance of training programmes. Kotab and Helsen (2001) claims that the Internet provides a level playing field to small and large global players alike are somewhat exaggerated. Herbig and Hale (1997) stated that providing information that will be desired by a variety of people with different needs and tastes will encourage a mix of nationalities and cultures. Undoubtedly. and even colour conventions. a company that plans to become a global e-business player might need to localise its Web sites in order to deal with target customers in their native tongue. Palumbo and Herbig (1998). for companies who want to use the Internet internationally. and marketing materials into eighteen languages . Duggan and Deveney (2000). is to pick a few key languages after studying the number of Internet users in these countries (Gillette used this option). which overcomes cultural barriers is considered a critical factor to B2B IIM implementation success.worldpoint. Web sites should indicate shipment costs to each country to which delivery is available. and colours that have different symbolic values. Culture Considerations Chan and Swatman (2000). Thus. Gogan (1997). 57% of the Internet audience will speak a language other than English. companies should provide information about the time needed for international shipments. Third. Palumbo and Herbig (1998) have expanded the cultural differences. Undoubtedly. If it is not already selling internationally. However. This will be very time consuming and costly. Companies with large resources will be able to hire the best talent and buy the latest technologies in the area. is the use of software. Chan and Swatman (2000).W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S levels the national and international. language communication is the challenge. 5.not just text. Second. International Delivery Availability Palumbo and Herbig (1998) highlighted that when a firm uses the Internet. Kotab and Helsen (2000) indicated that companies who want to make their Web sites international by translating the content into other languages have three options. For instance. Consequently. At a minimum. . internal culture. Kotab and Helsen (2000) provide an example of Dell through its built-to-order system. but it is a concern for international customers. dates. Consequently. First. was able to gain a foothold in markets like China and Hong Kong with its online business concept that consider the cultural dimension. Internal related factors include technological infrastructure. Besides. it receives orders from several places around the world. Samiee (1998). the use of white colour is more or less neutral in parts of the world. but in some countries in Asia it signifies death. Hofacker (2001). For example. but also currencies. Quelch and Klien (1996) and Samiee (1998) have considered factors related to the internal environment as a critical component of successful B-to-B IIM efforts.com) as mentioned by Kotab and Helsen (2000) offers a Web-based “localisation” service that translates and edits documents such as annual reports. 10 White (1997) suggested that cultures of different countries must be taken into account when marketing on the Internet. 4. World Point (www. which along with languages include obstacles in translating images (symbols) that have different meanings across nations. Multilanguage Web Site One of the biggest issues around global communication is language. large firms still enjoy competitive advantage because of larger resources and more visibility among prospective customers worldwide. this could be a problem. or at least should try minimising the difficulties for non-native readers of their languages.

Therefore an organisation must understand and conform to the new values. Training Programme Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000). Bremer (1996) emphasised that the Internet brings with it an array of new equipment.uk/ 11 . Chan and Swatman (2000). Internal Culture Chan and Swatman (2000). For the Internet to serve as an effective tool.gov. Bremer (1996). all parties in the relationship or the transaction must be familiar with PCs and appreciate the benefits and the potential applications of the Internet and WWW. Sales Force Role Avlonitis and Karayanni (2000) noted that the sales force have a central role to play in implementing the Internet marketing strategies successfully for industrial organisations. American companies are aware that their employees require continual training and retraining in the tool. appreciating and honouring the country’s culture and protocol.which aspects of the e-Market should be developed in house and which should be left to others to develop thereby embracing the spirit of the virtual organisation. Hamill and Gregory (1997) reflected the importance of training programmes by stating that training in the use of the Internet to support international marketing should be an integral part of government export promotion and support. and reluctant to confront the alterations in tasks and individual workloads that the introduction of new methods frequently necessitates. resources. Skill shortages.” 2. and processes that underpin their operations. 4. technical training and hands-on end-user training. and basic end-user computer training.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S 1. Bennett (1997). which in turn led to greater acceptance of B2B IIM. and unfamiliarity with IT-based marketing and management systems could perhaps cause feelings of personal insecurity. Bennett (1997) stated that in the past IT training had not been common among managerial employees. www. must be learned and understood. Chan and Swatman (2000) indicated that a training and awareness program run by a company to make staff conversant with new methods of doing business seem to have a significant effect in improving understanding of new systems and technologies. Training about the Internet mixes aspects of management. fear of being seen to be ignorant of the latest techniques. The manager of KDM international said that1: “We have learnt the importance of the right choice of software platforms . Naude and Holland (1996) added the third element as the Internet-related software products to add value to raw data. They may be able to 1 enhance their standing and improve internal communication by helping others to introduce and integrate new information management tools. Saieed (1998) pointed out two elements for technological infrastructure. This culture is based on old beliefs and corporate values that often are no longer appropriate or useful in the new environment of doing business. Samiee (1998) and White (1997) defined the internal culture as the extent to which an organisation is adaptable to change. First element is computer literacy. management processes and communication style that are being created by new methods of marketing. Bondra and Davis (1996) pointed out that sales and marketing managers have an opportunity to reposition themselves. software and sources of information that must be integrated into work processes and therefore. 88% of these companies sponsor training in computer skills compared with 75% five years ago. Duggan and Deveney (2000). 3. technical. Naude and Holland (1996) considered an adequate IT infrastructure as a vital factor in successful B2B IIM implementation. The second element is the availability of equipment for access and services.ukonlineforbusiness. Internet implementation requires three principal training methods awareness training (via lecturedemonstrations and case studies). Technological Infrastructure Researchers such as Saieed (1998). Jones (1996) supports the idea of doing business on the Internet is much like doing business in any foreign country: the key to success is understanding. marketing skills will still play a major role in global marketing: a site with the latest technologies but one that does not meet customer expectations will not be successful. Hamill and Gregory (1997) highlighted that training and education is a determining factor to successful B2B IIM implementation.Kotab and Helsen (2001) stated that although technology matters. the penetration of PCs in business is broad and increasing rapidly. scalability and large players in the market are factors that can influence the success of a company when expanding into e-commerce. However.

while the latter addresses the requirements for secure transactions. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol developed by Netscape. Trust Mayer (1995) defined trust as the willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustee irrespective of the agility to monitor or control the other party. rather than the more traditional view which held that the relationships would be the result of such information exchange. Duggan and Deveney (2000). Honeycutt et al (1998) . trust in the information displayed and trust in delivery fulfilment and service. Sparkes and Thomas (2001) indicated that the development of an interactive Web site involving real customer relationships requires contribution from the content. For example. Ratnasingham (1998) and Samiee (1998) identified that one of the most common worries. Customer Acceptance Cronin (1996) highlighted that companies should make special efforts to motivate customers to make the move to an online environment otherwise they will be lost in a crowd of competitors and never connected with the electronic marketplace. This is because the parties to a transaction are not in the same place and therefore cannot depend on things like physical proximity. to the extent that they are being formed on the basis of what information can be exchanged between companies. which allows encryption of messages. The former deals with the network. Cronin (1996). Companies will have to wait until these countries invest in better telecommunication infrastructures before they can take full advantage of the opportunities the Internet offers for global commerce. marketing and technology of an organisation. Palumbo and Herbig (1998) pointed that this presents obstacles to global expansion initiative via the Internet. For the Internet. This includes trust. Successful Relationship Furnell and Karweni (1999) stated that interorganisational relationships are critical in B2B marketing. easy and affordable access and customer acceptance of B2B strategies. systems and applications components of the electronic commerce solution.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S CATEGORY D: EXTERNAL RELATED FACTORS Chan and Swatman (2000). But on the other hand. which occurs over the network is the security of financial transactions. Electronic Publishing Resources (EPR) developed Virtual Distributed Environment (VDE) technology that encrypts secure information passing over the Internet. firms in developing countries endure high access fees. Honeycutt et al (1998). successful relationship between customers and providers. Poon and Jevons (1997). security. Internet Affordable Access Saieed (1998) suggested that easy and affordable access to the Internet network in the international markets is essential if international marketers are to tap the full potential of the Internet. intention and purchasing. Furnell and Karweni (1999). Quelch and Klien (1996). trustbased marketing is the key to success. Furnell and Karweni (1999) and Ratnasingham (1998) agreed that trust is more important in the virtual world than it is in the real world. Urban et al (2000) and Zairi (2001) have considered factors related to external partners as a key component to successful Internet marketing implementation. which have already been recognised within the Internet/e-commerce community and a number of technologies that exists and used to satisfy different elements. The combination of the above create a shared vision for an operational Web site 4. 3. Naude P and Holland (1996) point out that changes in IT are shaping relationships in a fundamental way. 12 For this reason. Furnell and Karweni (1999). 1. can be used to transfer all data in encrypted form. Web site trust is going to become a key differentiator that will determine the success or failure of many companies. trust in the Internet and the specific Web site. Urban et al (2000) divided the Internet trust into three stages. 2. Furnell and Karweni (1999) discussed the security requirements. Ratnasingham (1998). Palumbo and Herbig (1998). 5. Swan et al (1999) emphasised that trust has an influence on developing positive customer attitude. Urban et al (2000) stated that as consumers become more sophisticated about the Internet. some people use the Web to locate products but prefer to place their order via offline methods such as telephone or fax. In the developed nations service providers offer access at reasonable rates. Security According to Ratnasingham (1998) the two most important areas affecting the successful implementation of international marketing is Internet and transaction security. handshakes and body-signals.

Software development. External Factors. regardless of size. Telecommunications. These categories were plotted as shown in Figure 3 to measure the frequency level of each. questions and comments. Scientific and medical equipment.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S added that companies have to prepare an efficient internal system to respond quickly to customer’s requests. FIGURE 3: FREQUENCY OF THE CSF IN THE FIVE CATEGORIES CONCLUSIONS The Internet allows companies. Chemical and plastics. Home equipment. early evidence suggests that the Internet will have a great effect on the conduct of international trade in the new millennium. These factors are expected to have a great role in the Perceived success of B-to-B IIM efforts. These important marketing preparations are the critical factors for successful B-to-B IIM and include five basic dimensions: Marketing Strategy Related Factors. With a better understanding of this issues involved in B-to-B IIM. is reliable and delivers integrated performance. to reach international markets at reasonable cost. Hardware equipment. Internal Factors. there is a need for further research in this area to evaluate the degree of criticality and importance of the success factors identified in the B-to-B IIM literature and the secondary case studies. 13 . before going global by the Internet a company should make some marketing preparations and redefine its organisation. More research also needed to study how the perceived importance of these factors may differ across different industries such as Manufacturing equipment. However. Academic research on the use of the Internet in B-to-B International marketing is still at a developing stage. management will be able to make critical decisions and allocate resources that are required to make B-to-B IIM implementation a success. However. Global dimension related factors. According to Kalakota and Robinson (1999) the operational excellence model that delivers the highest customer satisfaction is built on an ebusiness infrastructure that has four characteristics: It is easy to use. Textile industry. Consequently. Management consulting. It means that the Internet and its tools have eliminated the prohibitive barriers for many companies to work globally. Web Site Related Factors. has rich functionality. since the Internet’ environment has changed the rules of traditional business.

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W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S LIST OF WORKING PAPER TITLES 2002 02/03 – Tamar Almor & Niron Hashai Configurations of International Knowledge-Intensive SMEs: Can the Eclectic Paradigm Provide a Sufficient Theoretical Framework? 02/02 – Riyad Eid. John M T Balmer & Alan Wilson Applying the Acid Test of Corporate Identity Management 0008 – N Y Ashry & W A Taylor Information Systems Requirements Analysis in Healthcare: Diffusion or Translation? 0007 – T Lindley. the State and Foreign Economic Policy: Singapore. Mental Models and Cognitive Style 01/15 – E Grey & J Balmer Ethical Identity. M Webster & A Muhlemann Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems: Definitions. Management and Performance: A Research Agenda 01/01 – A Harzing Acquisitions Versus Greenfield Investments: Exploring the Impact of the MNC’s International Strategy 2000 0031 – John Ritchie & Sue Richardson Leadership and Misleadership in Smaller Business Governance 0030 – Mary Klemm Tourism and Ethnic Minorities in Bradford: Concepts and Evidence 0029 – (not available) 0028 – (not available) 0027 – Axèle Giroud Determinant Factors of the Degree of Supply-Related Technology Transfer: A Comparative Analysis Between Asian Affiliates 0026 – A Cullen. P K Ahmed & M Zairi The Role of Sharing Knowledge in Management Initiatives 0004 – C De Mattos & S Sanderson Expected Importance of Partners’ Contributions to Alliances in Emerging Economies: A Review 0003 – A Harzing Acquisitions Versus Greenfield Investments: Both Sides of the Picture 0002 – Stuart Sanderson & Claudio De Mattos Alliance Partners’ Expectations Concerning Potential Conflicts and Implications Relative to Trust Building 0001 – A Harzing An Empirical Test and Extension of the Bartlett & Ghoshal Typology of Multinational Companies 1999 9922 – Gerry Randell & Maria del Pilar Rodriguez Managerial Ethical Behaviour 9921 – N Y Ashry & W A Taylor Requirements Analysis as Innovation Diffusion: A Proposed Requirements Analysis Strategy for the Development of an Integrated Hospital Information Support System 9920 – C Hope My Way’s The Right Way! Or. Myfanwy Trueman & Abdel Moniem Ahmed The Influence of Critical Success Factors on International Internet Marketing 02/01 – Niron Hashai The Impact of Distance Sensitivity and Economics of Scale on the Output and Exports of Israel and its Arab Neighbours 2001 01/18 – Christopher M Dent Transnational Capital. R Zurbruegg. A Giroud & T Lindley Bradford in the Premier League? A Multidisciplinary Approach to Branching and Re-positioning a City 01/03 – A Harzing Self Perpetuating Myths and Chinese Whispers 01/02 – M Webster Supply Systems Structure. What is it? What of it? 01/14 – Mike Talyes & Colin Drury Autopsy of a Stalling ABC System: A Case Study of Activity Based Cost Management and Performance Improvement 01/13 – N Esho. D O’Reilly & T Casey An Analysis of UK Television Advertisements for Alcohol 0006 – Eric Lindley & Frederick Wheeler The Learning Square: Four Domains that Impact on Strategy 0005 – K K Lim. is ‘Best Practice’ in Operations Management Dependent Upon National Culture? 16 . Desperate Measures! Managing Innovation at London’s Millennium Dome 01/04 – M Trueman. Divided Loyalties: Changing Customer Perceptions by Design 0021 – Yasar Jarrar Becoming World Class Through a Culture of Measurement 0020 – David Spicer & Eugene Sadler-Smith Cognitive Style & Decision Making 0019 – Z J Radnor & R Boaden A Test for Corporate Anorexia 0018 – (not available) 0017 – Peter Prowse Public Service Union Recruitment Workplace Recovery or Stagnation in a Public Services Union? Evidence From a Regional Perspective 0016 – Yasar F Jarrar & Mohamed Zairi Best Practice Transfer for Future Competitiveness: A Study of Best Practices 0015 – Mike Tayles & Colin Drury Cost Systems and Profitability Analysis in UK Companies: Selected Survey Findings 0014 – B Myloni & A Harzing Transferability of Human Resource Management Practices Across Borders: A European Reflection on Greece 0013 – (not available) 0012 – Nick J Freeamn Asean Investment Area: Progress and Challenges 0011 – Arvid Flagestad & Christine A Hope A Model of Strategic Success in Winter Sports Destinations: the Strategic Performance Pyramid 0010 – M Poon. South Korea and Taiwan 01/17 – David P Spicer & Eugene Sadler-Smith The General Decision Making Style Questionnaire: A Comfirmatory Analysis 01/16 – David P Spicer Expanding Experimental Learning: Linking Individual and Organisational learning. Functionality and the Contribution to Global Operations 0025 – B Chennoufi & M Klemm Managing Cultural Differences in a Global Environment 0024 – (not available) 0023 – Simon Best & Devashish Pujari Internet Marketing Effectiveness: An Exploratory Examination in Tourism Industry 0022 – Dr Myfanwy Tureman Divided Views. A Kirievsky & D Ward Law and the Deminants of International iInsurance Consumption 01/12 – J Andrews Coutts & Kwong C Cheug Trading Rules and Stock Returns: Some Preliminary Short Run Evidence from the Hang Seng 1985-1997 01/11 – D McKechnie & S Hogarth-Scott Linking Internal Service Encounters and Internal Iransactions: Unravelling Internal Marketing Contract Workers 01/10 – M Webster & D M Sugden Operations Strategies for the Exploitation of Protected Technology: Virtual Manufacture as an Alternative to Outward licensing 01/09 – Axèle Giroud Buyer-Supplier Transfer and Country of Origin: An empirical Analysis of FDI in Malaysia 01/08 – Damian Ward Do Independent Agents Reduce Life Insurance Companies’ Free Cash Flow? 01/07 – Daragh O’Reilly Corporate Images in ‘Jerry Maguire’: A Semiotic Analysis 01/06 – Tony Lindley & Daragh O’Reilly Brand Identity on the Arts Sector 01/05 – M Trueman. With Particular Reference to Teaching on Tourism Courses. J Balmer & D O’Reilly Desperate Dome. Goal Interdependence and Controversy: A Study of a Chinese Public Utility 0009 – Patricia C Fox. R Pike & D Tjosvold Budget Participation. M Klemm.

C Pass & A Robinson LTIPS and the Need to Examine the Diversity of CEO Remuneration 9904 – C Smallman Knowledge Management as Risk Management: The Need for Open Corporate Governance 9903 – R Beach. Networks and Service Quality 9911 – J F Keane Design and the Management Paradigms of Self-Organisation 9910 – D O’Reilly On the Precipice of a Revolution with Hamel and Prahalad 9909 – S Cameron & D Ward Abstinence. A Muhlemann & J Sharp The Role of Qualitative Research in the Quest for Strategic Flexibility 9902 – N Hiley & C Smallman Predicting Corporate Failure: A Literature Review 9901 – M Trueman Designing Capital: Using Design to Enhance and Control Technological Innovation 1998 9826 – A Harzing Cross-National Industrial Mail Surveys: Why do Response Rates Differ Between Countries? 9825 – B Dewsnap and D Jobber The Sales-Marketing Interface: A Synthesis of Theoretical Perspectives and Conceptual Framework 9824 – C De Mattos Advantageous Exectutives’ Characteristics in Establishing Biotechnology Alliances in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Brazil 9823 – C A Howorth An Empirical Examination of the Usefulness of the Cash Conversion Cycle 9822 – A Harzing Who’s in Charge? An Empirical Study of Executive Stafiing Practices in Foreign Subsidiaries 9821 – N Wakabayashi & J Gill Perceptive Differences in Interorganizational Collaboration and Dynamics of Trust 9820 – C Smallman Risk Perception: State of the Art 9819 – C Smallman The Breadth of Perceived Risk: Why Integrated Risk Management of Health. Cigarettes. A Popof & D Pujari Evaluating Sales Management Training at Xerox in Greece: An Exploratory Study 9817 – W A Taylor An Information-Based Perspective on Knowledge Capture in Business Processes 9816 – S Hogarth-Scott Category Management Relationships: Is it Really Trust Where Choice is Limited? 9815 – W A Taylor Sustaining Innovation in Organisations: Managing the Intangibles A Study of TQM Implementation in Northern Ireland Organisations 1991-1996 9814 – M Webster. Relative to Potential Future Contributions of Greatest Importance to and from Transnational Alliance Partners in Emerging Economies 9810 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright The Cost of Customer Care – A Value Analysis of Service Delivery Approaches 9809 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright A Service Provider’s View of Success Factors in Alternative Service Stategies 9808 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright A Professional’s Evaluation of Alternative Service Delivery Regimes for Customer Care and Satisfaction 9807 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright A User’s Perspective of Alternative Service Delivery: A Comparative Study of the Evaluation of Service Strategies 9806 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright The Case for Choice in Health Care: A Comparison of Traditional and Team Midwifery in Effective Service Provision 9805 – M Woods. A P Muhlemann. in the Biotechnology Sector. Excess. A P Muhlemann. Management and the Need for Learning 9801 – P Eyre & C Smallman Euromanagement Competencies in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: A Development Path for the New Millenium 1997 9729 – C Smallman Managerial Perceptions of Organisational Hazards and their Associated Risks 9728 – C Smallman & D Weir Managers in the Year 2000 and After: A Strategy for Development 9727 – R Platt Ensuring Effective Provision of Low Cost Housing Finance in India: An In-Depth case Analysis 9726 – (not available) 9725 – (not available) 9724 – S Estrin. D H R Price and J A Sharp Facilitating Strategic Change in Manufacturing Industry 17 . M Fedorkow amd M Smith Modelling the Learning Organisation 9804 – W A Taylor An Action Research Study of Knowledge Management in Process Industries 9803 – C Singleton Quantitative and Qualitative – Bridging the Gap Between Two Opposing Paradigms 9802 – R McClements & C Smallman Managing in the New Millennium: Reflections on Change. J A Sharp & A Paterson Strategic Flexibility and Outsourcing in Global networks 9912 – H M stewart. A Robinson & D Ward Performance criteria of Corporate Option and Long-Term Incentive Plans: A Survey of 150 UK Companies 1994-1998 9913 – R Beach. D Price.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S 9919 – A Harzing Of Bumble-Bees and Spiders: The Role of Expatriates in Controlling Foreign Subsidiaries 9918 – N Y Ashry & W A Taylor Who will take the Garbage Out? The Potential of Information Technology for Clinical Waste Management in the NHS 9917 – D O’Reilly Nice Video(?). Safety & Environmental Risks is only the End of the Beginning 9818 – P S Budhwar. A Muhlemann and C Alder Subcontract Manufacture in Electronics Assembly: A Survey of Industry Practice 9813 – M J S Harry Is Object-Orientation Subject-Oriented?: Conflicting and Unresolved Philosophies in Object-Oriented Information Systems Development Methodology 9812 – J Jackson The Introduction of Japanese Continuous Improvement Practices to a Traditional British Manufacturing Site: The Case of RHP Bearings (Ferrybridge) 9811 – C De Mattos A Comparative Study Between Perceptions of British and German Executives. V Perotin. C A Hope & A P Muhlemann The Legal Profession. D H R Price. Success?: Alcohol. A Paterson. Wedlock & Earnings 9908 – M Klemm & J Rawel Eurocamp – Strategic Development and Internationalisation in a European Context 9907 – M Webster & R Beach Operations Network Design. Shame about the Scam… Paedagogical Rhetoric Meets commercial Reality at Stew Leonard’s 9916 – A Harzing The European Monolith: Another Myth in International Management? 9915 – S MacDougall & R Pike The Influence of Capital Budgeting Implementation on Real Options: A Multiple-Case Study of New technology Investments 9914 – C Pass. A Robinson & N Wilson Profit-Sharing Revisited: British and French Experience Compared 9723 – (not available) 9722 – R Beach. Manufacturing Paradigms and the Subcontractor 9906 – D Ward Firm Behaviour and Investor Choice: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of UK Insuramce 9905 – D Ward.

D H R Price & J A Sharp The Evolutionary Development of the Concept Manufacturing Flexibility 9605 – B Summers Using Neural Networks for Credit Risk Management: The Nature of the Models Produced 9604 – P J Buckley & M Carter The Economics of Business Process Design: Motivation. A Pendleton & M Wright The impact of Employee Ownership on Employee Attitudes: Evidence from UK ESOPS 9401 – N Wilson & M J Peel Working Capital & Financial Management Practices in the Small Firm Sector 18 . Methodologies Compared 9701 – K Watson.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S 9721 – R Beach. A P Muhlemann. D H R Price and J A Sharp The Strategy Options in Manufacturing Industry: Propositions Based on Case Histories 9720 – A Giroud Multinational Firms Backward Linkages in Malaysia: A Comparison between European and Asian Firms in the Electrical and Electronics Sector 9719 – L Kening Foreign Direct Investment in China: Performance. A Paterson.R Price & J A Sharp An Adaptive Literature Search Paradigm 9502 – A S C Ehrenberg & M Uncles Direchlet-Type Markets: a Review. D H. A Paterson. Information & Coordination Within the Firm 9603 – M Carter Is the Customer Always Right? Information. Part 2: Applications & Implications 9501 – M Uncles & A S C Ehrenberg Direchlet-Type Markets: A Review. D H R Price & J A Sharp The Management Information Systems as a Source of Flexibility: A Case Study 9705 – E Marshall Business Ethics: The Religious Dimension 9704 – M Wright. K H Wee & F Bartels The Expansion Strategies of Triad Corporations in East Asia 9615 – M Demirbag & H Mirza Inter-Partner Reliance. Climate and Impact 9718 – H Mirza Towards a Strategy for Enhancing ASEAN’s Locational Advantages for Attracting Greater Foreign Direct Investment 9717 – B Summers & N Wilson An Empirical Study of the Demand for Trade Credit in UK Manufacturing Firms 9716 – R Butler & J Gill Reliable Knowledge and Trust in Partnership Formation 9715 – R Butler Stories and Experiments in Organisational Research 9714 – M Klemm & L Parkinson British Tour Operators: Blessing or Blight 9713 – C A Hope What Does Quality Management Mean for Tourism Companies and Organisations? 9712 – S Hogarth-Scott & P Dapiran Do Retailers and Suppliers Really have Collaborative Category Management Relationships?: Category Management Relationships in the UK and Australia 9711 – C De Mattos The Importance of Potential Future Contributions from/to Transnational Joint Venture Partners: Perception of Brazilian Managing Directors and Specialists Linked to Biotechnology 9710 – N T Ibrahim & F P Wheeler Are Malaysian Corporations Ready for Executive Information Systems? 9709 – F P Wheeler & A W Nixon Monitoring Organisational Knowledge in Use 9708 – M Tayles & C Drury Scoping Product Costing Research: A Strategy for Managing the Product Portfolio – Cost System Design 9707 – N Wilson. Exchange of Resources & Partners’ Influence on J’V’s Strategy 9614 – R H Pike & N S Cheng Motives for Investing in Accounts Receivable: Theory and Evidence 9613 . B Summers & C Singleton Small Business Demand for Trade Credit. Personal Relationships & Addictive Consumption 9610 – M Uncles & A Manaresi Relationships Among Retail Franchisees and Frachisors: A Two-Country Study 9609 – S Procter Quality in Maternity Services: Perceptions of Managers. A Paterson. S Hogarth-Scott & K Watson Factors Contributing to Entrepreneurial Success in New Start Small Businesses 9606 – R Beach. Part 1: Patterns and Theory 1994 9411 – R A Rayman The Real-Balance Effect Fallacy and The Failure of Unemployment Policy 9410 – R A Rayman The Myth of ‘Says’ Law 9409 not issued 9408 not issued 9407 not issued 9406 not issued 9405 – F Bartels & N Freeman Multinational Enterprise in Emerging Markets: International Joint Ventures in Côte D’Ivoire Vietnam 9404 – E Marshall The Single Transferable Vote – A Necessary Refinement Abstract 9403 – G R Dowling & M Uncles Customer Loyalty programs: Should Every Firm Have One? 9402 – N Wilson. Credit Rationing and the Late Payment of Commercial Debt: An Empirical Study 9706 – R Beach. Quality and Organisational Architecture 9602 – D T H Weir Why Does the Pilot Sit at the Front? And Does it Matter? 9601 – R A Rayman A Proposal for Reforming the Tax System 1995 9506 – A L Riding & B Summers Networks that Learn and Credit Evaluation 9505 – R A Rayman The Income Concept: A Flawed Ideal? 9504 – S Ali & H Mirza Market Entry Strategies in Poland: A Preliminary Report 9503 – R Beach. A P Muhlemann. Clinicians and Consumers’ 9608 – S Hogarth-Scott & G P Dapiran Retailer-Supplier Relationships: An Integrative Framework Based on Category Management Relationships 9607 – N Wilson. A Paterson. N Wilson & K Robbie The Longer Term Effects of Management-Led Buy-Outs 9703 – G Hopkinson & S Hogarth Scott Quality of Franchise Relationships: The Implications of Micro Economic Theories of Franchising 9702 – G C Hopkinson & S Hogarth-Scott Channel Conflict: Critical Incidents or Telling Tales. A P Muhlemann. S.R H Pike & N S Cheng Business Trade Credit Management: Experience of Large UK Firms 9612 – R Elliott. A P Muhlemann. S Eccles & K Gournay Man Management? Women and the Use of Debt to Control Personal Relationships 9611 – R Elliott. Hogarth-Scott & N Wilson Marketing Success Factors and Key Tasks in Small Business Development 1996 9619 – B Summers & N Wilson Trade Credit Management and the Decision to use Factoring: An Empirical Study 9618 – M Hiley & H Mirza The Economic Prospects of ASEAN : The Role of AFTA in the Future Development of the Region 9617 – A Brown Prospects for Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Thailand 9616 – H Mirza. S Eccles & K Gournay Social Support.

Braga Rodrigues & D Hickson Success in Decision Making: Different Organisations. R S Turner. M Afferson & J Sharp Manufacturing Information Systems as a Means for Improving the Quality of Production Management Decisions in Smaller Manufacturing Enterprises 9308 – F P Wheeler. R S Turner. Technology and Effectiveness 9303 – R J Butler. L Davies. P D Coates. R H Pike & D H R Price Strategy. Structure and Technology 9302 – R J Butler. R Pike & J Sharp Effective Investment Decision-Making: The Concept and its Determinants no longer available 9309 – A Muhlemann.W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S 1993 9310 – R Butler. S H Chang & R J Thomas The Transition from an Executive Information System to Everyone’s Information System: Lessons from a Case Study 9306 – S H Chang. 9304 – R J Butler. R H Pike & D H R Price Ideology. Copies of the above papers can be obtained by contacting the Research Secretary at the address below: Bradford University School of Management Emm Lane Bradford West Yorkshire BD9 4JL Tel: 01274 234323 (mornings only) Fax: 01274 546866 19 .00 per volume. R H Pike & D H R Price Investing in New Technology for Competitive Advantage Copies of the Proceedings of the Arab Management Conferences are available for purchase at a cost of £40. P D Coates. Differing Reasons for Success. D Price. R J Thomas & S H Chang Towards Effective Executive Information Systems 9307 – F P Wheeler. F P Wheeler & R J Thomas Modelling Executive Information Needs 9305 – S. P D Coates. R H Pike & D H R Price Competitive Strategies and New Technology 9301 – R J Butler. P D Coates. R S Turner. R S Turner.

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