Cerberus® Security guide «Fire protection» Introduction and basic principles

Extract of sections 1 to 9 for the «CRP B» manual

Fire & Security Products
Siemens Building Technologies Group

Data and design subject to change without notice. / Supply subject to availability. E Copyright by Siemens Building Technologies AG Wir behalten uns alle Rechte an diesem Dokument und an dem in ihm dargestellten Gegenstand vor. Der Empfänger anerkennt diese Rechte und wird dieses Dokument nicht ohne unsere vorgängige schriftliche Ermächtigung ganz oder teilweise Dritten zugänglich machen oder ausserhalb des Zweckes verwenden, zu dem es ihm übergeben worden ist. We reserve all rights in this document and in the subject thereof. By acceptance of the document the recipient acknowledges these rights and undertakes not to publish the document nor the subject thereof in full or in part, nor to make them available to any third party without our prior express written authorization, nor to use it for any purpose other than for which it was delivered to him. Nous nous réservons tous les droits sur ce document, ainsi que sur l'objet y figurant. La partie recevant ce document reconnaît ces droits et elle s'engage à ne pas le rendre accessible à des tiers, même partiellement, sans notre autorisation écrite préalable et à ne pas l'employer à des fins autres que celles pour lesquelles il lui a été remis. Ci riserviamo ogni diritto relativo al presente documento e sull'oggetto illustrato in esso. La parte che riceve il documento si impegna a non renderlo accessibile a terzi, né per intero né in parte, senza la nostra previa autorizzazione scritta ed a non usarlo per altri scopi di quello per il quale è stato rilasciato.

Section 1 Section 2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.4 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 6 7 Fire protection objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of fire protection measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detection and gas warning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smoke control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency and rescue facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire fighting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supporting fire protection measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overall fire protection concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerberus fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic design of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical requirements of the fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System building and operation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water extinguishing installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sprinkler systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deluge system / water curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foam extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM200 gas extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CO2 extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dry chemical extinguishing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inerting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire risk assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing the risk of arson with an intruder detection system . . . . . . . .

1 3
4 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 13 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23

Section 3

Fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Basic principle of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex) fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex fire detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection intelligence at three levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex evaluation and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The right combination of AlgoRex system versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26 27 30 30 31 32 33 34 36

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Section 4

Fire detectors and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 4 5 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Fire phenomena and detector types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Smoke detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flame detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sensor signal evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zones with fixed extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a suitable detector system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a detector for normal applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing the appropriate AlgoRex detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suitability by application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of point-type detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area per smoke detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type heat detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type flame detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of manual call points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of linear smoke detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection systems (ASD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Modular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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38 39 39 41 43 44 46 48 49 49 50 51 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 63

Section 5

Fire detection control units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 5 5.1 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Siting the control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoControl fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation – Alarm – Operation – Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration and structure of the fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerberus alarm concept (CAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire control facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activation of fire control facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activating the external control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test mode of the fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing the fire control facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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66 67 67 68 70 71 71 72 74 75 76 76 79 79 79 80 80 80 80

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Section 6

Line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 3 Installation of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation of the detection line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic information on the detection line network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detectors in explosion hazard areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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82 84 84 85 87

Section 7

Standards and approval institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 1.1 1.2 2 3 4 5 Standards for fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UL standards (Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc. USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Certification and approval institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IP protection categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explosion protection types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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90 90 91 92 92 93 94

Section 8

Danger management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other important functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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96 98 98 98

System concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 System structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Specific security features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Examples of danger management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Example 1: DMS7000 danger management system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Example 2: System type LMSmodular (Local Monitoring System) . . . . . . . . . 103

Section 9

Evacuation and voice communication systems . . . . . . . . . .
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3

105

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Main functions of an emergency voice communication system . . . . . . . 107 System concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Autonomous system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centralized system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decentralized system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 109 109 110

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Section 1 Introduction This security guide is intended to: Provide general basic principles. As a work of reference. section 2. As a means of planning fire detection systems. In all cases. Assist in the selection of risk-specific fire protection concepts. standards and regulations that govern the planning and installation of detection systems take precedence. and the capabilities of Cerberus fire detection products. The information in this security guide is based on half a century of worldwide experience in the planning and installation of detection systems. 1 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect1 07. For more detailed information on the general planning of fire detection systems refer to CRP manual. local and national codes.2001 .

2001 .2 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect1 07.

Basic design of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical requirements of the fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 2. . . . . . Special extinguishing systems . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water extinguishing installations . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reducing the risk of arson with an intruder detection system . . . . . 3 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. . . . . . . . . . . Supporting fire protection measures . . . . . . Cerberus fire detection systems . .3. . . . . . . Fire protection planning Fire protection objectives . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .3. .2001 . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . Structural fire protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of fire protection measures . . . . . . . . Technical fire protection . . . . . . . . 5. Overall fire protection concept . . . 3. . . 5. . . Fire protection management . . .1. . . . . . . . . .Section 2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 5 5 8 9 10 12 12 12 15 15 18 20 22 23 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire risk assessment . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 2. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed fire extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ordinances. In cases where no laws and ordinances exist.1 Fire protection objectives The basic objective of effective fire protection measures is to protect human lives. guidelines and standards have in all cases precedence over the recommendations in this security guide and must be conscientiously taken into consideration when planning a fire protection system. Such laws. Preventing material damage (asset protection) 3. Specifically this means: 1. Asset protection is usually governed by insurance companies which publish corresponding guidelines and regulations. the fire detection system should be planned in accordance with sound fire protection engineering practice.2001 . material assets and the environment from dangers and the effects of fire. 4 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Preventing ecological damage (environment protection) To ensure adequate fire safety most countries have enacted national and regional regulations that allocate the responsibility as follows: Personnel protection is normally governed by laws and ordinances. Preventing danger to life and health (personnel protection) 2.

High fire resistance of the structural elements.2. for example. technical and organizational concepts and are summarized below: 2. Its purpose is to prevent the outbreak of fires and the spread of incipient fires. Building materials and interior finishes of materials that are non-combustible or self-extinguishing. Fire walls between adjoining buildings. For example: Alarming persons who are in danger. Calling the fire fighting forces and rescue teams. closing fire doors. The most important elements of structural fire protection are Accessibility for the fire department. miscellaneous supporting measures.2001 . Protective gaps between individual buildings and installations.1 Fire detection and gas warning systems Automatic fire detection systems An automatic fire detection system is designed to detect a fire in its incipient stage and to automatically initiate preprogrammed control functions. fire dampers. 5 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Lightning protection in areas with high lightning expectancy.2 Types of fire protection measures The purpose of fire protection measures is to prevent fires and to limit the extent of fire damage.1 Structural fire protection Structural fire protection is a fire prevention measure.2 Technical fire protection Technical fire protection includes facilities and systems which in the event of a fire contribute to personnel safety and damage limitation. and the like. Activating devices for restricting smoke and fire propagation. Activating fixed extinguishing systems. fire-proof escape and rescue paths. 2. to isolate them from ignition sources. Activating the emergency lighting. Activating the evacuation systems. Short. These basically relate to the structural. Fire-proof sealing of shafts and ducts. 2. Storage of combustible materials in separate compartments. Controlling building services systems. particularly heating and ventilation systems and elevators. Fire compartmentation for limiting the spread of smoke and heat. and the like. escape route pressurization. De-energizing technical systems (installations). Activating smoke and heat venting systems.

2001 .2. 2. The control functions that are initiated in the event of an alarm are the same as for automatic fire detection systems. foam or chemicals. Close valves.2 Fire extinguishing systems Sprinkler systems Sprinkler systems are automatic extinguishing systems that respond to flaming fires and spray water within the area of the fire. Limiting the heat spread. 6 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. When the threshold concentration is exceeded they automatically: Activate audible and/or visual alarm devices for warning persons. Limiting the fire spread. Special cooling and extinguishing systems These extinguishing systems use extinguishing agents in the form of water. Dry pipe systems for rooms with frost hazard. and systems with foam generators. A non-automatic fire detection system can also be part of an automatic fire detection system. The following system types exist: Water spray systems/irrigation installations Water atomizing system Foam extinguishing system Dry powder extinguishing system. pumps and motors. Call intervention squads Reduce the explosion hazard by: Switch on the ventilation Shut off the gas supply. Their functions are: Preventing the outbreak of a total fire. Gas warning systems Gas warning systems detect hazardous concentrations of combustible gases or vapors in the air. There are two basic types of sprinkler systems: Wet pipe systems for frost-free rooms. For special applications there are also mixed systems as well as host (fire detection system) controlled systems. This is only possible if a person is on the premises. Activation of fire protection equipment. They are activated manually or automatically by a fire detection system.Non-automatic fire detection systems In non-automatic fire detection systems the alarm is initiated manually. and the like. Calling the fire fighting and rescue squads.

Evacuation and public address systems Evacuation and public address systems are alarm systems for announcing alarm and evacuation messages through a speaker network. The smoke and heat extraction reduces smoke logging and heat accumulation which simplifies the rescue of persons and the work of the fire fighting crew. N2. The extinguishing effect is based on oxygen starvation and in the case of halons and „halon replacements” on the inhibition effect that impedes the chemical reaction between the combustion material and the oxygen. Ar and formerly halons which are now prohibited in most countries. They are controlled either by smoke detectors of the fire detection system or manually. Pressurization systems to keep areas free of smoke These systems are used to keep safety staircases. To extinguish the fire they use inert gases such as CO2. escape routes and rescue zones free of smoke. Signalization of escape routes and exits Signs and escape route markings make it easier to locate the exits in the event of danger or a malfunction. 7 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Their function is to prevent dangerously high pressures (explosion pressure) resulting from the ignition of gas or dust in a room that is not of sufficient size.2. These systems are controlled either manually or automatically by the fire detection system. 2.4 Emergency and rescue facilities Emergency lighting The emergency lighting is activated as soon as the normal lighting fails. The light intensity must be adequate so that safe walking though rooms and escape routes and locating of exits is possible.3 Smoke control systems Smoke and heat venting systems The function of smoke and heat venting systems is to extract smoke and heat in the event of a fire.2. Explosion suppression systems Explosion suppression installations are extremely fast responding extinguishing systems. The heat relief also enhances the stability of structural elements. The equipment comprises a sensor system and an extinguishing system.2001 .Gas extinguishing systems Gas extinguishing systems are automatic extinguishing systems that are normally controlled by the fire detection system. 2.

Preparation of an emergency plan. Conducting evacuation exercises. Periodic operational tests and corrective maintenance. fire prevention rules. behavior in case of fire. Monitoring of repair work. Extinguishing water mains (dry/wet). Utilization of safe equipment and machinery.5 Fire fighting systems Extinguishing equipment and extinguishing installations for manual fire fighting Manual extinguishing equipment and installations are the most simple means for combating a fire quickly. Under normal circumstances they are also available for other users. This equipment can only be used if persons or fire fighting crews are on the premise. and for evacuating handicapped or injured persons.2. Portable fire extinguishers. operational fire hazards. existing fire protection installations. Emergency communications equipment Communications facility that enables the fire department to communicate with the personnel responsible for the building and the fire fighting. Good housekeeping. 2. Clearing out all unnecessary removable fire loads. Hydrants. and the like. 8 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. These include: Normal building maintenance. Instructions to the personnel concerning. Inspection and maintenance of fire protection and fire detection installations.3 Fire protection management The objective of fire protection management is to prevent fires through organizational measures and personnel training. They are used for transporting firemen and their equipment. Conducting fire drills.2. Keeping all traffic and escape routes free from obstructions. Enforcement of no-smoking regulations or creation of smoker zones. Firemen’s lifts Firemen’s lifts have to fulfil stringent requirements. This category includes: Wall hydrants.2001 .

2. 9 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.2001 . For the development of an intrusion protection concept please consult the special Cerberus security guide „Intrusion”.4 Supporting fire protection measures These include concepts that prevent arson based on supplementary facilities and systems from intrusion protection applications.

Examples: Protective measure Night watchman Remove ignition source Fire detection system Hose cabinet In-house fire brigade Compartmentation Automatic extinguishing system Risk Falls asleep. vacation. etc. Fire risks are defined in a multilevel fire protection concept that defines specific protection objectives. emergency lighting. Smoking prohibition. etc. etc. intercom etc. compartmentation Fig. process. fire load reduction. calling the fire department Exit signs. Evacuation of building occupants 2. This means that each likely fire location is to be protected by adequate measures so that no incipient fire can grow up to a serious fire. late intervention Off hours. gets injured Welding during repair work System being serviced Inadequate water supply. 1 Multilevel fire protection concept Note that fire detection is only one part of a complete fire protection concept. Door left open. insufficient water supply 10 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Automatic extinguishing systems or fire brigade intervention Fire resistive architecture. Structural fire protection / containment 4. room. occupant warning.3 Overall fire protection concept The overall fire protection concept for any building is based on the following protection objectives: Protection of human life Protection of material assets Prevention of business interruption. unsealed duct openings Pipes blocked. Smoke detection. A fire protection concept for a specific installation should always take into consideration all available fire protection measures because each individual measure is subject to possible malfunction. Automatic and manual suppression systems 3. 5. Automatic and manual fire detection 1. Fire protection measures Area of protection Buildings.2001 .

Chapter 6 „Fire risk assessment” has been provided to the fire protection engineer as an aid in solving this problem.2001 . 11 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Which protection measures and how many of them should be implemented requires great skill on the part of the fire protection engineer. both in evaluating the protection needs and prescribing adequate protection measures.Only by employing a series of different protection measures is it possible to reduce the fire danger to such an extent that the required level of safety is achieved.

As a consequence such a system must satisfy very stringent requirements. 2 Basic design of a fire detection system 4. The requirements can be classified as follows: System requirements and System building and operation requirements 12 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Detection of fire phenomena Evaluation and operation Intervention Suppression of deceptive variables F Fig. by means of suitable detectors.1 Cerberus fire detection systems Basic design of a fire detection system The objective of a fire detection system is to reliably detect incipient fires based on phenomena such as smoke. etc.2001 . When a fire has been detected the system automatically generates an alarm and initiates the preprogrammed control functions.4 4. flames. heat.2 Technical requirements of the fire detection system The function of a fire detection system is to protect human life and material assets and therefore may not have any weak points.

Is a fire detection system that is immune to deceptive alarms.2001 .2. As a consequence fire fighting and intervention squads are frequently confronted with the question: Is it a real alarm or a false alarm? High alarm validity (plausibility) is just as important as quick system response in the event of a fire. an unrealistic ideal? No. Product quality. Cerberus has found the solution. The system is based on state-of-the-art electronics and advanced data processing (see Section 3). This is one of the principal weaknesses of conventional fire detection systems. Compliance with standards etc. High immunity to deceptive phenomena High system availability Maximum system design flexibility Simple logical operation High installation flexibility Easy service and maintenance etc. This insight is not new. 13 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.4. but for its practical implementation. It is called AlgoRex a completely new fire detection system.1 System requirements All parts of the system must conform to sound engineering principles as well as the relevant standards and safety regulations. The requirements relate to System technology. AlgoRex is the result of many years of experience and systematic research and development in the field for fire detection and sensor technology. Functionality. The system technology requires characteristics such as High detection reliability (alarm plausibility). Key requirements are the high detection reliability and immunity to deceptive phenomena. no suitable technology has in the past been available.

2 System building and operation requirements The reliability of the fire detection system is largely influenced by the quality and planning of the installation.. line routing. including fire fighting and intervention crews. operator terminal. repair. etc. Incorporation of other technical fire protection measures as listed in chapter 2. etc. Planning phase In this phase the designer defines a fire protection concept based on the risk assessment.2001 . service. monitoring areas and possible sources of interference. Testing and commissioning. The technical planning of a fire detection system comprises System planning: Defining the detector types. system control unit. The design of a fire detection system must always be matched to other fire protection measures. Training of all users.4. that is. including choice of installation material. controls. inspection. etc. 14 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. For this reason a high quality standard must be applied also in these areas and conformity with the relevant standards. technical. Regular re-instruction of the users.2. Handover of the fire detection system to the user. Implementation phase This phase comprises Installation of the system.2 Installation planning for the detectors. Fault remedy. Operational phase The operational phase comprises Supervision and operation of the system. etc. safety and installation regulations is required. and organizational fire protection measures. Its purpose is to alert endangered persons and to call the fire fighting and intervention squads. Alarm organization planning: Preparing an alarm concept that is tailored to the utilization and activities on the premises. This concept is an optimized combination of selected structural. detector locations. Maintenance.

4 1 2 3 4 Water supply Control valve (monitored) Valve station Pipe network with sprinkler heads 5 Alarm transmission (often to the fire detection system control unit) 6 External alarm to fire department 7 Audible alarm 5 3 7 6 2 1 Fig. Typical applications are: High-rise buildings Large sales rooms. where water is suitable as an extinguishing agent. In a dry system there is only compressed air in the pipe network under normal conditions.2001 .5 5. Water is released only if the fire grows large enough to activate a sprinkler head. when a smoke detector has responded. Underground garages.). This localized application of water controls the fire in such a way that water and fire damage is minimized. for example. Water is released as soon as a sprinkler head opens. melts the fusible link. 3 Sprinkler system The system can be „wet” or „dry” (also called pre-action sprinkler). In this system the heat generated by the fire activates the sprinkler head (bursts the glass bulb. etc. Water is released only in the immediate vicinity of the fire. Warehouses and factories with a large fire load. 15 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Unprotected steel building structures. In a wet system the pipe network is always filled with water. for example.1 Fixed fire extinguishing systems Water extinguishing installations Sprinkler systems A sprinkler system is appropriate wherever rapid fire growth and temperature rise are to be expected.1. Water fills the pipes only after a preliminary alarm. department stores.1 5. were fire fighting is difficult. and where the building occupants can escape only with a delay.

1.5.2001 . Covered loading docks with doors that are not fire-resistive. 4 1 Water supply 2 Control valve (monitored) 3 Quick-opening valve (electrical actuation mechanism) 4 Pipe network with sprinkler nozzles 5 Manual call point 6 Automatic fire detectors 7 Fire detection system control unit (extinguishing control unit) 8 Alarm remote transmission 9 Audible alarm 5 6 9 8 7 3 2 1 Fig. In these systems all sprinkler heads are normally open and water flows from all sprinklers heads when the system is activated. Possible applications are: Wood chip silos.2 Deluge system / water curtain A deluge system is suitable where early and rapid extinguishing with large quantities of water is essential. These system can be actuated manually and/or by means of a separate detection system. or smoke or heat detectors that are connected to a fire detection system from which the control valve can be activated automatically or manually. 4 Deluge system 16 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Water curtains for sectioning-off fire compartments. Paint shops. Cable ducts. Transformers. Tanks used for storage of combustible liquids. etc. The detection system could comprise a pipe network containing compressed air and control sprinklers.

1. Perimeter ring foam flooding for floating-roof storage tanks.).2001 . 6 2 High-expansion foam extinguishing system 17 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Typical applications for such systems are: Outdoor tanks containing combustible liquids. Solvent storage areas (light foam). Foam flooding for tanks with a sump Tank storage areas inside of buildings Foam flooding of rooms with foam sprayer.g.3 Foam extinguishing system Foam extinguishing systems are water based systems that combine with foam concentrate for smothering a fire. foam pipe 2 3 9 5 2 2 4 1 Fig. These systems are normally actuated manually unless they are part of a sprinkler system (e.5. Internal foam flooding for fixed-roof storage tanks. etc. 5 2 Low-expansion foam extinguishing system 6 5 2 3 2 2 10 8 9 7 1 Water supply 2 Control valve 3 Main pump 4 Foam pump 5 Non-return valve 6 Mixer 7 Blower 8 Water/foam extract atomizers 9 Foam expansion mesh 10 Foam extract container 4 1 Fig. aircraft hangar. 7 8 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Water supply Control valve Main pump Foam extract container Foam pump Non-return valve Mixer Foam generator. Aircraft hangars.

Computer rooms and data storage archives. nitrocellulose. Examples for which FM200 is not suitable: Deep-seated fires (smoldering fires) involving wood. for example. FM200 is not suitable for locations in which deep-seated fires can be expected. Such fires include: Liquids and other materials which in the event of a fire behave like combustible liquids. Oil baths. paper. potassium. Shops where arcing can occur. Combustible metals (for example. sodium. titanium. uranium. clean and non-toxic extinguishing agent is required (the concentrations of the decomposition products that arise during extinguishing are harmless) that does not damage the material to be protected (no chemical reaction).2 5. paint shops. plutonium). foams. etc. Telecommunications equipment. Electrical or electronic cables and equipment. Cardboard and paper warehouses.1 Gas extinguishing systems FM200 gas extinguishing system Extinguishing systems on the basis of FM200 are suitable for risks where a dry. certain peroxides. Gases (provided no ignitable gas/air mixtures can form after the fire has been extinguished).2. hydrazine. magnesium.5. smoke detector rather than heat detector). powder coating systems. Metal hydrides. Electrical plant rooms. gunpowder). zirconium. 18 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Such fires can be expected in: Hardening plants. In these cases the gas cannot completely extinguish the fire before the gas is diluted to the point where the combustion process continues. For this reason only sensitive fire detectors should be installed in such fire compartments (i. To prevent development of hazardous concentrations of combustion products an FM200 extinguishing system must be activated in the incipient stage of a fire. drying systems. Possible applications for FM200: Paintworks. Self-decomposing substances. Computer and telecommunications equipment. Material that can burn rapidly without supply of air (for example. textiles.2001 .e.

2 CO2 extinguishing system In the right concentration CO2 has a smothering effect and can be an efficient fire extinguishing agent. CO2 extinguishing systems are suitable for: Electrical installations of all kinds where no personnel is present. 7 FM200 extinguishing system with central gas cylinder manifold 5.2001 . Paint shops. Inside storage tanks containing combustible liquids. CO2 is toxic which means that evacuation must take place before the extinguishing agent is released. Rolling mills. Oil baths (dip tanks). 8 CO2 extinguishing system 19 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. However. These systems are normally actuated by hand and/or automatically by fire detectors (or in rare cases by fusible links). Furrier’s warehouse etc.9 1 FM200cylinders 2 Electromechanical or pyroelectrical valve actuator 3 Extinguishing nozzles 4 Fire detection system control unit 5 Manual call point 6 Automatic fire detectors 7 Illuminated warning panel 8 Alarm sounder 9 Piping network 6 2 5 1 4 8 3 7 Fig. 5 2 4 8 9 7 1 3 10 1 2 3 4 6 CO2 cylinder Cylinder valve Balance Electromechanical or pyroelectrical actuator 5 Pipe network 6 Fire detection system control unit (extinguishing control unit) 7 Alarm device 8 Automatic fire detectors 9 Manual call point 10 CO2 nozzle Fig.2.

The primary extinguishing mechanism is smothering.3. etc. Certain drying ovens. Aircraft engine test bays. Oil separators. These systems should not be used where chemical reaction or residues affect the object to be protected.5. 9 Dry chemical extinguishing system 20 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.2001 . Aircraft hangars. Such systems are suitable for: Kitchens (grease fires). Tanker cars/loading terminals. Distillation towers. These systems are actuated manually and/or automatically by fire detectors (including fusible links). and in some cases chemical reaction.3 5. 9 6 7 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dry chemical storage container Compressed gas (nitrogen) cylinder Main valve Actuator Pipe network with nozzles Fire detection system control unit (extinguishing control unit) 7 Automatic fire detectors 8 Manual call point 9 Alarm sounder 10 Pressure reducer 11 Booster valve 12 Filling opening with safety valve 13 Test and rinsing port 4 10 12 2 11 1 3 8 13 Fig.1 Special extinguishing systems Dry chemical extinguishing system In this type of system extinguishing agents in the form of powders are used.

2 Inerting systems Like CO2 also inerting systems prevent the build-up of ignitable gas concentrations by displacing the oxygen with inert gas such as nitrogen or Argon.5.2001 .3. Such systems are used in chemical process systems where an explosion hazard is present. 6 4 2 2 3 8 1 7 5 1 Inert-gas cylinder 2 Special feeder valve for dosed release of inert gas 3 Control unit 4 Alarm sounder 5 Concentration sensor 6 Open nozzle 7 Explosion hazard room 8 Spare cylinder of inert gas Fig. 10 Inerting system 21 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.

a relative risk of level 8 can be obtained by two different scenarios: 1. 2. For example. 12.2001 . 20.. 22 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. 25 8. 6 1. whereas low fire safety or high exposure to fire hazard means high fire risk.5) In a first step the urgency of the required protective measures can be assessed based on the following risk levels: Risk level 16. 2. 10. 9.5) x L (1. 15 4. 5.. Frequent event probability with medium loss potential. The magnitude of the risk can be assessed as follows: For each room (or object) the event probability of an incipient fire and its loss potential is defined based on the following scale: The following table shows how these parameters can be defined: Event probability (E) 1 = highly improbable 2 = improbable 3 = probable 4 = frequent 5 = continuous Loss potential (L) 1 = low or none 2 = medium 3 = large 4 = very high 5 = catastrophic Danger to life and/or property (material or immaterial assets) The magnitude of the risk is calculated as the product of the event probability times the loss potential: Risk = Event probability x Loss potential R = E (1. The second scenario is more frequent than the first one.6 Fire risk assessment The term fire risk indicates the relative level of the fire hazard: High fire safety corresponds to a low fire risk. They must be assessed individually for each installation.. 3 Description Catastrophic risk Large risk Medium risk Small risk Priority level 1 2 3 4 Urgency of protective measures Immediate Short term Medium term Long term The risk levels that have to be reduced by suitable protection measures depend on the risk that can be tolerated. Low event probability with very high loss potential..

Installation of an access control system. Lighting of the grounds (floodlights. with wire-reinforced glass. Surveillance of the premises and grounds by a combination of security patrols. Guarding the entrances with security personnel. 23 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07. Burglars often become arsonists in order to destroy evidence.2001 . The following countermeasures are feasible as protection against arson: Enclosing the premises or grounds with a fence or wall. The enclosure must be continuous and not allow intruders to climb over. watchdogs. Installations and components that form a vital part of daily operations must be monitored by automatic intruder alarm devices. steel bars. or out of frustration when they find nothing of value. Entrance doors must be fitted with safety locks. etc.). and CCTV system. must be protected against intrusion and projectiles (for example. motion-activated lights.).7 Reducing the risk of arson with an intruder detection system In most cases an arsonist has to break into a building before he can start a fire. etc. Building windows that directly overlook public roads and therefore cannot be fenced in.

24 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect2 07.2001 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection intelligence at three levels . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . System overview . . . . . . . AlgoRex evaluation and operation . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3. . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The right combination of AlgoRex system versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AlgoRex fire detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . . 26 27 30 30 31 32 33 34 36 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .Section 3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5. . . . . . . Fire detection systems Basic principle of a fire detection system . 3. . . . . . . . . . .

Manual call points allow immediate alarm initiation. heat. and flames. 1 Principle of a fire detection system 26 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. The fire detection system control unit – the brain of a detection system – processes the signals it receives from the detectors. Cerberus fire detection control units incorporate the latest technology. the fire department.2001 . smoke. – Transmission of fault signals Fig. flames. Due to their modular design and individual programming they can be continually adapted to changing system requirements. – Activation of fixed extinguishing systems. In response the fire detection system control unit initiates an alarm and the preprogrammed control functions. Detection / signaling Signal processing Alarm / intervention Fire detection control unit Automatic fire detector F Manual call point Contacts of extinguishing systems Automatic fire detectors monitor the rooms of a building for fire and respond to the presence of smoke.1 Basic principle of a fire detection system Automatic fire detection systems detect a fire by identifying one of the fire phenomena such as invisible products of combustion. Contacts of extinguishing systems initiate the normal alarm procedure in the control unit so that additional fire fighting measures can be taken. In this way it is possible to alarm the building occupants. The control unit also carries out a number of additional functions such as – Activation of fire control installations. Visual and/or audible alarm signals as well as the fire alarm transmission to the fire department are actuated by the control unit. by transmitting a signal to the control unit. and to minimize the overall damage. or heat.

to 5 should only be chosen in special cases and only with the approval of the fire protection engineer who is responsible for the project. Complete monitoring is always recommended because one can never predict when or where a fire will break out.2001 . 2 Complete monitoring of all fire compartments Fig.2 Scope of monitoring Each room in a building should be monitored by a fire detector to ensure early response by the fire detection system. complete monitoring of one or several fire compartments 27 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Selective monitoring as illustrated in Figs. that is. Fire detector Manual call point Fig. It has been shown that approximately one third of all fires occur in rooms that are seldom frequented. 3 Selective complete monitoring. 3.

2001 . Fig.Fig. 5 Selective monitoring for life safety through continuous monitoring of the escape routes. The dark shaded area must be monitored and the lightly shaded area surrounding it is included in the monitoring concept for greater overall safety. 4 Selective monitoring for property protection. 28 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07.

2001 . in the equipment itself. 7 Monitoring of important electrical control systems Important electrical control systems can be monitored with detectors that are installed in the room. Chapter 10). or in the plenum of the raised floor. 6 Plant and machinery monitoring Plant and machinery can be monitored with point-type detectors that are installed in close proximity to the equipment to be protected.Fig. Fig. Chapter 10). 29 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Plant and machinery monitoring is also possible with air sampling smoke detectors (see Section 4. Also in this application monitoring with air sampling smoke detectors is possible (see Section 4.

Cerberus has created a system that discriminates exceptionally well between true fire phenomena and deceptive variables from the environment. 8 AlgoLogic The outstanding feature of the system is the AlgoLogic. This task is getting more difficult because the fire phenomena and deceptive variables from the environment and work processes are increasingly becoming more similar. AlgoLogic is distributed in the detectors and in the fire detection system control unit. To the relief of the specialists working in fire protection engineering. It describes the overall function of the system with respect to data acquisition. and processing.2001 . the alarm reliability is the yardstick by which all fire detection systems are measured. Very Large Scale Integration) it is possible to successfully master this critical problem. However. With AlgoLogic Cerberus is able to incorporate these technological advances into its new AlgoRex product range of interactive fire detection systems.3 3.1 AlgoRex fire detection system Introduction True or false alarm? This is the question that each automatic fire detection system must be able to answer quickly and reliably. AlgoLogic combines the entire Cerberus know-how and experience as the bases for an unprecedented detection and diagnostic capability in the AlgoRex system. evaluation. With the aid of modern communications technology and higher computer intelligence combined with lower space requirement (VLSI. 30 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. The term AlgoLogic is a (acronym) contracted form of „Algorithm” and „Signal evaluation Logic”. communication. and this without and significant degradation of the detection sensitivity. Control unit intelligence ALARM AlgoPilot CT11 Evaluation and detection logic (algorithms) Interactive data exchange Parameter setup (predefined detection behavior) Detector intelligence Fig.

In addition to the three detector types PolyRex Neuronal smoke detector DOT with AlgoLogic.  Heat detector DT with AlgoLogic. PolyRex AlgoPilot OptoRex ThermoRex AlgoControl Fig. control unit and operator terminal remains unchanged. already the external design demonstrates that AlgoRex is a totally new development. The system is based on a comprehensive data base of scientific test results and the application know-how of the world’s most experienced fire detection system manufacturer.2 System overview AlgoRex is more than an evolutionary refinement of a conventional technology. 9 AlgoRex interactive fire detection system with AlgoLogic ALARM AlgoPilot CT11 Detection capability H Detection and evaluation at place of installation H 4 Dynamic danger levels Detection reliability H Correct algorithm at the right place Emergency operation H Detection capability is preserved H Signal checking H Logical combination of signals H Alarm verification H Display H Operation Detection and evaluation Alarm initiation Fig. 10 Distributed data processing and system intelligence 31 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. OptoRex  Wide spectrum smoke detector DO with AlgoLogic. Although the basic architecture with detectors.3. ThermoRex the system comprises the AlgoControl fire detection control unit and the AlgoPilot operator terminal.2001 .

standardized response categories. high-quality opto-electric sensor system. Heat detector ThermoRexR Reliable heat detector for demanding requirements. 11 AlgoRex fire detectors 32 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. Deception-proof response behavior for fast and slow temperature rise. Neuronal smoke detector PolyRexR Equipped with multicriteria sensors that ensure reliable response behavior for all types of fires. Dynamically analyzes the „smoke” sensor signal within the detector itself. New.3 AlgoRex fire detectors The function of the fire detectors is to reliably detect and signal fires in their incipient stage.2001 . Wide spectrum smoke detector OptoRexR Reliably responds to a large variety of fires. °C °C PolyRex OptoRex ThermoRex Fig.3. Selectable. Dynamic analysis of the smoke and heat sensor signals. Due to the individual programming the 3 standard detectors of the AlgoRex series cover a broad spectrum of possible fire hazards. Neuronal network in the detector.

They are suitable for areas with low fire risks and unproblematic environmental conditions. Three detector types PolyRexR Neuronal smoke detectors for dynamic multicriteria analysis of smoke and heat. intelligent signal evaluation. Available in interactive. the evaluation and detection logic with interactive signal processing based on programmable algorithms. 33 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. addressable and collective versions. addressable and collective versions.3.2001 . These detectors can be parameterized: they can be optimally programmed to suit the requirements of the installation location. AnalogPlus detectors Addressable smoke and heat detectors with multilevel. ThermoRexR Heat detector for deception-proof response to fast and low temperature rise. Ideal for applications where a medium risk level and moderate environmental interference potential coincide. detection reliability and false alarm immunity. Available in interactive and addressable versions. that is.4 Detection intelligence at three levels Interactive detectors Detector series with maximum detection reliability achieved through AlgoLogic. Interactive AlgoRex detectors are used wherever demanding environmental conditions and high fire risks require maximum alarm validity. Collective detectors The smoke and heat detectors of the conventional limit comparator technology are mature and reliable products. alarm verification and multicriteria logic. AnalogPlus detectors achieve high detection reliability through centrally selectable but detector-specific sensitivity settings. Available in interactive. OptoRex R Wide-band smoke detector for dynamic analysis of smoke.

Through AlgoPilot the system provides information on what it has detected and what measures were initiated.5 AlgoRex evaluation and operation AlgoControl fire detection system control unit The AlgoControl communicates in interactive mode with all devices connected to the system. In accordance with the program it activates the corresponding fire alarm and control devices. the field of application.2001 . It analyzes the incoming signals and compares them with stored values. Particular attention has been given to: Simple and logical operation Plain text information that is specific to the installation Action text for supporting the intervention squads ALARM AlgoRex  Acknowledge Reset Information Isolation Alarms Faults 7 4 1 8 5 2 0 9 6 3 C F1 F2 ok Premises manned Alarm delay off Detector test mode Alarm device off Remote alarm off Control function off Alarm device active Remote alarm active System on Alarm device fault Remote transmission fault System fault AlgoPilot CT11 Fig. System operation The AlgoPilot information and operating panel serves as the display and control unit for the entire system. and the various detector types. 12 Operating panel 34 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07.3. All events and data are stored by AlgoControl in such a way that they can be retrieved at any time. AlgoControl is available in several versions that are matched to the size of the installation.

2001 . Signal lamps Rotating and flashing beacons. Fire control installations Programmable. sirens and staff paging systems.Alarm and control devices For alarming and informing internal and external intervention squads a number of visual and audible alarm devices is available. Remote transmission Automatic communication devices for transmitting alarm and fault messages to various emergency control centers. The programmed urgent measures are initiated by corresponding control signals. for example. automatic emergency control facilities. Remote diagnosis Password-protected remote diagnosis and parameter setup. smoke dampers. elevators. for controlling ventilation units. For example: Alarm sounders Horns. Interfaces For serial connection to danger management systems. fire doors. 35 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07.

adaptable system concept that comprises all three technologies. It certainly does not make sense to install the most intelligent fire detector in rooms with low risk and low interference. AlgoRex product concept Product range Technology Special features – Completely modular system concept with highly developed organizational intelligence – High detection intelligence for true fire phenomena and excellent immunity to deceptive phenomena – Completely modular system concept with selected organizational intelligence.2001 . Low fire risk Low interference – Low to medium fire risk – First line alarm intervention by internal staff – Little interference Combination system (A+B+C) Future-oriented Interactive. collective C Proven technology – Small hotels – Children’s homes etc. for example. an addressable detector. designed for efficient system operation – Reliable detection capability and high immunity to interference allow a broad range of applications – Simple system concept for conventional application – Reliable detection – Completely modular. algorithmic signal evaluation. With AlgoRex it is possible to configure fire detection systems that are tailored exactly to the risks.3. AnalogPLUS and collective combined – All applications are covered – Can be tailored to specific application requirements 36 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect3 07. High fire risk Strong interference – Fire risk relatively high – Interference factors exist – False alarms with severe effects Interactive system with AlgoLogic A Future oriented technology Medium fire risk Medium interference – False alarm with relatively weak effects – Little interference Standard system AnalogPlus B Latest technology Basic system.6 The right combination of AlgoRex system versions Sometimes a simple collective detector is adequate for the fire risk involved. and to select the appropriate detectors. But in many cases more sophisticated equipment is required. For this reason Cerberus has developed the AlgoRex range of detectors. It comprises detectors with different „IQs” that can be combined within the same system. interference factors and individual requirements of an installation. with highly developed organizational intelligence – Comprehensive system configuration capabilities that satisfy all application requirements Applications – – – – Production locations Nuclear power stations Parking garages Areas with high hazard potential – Complex objects – Buildings with mixed utilization – – – – – – Industry Warehouses Shopping centers Hotels Hospitals Administrative buildings – Senior citizen homes etc. On the other hand it is not logical to install a simple. collective detector in rooms with high fire risk and strong interference. The most effective solutions is to tailor the fire detection system to the corresponding fire risk and the complexity of the installation. And sometimes only the best is good enough: an interactive detector with intelligent.

.2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of monitoring . . . 37 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection systems . . . . Choosing the appropriate AlgoRex detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section 4 1. . . . . . . Sensor signal evaluation . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 7. . . Zones with fixed extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 7. . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of manual call points . . . . . . Number and arrangement of linear smoke detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 44 46 48 49 49 50 51 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 63 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . Detection principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area for point-type heat detectors . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . 2. . . . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Duct . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 5. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 10. . . . . Monitoring area for point-type flame detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number and arrangement of point-type detectors . Suitability by application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 4. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detectors and accessories Fire phenomena and detector types . Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Modular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a suitable detector system . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring area per smoke detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a detector for normal applications . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

involving wood. hydrogen. but excluding the combustion of phosphorus. Neuronal smoke detector with dynamic analysis DOT113.. DOT115.. plastics. Rate of rise/ fixed temperature detector (standard) D24. fixed temperature detector S. DT11. Rate of rise temperature detector. Fire that generates visible smoke. Multisensor smoke detector DO11. or from visible smoke. solvents. 2 criteria. alcohol. Infrared flame Infrared flame detector detector (standard) (2-channel) The following table lists the fire phenomena and the appropriate detector types.. WideAir sampling spectrum smoke smoke detector detector (scattered light principle) Smoke detectors Smoke and/or Smoldering heat from fire that flaming fires produces light-colored. for example. etc.. etc. smoldering for example. etc.. S24. Early stage of a smoke generating fire Heat detector Flaming fire. sodium. plastics. mineral oil products. magnesium. etc. involving wood. for example. etc.2001 . SMOKE TEMPERATURE INCREASE HEAT RADIATION 38 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. flaming fire of plastics. for example. oil... wood. Flame detector Flaming fire of carbonaceous materials. plastics.1 Fire phenomena and detector types Standard detectors Supplementary detectors ASD. fires involving electrical fire.. mineral oil products. paper.

The light source transmits brief. the light stop and the light receiver are arranged in such a way that no light is transmitted from the source to receiver along a direct path. Only when smoke particles are present in the labyrinth is some of the light scattered on receiver. intensive light pulses of a specific frequency into the labyrinth. The receiver signal is evaluated only if the light pulse frequency is synchronous with the transmitter frequency. 1 Principle of the scattered light measurement Light source Labyrinth Labyrinth Light stop Smoke particle Light receiver Fig.2001 .2 2.1 Detection principles Smoke detector Scattered-light smoke detector The light source. Light receiver Light stop Light source Smoke particles Transmitter optics Fig. 2 Detector design 39 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.

As a result only a small portion of the light reaches the receiver.Linear smoke detector The linear smoke detector is based on the extinction principle. part of the light is absorbed and part of the light is scattered by the smoke particles. If no smoke is present. that is. Scattering Scattering Light beam Scatter Absorption Smoke particles Fig. The transmitter emits a strongly focused. the attenuation of light by smoke is measured. 3 Linear smoke detector without presence of smoke If smoke penetrates the measuring section. a large part of the light reaches the reflector and is returned to the point of origin via the same path. traverses the measuring section again. that is. The incoming light produces an electrical signal in the photodiode of the receiver. The residual light reaches the reflector. and is attenuated again. Detector Receiver Reflector Transmitter Measuring section Fig.2001 . The signal becomes smaller and the receiver circuit initiates an alarm. 4 Measuring principle of the linear smoke detector with smoke Extinction = Absorption + Scattering 40 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. infrared light beam across the optical measuring section. the light rays simply change their direction.

1 – 4. and an alarm is actuated. hot body (for example. By contrast. which is produced by the combustion of carbon containing materials.2. If a flame occurs at the same time. artificial light. 6 Relative spectra of flames and spurious radiation 41 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. no alarm is actuated. A Spectral radiation intensity B A Sensitivity range „A” B Sensitivity range „B” Flames Artificial light Sunlight Hot body 2. Signals with a typical flame flicker frequency of 2 to 20Hz are compared in the electronic circuit for amplitude and phase coincidence. that are emitted by interference sources (for example. 5 Flame detector S2406 The detector has two pyroelectric sensors that are sensitive in two different wave lengths. The first sensor „A” responds to infrared-active flame gases in the characteristic CO2spectral range from 4.2 Flame detector Sensor „A” (4.2001 . the signal amplitude of the first sensor is much greater than in the second sensor. a nonsynchronous signal is generated on channel „A” which immediately initiates an alarm.1 to 4. The sensitivity and response integration time can be adapted to local conditions in two steps by means of a switch. radiant heaters). a vibrating.7µm) Sensor „B” (5 – 6µm) Fig. Because in this case the signal amplitude in channel „A” is smaller than in channel „B”. When the infrared energy is emitted by flames. sunlight.5 3 4 5 6 µm Wave lenght Fig. The second sensor „B” measures the infrared energy in the wave length region 5 to 6µm.7µm. motor) produces a synchronous signal in channels „A” and „B”.

Conditions for alarm initiation: Ratio channel A:B >> 1 (signals synchronous or asynchronous) Ratio channel A:B ≥ 1 (signals asynchronous) Chan.2001 . 7 yes yes Detector logic 42 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. material + + Fig.Signal strength Radiation source nel (with modulation 2-20 Hz) Artificial light Synchronous signal? Ratio A:B Alarm A B A B A B A B A B A B ~1 ~1 ~1 >>1 >>1 ≥1 no Sunlight no Hot body no Flame with yes carbonac.

2. bimetal strip or expansion fluid. If in the event of a fire the ambient temperature increases relatively rapidly. Rate-of-rise detectors detect flaming fires that cause a temperature rise within a given unit of time and are. Rate-of-rise temperature detectors Rate-of-rise temperature detectors evaluate the rate of temperature increase per unit of time (°C/min) at which an alarm is to be actuated. an alarm is actuated when the maximum temperature determined by a third resistor is reached. an alarm is actuated. They are suitable for detecting open fires where a rapid increase in the temperature can be expected. They frequently do not comply with EN54 standards. or expansion liquid. If a predetermined threshold is exceeded. suited to the detection of flaming fires. 43 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. 8 Operating principle of a fixed temperature detector Such detectors are designed to operate either with a thermistor. Temperature Alarm threshold Alarm Alarm Alarm threshold Normal No alarm Time Fig. NTC1 is exposed to the ambient air immediately in front of the detector. If as a result of a very slow rise in temperature the resistance of NTC1 and NTC2 decreases equally. the resistance value of NTC1 falls faster than that of NTC2.3 Heat detectors Fixed temperature detectors Fixed temperature detectors evaluate the maximum temperature at which an alarm is to be actuated. therefore.2001 . Temperature NTC1 measuring resistor Alarm No alarm NTC2 reference resistor Normal Time Fig. electrical resistance cable. Rate-of-rise temperature detectors are designed to operate with a thermistor. whereas NTC2 is located inside the detector housing. a fusible link. and in areas where a faster responding detector cannot be used. Heat detectors detect flaming fires that actuate an alarm when a predetermined maximum temperature is exceeded at the detector. 9 Operating principle of a rate-of-rise temperature detector with thermistors (NTC resistors) The detector sensor consists of two NTC resistors which form part of a Wheatstone bridge.

11 Signal evaluation principle 44 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. The sensor contains the necessary electronics for evaluating the sensor signal and for transmitting it as an analog value to the system control unit. contamination. The sensitivity is automatically adjusted to compensate for increasing sensor contamination.2001 . that is. In this way different detector states can be defined such as prealarm.3 Sensor signal evaluation Detectors with collective address Collectively addressed detectors are usually designed with a single sensor. etc. The sensor signal is amplified and if the alarm threshold is exceeded. alarm. In the control unit the analog signals of each detector are evaluated and compared with preprogrammed values. Sensor signal Alarm Alarm threshold No alarm Time Fig. the alarm is transmitted either directly or with a fixed delay to the system control unit where they are processed. The signals are transmitted sequentially. 10 Sensor signal evaluation Detectors with individually identifiable address Addressable detectors can be equipped with either a single or multiple sensors. Alarm (normal sensitivity) Detector signal Alarm (high sensitivity) Danger information Centrally selectable / detector specific H Sensitivity H Alarm verification H Logical combination of multiple detectors Drift signal (contamination) Diagnostic information Warning Normal Fault (defect) Seconds Detector life Years Fig. one detector after another on a given line. The responding detector can be identified only by observing the response indicator on the detector itself. With individual detector addressing the control unit can determine the status and location of each detector. The system control unit can identify only the line on which the alarming detector is located. fault.

Neuronal detectors with algorithms A neuronal detector is a multicriteria detector. With the aid of algorithms the phenomena detected by the sensor are broken down into mathematical components and compared with the programmed standard values. The algorithm’s characteristic is defined by means of parameters. By choosing a suitable parameter the detector is specifically adapted to the fire phenomena and environmental influences to be expected. This results in a dynamic detection behavior. The signal response is monitored and compared over the entire period of time during which the fire phenomena are present. The signal response refers to the totality of all measurable variables: Measured value Sensor-signal (amplitude, for example, smoke signal). Gradient Change of the measured value per unit of time (dynamic behavior, ∆ of the smoke concentration). Fluctuation Small but rapid changes, static fluctuations of the measured value (noise, transient phenomena). Algorithms Arithmetic rules adapted to the situation by means of parameters. Each detector is equipped with a microprocessor that controls the signal responses. Traditional sequential data processing is not fast enough for this purpose. For the complex signal analysis large quantities of data must be processed in short intervals. This can be achieved with the aid of a neuronal network. All logical combinations are continually linked to all others which means that the incoming data can be processed simultaneously at many levels. A neuronal detector achieves a high detection reliability and extreme deception immunity.

Sensor signals

Typical characteristics
Signal strength

Analysis, interpretation & sample comparison

Result

%/m

Rate of rise

Optical sensor
t

Smoke density development

Signal fluctuation

Danger level

Signal strength
°C

Diagnostic level
Rate of rise
t

Heat-sensor Temperature development
Signal fluctuation

Algorithms

Fig. 12 Signal processing in the neuronal smoke detector PolyRex

45 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001

4

Scope of monitoring
Basically complete monitoring of all fire compartments should be aimed at. Limiting the monitoring to specific fire compartments (some with complete monitoring) or specific rooms or groups of rooms (partial monitoring) is only sensible in exceptional cases. For complete (or partial) monitoring also the following areas must be monitored: Elevator, transport and light shafts which due to their structure or accumulation of combustible material represent a fire risk. Cable ducts and shafts if these are accessible or if they are located close to other sectors that have no fire seal 1 ). Supply shafts of sanitary and heating installations if these are accessible or if they are located close to other sectors that have no fire seal 1 ). Rooms for ventilation and air-conditioning systems, as well as air intake and exhaust ducts. Chutes and shafts for materials and waste and their collection containers. Cabinets and structures that are large enough that a person can crawl in. Covered loading docks with protruding roof if these have no fire seal to the monitored sector 1 ). Storage areas under a protruding roof if these have no fire seal to the monitored sector 1 ). Areas below galleries. Hollow spaces above suspended ceilings and below raised floors (as shown in the following table). Hollow spaces above suspended ceilings with uniformly distributed openings that make up over 50% of the total ceiling surface and can consequently be regarded as part of the room below. Zones created in rooms by racks and other installations if the remaining clearance to the ceiling is less than 0.5m. Exceptions to the monitoring rules Sanitary installations, washrooms, toilets, if no combustible material or waste is stored there and if the walls are constructed from non-combustible material. Cable shafts with cable seals at each floor, provided no electrical switching elements or emergency-off switches are located in these shafts. Rooms that are protected by automatic extinguishing systems, that have at least a fireresistive insulation, and where no special benefit is gained from automatic monitoring. Hollow spaces above suspended ceilings and below raised floors that are constructed as a zone without monitoring. Depending on the situation (to be decided on a case-by-case basis) the following elements may be precluded from the monitoring: Separate storage tank rooms that are isolated by fire walls. Civil defense rooms which in time of peace are not used for any other purpose. Separate, private living quarters that are isolated by fire walls. Freezing chambers and cold storage rooms with an area of less than 50m2. Separate battery rooms that are isolated by fire walls 1 ).
1)

= Structural compartmentation is considered to be fire-resistive if it can withstand a fire for at least 30 to 90 minutes.

46 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001

Monitoring in hollow spaces
Characteristic of hollow space Inaccessible or accessible but containing no combustible material or source of ignition or few and fire-protected electrical installations (at least self-extinguishing) Accessible, containing electrical installations with cable troughs that are concentrated in a specific location or Built-in electrical equipment (for example, servo motors) Accessible and containing a large number of distributed electrical installations Other/additional hollow-space characteristics that influence the fire hazard Type of monitoring in this secondary area None

Selective monitoring along the electrical installations or Equipment monitoring of the built-in electrical equipment Room monitoring (complete monitoring of the hollow space) To be determined in each case based on the fire risk (probability of a fire break-out and its consequences)

47 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.2001

. etc. etc.).2001 . There is a high concentration of valuable property. or where costly damage can occur and additional risk-reducing measures are needed (EDP systems. danger of collapse due to unprotected steel structures). Depending on the fire development there can be a considerable difference in the time between the response of the fire detection system and the sprinkler system.5 Zones with fixed extinguishing systems Fixed extinguishing systems should be installed in zones where: Rapid fire development and spread is highly likely (storage areas for solvents and plastics. deluge system. switchgear.). gas extinguishing system etc. The building structure has inadequate fire resistance (for example. 48 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. In order to reduce the fire risk and fire damage it is often advisable to employ both systems in such zones. if called for by the type of extinguishing system (pre-action sprinkler system. In such zones a fire detection systems should also be installed: if the automatic extinguishing system alone cannot achieve the protection objectives.

2001 . including deceptive phenomena.6 Choosing a suitable detector system Which detectors need to be specified where. 2) Heat detector (cl. 6. Environmental conditions.1 Choosing a detector for normal applications Normally a smoke detector can be chosen based on the following table. Room height ≤6m ≤7. provided that disturbance variables are minor and occur only rarely. Monitoring category Projection / monitoring objective Detection of: – Flaming incipient fire Detectors OptoRex w PolyRex l ThermoRex l I II – Flaming incipient fire – Smoldering incipient fire (desired) l l m III – Flaming incipient fire – Smoldering incipient fire l w – l Optimally suited w Suited m Conditionally suited – Unsuited Influence of the room height With increasing room height the influence of the fire phenomena weakens which means that more sensitive detectors must be installed. 1) Smoke detector Smoke detector with „increased” sensitivity or Linear smoke detector Flame detector l l l l l l Suited – Unsuited Suitability Flaming fire Smoldering fire – – l w l – ≤20m l Optimally suited w 49 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.5m ≤12m 12–20m Suitable detector type Heat detector (cl. depends on the Monitoring category or the general monitoring objectives of the fire detection system. The principal criteria for choosing a detector and parameter set or sensitivity are the monitoring objective and the assessment of the fire risk exposure. Room height.

easily manageable systems – Few potential interferences that could cause false alarms – No direct alerting of the fire department 50 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07..6. electrical and optical interference signals – Individual addressing – Microprocessor controlled electronics – Transmits 4 danger levels – Automatic self test – Remote diagnostic capability – Loop line with T branches – Evaluation of two response sensitivities – Very good detection reliability – Immune to ambient influences – Electronics with integrated circuit (ASIC) – Individual addressing – Drift signal – Detector monitoring – Loop line with module for T branch – One response sensitivity for a wide application range – Good detection reliability – Monitored line – Compatible with existing CERBERUS control units – Electronics with integrated circuit (ASIC) – Stub line – Favorably priced Applications – Demanding system engineering of any size – Where transient or continuous interference is present which could cause a false alarm – With direct alarm link to the fire department – Wherever the prevention of false alarms has top priority AnalogPLUS – Normal system engineering – Large systems – For rarely occurring deceptive phenomena that can cause false alarms – Alerting of the fire department with CAC Collective – Easy system engineering – Small. DS110. System Interactive Characteristics – Freely programmable adjustment of the response behavior – Optimum detection reliability – Also usable under critical ambient conditions – High immunity to soiling – Immune to electromagnetic...2 Choosing the appropriate AlgoRex detector Three different detector series are available: DS115.2001 . DS113. Interactive detector system AnalogPLUS detector system Collective detector system Each of these systems has its own special characteristics and is suited to specific applications.

steel) Warehouse with electrical and/or gas operated vehicles Warehouse with diesel operated vehicles Passenger car garages Truck/bus garages Legend: l Optimally suited w Suited – Unsuited 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Collective l w 1) w 1) w 1) w 1) l w 1) l l w 1) w 1) l w – – w w 5. 6) w – – – – l – – l – w 1) – AnalogPLUS l w 2) w 2) w 2) w 2) l w 2) l l w 2) w 2) l l w 2) w 4) l w 5. for example. 6) w 5. max. 3) Interactive l l l l l l l l l l l l l l w 4) l w 5. 6) l l l l w 5. 6) l w w w w l w – l – w 2) w 2.6. electronics. small Museum rooms Exhibition halls Restaurants Kitchens Pantries Cold storage rooms Cheese ripening rooms. textile) Dirty industrial buildings and warehouses (for example. 6) l l l l l l l w l w l w 3) Alarm reconfirmation (Pulse memory) required Integration required Switch-off during cold start Recommendation: ThermoRex. air sampling smoke detectors.2001 . heat cables. foodstuffs) Dusty industrial buildings and warehouses (for example. moist Heating rooms Print shops Spinning mills Weaving mills Carpentry shops Clean industrial buildings and warehouses (for example. 6) w 5. 6) w w w w w 5. smoker’s rooms Cleaning closets Corridors Staircases Attics. unheated Sales rooms. tires. large Sales rooms.3 Suitability by application Application Offices Residential premises Conference rooms Hospital rooms Smoker’s corners. 6) w 5. cheese cellars Telephone exchanges EDP rooms Switchgear rooms Power supply ducts. paper. foundry. etc. 6) l l l l w 5. 51 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. temperature 80°C Detector heating Other detection systems may possibly have to be used. dry Power supply ducts.

sunlight 52 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. dust.2001 .Examining the environmental influences Detectors may not be exposed to inadmissible environmental influences. The following influences are particularly critical for Smoke detectors: Smoke. steam and other aerosols produced by work processes Heat detector: All heat sources Flame detector: Modulated heat radiation.

Other aspects to be taken into account: The corresponding fire phenomenon (smoke/heat/radiation) must be able to reach the detector Foreseeable deceptive phenomena Foreseeable mechanical influences (vibration. Heat (convection) Smoke Radiation Seat of fire Fig. All Detector types The fire phenomena evaluated for an alarm (smoke. 13 Different spreading characteristics of different fire phenomena Each room to be monitored must contain at least one automatic detector. The detector arrangement must be adapted to the prevailing features of the room such as ceiling construction.). etc. Smoke and heat detectors are mounted on the ceiling or wherever the fire phenomena are expected to spread and accumulate. etc. etc. room division (wall recesses. fittings.2001 . furnishings. This must be given priority in all cases.7 Number and arrangement of point-type detectors In many countries the number and arrangement of point-type detectors is regulated by specific guidelines. heat. For this reason the number of detectors required (or the monitoring area per detector) is largely influenced by the spreading characteristics of the corresponding fire phenomena. radiation) have different spreading properties.) Correct testing and replacement 53 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. Flame detectors require a direct line of sight to every likely fire source and are preferably installed high up in the corners of a room.

14 Monitoring area per smoke detector as a function of the room height and fire hazard level Area 2 can be chosen for most applications. valuable and/or irreplaceable property is stored in the corresponding room. Typical values are 20m2 to 40m2 per heat detector. Room height h [m] 25 20 15 12 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 3 1 2 1 AM [m2] 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Fire hazard levels / areas: 1 Low fire hazard 2 Medium fire hazard 3 High fire hazard Monitoring area per smoke detector Fig. 7. no valuable or irreplaceable property is stored in the corresponding room.2001 . can occur in adjacent areas. 54 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. the fire risk is low.2 Monitoring area for point-type heat detectors The monitoring area depends on the size of the room to be monitored and the slope of the ceiling. other fire protection measures virtually preclude fire spread. the fire risk is classified as „high”. in particular by corrosive fission products. Area 1 should only be chosen if all danger to life can be precluded. no smoke logging. the loss of material property and installations would threaten the economic existence of the owner of the premises.7. Area 3 is recommend if serious danger to life exists.1 Monitoring area per smoke detector The monitoring area (AM) is determined as a function of the room height and the fire hazard.

For detailed planning please consult your national or regional Cerberus office. The side length a of the cube depends on the expected conditions such as flame size. mounting height = a 45° 45° Fig. The room to be monitored is subdivided into one or several cubes. It monitors a cube with a side length a. etc. These are monitored by a detector that is installed in an angle of 45° on a vertical axis. max. room height.3 Monitoring area for point-type flame detectors The flame detector should always be mounted in the high corner of the room at an angle of 45°.2001 .7. visibility conditions. 15 Monitored cube with side length a 55 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.

entrance halls. and particularly hazardous areas.8 Number and arrangement of manual call points Manual call points must be installed in intervals of not more than 40m in clearly visible locations along the escape routes. Manual call point Hose cabinet ≤40m ≤40m >40m Fig.2001 . in corridors. for example. 16 Arrangement of manual call points along escape routes 56 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. staircases. hose cabinets. lift foyers.

the distance from the floor to the detector rather than the room height is the width controlling factor. Room height or installation height Fig. Detector Reflector Detector 3m up to 60% of room hight Reflector Fig.. the detector must be installed in such a way that the IR beam is at the height at which the smoke will presumably spread.2001 . monitoring width If the monitoring beam is set at a low level so that smoldering fires can be detected. 100m Reflector Fig.. 17 Admissible monitoring distances To ensure that smoldering fires with weak thermal convection can be detected in tall rooms.9 Number and arrangement of linear smoke detectors Between the transmitter and the reflector there must be a continuous line of sight. 19 Monitoring width as a function of the room height 57 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. For higher risks also a smaller monitoring width may be selected. 18 Arrangement of detectors at two different levels for detecting flaming and smoldering fires in tall rooms Maximum monitoring width With increasing room height the monitoring width can be increased. Detector 5m . (m) 20 15 12 10 8 6 4 3 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 (m) Max.

Clean rooms and the like. To stop the spread of fire it often suffices to switch off the equipment. Other applications include room monitoring.10 Air sampling smoke detection systems (ASD) ASD-Duct ASD-Mono HSD ASD-Flex Fig. Switching and control installations. 58 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. Air sampling smoke detectors are a valuable supplement to conventional room detectors because they are an efficient means for preventing fire damage and interruption of operations. 20 Application example of an air sampling smoke detection system An air sampling smoke detection system can detect even the smallest fires in equipment before serious damage occurs. Possible applications are Telephone exchanges.2001 ÌÌ ÌÌ Ó Ó Ó ASD-Mono Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ . Computer rooms.

However. 21 Principle of the air sampling smoke detection unit ASD Duct. For this reason an ASD Duct can supplement but not replace a conventional fire detection system.10. ASD Mono is an ideal supplement to conventional fire detection systems. 10.2 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono The air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono is an active unit that is equipped with its own fan. as well as other not easily accessible rooms and areas with a small volume. monitoring is only possible as long as the ventilation remains in operation and the air is circulating. Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎÎ Pipe system Sampling holes Airflow sensor Smoke detector Active detector AD1 Fan Fig. The preferred fields of application for ASD Mono are individual switching and control cabinets. Fig.2001 . Activation of the extinguishing system and shut-down of the power to the equipment is controlled by the fire detection system control unit.1 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Duct The air sampling smoke detection unit ASD Duct is a passive system without its own fan. EDP equipment including closed machines and ceiling voids. It is designed for monitoring existing ventilation systems for traces of smoke. Only one smoke detector can be installed in the ASD Duct. Due to the strong dilution of the smoke the response sensitivity is usually far below that of a point-type detector. The air samples are transported via a fixed pipe network to the sampling chamber. Only one smoke detector can be installed in the ASD Mono system. It is particularly suitable for monitoring individual pieces of equipment and smaller rooms. 22 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Mono (AD1) 59 sect4 07.

The detection unit is equipped with two optical smoke detectors. 24 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex . under the raised floor Fig. This system is highly adaptable and can be easily modified if the equipment configuration or location changes. The suction funnels are connected to the detection unit by a flexible tube. The detection unit is installed directly above or on top of the equipment to be monitored. Power switch-off to the monitored equipment can be initiated directly by the detection unit whereas the extinguishing system is activated by the fire detection system control unit. The airflow within the flexible tube is monitored. and similar installations. BD5 EDP equipment Fire detection control unit 60 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. Preferred applications are the monitoring of forced ventilated electronic cabinets.3 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Flex The air sampling smoke detection system is also an active system with built-in fan. computer equipment. It is especially designed for the varied requirements of ventilated equipment. flexible cables. .2001 ÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏÏ Fig. The electrical connection of the detection unit to the system control unit is established via a distribution box and special. An integrated heat detector (rate of rise and maximum temperature) is available as an option. Due to their flexible design they can be installed without any modification to the equipment to be monitored. one of which can be set to a different response sensitivity.10. This makes the ASD flex a universal detection system with accurate status and fire location indication and differentiated alarm evaluation capability. 23 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD flex (BD5) Detection units BD5 Zone distribution box GVK..

1 Air sampling measurement chamber MP2424 2 3 3 3 3 6 5 ø 25 5 ø 32 4 ∅ 40 4 ∅ 40 6 6 6 5 ø 25 5 ø 25 7 6xø6 1 Display / operation and connections 2 Airtight metal housing with fan 3 Main smoke detector 4 Main tubes 5 Air sampling tubes with suction openings 6 Detection unit BDA2400 with smoke detector 7 Detection unit BDA2410 with smoke detector Fig. In addition to the fire detectors in the air sampling chamber. 25 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD modular 61 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. detection equipment can be installed directly in suitable locations of the air sampling tubes.2001 .10. This makes it easier to locate the seat of the fire which is advantageous for systematic shutdown of power to the monitored equipment. It also allows the automatic extinguishing system to be activated precisely where needed.4 Air sampling smoke detection system ASD Modular The air sampling smoke detection system ASD modular is also an active system with its own fan. It is a very efficient system that is available in various capacity stages. The air samples are transported via fixed suction tubes to the sampling chamber. With this arrangement it is possible to divide large monitoring areas into smaller areas that are easier to keep under surveillance.

2001 ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ BDA2400 . In addition smoke detectors with different response sensitivities can be installed in the detection units. standard smoke detectors with normal or increased sensitivity. telephone exchanges and control centers. In each of the four main tubes the airflow is monitored separately. Typical applications are EDP systems and rooms. that is. including infrastructure equipment. control and regulation systems. or high-sensitivity smoke detectors.A multistage alarm concept can be implemented by installing the detection equipment in different locations. clean rooms. electrical distribution systems. 26 Typical monitoring of control cabinets with ASD modular 62 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. BDA2400 BDA2400 MP2424 Single detector monitoring Dual detector monitoring BDA2400 BDA2400 BDA2400 Fig. For special applications a detection unit equipped with an HSD (high sensitivity detector) can be used. Due to its modular design the air sampling smoke detection system ASD modular is suited to a broad range of applications. etc. measurement.

printer systems and the like – cabinet/equipment1). EDP equipment.g. etc. for example. for semiconductor production Tall rooms. for example. warehouses containing valuable works of art or documents Vital installations in nuclear power stations Rooms with electromagnetic sources of interference (EMI) Sterile rooms Rooms with high levels of radioactivity Anechoic rooms (acoustics) Rooms with no possibility of installing point-type detectors Rooms with heavy condensation (possibly with additional equipment) 1) 2) 3) 3) 5) 4) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) 5) Equipment: Unit within a housing. high-performance computers Historic buildings with valuable exhibitions or galleries Archives.: – covered courts / buildings with atrium – aircraft hangars – machine rooms (highly sensitive processes) Automatic parking garages High bay storage systems Operating theaters (hospitals) Highly sensitive electrical equipment such as flight simulators. with forced ventilation2) EDP installations (medium to large) EDP power supply EDP air-conditioning system EDP rooms (room monitoring) EDP-automated data filing systems Raised floors.5 Application Typical applications System ASD Duct ASD Mono ASD Flex ASD Modular Standard HSD Ventilation systems (supply air. possibly with own power supply Forced ventilation: Removal of the heat produced by the equipment by means of exhaust fan or positive pressure in the room air-conditioning system 3) In addition to point-type detectors on the ceiling. exhaust air. 5) If point-type detectors cannot be used 63 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07. medicines. in case of high air change rates 4) If smoke sensitive products are stored such as foodstuffs. control and regulation systems CNC machines / industrial robots Machines / equipment / devices – in closed housings Inaccessible rooms / zones – small volume – large volume Clean rooms. circulation ducts of air-conditioning and ventilation systems) Electrical and electronic cabinets.10. suspended ceilings – small volume – large volume Telephone exchanges and control centers Power distribution systems Measurement. not ventilated – cabinet/equipment1).2001 . e. textiles.

2001 .64 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect4 07.

Fire control facilities . . . . . . . . . Siting the control unit . . . . . . . . . Fire detection control units Introduction . . . . . . . . . Alarm concept . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 66 67 67 68 70 71 76 76 79 79 4. AlgoControl fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation – Alarm – Operation – Control . . 5. . . . . . . . 3. . . . 65 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. . . . . 5. . . Cerberus alarm concept (CAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration and structure of the fire detection system control unit . . . . . . . . . . .Section 5 1. . 6. . . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Introduction The fire detection system control unit offers a variety of fire control and operating facilities. 1 Operation of the fire detection system control unit 66 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. F Control unit with integrated operating facility F Control unit with remote control console Fig.2001 . It has an alarm organization that can be optimally adapted to any situation. Due to its modular design the system can be configured to specific application requirements.

The battery autonomy must be sufficient to permit full operation of the fire detection system during the emergency operation time (according to local regulations). full operation of the system and the alarm equipment can be maintained for a specific length of time. The signals of autonomous fire detection control units can be combined in a danger management system (see Section 8). or at the entrance used for access by the fire department. but with continually staffed in-house signal receiving station – With fault signal transmission. line not monitored – With fault signal transmission. In view of the requirements of fault signal detection and troubleshooting we recommend the following emergency power autonomy: Emergency power criterion – Without fault signal transmission – With fault signal transmission. emergency diesel generator for 24 h operation) and fault signal transmission Emergency power autonomy 72 h 12 h 24 h 12 h 4h 67 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. they are usually decentralized in order to keep the line network to the fire detectors and to the alarm and control equipment as short as possible. fuse-protected feeder. Power from the mains (primary source) must be supplied from a separate. Each control unit functions autonomously. One of the two power sources must be a permanent mains supply. due to the system size. If. several control units are required. line monitored – Uninterruptible mains connection (for example.2001 . as well as full operation of the alarm devices for at least 30 minutes.2 Siting the control unit The control unit should be installed in a room near the main entrance of the area to be monitored. the other a battery or comparable source. the remote display and operating terminals can be used and placed accordingly. Equipment that is not part of the fire detection system may not be connected to the system’s power supply. If this is not feasible for technical reasons. 3 Power supply Two independent power sources must be available and both be calculated in such away that if one source fails.

only alarm signaling). Addressable detector bus for fire detectors AnalogPLUS. and input modules. Series DS1130 AlgoRex fire detectors. It achieves maximum detection reliability and is able to clearly distinguish between true fire phenomena and deceptive phenomena. DS1100 series Conventional technology with respect to communication and signal evaluation (one address per detection line. and performs the decentralized control functions. series DS1150 Addressable fire detectors AnalogPLUS. The detectors have the same highquality sensor system as the other AlgoRex detectors. comparison and evaluation of signals from several detectors). Collective detection line for fire detectors series DS1100 68 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. MS9. Via the detector bus or detector line the AlgoControl unit receives the signals from automatic fire detectors. DS1150 series AlgoLogic is a unique evaluation and decision logic that is based on algorithms. manual call points. series DS1130 Collective fire detectors.2001 . Series DS1150 AlgoRex fire detectors AnalogPLUS. series DS1100 It is also possible to integrate existing system components with detectors of the series MS7. The allocation of the „competence” between the fire detectors and the control unit is clearly defined in AlgoRex. AlgoRex fire detectors with AlgoLogic. via the output modules. Interactive detector bus for fire detectors with AlgoLogic. for example. collective.4 AlgoControl fire detection system control unit The control unit is the interaction point between the operator and the AlgoRex system. DS1130 series Addressable detector system with centrally selectable detector sensitivity and intelligent signal processing (alarm verification. The following detector systems can be connected to the control units of the CS1140 family: Interactive smoke detectors with AlgoLogic. MS24.

As an electronic black box it is usually put into the electrical control center or another technical room.2001 . Depending on the risk and protection concept more than one AlgoPilot terminal can be connected to the AlgoControl signal processing unit via a communications loop.AlgoControl „black box” and AlgoPilot terminals In the operation of the AlgoRex system the AlgoControl signal processing unit plays an important role even though it does not have to be installed in a prominent place. for example. This data bus between AlgoControl and AlgoPilot consists of a highly fail-save and supervised data transmission channel that is immune to short circuits and interruptions. The user works with the convenient AlgoPilot terminal which can be installed in the most convenient location. ALARM AlgoPilot control console AlgoPilot CT11 C-Bus Alarm devices CPU Alarm receiving center (for example. so that the arriving fire fighting squad can immediately obtain an accurate picture of the situation. at the fire department access road. fire department) Fire control installations I-Bus Line module Mains Control module Autonomous extinguishing sector Fire detection control unit AlgoControl FBF FSK HM Service PC Printer Periphery according to VdS: Fire department control panel Fire department key box Main fire alarm box Fig. 2 Principle of the AlgoControl fire detection system control unit with AlgoPilot control console 69 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.

Integrated emergency operation function Emergency operation functions are integrated in the main function modules. The main criteria for the design of the user interface of AlgoRex or AlgoPilot were the user and operator requirements.4. Extinguishing section activation An extinguishing section can be activated via the „extinguishing” control module. 70 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. For this reason each unit can be installed wherever it best fulfils its functions. Due to the diversity of data and the visualization of the information contents such a man-machine interface requires sophisticated communications capabilities.1 Evaluation – Alarm – Operation – Control The AlgoControl fire detection system control unit can be configured either with an integrated or a remotely installed AlgoPilot control console. both are completely autonomous with respect to the functions they fulfil. Programmable control outputs For fire control operations user-programmable control outputs are available in the control unit.2001 . Event memory Up to 1000 events can be stored and retrieved chronologically and by information category. The concept of decentralized intelligence has also been systematically implemented in the design of the signal processing unit and the operator terminal. This clear concept of functional segregation greatly increases the reliability and availability of the system. A control unit can handle several extinguishing sections. Driver and/or relay outputs are available. The principal functional characteristics of the control unit are: Parameter driven organization logic Complete freedom in the adaptation of the control unit organization to changing customer requirements is ensured. parameter-driven charging characteristics. This means that in the event of a component failure the system is still able to signal a fire alarm. Reliable emergency power supply Optimum charging and extended life of the emergency power batteries by using manufacturer-specific. Real-time clock Automatic summer/winter changeover by the integrated real-time clock that has its own buffer battery.

Automatically recognizable detector replacement.2. ThermoRex Planning and maintenance DT11. Simple maintenance. Distributed intelligence. CS1140 Control unit system AlgoPilot PolyRex Communication bus Detector bus DOT11. Parameter downloading.2001 .1 System overview AlgoRex S11 DS11 Detector system OptoRex AlgoControl DO11. High system availability and quality.. Individual evaluation algorithms. Independent bus systems (detector bus / communications bus). 4. Unrestricted address assignment. 71 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.4. Menu-driven operator guidance... High configuration flexibility. Compatibility with existing installations. Manufactured according to ecologically compatible principles. AlgoWorks Characteristics High selective detection capability. Detailed planning and configuration information can be found in the Cerberus control unit manual CS11.2 Configuration and structure of the fire detection system control unit The AlgoControl unit is configured largely in accordance with the logical system structure.

Logical structure Area (e. DO1151 72 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.4.2. interactive. The display and operation are governed by geographic and organizational aspects and are consequently independent of the actual hardware installation of the detector network.g.g.2 System structure AlgoRex has a logical and a physical structure. room 104 Element address point in room e.g.g. main building) e.2001 . collective Device e. 1st floor Section Zone e.g. The logical structure is completely separate from the physical structure which allows greater flexibility.

line module) I-Bus Physical structure: The physical structure is an image of the hardware.g. It can be flexibly adapted to the building structure. It results from the hardware installation. detectors) are installed in which geographic location. detector) Linking: The lowest levels of the two structures are logically linked to each other. Geographic features (building structure) 2nd floor 1st floor Main building 1st floor ground floor Room 104 Logical structure: The logical structure is an image of the geographic features of an installation. etc. Station Operator terminal C-Bus Control unit 73 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.Logical and physical structure As the following example shows the AREA (alarm organization level. This linking determines which physical devices (e.g. Area Main building Section Zone Element Warehouse Ground floor 1st floor 2nd floor Reception Room 102 Room 103 Room 104 Canteen EDPRoom Logical structure Physical structure Linking Device (e. D-Bus Function unit (e.2001 . usually a building) is the highest logical level. The logical structure is independent of the line routing within the detector network. room utilization.g.

The fire detector series and control unit are selected on the basis of the application requirements and/or the system size.2001 . AnalogPLUS or interactive detectors – Remotely installable control console 74 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Three different detector series and 2 different fire detection system control units are available. Detector series DS11 Collective DS110. DO1101 DT1101 / DT1102 Control units CS11 Stand-alone AlgoControl CS1110 / CS1115 – Collective-signal – Limit comparator technology AnalogPLUS DO1131 DS113.3 Product range With AlgoRex fire detection systems can be tailored to the user’s requirements.4.2. DO1151 DOT1151 DT1152 AlgoPilot CC1141 / CC1142 CT1141 / CT1142 – Single-detector signal – Individual evaluation algorithms – Multicriteria detectors with neuronal network – Automatic application suitability check – Multidetector logic – For small to large systems comprising one or several control units – For collective. DOT1131 DT1131 CI1110 / CI1115 – For small to medium systems – With collective or analog addressable detectors Network compatible – Single-detector signal – Multi-detector logic – Drift signal CS1140 AlgoControl Interactive DS115.

2. Two types of control units are available: stand-alone and network compatible.4 Topology Depending on the detector series either stub lines. or T-taps are possible. In large systems the data line between the local control console and the danger management system is implemented as a loop line. Control unit AnalogPLUS Stand-alone CS1110 / CS1115 collective CI1110 / CI1115 Network compatible CS1140 interactive Control console CC1141 / CC1142 CT1141 / CT1142 AnalogPLUS collective Gateway CK1141 / CK1142 CI1141 / CI1142 Danger management system terminal Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group ÉÉ ÉÉ 75 sect5 07.2001 .4. loop lines.

Monitored sequences The reaction of the personnel is monitored by 2 independent timer circuits. Each detector con- 76 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.1 Cerberus alarm concept (CAC) The Cerberus alarm concept prevents calling of the fire department for minor incidents. detection algorithms have been created and integrated in the AlgoRex detectors. If it is a serious incident the fire department is called immediately from the nearest manual call point. 5. Responsible personnel is absent ⇒ „Night organization” Day organization (personnel present) When the day organization is active an alarm is initially transmitted to the responsible personnel that investigates the situation. The first timer circuit monitors the presence of the personnel. Audible and visual alarm devices must generate a signal that is clearly identifiable as a fire alarm. the second circuit the duration of the reconnaissance. The fire department must be alerted via a direct line that should preferably be monitored.2001 . Important is the quick transmission of alarm messages to the appropriate group of recipients. If no personnel is present or if the reconnaissance time is exceeded. The alarm devices must be connected to the emergency power supply of the fire detection system control unit and controlled via the corresponding alarm outputs. The concept differentiates. Responsible personnel is present ⇒ „Day organization” 2.5 Alarm concept General The alarm concept must be defined individually for each installation. Day and night organization When either the day or night organization is active the actuation of a manual call point or the activation of an extinguishing system immediately triggers an „External alarm”. an „External alarm” is transmitted immediately to the fire department and the preprogrammed control functions are initiated.: 1. Additional security provided by AlgoLogic Based on the experience accumulated from a large number of fire tests. Night organization (personnel absent) When the night organization is active all alarms immediately trigger an „External alarm”. If it is a minor incident the fire is extinguished with the resources available locally and the alarm is reset.

The same applies to multidetector zones. The detector autonomously evaluates the existing danger level and transmits the result to the system control unit. The latter validates the incoming signals based on stored values and initiates preprogrammed decisions.tains the data for the algorithm that is optimally suited for fire detection.2001 . The result of this technology is an incomparably high alarm validity. F Alarm Day / Night Night organization Day organization Algorithms Multidetector zones Supplementary benefit in alarm concept with AlgoRex Highest alarm validity Local alarm Presence yes Acknowledgment no Reconnaissance yes no Investigating no Emergency yes F Reset General internal alarm External alarm Flow diagram „Cerberus Alarm Concept” (CAC) Fig. In addition the detection behavior of AlgoRex detectors is dependent on the day/night organization state. 3 77 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07.

floor-by-floor – Separate evacuation speaker system through which specific instructions are given – Separate evacuation signal. Alarm Local alarm Purpose specific. possibly also via staff paging system – System buzzer on the display and the control panel of the fire detection system – Mobile telephone General internal alarm Specific alarm for calling out the required fire fighting crews – Same as for local alarm – Generally alarm devices that are distributed all over the building through which the members of the in-house fire brigade can be called – Telephonic transmission facilities for alerting the fire department Initiation of the evacuation alarm. frequently only after careful deliberation. e. discreet alarm for persons who have to investigate the alarm location Means of alarm – Staff paging system – Audible alarm devices in the rooms where the reconnaissance squad is stationed – Coded bell signal.Alarm organization and means of alarm The operational constraints must be taken into account when specifying the alarm organization and means of alarm because the group of persons responsible for responding to a fire alarm may vary in each case. The alarm organization and means of alarm must be recorded in the system log book.2001 . e. in case trained personnel are present 78 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. in order to avoid panic Specific warnings to persons in danger. intermittent alarm signal.g.g.

Activating emergency lighting systems.2001 . Vital installations can be controlled through multidetector zones. For example: Fire doors and fire dampers should close. Commanding elevators to the ground floor and blocking them there.1 Activation of fire control facilities The activation of fire control facilities depends on the situation prevailing in the monitored area and must be determined individually for each installation. Switching of machines and equipment of all types.6 6. for example: Switching off air-conditioning and ventilation system. This includes. In larger fire detection systems the fire control facilities are frequently controlled on a zone-by-zone basis and activated selectively in case of a minor alarm or general internal alarm.1 Fire control facilities General Equipment that is part of the fire protection concept and which can be automatically controlled by the fire detection system. In smaller fire detection systems all fire control facilities are normally activated in the event of an alarm. Closing fire doors. Closing fire dampers.1. 79 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. 6. Activating smoke and heat extraction systems. All controlled facilities should move to their safe position in the event of a power failure. The control of such equipment must not adversely affect the fire detection system. The functions of the fire control facilities must be documented in the system folder.

g.4 Testing the fire control facility It must be possible to test the function of the fire control operation without activating the corresponding facility.3 Test mode of the fire detection system If the fire detection system is in TEST mode.2001 . 4 Switching off the ventilation 6.2 Activating the external control On the switch panel of the controlled facility a signal must indicate that the fire control has been activated by the fire detection system. from a manual call point. opens when the alarm is reset.1.1. The activated facility must be restored to its normal operating state independently of the fire detection system. manual control should be given preference over automatic control. the fire control facilities may respond only if an alarm is overriding e.1. in exceptional cases when the audible fire alarm is switched off Fire detection system External control P N Control voltage for ventilation Fig. 80 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect5 07. Example: Relay contact closes in alarm condition.5 Safety precautions Depending on the type of facility or equipment.1. activation of the fire control operation that can have consequences that may possibly negate the benefits of automatic initiation.6. 6. In case of doubt. Switch-off button External control Initiation – + ON indicator – Fig. 5 OFF indicator + OFF state indication of a fire control facility 6.

. . . . . . . Installation of the detection line network Basic information on the detection line network .Section 6 Line network The following section describes the planning of the line network of a fire detection system. . 82 84 85 87 81 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07.1. . . . Electromagnetic environments . . . . . . . National regulations must in all cases be followed even if they are not explicitly mentioned here. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation of a fire detection system . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire detectors in explosion hazard areas . . . 2. . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . . . . .

If existing detector networks are to be integrated or expanded.2001 . unshielded twisted pairs suffice in most cases. It is also possible to connect different detector types to the same line.1 Installation of a fire detection system High installation flexibility AlgoRex allows complete freedom in the design of the line network. 1 O I AlgoRex fire detection system: installation and connection versions 82 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. Example: New detector network With H Interactive detectors H Input/output (I/O) modules H Special detectors H Loop lines H Stub lines H T-tabs Lines: unshielded twisted pair I Fig. connection of existing „collective” systems: H Loop line H Stub line H T-tab Existing installations can be integrated. stub lines or both are feasible. Example: Existing detector network Modernization of existing systems with AlgoRex. Loop lines.

no new cabling is required. Very important: If AlgoRex is used to upgrade an existing system. AlgoRex requires shielded cables only in very extreme situations. Later additions. Ex I I Fig.Complete freedom in the design of the interactive detection line network T-taps with individual addresses can be connected to the loop at any time (without additional equipment). Even the old installation wires of 220V detection systems can in most cases still be used.2001 . 2 I I I/O I Complete freedom in the design of the installation network with interactive detectors 83 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. provided the quality of the installation conforms to current standards. extensions or utilization changes are consequently easy to implement. This means that the line network can be designed as required by the building structure and based on economic considerations rather than the limitations of the system.

input modules allow direct connection of collective fire detectors on an interactive line. As a rule neither the output modules nor the input modules require an external power source. sprinkler contacts).g. Ambient influences The line network (dry.g. A response indicator can also be controlled by multiple detectors (e.2001 . With line separators in the detector and other modules the control unit can automatically isolate the injured line segment while maintaining the functionality of the remaining detector network. 2. as well as non-AlgoRex fire detectors and other signal outputs (e. low-voltage and high-voltage cables. (e. 84 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. The assignment of the indicator to the detector is programmed in the system control unit. The detector line routing capabilities for the AlgoRex system have been completely redesigned. pulse controls. it can be installed anywhere on the detector line or be fed by another detector. Separation of signal and power lines Despite the very high immunity of new detector systems. On the two-wire detector bus the microprocessor-equipped output modules supply the decentralized fire control functions. Depending on the selected intelligence level. ring and stub lines can be implemented as desired so that the detector line needs to be installed only in accordance with the building requirements rather than system limitations. Commercially available material that is suitable for telephone or low-voltage systems (<1000V) can be procured locally. lightning protection systems. or explosion proof) must conform to the same standard as for electrical lighting. priority was given to the requirements of the electrical engineer and the installer. Cable and wiring material As protection against electromagnetic influences twisted cables should be used. For example parallel branches (T-taps) which were previously not allowed. multidetector zones).). etc. Also shunt-Zener-diode barriers can be integrated in the detector line so that explosion hazard rooms can be monitored with explosion-proof detectors connected to a normal detector line. detector lines should preferably be routed separately from other lines and systems in order to prevent electromagnetic influences. Also new with AlgoRex interactive is that the external (additional) response indicator of the detector does not have to be connected to the corresponding detector itself. This means reliability also in case of line interruptions and short circuits which can occur when building work is performed. wet.2 Installation of the detection line network Particularly important for the AlgoRex system is the reliable function of the detection network. transmitter and high-frequency equipment. are now possible with the AlgoRex system and they are also monitored.1 Basic information on the detection line network Separate line network Fire detection systems must be operated via a separate line network.g.

Lines to the alarm devices The following factors must be taken into consideration: Maximum load rating of the alarm output in the control unit. Detection line network The fire detectors of a line are connected in series with a 2-wire line. The control unit.2 Fire detectors in explosion hazard areas Fire detection equipment is normally installed in an intrinsically safe version. current. and large portions of the system wiring can. 1 and 2 At least for applications in zones 0 and 1 potential compensation is required. circuits that are intrinsically safe must be separated from those which are not intrinsically safe by means of suitable protective measures that satisfy certain requirements. The separation between system components that are or are not intrinsically safe requires the installation of shunt-zener-diode barriers that limit the voltage. operator terminals. Shunt-zenerdiode barriers without electrical isolation are to be connected on one side to the potential compensation which in case of multiple grounding can lead to undesirable compensation currents. they do not have to be intrinsically safe. that is. Maximum voltage loss 10%. Within the explosion hazard area. however. Intrinsically safe installation In general explosion hazard areas constitute only a small part of a fire detection system. We differentiate between: Shunt-zener-diode barriers category ib: these are only applicable for zones 1 and 2 Shunt-zener-diode barriers category ia: these are applicable for zones 0. Within a system. 85 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. and power in the intrinsically safe circuit to non-hazardous values. 3 Detector network 2. be installed in accordance with normal regulations. that is. Serial wiring T-taps are only possible in systems with addressable detectors Fig. Parallel wiring is only possible for addressable systems (except MS9i).2001 . continuous grounding of all larger construction elements that can be touched. etc. therefore. Principle of intrinsic safety EN50020 defines an intrinsically safe circuit as follows: A circuit in which no sparks and no thermal effects occurring under the testing conditions defined in this standard (which comprise normal operation and certain fault conditions) are able to ignite a certain explosible atmosphere. the line network and all equipment must be intrinsically safe.

4 Fire detection system in an „Ex” area 86 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group . Typical installation of a fire detection system in an „Ex” area Non hazardous area Explosion hazard area Danger zones 1 and 2 Response indicator Ex FD control unit 1) Response indicator Ex Line terminator Ex sect6 07. 50Ω 1) max.2001 – + Shunt-zenerdiode barrier System ground Ex Ex Ex Potential compensation No detectors allowed max.Often a correct solution is only possible through electrical isolation (line coupler with shunt-zener-diode barrier). 57nF / 4mH / 25 fire detectors Depending on the application an evaluation shunt may be needed Fig.

base. therapy rooms. The detector. repair shops Kitchens. On/off switching of large transformers. Earth loops. Type of premises Buildings exposed to lightning Hospitals and nursing Source of interference Thunderstorms – Direct strike – Strike via mains Short wave therapy and X-ray Microwave equipment Microwave oven Interference location Complete building. substations. control unit) is tested during the development stage for immunity to interference. Insulation tests Metal working machines Rolling mills Chipboard production Paper coating 87 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07. transmitters. Electrostatic charging or discharging. trouble-free operation is only ensured if the equipment is installed according to the rules of electromagnetic compatibility. snack corners Open-air high-voltage switches High-voltage lines Power stations. Sources of interference Fire detection systems must be protected against the following sources of interference: Strokes of lightning. detector base and control unit are designed in such a way that – also in the case of AlgoRex interactive – shielding against EMI (electromagnetic influence) is required only in exceptional cases. transformer stations Electronics industry Metal industry Timber and paper industry High-voltage switchgear.2001 . RF interference. However. mains leads to the control unit and terminals. e.g. etc. Electronic therapy rooms. Care has also been taken that the AlgoRex itself does not emit any inadmissible electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic influences. from RF generators. Particular precautions apply to the immunity of the AlgoRex system to electromagnetic influences which in modern buildings tend to occur more frequently and more strongly. radiology departments. Interference pulses caused by the switching of inductive loads. Primary protection Basically. especially top floors. Radio communications. Inductive and capacitive coupling. By means of the built-in primary protection a large portion of possible sources of interference are eliminated. radiology departments. each Cerberus product (detector. flashover in high voltage lines High-frequency generators Impulse generators Large motors Induction furnaces Induction furnace Motors Assembly of switching devices and radio equipment. In normal situations and in environments without EM pollution twisted conductors suffice. and optimized accordingly.3 Electromagnetic environment Definition Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) means that an electrical or electronic system can be operated within the prescribed electromagnetic environment without interference either from or to other systems. laboratories.

2001 .88 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect6 07.

. 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explosion protection types . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . European standards . . . . Certification and approval institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section 7 Standards and approval institutions 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . 3. . . . . . . . 90 90 91 92 92 93 94 89 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. . . . . . . IP protection categories . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . UL standards (Underwriter’s Laboratories Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . Testing laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . USA) . . . . . Standards for fire detection systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

design. transmitted light.1 European standards In Europe the standards are defined by CEN (European Committee for standardization) and CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization). installation.1 Standards for fire detection systems The requirements to be satisfied by fire detection systems are defined in relevant standards. or are in preparation or planned. or ionization High temperature heat detectors Fire tests for smoke detectors Flame detectors Will be retracted as soon as the revision of Part 5 is published Revision in preparation M96 EN54–8 EN54–9 Will be retracted as soon as the revision of Part 5 is published Will be retracted as soon as the revision of Part 7 is published – – EN54–10 EN54–11 EN54–12 EN54–13 EN54–14 EN54–15 In preparation In preparation In preparation In preparation In preparation In preparation M96 E96 E97 97 97 97 Manual call points Optical beam detectors System requirements Guidelines for planning. M = middle. use and maintenance Point type multi-sensor fire detectors incorporating a smoke sensor in combination with a heat sensor Work done in ISO / TC21 / SC23 / WG9 to be submitted to parallel voting under the Vienna agreement Notes to the table: The dates for the scheduled publications are non-binding approximate values (as of December 1995). These EN standards will be adopted by the member states as national standards: ÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á ÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁ Á Á Á ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ ÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁÁ Á Number EN54–1 EN54–2 EN54–3 EN54–4 EN54–5 EN54–6 EN54–7 Title Status Comments Time schedule E95 B96 B96 Components of automatic fire detection systems: Introduction Control and indicating equipment Audible fire alarm devices Power supplies Published: October 76 Voting Voting Revision in preparation In preparation Published: October 76 Published: Published: July 82 Published: July 82 Published: July 82 Heat sensitive detectors – point detectors containing a static element Revision in preparation M96 – Heat sensitive detectors – rate or rise point detectors without static element Smoke detectors – point detectors using scattered light. The following member countries support CEN through active participation: – Austria – Belgium – Denmark – Finland – France – Germany – Greece – Ireland – Island – Italy – Luxembourg – Netherlands – Norway – Portugal – Spain – Sweden – Switzerland – United Kingdom The following table lists the standards that have either been published by the European Technical Committee CEN TC72. In addition to these EN standards there are country-specific standards which must also be taken into consideration. 90 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07.2001 . B = beginning. commissioning. 1. E = end of corresponding year.

2001 .1.2 UL standards (Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc. fire-alarm and supervisory systems Single and multiple-station smoke detectors Household fire warning system unit 91 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. USA) UL521: UL268: UL268A: UL38: UL864: UL827: UL217: UL985: Heat detectors for fire protection signalling systems Smoke detectors for fire protection signalling systems Smoke detectors for duct application Manual call points Control units for fire protection signalling systems Central stations for watchman.

(Germany) ULI: Underwriters’ Laboratories Inc. The major testing laboratories are: ANPI: Association Nationale pour la Protection contre l’incendie (Belgium) CNPP: Centre National de Prévention et de Protection (France) DELTA: DELTA Electronics Testing (Denmark) LPC Lab: Loss Prevention Council Laboratories (UK) VdS-Lab: Verband der Schadenversicherer e.2 Testing laboratories Adherence to the standards is verified by the fire detection system industry through performance tests in laboratories.2001 . 92 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. Their number is correspondingly large. (USA) ULC: Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada FMRC: Factory Mutual Research Corporation (USA) 3 Certification and approval institutions The certification and approval institutions are organizations that work at the national level.V. On request we gladly supply you with an approval list for Cerberus products and systems.

IP 40 IP 41 IP 42 IP 43 IP 44 5. ø 12 mm 2.0 Drip water perpeninclined dicular .2 Spray water . No protection Water penetration protection <15° <60° IP protection categories for electrical devices according to IEC 529 Overview Protection against IEC No protection — IP .4 IP protection categories The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standard 529 describes the types of protection against penetration of water and solid objects into the housing of electrical devices. ø 50 mm 1. Dust penetration IP 60 IP 65 IP 66 IP 67 IP 68 93 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. Dust deposition IP 50 IP 54 IP 55 6.3 Splash water . Large foreign objects IP 10 IP 11 IP 12 Protection again contact and penetration by fo nst p oreign objects max.5 Flooding .4 Water jet . ø 1 mm IP 30 IP 31 IP 32 IP 33 IP 34 4.8 0. IP 00 max. Medium foreign objects max. Granular foreign obj.1 . Small foreign objects max.6 Immersion . ø 2.7 Submersion .5 mm IP 20 IP 21 IP 22 IP 23 3.2001 . The following table summarizes the most frequently specified protection categories IP = International Protection.

transformers. terminal and connection boxes.5 Explosion protection types If fire detection systems are installed in explosion hazard areas. Diagrams and applications for the types of protection Types of protection / Standard Flame proof enclosure EN50018 Symbol d Diagram Application Heavy current engineering: (commutator) motors. but especially for large devices Pressurized enclosure EN50016 p p Sand-filled enclosures EN50017 Encapsulation EN50028 Increased safety EN50015 q m e Intrinsic safety EN50020 i L U C ingnitable atmosphere 94 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect7 07. current transformers. the equipment to be installed must satisfy certain safety requirements. For this purpose CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) has published the standards summarized in the table below. capacitors Sealed devices Squirrel cage induction motors. lighting units.2001 ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎ ÎÎÎÎÎÎ Oil immersion EN50015 o Switching devices. switching devices. measuring and control devices Low-voltage engineering: Measuring and control devices. lighting units. transformers Transformers. Fire detectors (apparatus and circuits) . alarm devices and other sparking devices See above.

. . . . . . .Section 8 1. . . . . . . . . . Example 2: System type LMSmodular (Local Monitoring System) . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System structure . . . . . . . . . Danger management systems Introduction . . . Other important functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. System concept . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .1. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 1: DMS7000 danger management system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 98 98 98 100 100 101 102 102 103 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. . .2. . . . . Specific security features . Examples of danger management systems .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . Main functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .

road tunnels) Concentration of assets (e. industrial complex) Concentration of persons (e. This organizational part of the concept is playing an increasingly important role. Extinguishing systems. 96 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.g. In most cases larger buildings and infrastructures are equipped with complex security systems which comprise. The following criteria and their combination constitute the basis for deciding on the installation of such a management system: Size and structure of the building (e.g. chemical plants) Building operation costs For a comprehensive solution also the organization of the security and service personnel as well as their role in the event of an emergency must be taken into consideration. Access control. Control of a building must be possible also under the most complex conditions with respect to security. Gas warning systems. nuclear power stations. CCTV monitoring.g. historical buildings) Installation with high risk potential (e. This requires better and more comprehensive protection. high-rise buildings. technical equipment. airports.g. for example Fire detection systems. Security systems.1 Introduction Due to the growing complexity and size of buildings and the increasing concentration of persons and property. How can this be accomplished? In such cases a master control center or danger management system for the control of all security related equipment is recommended. but with a minimum of personnel costs. the building owner is confronted with ever higher risks. and maintenance.2001 . computer centers. high-rise.

A typical application of such a danger management system is shown in the diagram below. For monitoring and operating the entire complex these systems are connected to a central danger management system.2001 . 1 Danger management system 97 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. Each of these buildings contains one or several systems of various sizes. Public telephone network Fig.

Selection and evaluation of the messages. evaluation.1 Functions Main functions In order to fulfil the requirements described in chapter 1 the danger management system must perform the following functions: Reception of alarm messages from the systems.g. Operation of the subsystems Acknowledgment. display and process of messages are. elevators. Execution of pre-programmed control sequences. Supplementary text information. Control of fire dampers..2 2. or light pen.. police. acknowledgment and reset of alarms. Interfaces Interfaces to the building automation and management systems. Logical and easy-to-interpret representation of the events. not limited to alarm situations: The above functions also apply to the processing of fault and status messages output by the subsystems. Expanded operation for special events.2001 . service personnel. etc. 98 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. and resetting of messages by means of function keys. of course. Control of specific display panels (mimic panels).2 Other important functions Additional important functions must be available: Display of alarms and other status messages Type of alarm. The reception. etc. Graphic display of the alarm location. PLCs. Control Transmission of alerts to call fire department. event location (with structure geographic designations). Evaluation of the alarm messages. date and time. mouse. Printout of the alarm list and texts. Interfaces to staff paging systems. video cameras. 2. History file Saving the events in a permanent file. Control of the subsystems from the security control center: e. Access to password-protected (multilevel) system operation. etc. processing. ventilators.

intrusion. Software tools for configuring the danger management system.) in a security control center. Other functions Software tools for user data such as texts and graphics. gas warning. security. Subsystem integration Integration of all subsystems (fire protection. Causes of alarm.Logging Chronological recording of all events. etc.2001 . 99 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. Access to the danger management system via the public switched telephone network for diagnostic purposes (remote diagnosis).

1 System structure The danger management system is based on clear system structures. alarm devices. operation. etc.3 System concept CC 1 CC 2 MD MC Gateway or central processing unit MA System console CC 8 Control units Communication Central management station CC 1 CC 2 MC Central processing unit MA System console CC 8 Control units Fig. Their functions such as signal indication. control of fire doors and elevators must also be possible in the event of complete communications failure with the security control center. Subsystem level Describes the subsystems and comprises the satellite control units. peripheral devices This level comprises all peripheral devices such as sensors. detectors. 2 Central management station Block diagrams of two possible system structures 3. activation of the alarm devices. 100 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.2001 Á Á . Data acquisition and processing is performed at four levels: Data acquisition level. control elements. The required availability of the danger management system can only be achieved if the satellite control units function completely autonomously.

a central processing unit. The system behavior is largely standardized but allows sufficient flexibility for adapting the functions to specific installation requirements.Communications level The communications level comprises all network components required for data transmission between the satellite control units and the security control center. Multilevel. The CERLOOP corresponds to wiring class A which due to its immunity to short circuits and interruptions on the data line achieves a high reliability. they can also be operated locally at any time. an system console. 101 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.2 Specific security features The security control center is designed specifically for the demanding requirements of danger management systems: The satellite control units are completely autonomous in their function and are independent of the security control center. High system availability is achieved by equipping all subsystems with a separate power supply and emergency batteries. The security control center consists principally of a gateway.2001 . The system console is designed for clear and simple display of the events and provides comprehensive operator prompts. 3. For adaptation to the physical conditions of the installation. Management level Includes all functions and equipment required for monitoring. Clear and easy-to-interpret priority structure of the event display as an aid to efficient processing and intervention. operating and controlling the satellite control units by a security control center. Although the satellite control units are normally controlled from the system main terminal in the security control center. All system components are monitored and malfunctions are indicated on the corresponding subsystem as well as on the system console. the transmission network can be designed with point-to-point connections or loop lines (CERLOOP) or a combination of both. and printers. password protected operator access prevents manipulations by unauthorized persons.

Two possible system types are described below. These offer flexible configuration possibilities for adapting the system to the physical characteristics of a zone.4 Examples of danger management systems There are various types of danger management systems. data concentrators. With supplementary components such as MUX/DMX units.1 Example 1: DMS7000 danger management system In this system the priorities are largely tailored to the aforementioned security aspects. 4.2001 Á . All of them are based on the principle of central monitoring and control of satellite control units that are used for a variety of functions. MA System console Fire protection CC CC Security MC Central processing unit CC Gas Satellite control units Fig. It is equipped with appropriate interfaces for communication with the satellite units. and an LCD screen as a text-only display. and communication interfaces it is possible to build very large systems comprising up to 64 satellite control units. the latter is backed up by a 24V emergency operation battery. The DMS7000 is a control system that is developed and manufactured by Cerberus. 3 Central management station Example of a typical DMS7000 configuration 102 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07. Two different operating consoles are available: A color monitor for displaying text and graphics.

.. The system architecture supports a so-called „one-level network configuration” and „twolevel network configuration” with different gateways. 4 Example of a typical LMS configuration Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group Á 103 sect8 07. Evaluation Gateway Fire protection Local area .2 Example 2: System type LMSmodular (Local Monitoring System) LMSmodular is a monitoring system for the integration of danger detection systems that operates under Windows. Gateway Satellite control units Fire protection Security Gas External area Fig.2001 . A typical capability of this system is to integrate all Cerberus subsystems as well as various non-Cerberus systems such as CCTV and PLC systems.4. Since LMS is designed as a danger monitoring system certain functions that can normally be executed under Windows are inhibited by the system.

2001 .104 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect8 07.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Section 9 Evacuation and voice communication systems 1. . . . . . . . . 106 107 109 109 109 110 105 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. . . . . . Autonomous system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . Decentralized system . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main functions of an emergency voice communication system . . . . . Centralized system . . . . . . . . System concepts . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Introduction The primary functions of the fire detection system is the timely alert of building occupants in the event of a fire so that safe and orderly evacuation is possible. Audible signals from alarm devices are often ignored and may possibly be misinterpreted. Cerberus has extensive experience and know-how in the planning and delivery of evacuation and public address (PA) systems. provided the responsible security personnel and the evacuation has been properly planned and the building occupants adequately instructed. A much more reliable method is the transmission of a spoken announcement.2001 . and establishing contact with the fire fighting squads. Give instructions on the escape routes to be used in certain building sections. 106 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. conventional alarming methods can no longer be regarded as adequate. Evacuate the entire building. This method has proven itself and shown to be effective for smaller buildings. preventing panic. As a result of today’s trend to ever larger buildings. Today such emergency voice communication systems are increasingly considered to be an essential addition to fire detection systems in medium to large buildings. To enhance the safety of the building occupants a voice transmission system is installed which distributes a spoken message via loudspeakers in order to: Supply information on dangerous situations and their development. In most cases the evacuation alarm is initiated by means of bells and horns installed in the building. Reassure the building occupants if there is no (longer any) danger. A supplementary emergency telephone system installed throughout the building supports the fire brigade in its task of evacuating the building.

Evac An evacuation signals (e. low pulse frequency) is transmitted throughout the building.g.2001 . This signal has a higher priority than the evac signal. The required signal (channels) can be selected automatically (via the fire alarm system). Page Signal Whenever necessary the fire brigade can give specific instructions through the microphone which are transmitted either throughout the entire building or only portions thereof. This signal clearly has a higher priority than the alert signal (depending on the local regulations the evac signal can also be a synthesized voice message). 1 Functional diagram of a voice communications system In medium and larger systems three different signals or channels are normally available: Alert In order to alert the building occupants a pulsed tone (e.2 Main functions of an emergency voice communication system Signal generators Alert Microphone Evac Page Audio signals Amplifier Amplifier Selection (automatic and manual) Alert Evac Page 1 Loudspeakers Loudspeakers 2 Zone 1 Zone 2 Fig. This signal has the lowest priority (depending on the local regulations the alert signal can also be a synthesized voice message). that is. The voice communication system should be designed in such a way that all 3 signals (channels) described above can be simultaneously selected for different areas (zones). high pulse frequency) is transmitted via the speakers to those parts of the building that are directly affected by the danger. 107 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. all three signals are available throughout the building to each amplifier (audio bus). and or manually by the fire brigade.g. If this important function exists the system is a true 3-channel system.

(The page signal overrides the alert signal for this floor). the fire brigade working on this floor contacts the control center via the emergency telephone system and orders the immediate evacuation of the 10th floor.Example: high-rise building with 20 floors ü Fire on the 8th floor Automatic alert signal to all 20 floors. 8. Automatic evac signal to floors 7. The control center manager then transmits a page signal (live or prerecorded announcement) to the 10th floor and requests the occupants to immediately leave the building via the staircase. After it has become clear that the fire is spreading also to the 9th floor. In the future additional independent channels will become necessary. and 9 (the evac signal overrides the alert signal for these 3 floors). for example for transmitting pre-programmed messages for elevators and staircases. 108 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07.2001 .

In this system all modules. that is. The system selection must be based on the size and structure of the building. 109 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. In this system the audio signal as well as the speaker zones are activated automatically by the fire detection system. the speakers are „hardwired”. the panic risk. all equipment is installed in a central location and the speaker lines in the building are „hardwired”. 3. page. from the fire detection system to the corresponding speaker terminals in the building. A live announcement (page) can be fed through the microphone on the operator console. see above). Such announcements automatically override the alert or evac signal. it overrides all other signals (including fire brigade announcements).2001 . A switching matrix allows the routing of the signals to specific building sections (speaker zones) by pressing the corresponding zone keys on the operator console in the fire protection room. evac. For this reason the evacuations and emergency voice communication system will be installed in close proximity to the fire detection system control unit or the security control center. For smaller objects this is certainly a practical solution.1 Autonomous system The EVAC systems comprises speaker lines that are distributed throughout the building.3 System concepts The practical requirements to be met by such systems can vary considerably. As the system designation shows. Manual intervention overrides the automatic operation of the system. are installed centrally. Alarm and warning tones (evac. Three basic concepts are described below: 3. The highest priority has the push-to-talk button on the microphone (page). Normally the entire system is powered by an emergency battery so that it can be kept in operation also in the event of a general power failure. The speaker system is fed with corresponding signals (alert. and the desired convenience. alert) are synthesized by a special circuit. including the audio amplifiers.2 Centralized system The principal advantage of the centralized evacuation and emergency voice communication over the above autonomous system is the automatic announcement control. for larger buildings or objects (distances) a more economical solution should be chosen. the technology of the fire detection system.

2 Decentralized system 110 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group sect9 07. as well as the autonomous functions of decentralized units. A bus system for the audio signals is installed throughout the entire system so that the fire detection. Typical applications for such integrated systems are medium to large buildings such as hotels. the space requirement for the equipment cabinets. integrated system is shown in the following diagram: Fig. etc. hospitals. evacuation and speaker system can be operated and controlled from a single location (security control center). In this concept the audio amplifiers as well as the supplementary modules are installed in the corresponding satellite control units of the fire detection system.3 Decentralized system In larger buildings a decentralized system is used. The typical arrangement of a decentralized. as well as the lower cabling costs throughout the entire building. This means that also the loudspeakers of the corresponding zones are connected to the satellite control units which significantly reduces the wiring costs.3. the power supply.2001 . Other benefits are the lower costs resulting from the optimization of the switching interfaces. airports. The main advantages of an integrated system are the programmable control between a fire detector zone and an evacuation zone. The typical requirements of an integrated system is shown in the diagram below. office tracts.

2001 .111 Fire & Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group Back 07.

Siemens Building Technologies AG Alte Landstrasse 411 CH 8708 Männedorf Tel.2001 Section 1 .922 61 11 Fax +41 1 . e1490a Security Products Siemens Building Technologies Group Edition 07.cerberus. +41 1 .ch 112 Fire & Document no.2001 Back Manual CRP-B 07.922 64 50 www.

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