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Frogs Reproduction of frogs Once adult frogs reach maturity, they will assemble at a water source such as a pond

or stream to breed. Many frogs return to the bodies of water where they wer e born, often resulting in annual migrations involving thousands of frogs. In co ntinental Europe, a large proportion of migrating frogs used to die on roads, be fore special fences and tunnels were built for them. Male and female Common toad (Bufo bufo) in amplexus A Male and Female common toad in amplexus. The black strands are eggs released i nto open water minutes after birth. Once at the breeding ground, male frogs call to attract a mate, collectively bec oming a chorus of frogs. The call is unique to the species, and will attract fem ales of that species. Some species have satellite males who do not call, but int ercept females that are approaching a calling male. The male and female frogs then undergo amplexus. This involves the male mounting the female and gripping her (sometimes with special nuptial pads) tightly. Fert ilization is external: the egg and sperm meet outside of the body. The female re leases her eggs, which the male frog covers with a sperm solution. The eggs then swell and develop a protective coating. The eggs are typically brown or black, with a clear, gelatin-like covering. Most temperate species of frogs reproduce between late autumn and early spring. In the UK, most common frog populations produce frogspawn in February, although there is wide variation in timing. Water temperatures at this time of year are r elatively low, typically between four and 10 degrees Celsius. Reproducing in the se conditions helps the developing tadpoles because dissolved oxygen concentrati ons in the water are highest at cold temperatures. More importantly, reproducing early in the season ensures that appropriate food is available to the developin g frogs at the right time Natural Frog Habitat Given below is information about the life cycle of a frog, and the frogs habitat s. * Frogs are seen almost everywhere, they exist in rain-forests, forests and caves; they can also be seen in deserts and on mountaintops. * The best places for frogs are places which are mucky and have lot of bugs. An interesting fact about frogs is that they have an extensible tongue which ha s a sticky surface, and they can flick it quickly to catch a bug when it is rest ing on a leaf or flying. * Frogs are mostly seen in swamps, marshes, ditches, streams and puddles, as these places have plenty of muck and insects. * Frogs lay eggs which hatch into tadpoles, the tadpoles are dark squiggly l ooking creatures who have tails for swimming and gills for breathing, as they sp end their time living in water. * After the stage of metamorphosis, the tadpole transforms into the four-leg ged frog. Frogs spend most of their time on the land, but are mostly around some or the other water body. Frogs breathe and drink from their skin, and thus thei r skin is always wet. * Frogs form an important part of the ecological system as they feed on bugs , and are food of many predators like birds. However, due to the chemical pollut ion and the destruction of wetlands for construction purposes, there is a huge d ecline in the amount of frogs habitat. Respiration and circulation The skin of a frog is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as to wate

The vertebrate is basicall y an endoskeleton made up of two types of tissues (bone and cartilage). Some are much smaller.5 to 3. This special structure is essential to keeping the mixing of the two types of blood t o a minimum. Frogs breathe by taking air i n through the nostrils (which often have valves which close when the frog is sub merged). called a urostyle (YUR-oh-stile) in the hip area No tail Most of the frogs are about 1. It means that the frog has an internal support structure of an animal. On land. bony fishes.4 inches (1 centimeter) long. adult frogs use their lungs to breathe. with most of the body fluid (haemoly . A vertebrate is an animal with a spine.5 to 7. and are directed via a spiral valve to the appropriate ve ssel aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary artery for deoxygenated blood. birds. reptiles. oxyge nated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues en ter by separate atria. but the chest muscles are not involved in respiration. Their lungs are similar t o those of humans. crocodilians and mammals. bulging eyes A short body with only eight or nine bones in the spine Two extra bones in the ankle area that make their long legs even longer A long. which can grow to 12. In August 2007 an aquatic frog named Barb ourula kalimantanensis was discovered in a remote part of Indonesia. Endoskeleton de velops within the skin or in the deeper body tissues.5 centimeters) long from the tip of the snout to the end of the rump. causing the throat to puff out. In the three-chambered heart. which they share with all tetra pods except birds. which forces the air into the lungs. kalimantanensis) is the first species of frog known to sci ence without lungs. and other amphibians. which enables frogs to have higher metabolic rates. When a frog is underwater. Grasshopper Circulation and respiration Grasshoppers have open circulatory systems.r.25 kilograms). rod-shaped bone. C ompared with all the other vertebrates. These compare with the un usually large Goliath frog. Support System The frogs support system is endoskeleton. frogs are vert ebrates (VER-teh-brehts). There are a number of blood vessels near the surface of the skin. composed of mineralized tissue. oxygen is transmitted through the skin directly into the bloodst ream. T his frog will also do 'push-ups' on the lake bed to increase the flow of water a round its body Physical Characteristics Like mammals. and to be more active than otherwise. The Bornean Flat-headed Frog (B. or backbone. frogs are the only ones that have this c ombination of features: * * * * * * A wide head and large mouth Two big.6 inches (32 centimeters) long and weigh 7 pounds (3. Some species of frog have remarkable adaptations that allow them to survive in o xygen deficient water. Frogs are known for their three-chambered heart. wh ich only grow to about 0. then compressing the floor of the mouth .0 inches (3. The smalles t species are the Brazilian two-toed toadlet and the Cuban Iberian rain frog. The lake titicaca frog (Telmatobius culeus) is one such s pecies and to survive in the poorly oxygenated waters of Lake Titicaca it has in credibly wrinkly skin that increases its surface area to enhance gas exchange. and th ere are no ribs or diaphragm to support breathing.

The spiracle valves only open to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. pastures. you would definitely win the long jump at the Olympics! * Their color and body shape. If you could do that. they have eyes which are usually brow n. from clothes. Some species who can't sing. In some species of grasshoppers. The eggs. and you will have temperature in Fahrenheit. This is the reaso n that males try and mate as many times as possible with the same female and oth er females. Af ter sunset. The tracheoles. fields.4 weeks later. The haemolymph continues to the aorta and is discharged through the front of the hea d. which open at the sur faces of the thorax and abdomen through pairs of spiracles. It is a continuous tube with two regions: the heart. some of which are listed below. which is restricted to the abdomen. Grasshoppers can eat almost anything. Respiration is performed using tracheae. green or gray colored to match their surroundings. This haemolymph circulates nutri ents through the body and carries metabolic wastes to the malphighian tubes to b e excreted. the sperms in the genital tract of the female. This was about the life cycle of a grasshopper. can be used to calculate temperature. a type of grasshoppers. grasshopper "blood" is green. laid on the ground. rain forests. and the a orta. Mo st surprisingly they are also found in deserts. Accessory pumps carry haemolymph through the wing veins and along the legs an d antennae before it flows back to the abdomen. the dorsal vess el. about 20 times its body length. extends from the head through the thorax to the hind end. Some examples of grasshopper s habitat are grasslands. tomatoes. . found at the end of the tracheal tubes. from her first mate is replaced by the sperm of her next mate. Females make softer noises compared to males. generally on a leaf or plant stem.mph) filling body cavities and appendages. paper. are insinuated between cells and carry oxygen thr oughout the body Habitat of a Grasshopper Grasshoppers are observed in all kinds of habitats. each of which contains a pair of lateral openings (ostia). calculate the number of times a cricket chirps in 15 seconds and add 40 to this number. are home to some rare and interesting species of grasshoppers. Because it does not carry oxygen. g rasshoppers are known to migrate in large numbers. * Crickets. which is called st ridulation. which is c ommonly known as tobacco juice! * A grasshopper can jump up to. and even to xic plants! Maybe that is the reason for their brilliant adaptability which in t urn has resulted in their occupation of varied grasshoppers habitats. helps them to hide (camouflage) in fields to p rotect them against their predators. The larvae hide themselves underground immed iately. Areas with dense vegetation l ike scrubs. air-filled tubes. swamps and tropics. mature to full -sized adults. Also. so that they can pass on their genes. * If grasshoppers are picked up. find their mates with the help of scent and sight. Grasshoppers Life Cycle and Reproduction Most grasshoppers are musical. and come out as nymphs (small adults) and after 3 months. In case of adverse conditions. which extends from the heart to the head through the thorax. The one closed organ. Special Physical Characteristics There are many interesting grasshopper facts. and sing songs to attract their mates! They sing (make sounds) by rubbing their back legs on their fore-wings. Sadly. which helps to disting uish between the genders. they spit out a brownish liquid. h atch into larvae 3 . The lifespan of a n average grasshopper is 1 year. Haemolymph is pumped forward from the hind end and the sides of the body through a series of valved chambers. the females die after t hey lay eggs.

Leeches reproduce by recipr ocal fertilization. leeches are hermaphrodites. while others (e. which is a structure containing the sperm. in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) Leech Reproduction Leeches are hermaphrodites. Those living in the ocean and e stuaries (EHS-chew-air-eez). surrounded by muscles. which is due to the anesthetic present in the saliva secretion of leeches. Leeches move from one pla ce to another by walking in a looping manner. T hey use the preserve food for survival. Support system Leech has a Hydrostatic Skeleton. Lee ches possess a special sucker in both ends. and rivers where they are live on wood. the mout h encloses three jaws. or attached to fish or other sea animals. the two will line up with their anterior side opposite the other's po sterior. gas exchange usually occurs at the body surface where oxygen is a bsorbed. vegetati on. The leech then shoots the spermatophore into the clitellur region of th e opposing leech where its sperm will make its way to the female reproductive pa rts. Once next to anot her leech. Freshwater species live in swamps. # Leeches have the ability to feed in large amounts (about 5 times their body we ight) and store nutrients for future use. or on other animals. Similarly to th e earthworms. During reproduction leeches utilize hyperdermic injection of their sperm. One family of leeches is known to have external g ills. meaning each one of them has both female and male re productive organs (ovaries and testes respectively). # Leeches bite is painless. meaning having its skeleton outside the body. On an a verage. In majority of the species.g. Respiratory system They breathe through the skin. Species living on la nd are found in moist habitats. rocks.80 mm. . Habitat Leeches are found in a wide variety of habitats.g hirudo) lays their young ones in cocoons. plants. are found on rocks. or wide areas where rivers join the sea.Support system A grasshopper has an exoskeleton. # Like earthworms. such as rainforests or wet coastal forests. An exoskeleton is an external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's bo dy. They u se a spermatophore. the size of leeches is between 7 . ponds. A hydrostatic skeleton or hydroskeleton is a s tructure found in many cold-blooded organisms and soft-bodied animals consisting of a fluid-filled cavity. They are usually found clinging to plants or under rocks. and sperm transfer occurs during copulation. the coelom. meaning that a single leech has b oth male and female sexual organs. # Some species (e. However. each equipped with small teeth. # Many leech species can survive for about one year after having a blood meal. Physical Characteristics They are brown or black colored worms having a segmented body (34 segments). # The largest leech recorded till date measures about 16 inch in length. leeches also use a clitellum to hold their eggs and secrete the co coon. streams.

Some species living along the seashore hunt in p acks. Reproductive system Centipedes live alone until they are ready to mate or when they are raising thei r young.Cen tipedes prefer to live in moist habitats and during the day occur underneath roc ks. A lthough the bite is unlikely to be fatal. They kill by grasping prey with their powerful fangs and injecting venom. usually a barna cle or beach hopper. They require their micro-habitat t o be moist and are often found in soil and leaf litter. it can grow another to replace it. respiratory system Centipedes have a tracheal respiratory system and air is brought into the body t hrough openings called spiracles that are situated on each segment of the body. Centipedes are found throughout the world and in a wide variety of terrestrial h abitats from tropical rainforests to deserts. stems and roots. . logs and other objects in contact with the ground. it can be painful and cause fever and swelling. centipedes lack an internal skeleton and are covered in a h ard exoskeleton that protects their soft internal organs and serves as an attach ment point for their muscles. A centipede's sting can also induce anaphylactic shock in those people who have allergies to bee stings. Support system Like all arthropods. They have digestive glands attached to their mouth parts and their digestive tra ct is a simple tube. Several individuals will feed together on the same animal. under stones and deadwoo d. Special physical characteristics Other interesting facts * The bite of some larger species of centipede can be hazardous to humans. and inside logs. * Some species of centipedes are kept as exotic pets They are active at night. Millipedes feed on decomposing organic matter. When they do meet. they are often very aggressive toward one another an d will sometimes eat the other.Amazon leech) keep their babies (as much as 300) in the stomach Centipede habitat The centipede is found in tropical and temperate climates all over the world. The fangs are located on the body segment just behind the head. Centipedes feed on insects and spiders. but will occasionally damage see dling plants by feeding on leaves. * If a centipede loses one of its legs. They curl up tightly when disturbed resulting frequently in the release of fluid s from repugnatorial glands.