The Sorting Hat of Asaṅga "There is nothing hidden in your head The sorting Hat can't see, So try

me on and I will tell you Where you ought to be."1 Have you ever stopped to consider why the newcomers to the famous Hogwarts School of magic, in J.K.Rowling's Harry Potter series, need a Sorting Hat to read their hearts or minds and send them to one of the school's four Houses? Why can't the students simply tell where they want to study? The answer is simple; the decision about their prospective House has nothing to do with their own wish. It is a matter of having the right propensities, characteristics, and capacity. The student is not expected to be aware of those, and the magical Sorting Hat therefore reads his or her mind to send them to the House where they would fit in best. Much in the same way, the Śrāvakabhūmi of Asaṅga describes the way the teacher must decide which path (yāna) the student should practice in. In a detailed description the text grants us a look at the sorting process of third century Buddhism and gives us new perspective on some questions concerning the structure of the different paths of Buddhism and relationships among them. The Śrāvakabhūmi is the thirteenth book in the encyclopedic work called Yogācārabhūmi attributed to Asaṅga2. Although it is a well known work in the Tibetan Mahāyāna tradition, often quoted in the most important Tibetan texts, it has never been properly studied as a complete text either within the tradition or in the academic world. The best known parts of the text deal with the practice of meditation, and include instructions for the meditation of śamatha
1 2

J.K.Rowling, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Bloomsbury, 1997, London. P.88 For a complete overview of the text, and its place within the Yogācārabhūmi see Deleanu 2006 p. 13 – 72.


dealing with other aspects of the path. We can divide this part of the chapter to four stages: 1. the object of observation. 4. the third chapter begins by describing a meeting between a new student and the teacher who accepts him for study. the student4 who does it for the first time. a beginner (ādikarmika) and the teacher. although most of it is directed toward the teacher. close scrutiny of the scene described at this part of the text offers an excellent opportunity to learn about the relationships between Mahāyāna and other schools at that early stage (most probably third-fourth centuries). 2 . This part. and up to the fruits of cultivation. the beginner. For example. However. The text supplies instructions to both parties. as the text often attribute to the pudgala adjectives describing his capacities as a student.and of vipaśyanā. But in the context of this text I found it more appropriate to render it a "student". However. The student's request The Teacher's answer Checking the student's suitability for studying Examining which path the student should follow Each one of these stages offers us different insights: 1 The student's request: :The chapter starts with these lines एवंकृते पुदगलवयवसथाने आलमबनवयवसथाने यावदावनाफलवयवसथाने आतमकामेन पुदगलेन सवाथरमनुपापतुकामेन आिदकिमरकेण ततपथमकिमरकेण योगज आचायो वा उपाधयायो वा गुर _ गुरसथानीयो वा चतुषुर सथानेषु समृितमुपसथापय उपसंकिमतवयः।3 Having made the diffrentiations concerning the student. not being a philosophical debate or a meditation instruction has escaped the attention of the few scholars who have dealt with the Śrāvakabhūmi. and with his awarness established in the four parts. 4 Generally speaking a pudgala is simply a "person". The text is reproduced here in devanagari script from the digital photocopies of the original manuscript of the text. for his own 3 All the quotations from here onwards are taken from the third Yogasthāna of the śrāvakabhūmi. 2. the text also includes other parts. The third chapter (yogasthāna) of the Śrāvakabhūmi unfolds with the first meeting between a new student. 3. and about other aspects of institutional Buddhism at the time.

but what exactly is it that he does for the first time? What about the teacher? The teacher can be either a scholarly teacher (ācārya) or a preceptor (upādhyāya). ं अिभजािभपायेण नोपालमभिचततया सगौरवेण न समानसतमभतया। िककुशलगवेिषणा। नातमोदावनाथर। ं आतमानं पराश कुशलमूलेन योजियषयामीित। Driven by the wish to attain the higher wisdom. He does not request the Dharma. should approach the one who knows Yoga. but also wishing to help others. sits only on a low seat and reverently requests Yoga. when the time is right. without pride or criticism. or the teachings of the Buddha.purpose. someone who does it for the first time. not looking for achievments. with a respectful mind. The questions arising from these lines are: Who is the student? What is his background? Where has he studied before? Why has he come to this teacher now? It is said that the student is a beginner. puts down his right knee on the floor. he puts the end of his robe on one shoulder. with a mind not just free from criticism. looking for some virtue. please be compassionate and teach me Yoga" The student kneels down and requests the Yoga. but rather the 5 For a discussion on the roles of the upādhyāya and the ācārya see Daswani 2006 p. be he a master. After studying the subjects of the first two chapters (sthāna). the practice sought by the student. the text now introduces the first interaction between the student and the teacher. 165 3 . a preceptor5 a guru or someone like the guru. The most important thing about the teacher is that he knows the Yoga. न लाभसतकाराथरमेव ं च पुनरपसंकमय कालेनावकाशं कृतवा एकासमुतरासंगं कृतवा दिकणं जानुमणडलं पृिथवया पितषापय नीचरमेवासने िनषद सपतीशेन योग आयािचतवयः। अहमिसमं योगेनाथी योगं मे आिदकवानुकमपामुपादाय। And approaching in such a way. not (just) to promote himself: "I will connect myself and others to the roots of virtue" Humbly. "I myself aspire for Yoga. a spiritual teacher (guru) or anyone who acts as a teacher (gurusthānīya).

for the welfare of others. knower of Yoga.Yoga. for many beings. for the compassion in the world. Here follows long passage in which the teacher praises the student for wanting to get out of samsara while everybody else is sunk so deep in it. for the needs. and maybe even understanding the orientation of the whole corpus of the Yogācārabhūmi. Living in deserted houses. you practice Yoga with your own body. These lines end with this description of the student: अन(त)तवमायुषमनेव ं पयुजयमानः। समोहं च राषटिपंडं पिरभोकयते। शासतुवरचनकरो भिवषयिस। अिनराकृतधयायी िवपशयनया समनवागतः। बृंहियता शूनयागाराणा । सवकाययोगमनुयुकतः। अिवगिहरतो िवजैः।सबहचािरिभसतुलयिहताय पितपनः। परिहताय बहुजनिहताय लोकानुकमपायै अथाय िहताय सुखाय ं देवमनुषयाणािमतयेवभागीयैः शलकणैवरचनपथैः। While you. for the welfare and the happinessof gods and humans. or practice. You will enact the words of the teacher. who wishes to practice the mental engagment of the Yoga with gentle words. should encourage the beginner. respected one. are practicing like this. you will meditate continousely. he should delight him and tell him the virtues of abandoning From here onward the text addresses the teacher and guides only him. From these lines we can learn a little about the situation of the teacher as it is reflected in this text: the first task of the teacher is to encourage the student. you will. This is crucial in understanding the text. It does not deal with the philosophical or ethical side of the teaching. who was thus requested. Not criticized by the wise. Endowed with Vipashyanā. Its focus is practical. enjoy food at the time of hunger. 4 . no doubt. Yoga here means meditation. and therefore Yogācāra would stand for "The teaching of meditation" or "The instruction regarding the practice" The Teacher's initial answer: इतयेवञच पुनरायािचतेन योिगना योगजेन स आिदकिमरकः ततपथमकिमरकः योगमनिसकारे पयोकतुकामः शलकणशलकणैववरचनपथैरदेजियतवयः। संपहषरियतवयः। पहाणे चानुशंसो वणणरियतवयः। The Yogi. the student who does it for the first time. And accepted by fellow students for a common cause.

have you kept your vows pure and your view sound? Venerable One.2 Checking the student's suitability for studying After establishing the relationship. This brings to mind the question concerning the student. he will answer "so it is". Now the teacher asks the new comer about his previous studies. maybe of the kind of Nalanda. 5 . or Vikramaśila? Or is he simply asking to be guided by a certain teacher. Essentially. He is called a "beginner" but we can see that he is already a monk. non-Buddhist spiritual teachers? The teacher wishes to know the level of purity at which the student has kept his vows. gone for refuge exclusively to the Buddha. have you heard and studied much or little Dharma. First let us have a look at the questions: किश(िचच)दायुषमानेकानतेन बुदशरणं गतो धमर ं संघं नो चेतोबिहधानयं शासतारं वा दिकणीयमवा संजानाित किचचते आिदपिरशोिधतादबहचयरसय भावनायै शीलं च ते सिवशुद ं दृिषश ऋजवी किचचते आयरसतयानामुदेशिवभंगमारमय धमरः शुतशोदगृहीतश। अलपो वा पभूतो वा किचचते िनवाणािधमुकतं िचतं। िनवाणािभपायश पवरिजतः। स चेतपृष ओिमित पजानाित। Have you. Now he is instructed to ask the student four questions. Venerable One. at least for some time. So it is left to us to surmise why these questions are asked. or yogi. It is taken for granted that the student is a monk. The text does not tell us the purpose of these questions or what the teacher should do with the answers he receives. the purpose of these questions is to determine whether the student is a "good Buddhist". encouraging the student and praising Nirvāṇa. not necessarily a part of a different institution? The text does not give a clear indication for these questions. and that he has studied before somewhere. Is he trying to enroll in some kind of an institution for higher studies. Is his refuge exclusive? Is he in contact with other. the teacher moves on to the next phase. Dharma and Saṅgha? Do you recognise anyone besides these either as a teacher or as worthy of offerings? After your initial purification for the practice of Brahmacari. starting with the commentery and examples concerning the four Noble Truths? Is your mind devoted to Nirvāṇa? Is the purpose of your ordination Nirvāṇa? When asked.

Interestingly. that the next lines deal with finding out what yāna. that there are monk who do not keep their vows pure. Before examining the way 6 . Again. the text does not give a title. of course. which is the phase that interests us most in this paper. and thereby to ensure that the student adheres at least to the common basic motivation of all Buddhist paths. we might have expected this question to include a mention of possible higher motivations as well. i.e. suits well the name of the text. 3 Examining which path of practice the student should take After this initial questioning. Therefore. the question is adapted to the level of Śrāvaka. (path. does not declare the aim of the next stage. and does not state what the teacher should do with the answers he receives from student. such as good reputation. many followers etc. vehicle) the student should practice in. But the teacher is advised to ask concerning the basic motivation of Nirvāṇa. a Pratyekabuddha or a Bodhisattva path's student. What we can learn from these lines is that the text assumes there are ordained people who have kept their ties with other teachers. non Buddhist ones. has declared clearly his exclusive commitment to Buddhism. not full Enlightenment for the sake of all beings. and that there are monks who practice not for the sake of Nirvāṇa. and assuming the student has answered according to expectation. This. the teacher should move on to the next phase. Śrāvakabhūmi. the following remarks about these aspects of the dialogue between the teacher and the student are merely my own speculations. However. if we remember that at this stage in the text we are dealing with a preliminary questioning of the student. but maybe (only) for the sake of better rebirth. however. or maybe even some worldly benefit. It is rather clear.Lastly the teacher questions the student about his motivation.e. before deciding whether he is a Śrāvaka. focusing on Nirvāṇa. i.

How then did the teacher decide which path the student should take? Here is the way the text suggests: तत उतिर चतुषुर सथानेषु चतुिभरः कारणैः समनवेिषतवयः। पिणधानतः समनवेिषतवयः। गोतत इिनदयतः। चिरततश समनवेिषतवयः । पृचछाया समनवेिषतवयः । कथया चेषया चेतःपयायसथानेन च समनवेिषतवयः । After that he should be examined concerning four points.the text proposes to handle this sorting out process. it seems that the situation evoked by this text is a place of study where all three paths coexisted. Students can study either in the Śrāvakayāna. It seems clear that all the students who have passed the first part of the examination. But what should they study? Merely posing this question implies that the institution envisaged by this text offers more than one program. let us take a minute to consider the implications of the inclusion of such a process in a teacher's guidebook like this. we do sense that this process of selection is not suggested in order to send away all the students that do not fit the path of this text (Śrāvakayāna). Pratyekabuddha yāna or the Mahāyāna. reading the 7 . and his behavioral tendencies. and by the knowing of others' minds. He should be examined by questions. like asking questions. and that each monastery. and up to the most refined one. which will be explained here. by a conversation. his gotra. the four initial questions. gotra. in four methods. He should be examined concerning his inspiration. his capacities as a student. starting from the most obvious and coarsest ones. will be accepted. How should the teacher find out about these? The text offers four methods. not to say geographic location has a clear association with one of them. or more inherent inclination to any one of them. Although the text does not state what to do with the result. Four criteria are relevant to deciding what the student should study: his previous inspiration for any of the three paths. by way of behaving. and were found good enough Buddhists. While we tend to think of the division between these paths of Buddhism as exclusive. faculties and inclinations.

it is not treated as something final. and will explain their signs. what is your gotra? Or. I'm inclined to desire. and the student should be able to answer it without any problem. and therefore will not analyze his inclinations. Asking questions: तत कथं पृचछया पिणधानतः समनवेिषतवयः। एवं पिरपषवयः। कुतायुषमान् कृतपिणधान इित। शावकयाने पतयेकबुदयाने महायाने [।] स यत यत कृतपिणधानो भिवषयित। त चै(तै)वातमानं वयाकिरषयित।एवं पृचछया पिणधानतः समनवेिषतवयः। Now. your inspiration lie? In the Śrāvakayāna? In the pratyeksbhuddhayāna? In the mahāyāna? Wherever he has inspired to be.student mind. he will not grasp the signs one by one. He will analyze one by one his gotra. This is how he should be examined concerning the inspiration by question. This inspiration. he will explain it himself. If he is smart. or tendency. although the student has wished to practice in one path. is something open and known. how should he be examined by question concerning his inspiration? He should be asked like this: Where does. my faculties are dull. कथं पृचछया गोतिमिनदयं चिरतं च [।] समनवेिषतवयं।स एवं पिरपषवयः _6 नीते आयुषमानातमनो गोतमवा ं ं इिनदयमवा चिरतं वा िक गोतोहं। कीदृशािन मे इिनदयािण मृदिू न मधयािन तीकशणािन । िक रागचिरतः। अथ देषचिरतः। एवं याविदतकरिवचािरत इित। स चेतस पाजो भवित। पूववापयेण चामुना गोतिमिनदयं चिरतञचोपलिकतं भवित। िनिमतीकृतं तथैव वयाकरोित।स चेतपुनमरनदो भवित। न चानेन पौववापयेण याविनिमतीकृतं भवित। ततशिरतं नोपलिकतं भवित। स पृषो न वयाकरोित। How should he be examined concerning the gotra. Venerable One. This inspiration might have developed in the monastery where the student has studied before. faculties and behaviour by questions? He should be asked like this: respected one. up to inclined to conceptuality. faculties and behaviour. however. or to hatred. Clearly. Perhaps. what are your faculties? Or. 6 Ms unclear here 8 . or perhaps it was generated in his parents' house or village. what is your behaviour? My gotra is such and such. and will not answer what he was asked. medium or sharp. Our text assumes that the student already has some kind of inspiration for one of these three ways. If he is rather dull. he will be assigned now to a different one.

to hatred. The topic of the gotra as presented in the Śrāvakabhūmi is complex and definitely too extensive to be dealt with here. first chapter. 7 Bodhisattvabhūmi. the pratyekabuddha medium faculties. that the purpose of asking the student about his own gotra is more to find out his capacity to analyze or to formulate his ideas than to find out about his gotra. Therefore we can assume. When talking about faculties in this context. gotrapaṭalam 9 . it has existed since beginningless time and it is a very subtle phenomena. although he might be expected to say something more reliable about them. one tends to think of something like the psychometric examinations that students must take before acceptance at university. They do not test their knowledge but rather their capacity to learn. It is rather doubtful whether the student can really be expected to analyze his own gotra. their sharpness of mind. What should the teacher do with the information regarding the capacity of the student? Should he dismiss him altogether if he seems to be too dull? Should he send him to join a class or a group that suits his abilities? Were there separate groups that moved at different speed along the path of study and practice? Regarding the faculties. but it suffices to say for now that the gotra is the potential of the student to reach the goals of one or any of the three paths. as it is presented in the first chapter (Yogasthāna) of this text is unchanging. and the text actually indicates this. etc. for example. the answer is actually given in the Bodhisattvabhūmi: पकृतयैव बोिधसततवसतीकणेिनदयो भवित। पतयेकबुदो मधयेिनदयः शावको मृिदिनदयः। The bodhisattva has by nature sharp faculties. the Śrāvakabhūmi details five such behavioral inclinations: a person who is inclined to desire. It seems that this is what is meant here by " faculties ".Now the teacher proceeds to ask the student about the other three points.7 As for the inclinations. This potential. and the śrāvaka dull faculties. The same goes for asking him about his faculties (indriya) and behavioral inclinations (carita).

While talking with him in a conversation concerning the Mahāyāna. he can be understood as a potential follower of that path. and peace of mind. From an open interview with the students. One should hold a conversation concerning the śrākayāna in his presence. that of asking questions. to pride and to excessive conceptuality. or perhaps telling him a story (kathayā). at the end of the first stage here. joy will be born in him. Perhaps. While conversing with him in diverse illustrious ways concerning that topic. he will be delighted by that conversation. and up to "He will calm down. the one belonging to the Mahāyāna gotra will be very delighted. तसय तत उतरकालं कथया तावततीिण समनवेिषतवयािन। तसय पुरसताचछावकयानपित संयुकता कथा करणीया। िचतैगरमकैधुररैवरचनपथैः स तसया कथाया कथयमानाया स चेचछावकगोतो भवतयतयथर ं तया कथया पीयते। हृषयते आननदीजातः सौमनसयजातो भवित। न पसीदित नािधमुचयते । महायानपितसंयुकतायामवा पुनः कथाया कथयमानाया यो महायानगोतः सोतयथर ं पीयते। हषयते। ृ यावतपसीदतयिधमुचयते। शावकपतयेकबुदसतु न तथा। Later these three should be examined by a conversation. But it is not so for the Śrāvakas or the Pratyekabuddha s. 1 . The teacher should bring up subjects relating to the three paths and observe the student's reaction. there was special emphasis for the different inclinations? No matter what the reasons were to elicit information about these topics. If he shows delight and happiness. His body hair will stand up. there were separate programs? Or. His body hair will stand up. the text now advises the teacher to move on to indirect ways of examining the new student. if he is really from the Śrāvaka gotra. or in the text ignorance. again. The fact that the teacher is advised to discover these inclinations in the first interview might suggest that there was more to it than just determining the right meditation. where everything is clearly said and analyzed. more likely. and will (?not ) focus. and some insight into his ability to analyze and to formulate his answers. Now the text takes a sudden turn. and will focus". He will (not?) calm down. the teacher knows something about the previous commitment of the student. Each type of person receives a different meditation to counter his specific tendency. The first method is by conducting a conversation with him.

He grasps immediately the Dharma and fully understand it. however. while the teacher might be able to discern that actually his tendencies lie elsewhere. on indirect information he has having the gotra of that path. describing the reaction the teacher can expect from each type of student8. but also. the text recommends examining the student's faculties and behavioral inclinations. Similarly. to hatred (dveṣacarita). 1 . or rather mainly. The student might think he belongs to one path. If. even when it is a deep conversation. to pride (mānacarita) and to excess conceptualization (vitarkacarita) – the text suggests again to observe their reactions to the conversation. to ignorance (mohacarita). which is not manifest to the student himself. but as for the ones with sharper minds: मधयेिनदयो न तीकणेिनदयसतु। आशु धमर चोपलकयतयुदगृहाित। पितिवधयित। गमभीरायामिप कथाया कथयमानाया। But not so for the one with medium or sharp faculties. Observing the behavior of the student The next method that the text suggests is observing the behavior (ceṣṭā) of the student. the text says that dull minded person will not grasp the meaning of the talk. This method of indirect examination. or outside of it. Concerning the faculties. this is an indirect way to check up the sharpness of the student mind. based on direct answers he got from the student. also brings several points to mind: the text here seems to state firmly that the line dividing followers of Śrāvakayāna and those of Mahāyāna is some deep rooted potential (gotra). but I think 8 This part of the Ms is damaged and therefore difficult to quote here. At the end of this stage of the interview the teacher should have drawn some conclusions. his reaction reflects aversion to the ideas presented. the proper conclusions should be drawn. This potential is not only hidden. As for the five types of behavioral inclinations – the ones that tend to desire (rāgacarita). beside being interesting and rather intriguing in its own right. The text does not state clearly whether this should be done within that same meeting. Again. but there is room for error.

knows the gotra faculties and behavior as they are by knowing the mind of the other (person). including the Śrāvakabhūmi itself. how he leads his life. His gotra. Now the teacher is advised to look for these signs not only within the meeting. The last method of checking the student's hidden tendencies and aspirations is somewhat of an anticlimax. of the students who have the Śrāvakagotra and those who are inclined to desire. but rather relies on the previous parts: कथं चेषया यािन पूववोकतािन िलंगािन। शावकगोतसय रागचिरताना च पुदगलाना तािन चेषेतयुचयते। तया च चेषया यथायोगं गोतिमिनदयं चिरतं च । समनवेिषतवयं। How (should he be exmained) by behavior? These attributes that were mentioned before. who has attained the mind knowing other's mind. In the previous lines the text gave long lists of signs by which the teacher can "read" the reaction of the student and decide what is indicated by them. are called behavior.we can safely assume that it is talking about observing it after or outside of the meeting. After all the diligence and the detective work needed to discover the details of the puzzle. the teacher is now advised to … read his student's mind: तत कथं चेतःपयायजानेन गोतेिनदयचिरतािन समनवेिषतवयिन। यथािप स योगी योगजो लाभी भवित चेतः पयायजानसय[।]स तेन परिचतजानेन गोतिमिनदयं चिरतं च यथाभूतं पजानाित। How should the gotra faculties and behavior be examined by the (mind) knowing other's minds? That Yogi. very down-to1 . senese and inclinations should be examined by this behavior. of course. and yet the mention of this advice here raises questions: so far the text has been very practical. knower of Yoga. This part of the text is very short and does not give a detailed explanation. Now it leaves us now with a recommendation to observe how the student behaves. but (probably) also outside of it. to be found in many texts. and which of the paths seems more suitable to his behavior. The previous method of observing the student's reaction to a conversation mainly refers to observations made during the meeting. References to the supernatural abilities of advanced practitioners are.

the teacher should know his deepest inclinations. maybe even Nalanda itself. Relying on the rest of the third chapter. who keeps purely to his vows. Does the author treat reading other people's mind as just another form of practical advice? Was this capacity so widespread that it could actually be a part of teachers instruction manual? And if it was. and are assumed to have studied somewhere else prior to their arrival. The wish of the student is far from being a sufficient criterion for such a decision. or Pratyekabuddha tradition? The teacher. But in order to decide which path the student should take. with no ties outside the tradition. the teacher needs to know several things about the student. Śrāvaka. The students arriving at this institute have already been ordained. taking a more sceptical approach and assuming this capacity was not shared by the majority of the teachers. one can assume safely that it means the more practical side of the Buddhist path. 1 .earth in it's approach. is apparently able to teach all these methods. we wonder: Why does it appear here? Is it some kind of a tribute to the teachers on the part of the author? Should we read these last two lines with a touch of irony? Conclusion What can we learn from the description of the evaluation process described up here? I think that some points come up clearly from these lines: the text reflects a teaching situation in one of the higher studies institutes of its days. The reason for their arrival is the study of "Yoga". and the fourth one. Should he be instructed in the Mahāyāna. why bother to spy on the student's behavior and reaction to stories if one can simply read his mind? Now. he is requesting meditation instructions. After that he needs to know what sort of instructions to give the student. In order to give him these instructions. or the institution. or in other words. First he needs to make sure the student is a devoted follower of Buddhism.

D of Buddhism in India. We have no proof that Nalanda is really the institution the text is talking about. ed and translated by Shukla Karunesha. or – dare we say – his genes! Does this text speak about the famous Nalanda? If so. Patna: K. Jayaswal research Institute. or even a single teacher in or outside the known institutions. Secondary sources Daswani.What the teacher really looks for is a clue for the gotra the student abides in. discovering this very deeply rooted potential ensures that the student will advance optimally and fulfill his potential. Rekha. smaller institutions specializing in the meditation instruction. again we are learning something new about the structure of institutional Buddhism at the time. In order to adjust the teachings to the student's special needs further. Bibliography Primary sources Śrāvakabhūmi of Asaṅga. We get a picture of an advanced institution for Buddhist practitioners. the teacher also examines his sharpness of mind. Patna: Jayaswal Research Institute. 2006 Buddhist Monasteries and Monastic Life in Ancient India. waiting for more scholars to study them and shed light on the first centuries A. If this is what the text has in mind. Nalinaksha. emphasizing the practical side of the path. The choice of path does not depend upon the student's level of achievement or his aspirations. it provides new information and maybe even a new perspective on what happened there. 1 . Bodhisattvabhūmi of Asaṅga. 1966. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ed by Dutt. and his behavioral propensities. 1973.P. but rather his deep tendencies. one that teaches any of the three paths according to the suitability of the student. The answers to some of these questions might be concealed in the other books of the Yogācārabhūmi. and therefore it might speak about other.

Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies Vol 1+2 1 .Deleanu Florin. 2006 The Chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamārga) in the śrāvakabhūmi.