This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
me on and I will tell you Where you ought to be."1 Have you ever stopped to consider why the newcomers to the famous Hogwarts School of magic, in J.K.Rowling's Harry Potter series, need a Sorting Hat to read their hearts or minds and send them to one of the school's four Houses? Why can't the students simply tell where they want to study? The answer is simple; the decision about their prospective House has nothing to do with their own wish. It is a matter of having the right propensities, characteristics, and capacity. The student is not expected to be aware of those, and the magical Sorting Hat therefore reads his or her mind to send them to the House where they would fit in best. Much in the same way, the Śrāvakabhūmi of Asaṅga describes the way the teacher must decide which path (yāna) the student should practice in. In a detailed description the text grants us a look at the sorting process of third century Buddhism and gives us new perspective on some questions concerning the structure of the different paths of Buddhism and relationships among them. The Śrāvakabhūmi is the thirteenth book in the encyclopedic work called Yogācārabhūmi attributed to Asaṅga2. Although it is a well known work in the Tibetan Mahāyāna tradition, often quoted in the most important Tibetan texts, it has never been properly studied as a complete text either within the tradition or in the academic world. The best known parts of the text deal with the practice of meditation, and include instructions for the meditation of śamatha
J.K.Rowling, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Bloomsbury, 1997, London. P.88 For a complete overview of the text, and its place within the Yogācārabhūmi see Deleanu 2006 p. 13 – 72.
4 Generally speaking a pudgala is simply a "person". 3. for his own 3 All the quotations from here onwards are taken from the third Yogasthāna of the śrāvakabhūmi. For example. and up to the fruits of cultivation. The student's request The Teacher's answer Checking the student's suitability for studying Examining which path the student should follow Each one of these stages offers us different insights: 1 The student's request: :The chapter starts with these lines एवंकृते पुदगलवयवसथाने आलमबनवयवसथाने यावदावनाफलवयवसथाने आतमकामेन पुदगलेन सवाथरमनुपापतुकामेन आिदकिमरकेण ततपथमकिमरकेण योगज आचायो वा उपाधयायो वा गुर _ गुरसथानीयो वा चतुषुर सथानेषु समृितमुपसथापय उपसंकिमतवयः।3 Having made the diffrentiations concerning the student. The third chapter (yogasthāna) of the Śrāvakabhūmi unfolds with the first meeting between a new student.and of vipaśyanā. 2. a beginner (ādikarmika) and the teacher. the text also includes other parts. But in the context of this text I found it more appropriate to render it a "student". the beginner. not being a philosophical debate or a meditation instruction has escaped the attention of the few scholars who have dealt with the Śrāvakabhūmi. and about other aspects of institutional Buddhism at the time. This part. dealing with other aspects of the path. The text is reproduced here in devanagari script from the digital photocopies of the original manuscript of the text. as the text often attribute to the pudgala adjectives describing his capacities as a student. the student4 who does it for the first time. the object of observation. We can divide this part of the chapter to four stages: 1. although most of it is directed toward the teacher. 2 . the third chapter begins by describing a meeting between a new student and the teacher who accepts him for study. The text supplies instructions to both parties. close scrutiny of the scene described at this part of the text offers an excellent opportunity to learn about the relationships between Mahāyāna and other schools at that early stage (most probably third-fourth centuries). However. However. and with his awarness established in the four parts. 4.
but also wishing to help others. someone who does it for the first time. with a mind not just free from criticism. the text now introduces the first interaction between the student and the teacher. puts down his right knee on the floor. should approach the one who knows Yoga. with a respectful mind. he puts the end of his robe on one shoulder. please be compassionate and teach me Yoga" The student kneels down and requests the Yoga. the practice sought by the student. be he a master. sits only on a low seat and reverently requests Yoga. not (just) to promote himself: "I will connect myself and others to the roots of virtue" Humbly. a spiritual teacher (guru) or anyone who acts as a teacher (gurusthānīya). ं अिभजािभपायेण नोपालमभिचततया सगौरवेण न समानसतमभतया। िककुशलगवेिषणा। नातमोदावनाथर। ं आतमानं पराश कुशलमूलेन योजियषयामीित। Driven by the wish to attain the higher wisdom. a preceptor5 a guru or someone like the guru. "I myself aspire for Yoga. The questions arising from these lines are: Who is the student? What is his background? Where has he studied before? Why has he come to this teacher now? It is said that the student is a beginner. looking for some virtue. when the time is right. न लाभसतकाराथरमेव ं च पुनरपसंकमय कालेनावकाशं कृतवा एकासमुतरासंगं कृतवा दिकणं जानुमणडलं पृिथवया पितषापय नीचरमेवासने िनषद सपतीशेन योग आयािचतवयः। अहमिसमं योगेनाथी योगं मे आिदकवानुकमपामुपादाय। And approaching in such a way. without pride or criticism. 165 3 . After studying the subjects of the first two chapters (sthāna). but rather the 5 For a discussion on the roles of the upādhyāya and the ācārya see Daswani 2006 p.purpose. He does not request the Dharma. or the teachings of the Buddha. but what exactly is it that he does for the first time? What about the teacher? The teacher can be either a scholarly teacher (ācārya) or a preceptor (upādhyāya). The most important thing about the teacher is that he knows the Yoga. not looking for achievments.
knower of Yoga. the student who does it for the first time. for the welfare and the happinessof gods and humans. Yoga here means meditation. for the compassion in the world. are practicing like this. you practice Yoga with your own body. It does not deal with the philosophical or ethical side of the teaching. or practice. who was thus requested. Endowed with Vipashyanā. for the welfare of others. and maybe even understanding the orientation of the whole corpus of the Yogācārabhūmi. enjoy food at the time of hunger. and therefore Yogācāra would stand for "The teaching of meditation" or "The instruction regarding the practice" The Teacher's initial answer: इतयेवञच पुनरायािचतेन योिगना योगजेन स आिदकिमरकः ततपथमकिमरकः योगमनिसकारे पयोकतुकामः शलकणशलकणैववरचनपथैरदेजियतवयः। संपहषरियतवयः। पहाणे चानुशंसो वणणरियतवयः। The Yogi. you will meditate continousely. Living in deserted houses. This is crucial in understanding the text. respected one. Not criticized by the wise. for the needs. he should delight him and tell him the virtues of abandoning From here onward the text addresses the teacher and guides only him. From these lines we can learn a little about the situation of the teacher as it is reflected in this text: the first task of the teacher is to encourage the student. no doubt. You will enact the words of the teacher. Its focus is practical. who wishes to practice the mental engagment of the Yoga with gentle words. 4 . should encourage the beginner. you will.Yoga. Here follows long passage in which the teacher praises the student for wanting to get out of samsara while everybody else is sunk so deep in it. These lines end with this description of the student: अन(त)तवमायुषमनेव ं पयुजयमानः। समोहं च राषटिपंडं पिरभोकयते। शासतुवरचनकरो भिवषयिस। अिनराकृतधयायी िवपशयनया समनवागतः। बृंहियता शूनयागाराणा । सवकाययोगमनुयुकतः। अिवगिहरतो िवजैः।सबहचािरिभसतुलयिहताय पितपनः। परिहताय बहुजनिहताय लोकानुकमपायै अथाय िहताय सुखाय ं देवमनुषयाणािमतयेवभागीयैः शलकणैवरचनपथैः। While you. for many beings. And accepted by fellow students for a common cause.
the purpose of these questions is to determine whether the student is a "good Buddhist". and that he has studied before somewhere. The text does not tell us the purpose of these questions or what the teacher should do with the answers he receives. have you kept your vows pure and your view sound? Venerable One. not necessarily a part of a different institution? The text does not give a clear indication for these questions. have you heard and studied much or little Dharma. starting with the commentery and examples concerning the four Noble Truths? Is your mind devoted to Nirvāṇa? Is the purpose of your ordination Nirvāṇa? When asked. or Vikramaśila? Or is he simply asking to be guided by a certain teacher. This brings to mind the question concerning the student. He is called a "beginner" but we can see that he is already a monk. at least for some time. maybe of the kind of Nalanda. Is his refuge exclusive? Is he in contact with other. non-Buddhist spiritual teachers? The teacher wishes to know the level of purity at which the student has kept his vows. Essentially. First let us have a look at the questions: किश(िचच)दायुषमानेकानतेन बुदशरणं गतो धमर ं संघं नो चेतोबिहधानयं शासतारं वा दिकणीयमवा संजानाित किचचते आिदपिरशोिधतादबहचयरसय भावनायै शीलं च ते सिवशुद ं दृिषश ऋजवी किचचते आयरसतयानामुदेशिवभंगमारमय धमरः शुतशोदगृहीतश। अलपो वा पभूतो वा किचचते िनवाणािधमुकतं िचतं। िनवाणािभपायश पवरिजतः। स चेतपृष ओिमित पजानाित। Have you. he will answer "so it is".2 Checking the student's suitability for studying After establishing the relationship. Dharma and Saṅgha? Do you recognise anyone besides these either as a teacher or as worthy of offerings? After your initial purification for the practice of Brahmacari. Now the teacher asks the new comer about his previous studies. 5 . Is he trying to enroll in some kind of an institution for higher studies. It is taken for granted that the student is a monk. gone for refuge exclusively to the Buddha. Venerable One. the teacher moves on to the next phase. or yogi. Now he is instructed to ask the student four questions. So it is left to us to surmise why these questions are asked. encouraging the student and praising Nirvāṇa.
has declared clearly his exclusive commitment to Buddhism. Therefore. focusing on Nirvāṇa.e. we might have expected this question to include a mention of possible higher motivations as well. Śrāvakabhūmi. Before examining the way 6 . But the teacher is advised to ask concerning the basic motivation of Nirvāṇa. if we remember that at this stage in the text we are dealing with a preliminary questioning of the student. the following remarks about these aspects of the dialogue between the teacher and the student are merely my own speculations. suits well the name of the text. vehicle) the student should practice in. i. What we can learn from these lines is that the text assumes there are ordained people who have kept their ties with other teachers. It is rather clear. non Buddhist ones. i.e. a Pratyekabuddha or a Bodhisattva path's student. the teacher should move on to the next phase.Lastly the teacher questions the student about his motivation. not full Enlightenment for the sake of all beings. Again. 3 Examining which path of practice the student should take After this initial questioning. and assuming the student has answered according to expectation. but maybe (only) for the sake of better rebirth. however. and thereby to ensure that the student adheres at least to the common basic motivation of all Buddhist paths. the text does not give a title. that the next lines deal with finding out what yāna. or maybe even some worldly benefit. does not declare the aim of the next stage. the question is adapted to the level of Śrāvaka. However. which is the phase that interests us most in this paper. that there are monk who do not keep their vows pure. of course. and does not state what the teacher should do with the answers he receives from student. and that there are monks who practice not for the sake of Nirvāṇa. such as good reputation. (path. before deciding whether he is a Śrāvaka. many followers etc. This. Interestingly.
like asking questions.the text proposes to handle this sorting out process. Pratyekabuddha yāna or the Mahāyāna. gotra. reading the 7 . and by the knowing of others' minds. faculties and inclinations. Four criteria are relevant to deciding what the student should study: his previous inspiration for any of the three paths. by a conversation. While we tend to think of the division between these paths of Buddhism as exclusive. in four methods. How should the teacher find out about these? The text offers four methods. we do sense that this process of selection is not suggested in order to send away all the students that do not fit the path of this text (Śrāvakayāna). which will be explained here. He should be examined concerning his inspiration. starting from the most obvious and coarsest ones. How then did the teacher decide which path the student should take? Here is the way the text suggests: तत उतिर चतुषुर सथानेषु चतुिभरः कारणैः समनवेिषतवयः। पिणधानतः समनवेिषतवयः। गोतत इिनदयतः। चिरततश समनवेिषतवयः । पृचछाया समनवेिषतवयः । कथया चेषया चेतःपयायसथानेन च समनवेिषतवयः । After that he should be examined concerning four points. Although the text does not state what to do with the result. it seems that the situation evoked by this text is a place of study where all three paths coexisted. and his behavioral tendencies. and that each monastery. or more inherent inclination to any one of them. But what should they study? Merely posing this question implies that the institution envisaged by this text offers more than one program. the four initial questions. Students can study either in the Śrāvakayāna. He should be examined by questions. let us take a minute to consider the implications of the inclusion of such a process in a teacher's guidebook like this. his gotra. not to say geographic location has a clear association with one of them. by way of behaving. and up to the most refined one. It seems clear that all the students who have passed the first part of the examination. and were found good enough Buddhists. will be accepted. his capacities as a student.
he will not grasp the signs one by one. If he is rather dull.student mind. and will explain their signs. He will analyze one by one his gotra. Venerable One. This is how he should be examined concerning the inspiration by question. what is your gotra? Or. and therefore will not analyze his inclinations. what is your behaviour? My gotra is such and such. however. he will explain it himself. Our text assumes that the student already has some kind of inspiration for one of these three ways. Clearly. faculties and behaviour. कथं पृचछया गोतिमिनदयं चिरतं च [।] समनवेिषतवयं।स एवं पिरपषवयः _6 नीते आयुषमानातमनो गोतमवा ं ं इिनदयमवा चिरतं वा िक गोतोहं। कीदृशािन मे इिनदयािण मृदिू न मधयािन तीकशणािन । िक रागचिरतः। अथ देषचिरतः। एवं याविदतकरिवचािरत इित। स चेतस पाजो भवित। पूववापयेण चामुना गोतिमिनदयं चिरतञचोपलिकतं भवित। िनिमतीकृतं तथैव वयाकरोित।स चेतपुनमरनदो भवित। न चानेन पौववापयेण याविनिमतीकृतं भवित। ततशिरतं नोपलिकतं भवित। स पृषो न वयाकरोित। How should he be examined concerning the gotra. or perhaps it was generated in his parents' house or village. Asking questions: तत कथं पृचछया पिणधानतः समनवेिषतवयः। एवं पिरपषवयः। कुतायुषमान् कृतपिणधान इित। शावकयाने पतयेकबुदयाने महायाने [।] स यत यत कृतपिणधानो भिवषयित। त चै(तै)वातमानं वयाकिरषयित।एवं पृचछया पिणधानतः समनवेिषतवयः। Now. Perhaps. your inspiration lie? In the Śrāvakayāna? In the pratyeksbhuddhayāna? In the mahāyāna? Wherever he has inspired to be. and the student should be able to answer it without any problem. and will not answer what he was asked. or tendency. If he is smart. medium or sharp. 6 Ms unclear here 8 . This inspiration might have developed in the monastery where the student has studied before. faculties and behaviour by questions? He should be asked like this: respected one. it is not treated as something final. what are your faculties? Or. This inspiration. how should he be examined by question concerning his inspiration? He should be asked like this: Where does. is something open and known. or to hatred. up to inclined to conceptuality. although the student has wished to practice in one path. I'm inclined to desire. he will be assigned now to a different one. my faculties are dull.
It is rather doubtful whether the student can really be expected to analyze his own gotra. The same goes for asking him about his faculties (indriya) and behavioral inclinations (carita). one tends to think of something like the psychometric examinations that students must take before acceptance at university. What should the teacher do with the information regarding the capacity of the student? Should he dismiss him altogether if he seems to be too dull? Should he send him to join a class or a group that suits his abilities? Were there separate groups that moved at different speed along the path of study and practice? Regarding the faculties. 7 Bodhisattvabhūmi. It seems that this is what is meant here by " faculties ". as it is presented in the first chapter (Yogasthāna) of this text is unchanging. When talking about faculties in this context. the Śrāvakabhūmi details five such behavioral inclinations: a person who is inclined to desire. Therefore we can assume. although he might be expected to say something more reliable about them. etc. their sharpness of mind.Now the teacher proceeds to ask the student about the other three points. first chapter. it has existed since beginningless time and it is a very subtle phenomena. but it suffices to say for now that the gotra is the potential of the student to reach the goals of one or any of the three paths. for example.7 As for the inclinations. gotrapaṭalam 9 . and the text actually indicates this. The topic of the gotra as presented in the Śrāvakabhūmi is complex and definitely too extensive to be dealt with here. the answer is actually given in the Bodhisattvabhūmi: पकृतयैव बोिधसततवसतीकणेिनदयो भवित। पतयेकबुदो मधयेिनदयः शावको मृिदिनदयः। The bodhisattva has by nature sharp faculties. the pratyekabuddha medium faculties. that the purpose of asking the student about his own gotra is more to find out his capacity to analyze or to formulate his ideas than to find out about his gotra. This potential. to hatred. They do not test their knowledge but rather their capacity to learn. and the śrāvaka dull faculties.
But it is not so for the Śrāvakas or the Pratyekabuddha s. If he shows delight and happiness. he will be delighted by that conversation. again. that of asking questions. the one belonging to the Mahāyāna gotra will be very delighted. the teacher knows something about the previous commitment of the student. One should hold a conversation concerning the śrākayāna in his presence. where everything is clearly said and analyzed. Each type of person receives a different meditation to counter his specific tendency. there was special emphasis for the different inclinations? No matter what the reasons were to elicit information about these topics. He will (not?) calm down. he can be understood as a potential follower of that path. and up to "He will calm down.to ignorance. Perhaps. joy will be born in him. or in the text words. The teacher should bring up subjects relating to the three paths and observe the student's reaction. and peace of mind. From an open interview with the students. the text now advises the teacher to move on to indirect ways of examining the new student. Now the text takes a sudden turn. and some insight into his ability to analyze and to formulate his answers. if he is really from the Śrāvaka gotra. While talking with him in a conversation concerning the Mahāyāna. 1 . there were separate programs? Or. His body hair will stand up. His body hair will stand up. and will focus". and will (?not ) focus. or perhaps telling him a story (kathayā). to pride and to excessive conceptuality. at the end of the first stage here. The fact that the teacher is advised to discover these inclinations in the first interview might suggest that there was more to it than just determining the right meditation. While conversing with him in diverse illustrious ways concerning that topic. more likely. The first method is by conducting a conversation with him. तसय तत उतरकालं कथया तावततीिण समनवेिषतवयािन। तसय पुरसताचछावकयानपित संयुकता कथा करणीया। िचतैगरमकैधुररैवरचनपथैः स तसया कथाया कथयमानाया स चेचछावकगोतो भवतयतयथर ं तया कथया पीयते। हृषयते आननदीजातः सौमनसयजातो भवित। न पसीदित नािधमुचयते । महायानपितसंयुकतायामवा पुनः कथाया कथयमानाया यो महायानगोतः सोतयथर ं पीयते। हषयते। ृ यावतपसीदतयिधमुचयते। शावकपतयेकबुदसतु न तथा। Later these three should be examined by a conversation.
the text says that dull minded person will not grasp the meaning of the talk. even when it is a deep conversation.as having the gotra of that path. describing the reaction the teacher can expect from each type of student8. or rather mainly. At the end of this stage of the interview the teacher should have drawn some conclusions. on indirect information he has collected. while the teacher might be able to discern that actually his tendencies lie elsewhere. but as for the ones with sharper minds: मधयेिनदयो न तीकणेिनदयसतु। आशु धमर चोपलकयतयुदगृहाित। पितिवधयित। गमभीरायामिप कथाया कथयमानाया। But not so for the one with medium or sharp faculties. Concerning the faculties. beside being interesting and rather intriguing in its own right. this is an indirect way to check up the sharpness of the student mind. his reaction reflects aversion to the ideas presented. however. This potential is not only hidden. If. or outside of it. The text does not state clearly whether this should be done within that same meeting. The student might think he belongs to one path. to hatred (dveṣacarita). Similarly. Again. the text recommends examining the student's faculties and behavioral inclinations. also brings several points to mind: the text here seems to state firmly that the line dividing followers of Śrāvakayāna and those of Mahāyāna is some deep rooted potential (gotra). but also. 1 . As for the five types of behavioral inclinations – the ones that tend to desire (rāgacarita). based on direct answers he got from the student. which is not manifest to the student himself. to pride (mānacarita) and to excess conceptualization (vitarkacarita) – the text suggests again to observe their reactions to the conversation. This method of indirect examination. He grasps immediately the Dharma and fully understand it. to ignorance (mohacarita). the proper conclusions should be drawn. but I think 8 This part of the Ms is damaged and therefore difficult to quote here. Observing the behavior of the student The next method that the text suggests is observing the behavior (ceṣṭā) of the student. but there is room for error.
including the Śrāvakabhūmi itself. and which of the paths seems more suitable to his behavior. knows the gotra faculties and behavior as they are by knowing the mind of the other (person). The previous method of observing the student's reaction to a conversation mainly refers to observations made during the meeting. and yet the mention of this advice here raises questions: so far the text has been very practical. of course. This part of the text is very short and does not give a detailed explanation. but rather relies on the previous parts: कथं चेषया यािन पूववोकतािन िलंगािन। शावकगोतसय रागचिरताना च पुदगलाना तािन चेषेतयुचयते। तया च चेषया यथायोगं गोतिमिनदयं चिरतं च । समनवेिषतवयं। How (should he be exmained) by behavior? These attributes that were mentioned before. of the students who have the Śrāvakagotra and those who are inclined to desire. the teacher is now advised to … read his student's mind: तत कथं चेतःपयायजानेन गोतेिनदयचिरतािन समनवेिषतवयिन। यथािप स योगी योगजो लाभी भवित चेतः पयायजानसय[।]स तेन परिचतजानेन गोतिमिनदयं चिरतं च यथाभूतं पजानाित। How should the gotra faculties and behavior be examined by the (mind) knowing other's minds? That Yogi. Now it leaves us now with a recommendation to observe how the student behaves. References to the supernatural abilities of advanced practitioners are. The last method of checking the student's hidden tendencies and aspirations is somewhat of an anticlimax. His gotra. very down-to1 . After all the diligence and the detective work needed to discover the details of the puzzle. who has attained the mind knowing other's mind. how he leads his life. knower of Yoga.we can safely assume that it is talking about observing it after or outside of the meeting. but (probably) also outside of it. to be found in many texts. are called behavior. In the previous lines the text gave long lists of signs by which the teacher can "read" the reaction of the student and decide what is indicated by them. Now the teacher is advised to look for these signs not only within the meeting. senese and inclinations should be examined by this behavior.
After that he needs to know what sort of instructions to give the student. with no ties outside the tradition. Should he be instructed in the Mahāyāna. The wish of the student is far from being a sufficient criterion for such a decision. The students arriving at this institute have already been ordained. or the institution. 1 . The reason for their arrival is the study of "Yoga". or in other words. But in order to decide which path the student should take. the teacher needs to know several things about the student.earth in it's approach. First he needs to make sure the student is a devoted follower of Buddhism. and the fourth one. or Pratyekabuddha tradition? The teacher. one can assume safely that it means the more practical side of the Buddhist path. and are assumed to have studied somewhere else prior to their arrival. the teacher should know his deepest inclinations. maybe even Nalanda itself. who keeps purely to his vows. taking a more sceptical approach and assuming this capacity was not shared by the majority of the teachers. is apparently able to teach all these methods. In order to give him these instructions. he is requesting meditation instructions. Does the author treat reading other people's mind as just another form of practical advice? Was this capacity so widespread that it could actually be a part of teachers instruction manual? And if it was. Śrāvaka. why bother to spy on the student's behavior and reaction to stories if one can simply read his mind? Now. Relying on the rest of the third chapter. we wonder: Why does it appear here? Is it some kind of a tribute to the teachers on the part of the author? Should we read these last two lines with a touch of irony? Conclusion What can we learn from the description of the evaluation process described up here? I think that some points come up clearly from these lines: the text reflects a teaching situation in one of the higher studies institutes of its days.
or – dare we say – his genes! Does this text speak about the famous Nalanda? If so. again we are learning something new about the structure of institutional Buddhism at the time. Rekha. Patna: K. or even a single teacher in or outside the known institutions.D of Buddhism in India. Bibliography Primary sources Śrāvakabhūmi of Asaṅga. We get a picture of an advanced institution for Buddhist practitioners. but rather his deep tendencies. ed by Dutt. 2006 Buddhist Monasteries and Monastic Life in Ancient India. smaller institutions specializing in the meditation instruction. discovering this very deeply rooted potential ensures that the student will advance optimally and fulfill his potential. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. one that teaches any of the three paths according to the suitability of the student. In order to adjust the teachings to the student's special needs further. and his behavioral propensities. ed and translated by Shukla Karunesha. The choice of path does not depend upon the student's level of achievement or his aspirations. If this is what the text has in mind. waiting for more scholars to study them and shed light on the first centuries A. Secondary sources Daswani. The answers to some of these questions might be concealed in the other books of the Yogācārabhūmi. 1 . We have no proof that Nalanda is really the institution the text is talking about. Nalinaksha. it provides new information and maybe even a new perspective on what happened there. Bodhisattvabhūmi of Asaṅga. emphasizing the practical side of the path. Patna: Jayaswal Research Institute. and therefore it might speak about other. Jayaswal research Institute. 1973.What the teacher really looks for is a clue for the gotra the student abides in. 1966. the teacher also examines his sharpness of mind.P.
Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies Vol 1+2 1 .Deleanu Florin. 2006 The Chapter on the Mundane Path (Laukikamārga) in the śrāvakabhūmi.
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