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CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship
SYLLABUS FOR LIFE SCIENCES PAPER I AND PAPER II 1. MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY A. Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds. B. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins). C. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.). D. Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties). E. Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers. F. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes. G. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; domains; motif and folds). H. Conformation of nucleic acids (A-, B-, Z-,DNA), t-RNA, micro-RNA). I. Stability of protein and nucleic acid structures. J. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and vitamins.
2. A. CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, ion pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes. Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility. Organization of genes and chromosomes: Operon, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, unique and repetitive DNA, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons. Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, and control of cell cycle. Microbial Physiology: Growth, yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response.





gap junctions. aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. B. DNA damage and repair mechanisms. enzymes involved. general principles of cell communication. A. cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules. C. alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens. FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES DNA replication.translational modification of proteins. bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing. prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression. interaction of cancer cells with normal cells. RNA editing. initiation factors and their regulation. regulation of signaling pathways. metastasis. Host parasite interaction: Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria.helpBIOTECH. integrins. formation of initiation complex. tRNA-identity. Cellular communication: Regulation of hematopoiesis. elongation and elongation factors. Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome. 4. bacterial and plant two-component signaling systems. second messengers. tumor suppressor genes. splicing. signal transduction pathways. Cell signaling: Hormones and their receptors. genetic code. elongation and termination. termination. virus-induced cancer. virus-induced cell transformation. B. RNA synthesis and processing: Transcription factors and machinery. aminoacylation of tRNA. viruses into animal and plant host cells. apoptosis. D. capping. extrachromosomal replicons. RNA processing. cancer and the cell cycle. cell surface receptor. neurotransmission and its regulation. viruses. structure and function of different types of RNA. RNA polymerases. cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells. Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells. RNA transport. polyadenylation. repair and recombination: Unit of replication. translational inhibitors. extracellular matrix. . role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene silencing.www. C. replication origin and replication fork. fidelity of replication. formation of initiation complex. pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants. post.blogspot. translational proof-reading. | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career 3. transcription activators and repressors. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulation of phages. CELL COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALING A. D. therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. signaling through G-protein coupled receptors.

primary and secondary immune modulation. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem. antibody engineering. metamorphosis. cleavage. morphogenetic gradients. induction. Programmed cell death. environmental regulation of normal | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career E. seed formation and germination.blogspot. aging and senescence. vaccines. floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. antigen-antibody interactions. B. organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. transition to flowering. E. 5. generation of antibody diversity. axes and pattern formation in Drosophila. shoot and root development.www. . cell-mediated effector functions. leaf development and phyllotaxy. Basic concepts of development: Potency. competence. cell fate and cell lineages. C. blastula formation. the complement system. B and T cell epitopes. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY A. determination and differentiation. MHC molecules. Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity. differentiation of neurons. cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals. antigens. embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants. parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium.helpBIOTECH. embryonic fields. monoclonal antibodies. embryogenesis. genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants. humoral and cellmediated immune responses. establishment of symmetry in plants. limb development and regeneration in vertebrates. specification. structure and function of antibody molecules. gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals. Toll-like receptors. zygote formation. amphibia and chick. mutants and transgenics in analysis of development. imprinting. eye lens induction. activation and differentiation of B and T cells. B and T cell receptors. immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis). D. fertilization and early development: Production of gametes. Gametogenesis. antigen processing and presentation. commitment. hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. stem cells. inflammation. post embryonic development-larval formation. sex determination. antigenicity and immunogenicity.

F.PLANT Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes. plasma function. haemopoiesis and formed elements. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . Stress physiology: Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water. Sensory photobiology: Structure. A. Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and ammonium assimilation. solutes and macromolecules from soil. C. transport and translocation of water. photoprotective mechanisms.ANIMAL Blood and circulation: Blood corpuscles. blood volume regulation. Respiratory system: Comparison of respiration in different species.www. 7. D. photoperiodism and biological clocks. blood pressure. G. transport of gases. stomatal movement.helpBIOTECH.Biosynthesis of terpenes. phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles. H. neural and chemical regulation of respiration. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation: Uptake. mechanisms of resistance to biotic stress and tolerance to abiotic stress SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . myogenic heart. breakdown and transport.blogspot. E. through cells. B. haemostasis. ions. function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes. through xylem and phloem. amino acid biosynthesis. CO2 fixation-C3. mechanisms of electron transport. cardiac cycle. C. Plant hormones: | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career 6. . B. alternate oxidase. waste elimination. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure. haemoglobin. transpiration. Secondary metabolites . anatomical considerations. Respiration and photorespiration: Citric acid cycle. mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates. immunity. plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis. photorespiratory pathway. A. storage. heart as a pump. C4 and CAM pathways. neural and chemical regulation of all above. temperature and salt) stresses. exchange of gases. blood volume. physiological effects and mechanisms of action. across membranes. specialized tissue. ECG – its principle and significance. cryptochromes and phototropins. blood groups.

blood pressure.helpBIOTECH. C. Extra chromosomal inheritance: Inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes. lod score for linkage testing. neural regulation. development of mapping population in plants. E. gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord. E. segregation. kidney. reproductive processes. F. mapping genes by interrupted mating. hormones and diseases. fine structure analysis of genes. central and peripheral nervous system. pleiotropy. urine concentration. basic mechanism of hormone action. urine formation. micturition. I. electrolyte balance. | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career D. Extensions of Mendelian principles: Codominance. Gene mapping methods: Linkage maps. Endocrinology and reproduction: Endocrine glands. incomplete dominance. neuroendocrine regulation. D.blogspot. 8. energy balance. G. gene interactions. linkage and crossing over. Microbial genetics: Methods of genetic transfers – transformation. G. Concept of gene: Allele. transduction and sex-duction. sex linkage. waste elimination. sex limited and sex influenced characters. karyotypes. phenocopy. body temperature – physical. deviation from Mendelian inheritance. acid-base balance. action potential. Stress and adaptation Digestive system: Digestion. regulation of water balance. Mendelian principles: Dominance. J. BMR. Human genetics: Pedigree analysis. hearing and tactile response. multiple alleles. INHERITANCE BIOLOGY A. Nervous system: Neurons. conjugation. blood volume. B. independent assortment. . tetrad analysis. genomic imprinting. acclimatization. maternal inheritance. neural control of muscle tone and posture. pseudoallele. mapping with molecular markers. mapping by using somatic cell hybrids. penetrance and expressivity. complementation tests.www. genetic disorders. H. chemical. F. Thermoregulation: Comfort zone. Sense organs: Vision. Excretory system: Comparative physiology of excretion.

9. B. biotic environment. animals and microorganisms. classical and quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants. Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Deletion. I. colonial and multicellular forms. D. insertional mutagenesis. causes and detection. comparative anatomy. A. E. geographic origins and migrations of species. Organisms of health and agricultural importance: Common parasites and pathogens of humans. gain of function.helpBIOTECH. K. Mutation: Types. 10. B. germinal verses somatic mutants. J. C. common Indian mammals. classification of plants. conditional. ploidy and their genetic implications. seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent.www.blogspot. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent. domestic animals and crops. DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS Principles and methods of taxonomy:Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa. loss of function. animals and microorganisms:Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. biotic and abiotic interactions. Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination. site-specific recombination. inversion. biochemical. translocation. resource partitioning. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche. heritability and its measurements. niche width and overlap. QTL mapping. The Environment: Physical environment. duplication. Outline classification of plants. including transposition. character displacement. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular. . biological nomenclature. evolutionary relationships among taxa. fundamental and realized | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career H. organs and systems. animals and microorganisms. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES A. birds. mutant types – lethal. Quantitative genetics: Polygenic inheritance. levels of organization of tissues.

Paleontology and evolutionary history: The evolutionary time scale.helpBIOTECH. the evolutionary synthesis. eras. Species interactions: Types of interactions. biodiversity-status. stages in primate evolution including Homo. F. concept of climax. symbiosis. concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal. C. anaerobic metabolism. interspecific competition. Ecosystem: Structure and function. levels of species diversity and its measurement. eustarine). interdemic extinctions. spontaneity of mutations. grassland) and aquatic (fresh water. Mendelism. global environmental change. evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. J. fitness and natural selection. community structure and attributes. major groups of plants and animals. origin of eukaryotic cells. A. major drivers of biodiversity change.www. pollination. marine. population growth curves.blogspot. theory of island biogeography. herbivory. experiment of Miller (1953). population regulation. Community ecology: Nature of communities. concept of Oparin and Haldane. major approaches to management. 11. Darwin–concepts of variation. changes involved in succession. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck. mechanisms. G. the first cell. carnivory. abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers. structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution. origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms. E. life history strategies (r and K selection). energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP). biogeographical zones of India. edges and ecotones. biodiversity management approaches. age structured populations. photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism. primary production and decomposition. . monitoring and documentation. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes. major events in the evolutionary time scale. evolution of prokaryotes. struggle. H. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population. periods and | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career C. Biosphere reserves). D. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation. Ecological succession: Types. adaptation. Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger. B. I.

APPLIED BIOLOGY: A. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity. origin of new genes and proteins. habitat selection and optimality in foraging. kin selection. co-evolution. allopatricity and sympatricity. concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection. altruism and evolution-group selection. protein and nucleotide sequence analysis. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution. use of space and territoriality. parental care. mating | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career D.helpBIOTECH. Application of immunological principles (vaccines. gene frequency. F. orientation and navigation. B. parental investment and reproductive success. including gene therapy. Breeding in plants and animals. gene pool. domestication and behavioral changes. speciation. Transgenic animals and plants. social communication. classification and identification. molecular tools in phylogeny. Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of behavior. migration and random genetic drift.www. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules. adaptive radiation and modifications. diagnostics). reciprocal altruism. social dominance. F. 12. . G. Hardy-Weinberg law. C. neural basis of learning. H. molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification. gene duplication and divergence. tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals. sexual selection. development of behavior. Bioremediation and phytoremediation. proximate and ultimate causation. molecular divergence and molecular clocks. aggressive behavior. including marker – assisted selection. E. memory. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture. D. Biosensors. convergent evolution. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – populations. cognition. biological clocks. sleep and arousal. E.blogspot. Brain. isolating mechanisms. migration.

different fixation and staining techniques for EM. strategies for genome sequencing. methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level. western blot. RIA.blogspot. B. patch-clamp recording. DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins. different separation methods. DNA sequencing methods. regression and correlation. Brain activity recording. errors. RFLP. Biophysical methods: Analysis of biomolecules using UV/visible. different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods. basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics. lesion and stimulation of brain. separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules. detection of post-translation modification of proteins. animal and plant vectors. floweytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences. incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells. molecular imaging of radioactive material. circular dichroism. difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics. protein sequencing methods. isoelectric focusing gels. . t-test. detection of molecules in living cells. CAT . Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording. analysis of variance. generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid. A. confidence interval. BAC and YAC vectors. image processing methods in microscopy. pharmacological | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career 13. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy. ECG. isolation. resolving powers of different microscopes. RAPD and AFLP techniques Histochemical and immunotechniques: Antibody generation. their detection and measurement. X2 test. phage. detection of molecules using ELISA. freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methods for EM. probability distributions (Binomial. structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR. scanning and transmission microscopes. DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. immunoprecipitation. microscopy of living cells. fluorescence.. D. E. such as micro array based techniques. Radiolabeling techniques: Properties of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology. sampling distribution.www. fMRI. MRI. safety guidelines. large scale expression analysis. METHODS IN BIOLOGY Molecular biology and recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA . levels of significance. etc. G. C. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal. gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. cosmid. F. in vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques. Poisson and normal). analysis using light scattering. expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial. molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. NMR and ESR spectroscopy. analysis of RNA.helpBIOTECH. PET. in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.

.helpBIOTECH. Computational methods: Nucleic acid and protein sequence databases. habitat characterization-ground and remote sensing methods. motif analysis and presentation. Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants. sampling methods in the study of behavior.blogspot. indirect and remote observations.www. web-based tools for sequence searches. data mining methods for sequence | Your Gate Way to the Life Science Career H. I. ranging patterns through direct.