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RECENT RESEARCH GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE
Nguyen Van Chanh1- Assoc. Professor. PhD., Bui Dang Trung, Dang Van Tuan- Candidate M.E. Faculty of Civil Engineering -University of Technology HCM City, Vietnam
Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate cementitious material. Geopolymer can be synthesized by polycondensation reaction of geopolymeric precursor, and alkali polysilicates. Comparing to Portland cement, the production of geopolymers has a relative higher strength, excellent volume stability, better durability. Geopolymer concrete based on pozzolana is a new material that does not need the presence of Portland cement as a binder. This paper presents the results of studying materials ,mixture composite, microstructure of Geopolymer, and parameters affecting properties of geopolymer concrete. Geopolymer, mixture composite, microstructure, properties of concrete.
1- GENERAL An important ingredient in the conventional concrete is the Portland cement. The production of one ton of cement emits approximately one ton of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Moreover, cement production also consumes significant amount of natural resources.
Figure 1. Cement production consumes a lot of limestone and emits carbon dioxide
Figure 2. A huge volume of fly ash is not effectively used
On the other hand, already huge volume of fly ash is generated around the world; most of the fly ash is not effectively used, and a large part of it is disposed in landfills. In Viet Nam, volumes of fly ash are generated about 600,000 tons, but 100,000 is used to produce concrete. As the need for power increases, the volume of fly ash would increase. It is necessary and significant to use fly ash as material to produce concrete without Portland cement.
Figure 3. the symbol – indicates the presence of a bond. Three basic forms of geopolymer. 2. these three steps can overlap with each other and occur almost simultaneously.Setting or polycondensation/polymerisation of monomers into polymeric structures.Transportation or orientation or condensation of precursor ions into monomers. Polymeric structures from polymerisation of monomers. The schematic formation of geopolymer material can be shown as described by Equations (A) and (B) To date.Dissolution of Si and Al atoms from the source material through the action of hydroxide ions. However.1. or higher. A geopolymer can take one of the three basic forms (Fig. most proposed mechanism consist The chemical reaction may comprise the following steps: . n is the degree of polycondensation or polymerisation.THE POLYMERIZATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE 2. The chemical composition. z is 1.3). polymerization of the geopolymer cement The polymerisation process involves a substantially fast chemical reaction under alkaline condition on Si-Al minerals. the exact mechanism of setting and hardening of the geopolymer material is not clear. sodium or calcium. Figure 4. wH2O Where: M = the alkaline element or cation such as potassium. that results in a three dimensional polymeric chain and ring structure consisting of Si-O-Al-O bonds.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 2. However. thus making it difficult to isolate and examine each of them separately. . 236 . . 3. as follows: Mn [-(SiO2) z–AlO2] n .
7. A combination of sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide solution was chosen as the alkaline liquid. sand Aggregates (SA). In the batches of fly ash. Figure 5. Setting time and stable volume of geopolymer mortar Setting time of geopolymer mortar depends on many factors. Super plasticizer was used in most of the mixtures. The mass of NaOH solids in a solution varied depending on the concentration of the solution expressed in terms of molar.1. Fly ash before reacting with NaOH Figure 6. Fly ash particle: SEM was used to investigate the surface of fly ash.2. Microstructure of the geopolymer cement Unlike ordinary Portland/pozzolanic cements. 6. Alkaline Liquid (AL).2.THE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CEMENT 3. but the microstructure is amorphous instead of crystalline. Materials Materials includes Fly ash (FA). The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was prepared by dissolving either the flakes or the pellets in water. Such as types of fly ash. Fly ash after reacting with NaOH (x5000 and x30 000) 3. To improve the workability of the fresh geopolymer mortar. water (W). 3. Fly ash after reacting with NaOH Figure 7.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 2. Super plasticizer (SP). composition of alkaline liquid and ratio of alkaline liquid to fly ash by mass. M. NaOH reacted with fly ash particles resulted in the roughness of surface as shown in Figure 5. before and after reacting with NaOH. geopolymer do not form calciumsilicate-hydrates (CSHs) for matrix formation and strength. However. Composition of the geopolymer is similar to natural zeolitic materials. the molar Si-to-Al ratio was about 1-3. the curing 237 . but utilize the polycondensation of silica and alumina precursors and a high alkali content to attain structural strength. Sand is small Aggregates in geopolymer mortar.
Effect of extra water on compressive strength.2 0. 238 Figure 10.4 0. Mixture proportion AL W SP AL/FA W/AL (kg) Cp1 527 1586 157(18M) 40 5.5 Figure 8.45 0.25 Cp3 527 1586 211(18M) 52 0.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 temperature is the most important factor. compressive strength 400-500 kG/cm2. Kí hi u FA SA Figure 9. curing time in (24h-72h).3. Effect of curing temperature on setting time The stable volume of geopolymer mortar depends on many factors.27 0. Compressive strength.25 Cp4 527 1586 237(18M) 59 0.3 0.9 4.25 Cp5 527 1586 192(14M) 48 Compressive strength depends on curing time and curing temperature. Table 1. The effect of curing temperature on initial setting and final setting time is similar to setting time. Figure 8 shows the effect of curing temperature on setting time. Composition of Fly Ash (mass %) Oxides SiO2 (%) Al2O3 (%) Fe2O3 (%) CaO (%) K2O (%) 52. Table 2.27 0. the compressive strength increase. 3. As the curing temperature increases. It is not cracked. As the curing time and curing temperature increase.83 Oxides Na2O (%) MgO (%) SO3 (%) LOI (%) SiO2 /Al2O3 0.27 0. curing temperature and curing time are primary factors.35 0. the setting time decreases. .25 Cp2 527 1586 182(18M) 46 5.0 33. Geopolymer mortar specimen cakes are boiled in water about 4 hours after curing at 600C for 2 hours.81 0.0 1. However. Curing temperature in (600C900C).28 6. That means its volume is still stable.23 1. Effect of curing time on compressive strength.
Effect of extra water on slump. total Aggregates (A) Table 3. It is especially suitable for tough environmental conditions.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 3. geopolymer cement has excellent properties within both acid and salt environments. Resistance to corrosion Since no limestone is used as a material.THE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE 4. The loss weight of samples put into 5% HCl .5 4 3.4. Figure 12. sand (SA) and coarse aggregates (CA). Figure 11. Mixture proportion SA FA AL W SP 595 595 595 595 595 329 365 411 498 538 132 147 165 199 210 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 6 7 8 Mix Cp1 Cp2 Cp3 Cp4 Cp5 CA kg 1050 1050 1050 1050 1050 A/FA 5 4.2. Change compressive strength after putting into 5% HCl for 7 weeks 4. Workability of the fresh geopolymer concrete Figure 13. 239 . Materials Geopolymer cement. This can be useful in marine environments and on islands short of fresh water.1. (It is impossible to make Portland cement with sea water). Sea water can be used for the blending of the geopolymer cement.5 3 4.
16 show as the curing time or curing temperature increases. Effect of curing temperature on compressive strength Figure 16. geopolymer concrete has excellent properties within both acid and salt environments. Effect of extra water on compressive strength Figure 15. Compressive strength Figure 14. The loss weight of samples put into 5% HCl and 10% H2SO4 Figure 19. 4. by mass. Figure 13 shows the variation of measured slump of fresh concrete with the ratio of extra water to fly ash.3. Figure 18. Figure 15. Change compressive strength after putting into 5% HCl and 10% H2SO4 for 7 weeks 240 . the compress strength decreases.4. 4.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 Extra water was added to improve the workability. Effect of curing time on compressive strength Figure 17. The compressive strength of saturated water specimens Figure 14 shows as the extra water increases. the compressive strength increases. Resistance to corrosion The same geopolymer cement.
better durability. REFERENCES 1. Hardjito and B. The slump value of the fresh fly-ash-based geopolymer concrete increases with the increase of extra water added to the mixture. V. in the range of 24 to 72 hours (4 days). 241 . the production of geopolymers have a relative higher strength. Inorganic polymeric new material. As the curing temperature in the range of 60oC to 90oC increases. The following conclusions are drawn. Joseph Davidovit (2002). Geopolymer concrete has excellent properties within both acid and salt environments. 3. (2005). However. The compressive strength of heat-cured fly ash-based geopolymer concrete does not depend on age. Prof. Development and properties of low-calcium fly ashbased geopolymer concrete. the increase in strength beyond 48 hours is not significant. Rangan. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries . excellent volume stability.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 4.CONCLUSIONS Based on the the use of fly ash as a basic Si-Al ingredient of geopolymer was investigated. 2. produces higher compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. the compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete also increases. D. Comparing to portland cement. Joseph Davidovit (2000). Longer curing time.
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