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or much younger. EAP .English language teaching.English as a second language.English for special purposes.English for academic purposes EFL .Teaching English to speakers of other languages.Types of English Acronyms and abbreviations BE .English as a lingua franca ELL .English as an additional language. ESOL . The use of this term is restricted to certain countries.English for science and technology (e. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries TESOL . The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. English for use in a non-Englishspeaking region. This link is to a page about a subset of TEFL. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. English for use in an English-speaking region. EST . TESL .English for speakers of other languages.g. or English for specific purposes (e. namely travel-teaching. TYLE .Teaching Young Learners English. EIL English as an international language (see main article at International English) ELF . ESL .English as a foreign language. technical English. TEFL .English language learner. by someone whose first language is not English. English for medical professionals. or Teaching English as a second or other language. More generally. scientific English. This term is used differently in different countries.Business English EAL . ESP . . The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. ELT . English for waiters).g. technical English.Teaching English as a second language. Note that "Young Learners" can mean under 18.Teaching English as a foreign language. scientific English). by someone whose first language is not English.

German.London Tests of English by Pearson Language Tests TOEFL . produced by CambridgeEsol.University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.Test of English for International Communication UCLES .Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults IELTS . and Spanish. an exam board .Business Language Testing Services.Other abbreviations BULATS . CELTA . The test also exists for French. a computer-based test of business English.Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults DELTA .International English Language Testing System LTE .Test of English as a Foreign Language TOEIC .

In cases such as these the object of the exercise is efficient and effective communication. Many non-native English speakers study the subject with the goal of doing business with English-speaking countries. Much of the English communication that takes place within business circles the world over occurs between non-native speakers. negotiations. . meetings. high school students preparing to enter the job market. for example. it focuses on vocabulary and topics used in the worlds of business. for example. and focuses on the language and skills needed for typical business communication such as presentations. small talk. It can also be a form of international English. a stressed negotiator's only goal is to reach an agreement as quickly as possible. It is a specialism within English language learning and teaching. correspondence. trade. The strict rules of grammar are in such cases sometimes ignored. and international relations. and so on. for example. or with companies located outside the Anglo sphere but which nonetheless use English as a shared language or lingua franca. when. the teachers' organization IATEFL has a special interest group called BESIG [1]. The City and Guilds of London Institute offer International Business English examinations. (See linguist Braj Kachru's theory of the "expanding circle". socializing. report writing. In both of these cases it can be taught to native speakers of English. For some.BE . institutes around the world have on offer courses (modules) in BE. For others it refers to the communication skills used in the workplace. which can even lead to a degree in the subject.) Business English means different things to different people. finance. It is possible to study Business English at college and university.Business English Business English is English especially related to international trade.

EAP tutors teach vocabulary.EAP .English for Academic Purposes English for Academic Purposes (EAP) entails training students. usually in a Higher Education setting. Sometimes EAP courses are intended to raise students' English levels so that they can enter university.including pronunciation . . has increased over the last decade. to use language appropriately for study. and other institutions across the Anglo sphere. this can mean helping students attain a score of 500 or greater on the Institutional TOEFL. In addition. this often means endeavoring to help students get a score of 6 or above in the IELTS examination. In common with most language teaching.and listening). what counts as plagiarism. grammar and the four skills (reading. they are teaching study skills and often having to tackle differences in educational culture. It is a challenging and multi-faceted area within the wider field of English language learning and teaching (ELT). In the US. In the UK. speaking . either directly or indirectly. and is one of the most common forms of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). for example. writing. EAP practitioners often find that. This trend has become more prominent as the numbers of foreign students attending UK universities. but try to tie these to the study needs of students.

and is used as a second language for communication between communities. . a vehicular language goes beyond the boundaries of its original community. but is used as a vehicular language (that is. A synonym for lingua franca is vehicular language. see etymology under Sabir and Italian below) is a language systematically used to communicate between persons not sharing a mother tongue. independent of the linguistic history or structure of the language:[2] though pidgins and creoles often function as lingua francas. Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a single speaker community. in particular when it is a third language. International auxiliary languages such as Esperanto are generally intended by their designers to function as lingua francas. but have had limited success in this role. a lingua franca) in the Philippines.[1] Lingua franca is a functionally defined term. literally meaning Frankish language. For example. many lingua francas are neither pidgins nor creoles. Lingua franca may also refer to the de facto language within a more or less specialized field. distinct from both persons' mother tongues. English is a vernacular in England.ELF English as a Lingua franca A lingua franca (from Italian.

Teaching English as a foreign language TEFL or teaching English as a foreign language refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. For information about foreign language teaching in general. see English language learning and teaching.a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language Universal language . or privately. see language International language International language may refer to: International auxiliary language .a language spoken internationally .g.g. in an after-hours language school or with a one-on-one tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or nonnative speakers of English. To learn about the teaching of English on a wider scale. a small subset of all the English that is taught worldwide.any language widely used beyond the population of its native speakers World language . This article concentrates on the teaching of English by native Anglophones working outside their own country.a hypothetical historical or mythical language said to be spoken and understood by all or most of the world's population Lingua franca . or TESOL as a subject and an organization). e. which explains methodology and context. TEFL usually occurs in the student's own country. the difference between ESL and EFL. either within the state school system. providing a full explanation of abbreviations (e.TEFL .

The full-time CELTA course runs for four weeks. in 54 countries.[1] Each course is audited by an external assessor. is a professional credential held by many teachers of English as a foreign language. producing over 10. a part of the University of Cambridge. and four percent received a grade of A. it is a particularly popular credential among people who wish to travel and teach English around the world (see TEFL for an extended discussion of travel-teaching). Even the part-time version of the course can take up more time than a full-time job for many students. there are also a number of written assignments due throughout the course. The full-time four-week course is very intensive. Because it is recognized internationally. whereas the courses are validated and certificates are issued by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). which are graded on a pass/fail basis only. it is also held by people who intend to teach only in the country where they trained. 25% received a grade of B. especially those with no teaching background. Each year around 900 CELTA courses are run by around 280 centres. primarily language schools. three percent failed. The CELTA is awarded upon passing the course. B and A. which includes six hours of assessed teaching practice to real English language students.000 graduates. and students taking it must be prepared to dedicate all their waking hours to it for the duration.CELTA The Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults. and do not intend to travel. . The course grade is determined primarily by the performance of the teacher in this teaching practice. However. The grades awarded are pass. As of 2000. 63% received a pass.t /). at two different levels. CELTA courses are run by many different institutions. it can also be taken part-time over several months. Overview The CELTA is a common requirement for those entering the field of English language teaching. or CELTA (pronounced / s l. worldwide five percent of trainees withdrew before completing the course.

but those who undertake these tasks often hold this qualification. The diploma is awarded upon passing a course which includes supervised teaching practice. Distance learning is also available. or its equivalent. and a written examination. completion of an extended assignment. as is the CELTA. the Diploma in Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults. formerly UCLES. the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults. a part of the University of Cambridge. The DELTA is available in many different countries throughout the world. The DELTA is also integrated into some MA programs. The DELTA and LTCL DipTESOL are often seen as roughly equivalent qualifications. training of teachers. The course can be taken part-time over a year or more. or full-time over a period of two to three months. The Dip does not cover related nonteaching responsibilities (administration. the old qualification focused on teaching English to those who need it for exams.DELTA (ELT) DELTA. is a professional qualification in English language teaching awarded by Cambridge Assessment. observation of other teachers. It replaced the DTEFLA. The DELTA was introduced in 1999. once the individual has done a couple of years of teaching and has decided on a more long-term and serious commitment to the teaching of English. and so on). The Diploma (or Dip) is often seen as a follow-up to the certificate known as the CELTA. It is widely recognized around the world. The two qualifications were equivalent in level but the DELTA was more narrowly focused on teaching English as a foreign language. completion of a range of written assignments. work or travel. study. which was administered jointly by the RSA and UCLES. whereas the new qualification includes the needs of immigrants settling in anglophone countries. that is. .

see below) is valid for two years. IELTS tested over a million candidates in a single 12-month period for the first time ever. It is also a requirement for immigration to Australia and Canada. and various professional organizations. It is jointly managed by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. or 'International English Language Testing System'. or for immigration purposes. and was established in 1989. The General Training Version is intended for those planning to undertake nonacademic training or to gain work experience.IELTS IELTS (pronounced / a . In 2007. because the English accents employed in the Listening section of the IELTS are far removed from typical Canadian accents. making it the world's most popular English language test for higher education and immigration. IELTS is accepted by most Australian. the British Council and IDP Education Australia. Irish. is an international standardized test of English language proficiency. lts/). Canadian. due to the differences in the level of intellectual and academic rigor between the two versions. over 2.[1] . This has been criticized in Canada. New Zealand and South African academic institutions. There are two versions of the IELTS: the Academic Version and the General Training Version: The Academic Version is intended for those who want to enroll in universities and other institutions of higher education and for professionals such as medical doctors and nurses who want to study or practice in an Englishspeaking country. It is generally acknowledged that the reading and writing tests for the Academic Version are more difficult than those for the General Training Version.000 academic institutions in the United States. British. An IELTS result or Test Report Form (TRF .

and not on how well they remember formal vocabulary and structures. The Framework was developed by the Council of Europe to enable language learners. They are developed by Pearson Language Tests. writing. They test the four skills: reading. The exams are accredited by QCA. For this reason.London Tests of English The London Tests of English (to be known as PTE General from November 09) are international English language exams for speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL). CEFR level London Tests of English Exam time C2 Proficient Level 5 2h55 C1 Advanced Level 4 2h30 B2 Upper Intermediate Level 3 2h B1 Intermediate Level 2 1h35 A2 Elementary Level 1 1h30 . listening and speaking. Edexcel is a Pearson company. universities or potential employers to compare and relate language qualifications by level. the Qualification and Curriculum Authority. The London Tests of English are theme-based exams designed to test how well a learner can communicate in authentic and realistic situations. one of the largest examining bodies of academic and vocational qualifications in the UK. the tests use reallife scenarios rather than grammatical exercises. There are six levels which are mapped to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. teachers. Pearson administer the exams with Edexcel. a new business unit of the Pearson group which is dedicated to language testing and certification.

listening and speaking are tested at all levels. This mapping process was submitted to an external audit by University of Westminster. . The alignment of the London Tests of English to the CEFR has been established by mapping the test specifications to the CEFR descriptors. Work is in progress to further improve the robustness of the alignment on the basis of empirical data.A1 Foundation Level A1 1h15 Reading. writing.

The TOEFL test is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS) and is administered worldwide. businesses. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then is deleted from the official database. pronounced "toe-full") evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand academic English at a college level. . or scholarship programs may require this test. institutions such as government agencies. The test was first administered in 1964 and has since been taken by nearly 20 million students.TOEFL The Test of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL. It is required for non-native applicants at many Englishspeaking colleges and universities. Additionally. Colleges and universities usually consider only the most recent TOEFL score.

corresponding to achieved results: orange (10-215) brown (220-465) green (470-725) blue (730-855) gold (860-990) History The Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the USA developed the TOEIC test based on its academic ETS counterpart. ). the TOEFL test. The TOEIC certificate exists in five colours. ) in conjunction . . which is today's Ministry of Economy.TOEIC Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) measures the ability of non-native English-speaking examinees to use English in everyday workplace activities. Trade and Industry (METI. Overview The Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) is "an English language test designed specifically to measure the everyday English skills of people working in an international environment. with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI. following a request from Japan's Keidanren (Japan Federation of Economic Organizations. The Asahi Shimbun national daily's evening edition [1] interviewed Yasuo Kitaoka ( Kitaoka Yasuo) who was the central figure of the Japanese team . Each candidate receives independent scores for written and oral comprehension on a scale from 5 to 495 points. ). The total score adds up to a scale from 10 to 990 points." It is a two-hour multiple-choice test consisting of 200 questions divided into 100 questions each in listening comprehension and reading comprehension.

while 69. Australian and New Zealand English speakers. As noted in The Chosun Ilbo ( . which has been criticized as unrealistic in a corporate environment. Part 6 no longer contains the error spotting task.9% of those who earned 400 to 495 points think this way. regarded as the second biggest consumer of TOEIC [4]. A new version of the TOEIC was released in 2006.9%. which administers the IELTS. In 2007 added optional speaking and writing tests. and made some changes to the reading and listening test as well that de-emphasized knowledge of grammatical rules. FCE. The Listening Section hires not only North American English speakers but also British. so do 59. British and Australian-New Zealand pronunciation [2]. and 900 to 990 points 39. there was a shift in South Korea. the more marked this tendency becomes. As many as 85. The ratio is 25% each for American. CAE and CPE.3% of those who earned 500 to 595 points. 56. .9% find so. Among those who achieved 600 to 695 points 58. or rather the biggest in terms of per capita consumption.that conceived the basic idea of the TOEIC test. 700 to 795 points 48. Part 1 has fewer questions involving photo descriptions. away from the test as a measure of English ability on the corporate level. The lower score the test taker achieves.8% of the respondents who took both the older and the renewed versions of the TOEIC test in Japan find the latter version more difficult. passages have become longer. According to a survey [3] conducted in 2006 by the Institute for International Business Communication ( Zaidanh jin Kokusai Bijinesu Komyunik shon Ky kai?). This part instead adopts the task wherein the test taker fills in the blanks in incomplete sentences. Canadian. TOEIC in the Republic of Korea Towards the end of 2005. 800 to 895 points 47. Part 7 contains not only single passage questions but also double passage questions wherein the test taker has to read and compare the two related passages such as e-mail correspondence. ETS's major competitor is Cambridge University. Korea Daily Reports) .6%. The changes can be summarized as follows: Overall.8%.6% of those who earned scores ranging from 10 to 395 points find the renewed TOEIC test more difficult.

TOEIC is accepted by ASEP. ) says. TEPS(developed by Seoul University. Chosun Ilbo). but TEPS requires higher English skills than TOEIC. If the student cannot achieve a 750 mark." Another English proficiency test. a number of major corporations have either removed or reduced the required TOEIC score for employment. . requiring about one hour of testing time. some Grandes écoles require a TOEIC score of at least 750 to award the diploma. he/she is offered to validate his/her diploma by other means in most of the schools. The TOEIC Bridge test targets beginning and intermediate speakers and consists of 100 multiple-choice questions. the organisation which is responsible for hiring new employees to work for the government. TOEIC can be taken starting from the age of 17. TOEIC in Europe In France. as it makes state-awarded diplomas dependent on a private institution--despite the fact that it was not the private institution that set the 750 mark but a recommendation from the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieurs indicating a B2+ level on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. In Greece. Some institutions delay the diploma for one year after the end of the studies in that case. Kiup Bank. This policy has been criticized. has been developed and is trying to replace the status of TOEIC.national daily[5]. So still TOEIC is majority to most job-seekers in South Korea. "TOEIC isn't an appropriate indicator of actual English skills. An official from the Industrial Bank of Korea (IBK. TOEIC Bridge ETS also administers a simplified version of the TOEIC test called TOEIC Bridge. .

expanding e-assessment capabilities and delivering university entrance tests as well as three examining bodies: OCR.000 schools. It is one of the largest international assessment agencies recognized by governments around the world. both in the United Kingdom and internationally. The Cambridge Assessment Network is a virtual centre of excellence that has been created to help professionals in assessment share experiences and increase their knowledge and expertise. It provides a program of professional development in assessment and related issues. University of Cambridge English for Speakers of Other Languages (University of Cambridge ESOL examination) operates in 135 countries worldwide. Each year over 1. Launched in 2005. is one of three UK-wide awarding bodies. a non-teaching department of the University of Cambridge. Cambridge Assessment is Europe's largest assessment agency and is responsible for setting and marking a large number of examinations. . and is building an international community committed to high-quality assessment that enhances learning. Every year over 30. University of Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge International Examinations) (CIE) that provides assessment services to many governments and supplies International GCSEs. A levels and a wide range of vocational qualifications to learners of all ages through 13. It has units that focus on research (including the Cambridge Psychometrics Centre).75 million people take a Cambridge ESOL qualification. It delivers a program of Professional Development in assessment and related issues. Cambridge Assessment is not responsible for internal examinations at the University of Cambridge.UCLES Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES). colleges and other institutions. the Cambridge Assessment Network is a virtual centre of excellence for professionals in assessment to develop and share their knowledge and expertise. A and AS levels and business qualifications worldwide.000 people work with Cambridge Assessment by either attending conferences or by taking part in topical debates from their desk top. OCR offers GCSEs. Cambridge Assessment is a not-for-profit organization.

was introduced in 1913. The UCLES Group absorbed several other examination boards. Cambridge Assessment celebrates its 150th anniversary in 2008. The Certificate of Proficiency in English. the Syndicate's first examination in the field of English as a foreign language. the Midland Examining Group and the RSA Examinations and Assessment Foundation. Source: www. The Syndicate began examining overseas in 1863 and this aspect of its work grew quickly. including the Southern Universities Joint Board in 1987. with the aim of raising standards in education. both in 1998. the Syndicate was empowered to hold examinations for commercial certificates. In 1888.org .wikipedia. In 1873. the universities of Oxford and Cambridge created the Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board which became part of UCLES in 1995.UCLES was established in 1858 to administer examinations for persons who were not members of the University of Cambridge and to inspect schools.en.

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