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(III YEAR B.E. EEE)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING INDRA GANESAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, TRICHY 620012

INDRA GANESAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, TRICHY 620012

**OBSERVATION NOTE BOOK
**

Reg. No.

Certified .

that

this

is

the

work

done

by

Selvan

/

Selvi

... of the fifth semester Electrical & Electronics 2012 in the Electrical Machines -II

Engineering branch during the year 2011 Laboratory.

Staff in charge

HoD

INSTRUCTION TO THE STUDENTS The students must read the instructions carefully and follow the same throughout the semester. 1. Students have to go to respective lab classes according to the lab time table. 2. They have to wear the shoes and the prescribed uniform. 3. They have to know about the procedure of the experiment before start doing the Experiment. It will be checked by the staff members. 4. After the Circuit correction in the observation note book and viva voce, they have to get the indent slip from stores and get the required apparatus. 5. They have to give the circuit connections by involving themselves in their batch. 6. They have to take readings in proper manner without any error and get verified from the staff. 7. They have to get signature in result within two days after completion of the experiment. 8. They have to submit their completed previous experiment record at the time of entering the laboratory and they should enter the mark in the log book with the lab in-charge. 9. After completing the experiment, they have to return all the apparatus to the stores and get back the indent slip. 10. Strict discipline is solicited inside the laboratory.

CONTENTS S.No Date Experiment Page No. Marks Sign with Date

No Date Experiment Page No.CONTENTS S. Marks Sign with Date .

Regulation of three-phase salient pole alternator by slip test. Load test on single-phase induction motor 11. Determination of Equivalent circuit of single -phase induction motor 12. Load test on three-phase squirrel cage induction motor. Load test on three-phase slip ring induction motor.II LABORATORY LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. 10. Load test on three-phase alternator. 2. Loss summation method on three-phase induction motor. 7. 5. 8. Regulation of three-phase alternator by EMF. MMF and ZPF methods. No load and blocked rotor test on three-phase induction motor. 6. 9. V and Inverted V curves of Three Phase Synchronous Motor. 4. Speed control of three phase induction motor by V/f method .SYLLABUS ELECTRICAL MACHINES . Separation of No-load losses of three-phase induction motor. 3.

No.e. the induced emf is brought back to almost zero voltage. Field rheostat of the alternator is gradually varied and the corresponding induced emf and the field current is noted between 0 to 120 % of rated voltage. 2.Exp. i. between Eg per phase and If . PROCEDURE: Open Circuit Test 1. Then the field rheostat of the alternator is brought back to its original position. DPST Switch is closed. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 6. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. 2. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 5.. No: Date: REGULATION OF THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF METHOD AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of a three phase non-salient pole alternator by EMF method. Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting.. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. 7. The residual emf of the alternator is noted for the zero field current of the alternator.2 A Type MI MC MC MI Variable Digital Quantity 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 3 4 Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer PRECAUTIONS: 1. Field rheostat of motor is kept at its minimum position at the time of starting. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. 1 Apparatus Name Voltmeter Range (0-600)V (0-30)V (0-2)A (0-10)A 300 /1. 3.e. The motor is set to run at rated speed of the alternator by varying the field rheostat of the motor. . 4. Open circuit characteristic is drawn for the above values i. The motor is started by means of starter. 8. 4.

No. (Ia) Amps Generated voltage Vph .TABULATION OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS S. Volts Vph rated Isc OCC SCC Field current (If) Amps . Field current (If) in Amps Line voltage (Vl) in Volts Phase voltage (Vph) in Volts SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS S. Field current (If) in Amps Short circuit current (Isc) in Amps MODEL GRAPH OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS: Armature current .No.

2. 5. 3. Field rheostat of the alternator is varied slowly up to the rated current (short circuit current) of the alternator.Short Circuit Test 1. 7. Voc = Rated Open circuit voltage for face. 4.e. power factor Vs voltage regulation are drawn for the various load currents. For Short circuit test TPST switch is closed. In short circuit test alternator output terminals short circuited as per circuit diagram. between Isc and If . Synchronous impedance = V ph rated I sc for the same field current. (A) at a Field current corresponding to the rated Voltage ii.. (V) Isc = Short circuit current. Synchronous impedance = Zs = Where. 6. Synchronous reactance (Xs) Xs = . The corresponding field current is tabulated. FORMULAE USED i.e. Regulation characteristics i. Short circuit characteristic is drawn for the noted values i. The voltage induced is obtained from the phasor diagrams and the voltage regulation corresponding to the power factors are calculated using the formulae.. Various power factors are assumed and the phasor diagrams are drawn for both lagging and leading power factors.

% voltage regulation = {(E g -VT) / VT } X 100 ph rated I sc for the same field current. R ac = R a (dc) X (1. .6) iii.Z 2 s Rac 2 Where.

No.COMPUTATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (R a ): TABULATION TO FIND R a Voltage drop across the armature (Va) in volts Armature Current (Ia ) in Amps Armature Resistance (Ra = Va / Ia) in ohm S. Mean R a MODEL PHASOR DIAGRAM (i) Lagging current Eg VT IaRa IaXs Ia .

V = § § ©¨§ REGULA ¥¤ £¢¡ R t S. (ii) di curr volt Gener ted Volt Lag eE % Volt e Regulation Lag Lead Si ¤¢ ¦ : Ia Eg IaXs IaRa VT Cos Lead ARA ERIS ICS .No.

What is meant by voltage regulation? What is meant by Synchronous Impedance? What is OC test ? What is SC test? What is meant by mmf or field ampere turns? RESULT: . 2. 4. 5. 3.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.

The residual emf of the alternator is noted for the field current of zero value. No: Date: REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR BY MMF METHOD AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of a three phase non-salient pole alternator by MMF method. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. Field rheostat of the alternator is varied and the corresponding emf induced and the field currents are noted. 4. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. FORMULA: % Voltage Regulation = {(E g -Vt ) / Vt } X 100 PROCEDURE: 1. 6. . The motor is set to run at rated speed by varying the field rheostat of the motor.2 A Type MI MC MC MI Variable Digital Quantity 1 1 1 1 3 1 PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 7. DPST Switch is closed. 5. The motor is started by means of starter. Step 6 is repeated till the emf reaches 25% more than rated voltage. Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications.Exp.No. 4. 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Name Voltmeter Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer Range (0-600)V (0-30)V (0-2)A (0-10)A 220 /1. Field rheostat of motor is kept at its minimum position at the time of starting.

Open circuit characteristics are drawn for the above values i. Short circuit characteristic is drawn for the noted values i. Field rheostat of the alternator is varied and the rated current (short circuit current) is made to flow.e.. The corresponding field current is noted. 10. Between Isc and If .e.8. i. between Eg per phase and If Then the field rheostat of the alternator is brought back to its original position. 12. the induced emf is brought back to minimum voltage. For various power factors the voltage regulations are calculated and voltage regulation characteristic is drawn.e. For Short circuit test TPST switch is closed.. COMPUTATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (R A): .. 9. 11. .

TABULATION TO FIND R a: Voltage drop across the Armature (Va) in volts Armature Resistance (Ra = Va / Ia) in ohm S. Armature Current (Ia) in Amps Mean R a .No.

TABULATION: (ii) Open Circuit Characteristics: S. Field Current (If) in Amps Short Circuit Current (Isc) in Amps MODEL GRAPH : OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS Generated voltage Eg/J.No.No. Field current (If) in Amps Generated line voltage Vl (volts) Generated per phase voltage Vph (volts) (iii) Short Circuit Characteristics: S. Volts OCC SCC Field current (If) Amps .

Draw a line IaRa. (i) Lagging power factor for leading power factor). get the resultant field current vectors If. 6. From SC curve find I f2 for the value of I a and draw If2 in phase opposition to Ia. parallel to Ia.MODEL PHASOR DIAGRAM: 1. Draw rated voltage (Vt) per phase as reference vector and then draw Ia with an angle of + (+ for lagging power factor and as Et. 4. 3. 2. From OCC curve. From OCC curve find E g for the value of I f and draw Eg normal to If. Add the current vectors If1 and If2. find I f1 for the corresponding value of E t and draw If1 normal to Et. 5. then join point O and the end point of I aR a and it is known If If1 If2 If1 ± Field current corresponding to Et If2 ± Field current corresponding to Ia If ± Resultant field current of If1 and If2 Eg ± Generated voltage per phase corresponding to field current If Eg Vt O Et IaRa Ia .

If1 If Eg Ia Et IaRa Vt If Rated current = A Induced voltage per phase Eg volts Lagging Leading S. Power Factor REGULA ION CHARACTERISTICS Leadi (ii) p er ac r Rated voltage per phase = % Voltage Regulation Lagging Leading V .No.

MODEL CALCULATIONS .

RESULT: .

.e.EXP. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE POTIER TRIANGLE (ZPF METHOD): (All the quantities are in per phase value) 1. 0. which is obtained from short circuit test with full load armature current. (iv) Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting.) air gap line. Draw the line BC from B towards Y-axis. Draw the ZPF curve which passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel to the open circuit characteristics curve. From the ZPF test. 5. 7.8 A ---Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FORMULAE USED: PRECAUTIONS: (i) All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. Draw the tangent for the OCC curve from the origin (i.NO. which is parallel and equal to OA. 3. Draw the parallel line for the tangent from C to the OCC curve. mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated armature current and the rated voltage.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of the Apparatus Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer TPST knife switch Type MC MI MC MI Wire wound Wire wound Digital -Range 0 1/2 A 0 5/10 A 0 10 V 0 600 V 250 . DATE: REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY POTIER TRIANGULAR METHOD AIM: To predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by ZPF method and draw the vector diagrams. Mark the point A at X-axis. 4. 1. 6. (iii) Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field Current) 2. APPARATURS REQUIRED: S. (ii) Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications.5 A 1200 .

6. which will be equal to the air gap voltage (Eair). 5. which will be equal to the field excitation current (If). Unity) draw the voltage vector and current vector OB.8. 11. 7. Find out the field current (Ifc) for the corresponding air gap voltage (Eair) from the OCC curve. Draw the perpendicular CD to AC from the point C with the mag nitude of IX L drop. Draw the vector FG from F with the magnitude Ifa in such a way it is parallel to the current vector OB. which should be parallel to the vector OB. 8. . PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM (ZPF METHOD) 1. where the line DE represents armature leakage reactance drop (IXL) BE represents armature reaction excitation (Ifa). Lead. 3. 9. Draw the vector OF with the magnitude of I fc which should be perpendicular to the vector OD. Join the points O and D. Draw the vector AC with the magnitude of IRa drop. Draw the perpendicular line to the vector OG from the point O and extend CD in such a manner to intersect the perpendicular line at the point H. Join the points B and D also drop the perpendicular line DE to BC. 10. Find out the open circuit voltage (Eo) for the corresponding field excitation current (If) from the OCC curve. 2. For the corresponding power angle ( Lag. 12. Select the suitable voltage and current scale. Join the points O and G. 4. Find out the regulation from the suit able formula.

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Field Current(If ) in amps Open circuit line Voltage (vol) in volts Open circuit phase voltage (voph)in volts S.No. .

.

SHORT CIRCUIT AND ZPF TEST: Short Circuit Test S. = (Obs. X MF) Total Power in Watts (W1+W2) MF .No Field current(I f) in Amps Rated Armature Current (Ia) in Amps Field current (If) in Amps Rated Armature Current (Ia) Amps Rated Armature Voltage (Va) in Volts ZPF Test W1 in Watts Act. X MF) W2 in Watts Act. = (Obs.

What is meant by armature reaction reactance? 4.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by ZPF Test? 2. What is Poitier reactance? How is it determined by Poitier triangle? 3. What is the significance of the ASA modification of MMF method? 5. What is air gap line in Poitier method? RESULT: .

Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Range (0-600V) (0-250V) (0-50A) (0-2A) (0-10A) 3. No: LOAD TEST ON THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR AIM: Date: To conduct a load test on three phase alternator and to draw the following characteristics a) voltage regulation curve b) output Vs efficiency curve APPARATUS REQUIRED: Serial No.2A 5KW Type MI MC MC MC MI Variable Digital Resistive Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 PRECAUTIONS: 1. Look for any change in the speed and voltage if so brings back to the previous values. 1. PROCEDURE: 1. 4. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. ammeter. 5. 4. 3. The alternator field rheostat resistance is adjusted and set the voltmeter reading to rated voltage of the alternator. Now. . Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting. 2. Rheostat Tachometer Three phase Loading Unit 220 /1. 2. By adjusting the field rheostat of motor. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 6. Repeat the above procedure until the machine is loaded up to 120% of rated current. Now open TPST switch and note down the alternator side voltage reading as Eg and immediately the TPST is closed. 2. close the TPST switch and apply the load. run the alternator at synchronous speed. 7. At no load take the readings of voltmeter. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. Now take the corresponding reading of ammeter. 5. 3. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram and the DPST is closed. Start the motor with the help of three point starter.Exp. 8. 4.

No Input voltage (Vm) in Volts Load voltage (VA) in Volts % Efficiency % Voltage regulation (Eg-Vr)/Vr *100 .TABULATION: MOTOR Input Current (Im) in Amps Input power (Wmi) in Watts Output power (Wmo) in Watts Output Load power current = IA in 3VLIL Amps Cos in watts Field winding voltage (Vf) in Volts ALTERNATOR Field winding current (If) in Amps Field Input to winding the input alternator (VLIL) in watts In Watts S.

FORMULA USED: Motor Input Power = Vm Im Motor Output Power = m V m Im [Assume motor efficiency] Input to the Field Winding = V f If Alternator Input Power = Motor Output Power + Input to the Field Winding Alternator Output Power = 3V LILCos [Where Cos % of Alternator Efficiency ( A) = 1] = (Output Power/ Input Power)X100 % Voltage Regulation = [(E g1-Vr) / Vr]X100 % MODEL CALCULATION: .

What is the purpose of damper winding? RESULT: . What is meant by direct axis reactance? 2. What is meant by quadrature axis reactance? 3. How the regulation of alternator is predetermined? 4.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the difference between salient pole alternator and cylindrical rotor type alternator? 5.

After closing the DPST switch. a low voltage is applied across the stator of the alternator. . 3. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. reads some value. then the speed of the alternator and voltage applied are slightly adjusted in such a manner that the pointer in the voltmeter and ammeter of the alternator oscillates with maximum and minimum amplitude. 2. PROCEDURE: 1. 3. 5. Now the alternator is made to run at a speed slightly less than synchronous speed using field rheostat of the motor. Suppose. By using the three phase auto transformer.No. Range (0-600) V Type MI MI MC MC MI Variable Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Voltmeter (0-100) V (0-30) V 2 3 Ammeter Rheostat (0-10) A (0-10) A 220 / 2. then change the direction of rotation of the alternator or if the same voltmeter reads zero.Exp. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus Name S. the motor is started by using three point starters. if the voltmeter across the field winding.2 A PRECAUTIONS: 1. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. No: Date: REGULATION OF THREE-PHASE SALIENT POLE ALTERNATOR BY SLIP TEST AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of the given three-phase alternator by slip test. The maximum and minimum values of the readings of both the meters are noted. 4.

TABULATION Minimum Voltage in Volts Maximum voltage in Volts Minimum current in Amps Maximum current in Amps Xsd in .No. Xsd /X sq Ia = Amps Sl. Power factor Eo in Volts Lagging Leading % Regulation Lagging Leading .No. Xsq in . Power factor Eo in Volts Lagging Leading % Regulation Lagging Leading Ia = Amps Sl.

= V min / 3 Synchronous reactance of direct axis Xsd = (Max.current/ph. voltage/ph) / (max.MODEL CALCULATION Maximum voltage/ph. = V max / 3 Minimum voltage/ph. voltage/Ph.current/ph.) Synchronous reactance of quatrature axis Xsq = (min.) % Regulation = (E 0 Vph.) / Vph.) / (Min. X 100 .

c = Rd.. # # Vol age drop across the Ar ature (Va) i Volts Ar ature Current (Ia) in A ps ! Ar ature Resistance (Ra = Va / Ia) in ohm COMPUTATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (RA ) $ # " .1 = ------. REGULATION CHARACTERISTICS: # S.No.c * 1. Ra..TABULATION TO FIND Ra: Mean Ra Average value of Ra = --------.

Draw the currents Iq & I d where Iq & I d are quadrature & direct components of Ia where Iq =la cosU. From point b draw a drop l aXq in quadrature with la and mark it as point c Join the points o & c . From point d draw a line IqXq in quadrature with Iq and mark it as point e . Draw a line la lags the voltage V by an angle * . Join the points o and e it will give the value of the ge nerated voltage E o per phase .PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM Assume rated voltage V per phase as the reference vector and mark the endpoint as a . Id = la sinU From point b draw a line I dXd in quadrature with Id and mark it as point d . From point a draw a drop l aRa in parallel with la and mark it as point b . The angle between oc & V is H and the angle between oc & l a is U .

VECTOR DIAGRAM FOR 0.8 PF LAGGING c Eo Iq o Id Ia VP a IaRa b Ia Xq e d IdX .

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the purpose of damper winding? RESULT . Define Slip 3. What is the purpose of slip test on 3 phase alternator? 2. How is the regulation of alternator predetermined by slip test? 4.

DPST switch is closed and DPDT switch is thrown to position 1.1A Watt meter Power Factor meter Synchronizing switch 300V/10A 600V/10A Type MC MI MC MC MI Variable Variable UPF Analog Manual Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1. At this instant the SPST switch is closed. Rheostat 50. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications.9A 360 . Voltmeter PRECAUTIONS: 1. No: Date: V AND INVERTED V CURVES OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AIM: To draw V and inverted V curves of a given three phase synchronous machine. 5./4. 6.Exp. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. PROCEDURE 1. Apparatus Name Range (0 300 V) (0 600 V) (0 2A) 2. . 2. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting.No. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 3. Ammeter (0 20A) (0 10A) 3. / 1. Now the armature rheostat of the motor is brought to its minimum resistance position. 4. 3.

4. . 11. the synchronous switch is closed. bring the frequency of the flickering to very minimum. Note down the readings for various armature currents. Now the TPST switch is closed and the lamp flickers. Draw the curves between field current Vs power factor and field current Vs armature current. By varying the field rheostat resistance of the alternator. Repeat the previous procedure. 6. 10. Now DPDT switch is thrown to position 12. 8. At one stage. During the dark period. 5. Now the synchronous machine is synchronized with the main supply. 7. By varying the filed rheostat resistance of the alternator the generated voltage is made equal to the supply voltage of the three phase side. find the point where the field current is low and armature current in approximately 110% of the full load current. Gradually move the rheostat resistance position such that. the field current will still increase and the armature current will also increase. Now the DPDT switch is opened. The supply voltage on the alternator side is measured. 13. The field rheostat resistance of the motor is adjusted so that the motor runs at nearly to its synchronous speed. Note down all the meter readings. Take the readings up to the 110% of rated current of the armature. the field current increases and the alternator armature current decreases. 2. 9. Apply some load on the DC generator. By adjusting the filed rheostat of the motor.

Vdc in Volts IL in Amps Field current If in Amps Vac in Volts Iac in Amps Wattmeter reading W 2 in Watts Power W2 x MF in Watts Power Factor * Where MF is the watt meter constant . Vdc in Volts Vac in Volts Iac in Amps Wattmeter reading W 1 in Watts Power Factor * MF is the watt meter multiplication factor 2.TABULATION 1.No.No. at any load condition S. at no load condition Field current (If) in Amps Power W1 x MF in Watts S.

MODEL GRAPH: .

What is synchronous condenser? RESULT: . Why Synchronous motor is not self starting? 2. What are the starting methods used for synchronous motor? 3.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What are the readings considered for inverted V curve? 5. List the application of Synchronous motor? 4.

power factor and slip are calculated and the curves are plotted. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. Note down the no load readings of V 1. I 1. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 2. W 2. 3. efficiency. Using the formula. 4. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. After closing the TPST switch. S2 and N. 5. torque. 4. take different readings till the current reaches 120% of the rated current. . Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Tachometer Range (0-600)V (0-10) A 600 V. 3. 2.No. S1. By applying the load. 10A -Type Ml Ml UPF Digital Quantity 1 1 2 1 PRECAUTIONS: 1. 1. W 1. 3. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON THREE-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To conduct the load test on the given three phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw its performance characteristics. 2.Exp. PROCEDURE 1. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. motor is started by using star-delta starter.

Voltage No.TABULATION Line S. (VL) in Volts Load current (IL) in Amps Spring balance Readings (Kg) S1 S2 S1~ S 2 Speed (N) in RPM Wattmeter readings W1xMF W2xMF Input power (Pt) in Watts Torque (T) in N-m Output power Power (Po) in factor Watts % Slip (S) % Efficiency (L) .

2. S1. 5. S 2 p Reff Reff T N Ns MF p = p p p p Spring balance readings in Kg. 3. (Brake drum radius in cm + ½ of thickness of belt in cm) Torque in N-m Speed in RPM Synchronous speed in RPM Multiplication factors of wattmeter . Input Power (Pi ) = (MF x W1 + MF x W2) watts Torque (T) = 9. 4. 6. Effective radius of the brake drum in meters.81 * (S 1 ~ S2) * Reff N-m Output Power (Po) = 2 N T / 60 watts Efficiency (L) = (Output Power / Input Power)* 100 % of Slip (S) = (Ns N / Ns) X 100 Power Factor = Input Power / ( 3 * VL *IL) Where.FORMULAE USED 1.

MODEL GRAPH

MODEL CALCULATION

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by RMF? 2. Why an induction motor is called rotating transformer? 3. Why an induction motor will never run at its synchronous speed? 4. What are slip rings? 5. What are the advantages of cage motor? 6. What is meant by magnetic logging?

RESULT

The rotor resistance starter is adjusted by means of step by step and bring it in to minimum resistance position. At no load take the readings of voltmeter. The rotor resistance starter should be at the maximum resistance position. The TPST switch is closed. 4.Exp.No. 1. 2. . APPARATUS REQUIRED S. No: Date: LOAD TEST ON THREE-PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To conduct a load test on slip ring induction motor and draw its performance characteristics. ammeter and wattmeter and also the speed in RPM Load the machine up to 120% of full load and note down all the meter readings. PROCEDURE Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Tachometer Range (0 -600)V (0-10A) 600V/10A ---Type MI MI UPF Digital Quantity 1 1 2 1 The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 3.

TABULATION: Spring balance reading in kgs. S1 S2 S1~S2 S. No Line voltage (VL) in Volts Line current (IL) in Amps Speed (N) in rpm Wattmeter readings in Watts W1 x MF W2 x MF W1+W2 Torque (T) in N-m % slip (S) Power factor Output power in Watts % Efficiency ( ) Without External Resistance With External Resistance .

Effective radius of brake drum in m iii). % efficiency ( ) = (Output power / Input power) x 100 vi). S 2 . Power factor (cos ) = Input power / ( 3V L IL) Where. Repeat the above procedure when external resistance is included in the rotor circuit. FORMULA: i).Synchronous speed in rpm v). Release the load fully and bring the machine to off position. Output power P o= (2 NT) / 60 in watts Where. Input power P in = W 1 + W2 in watts Where. N .81x (S 1~S2) x Reff.Torque in N-m iv).wattmeter readings in watts ii).Spring balance readings in Kgs Reff . W2 . VL .Line current in amps . S1. Torque T = 9.Speed of rotor in rpm T . W1. % Slip = ((N S-N) / NS) x100 Where. N-m Where.Supply voltage in volts IL . Ns .

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Mention different types of speed control of slip ring induction motor? What is meant by crawling of induction motor? What are the advantages of 3-phase induction motor? What is the difference between slip ring and split ring? What is reason for inserting additional resistance in rotor circuit of a slip ring induction Motor? RESULT: . 5. 2.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 4. 3.

Apparatus Name Range 0-5A 1. No: Date: NO LOAD AND BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To predetermine the performance characteristics of a three phase squirrel cage induction motor from equivalent circuit and circle diagram approach.No. APPARATUS REQUIRED S. Voltmeter 0-150V 0-30V 3. Wattmeter 600V/5A 150V/20A Type MI MI MC MI MI MC LPF UPF Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 PRECAUTIONS TPST should be opened before verifying the circuit connections Autotransformer should be in the minimum voltage position . Ammeter 0-15A 0-15A 0-600V 2.Exp.

No.F Copper loss in Watts = (W1 + W 2) TO FIND STATOR RESISTANCE Voltage drop in the stator (V) in Volts S.F W2 X M.TABULATIONS NO LOAD TEST Line Voltage (VL) in Volts Line Current (Ia) in Amps Wattmeter reading in Watts W 1 x MF W2 x MF No load input Power in Watts = W1 +W2 Speed (N) in rpm BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Line Voltage (VL) in Volts Line Current (Ia) in Amps Wattmeter reading in Watts W1 X M. Stator current (Is) in Amps Stator resistance (Rs = V / I s) in Mean (R ac) Stator resistance R1 = Rac x 1.6 in .

PROCEDURE NO LOAD TEST The connection are made as shown in the circuit diagram After observing all precautions the TPST switch is closed By adjusting autotransformer bring the voltmeter reading to rated voltage of the motor then note down voltmeter. the ammeter and the wattmeter readings. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Block the rotor by applying a load After observing all the precautions the TPST switch is closed By gradually adjusting the auto transformer bring the ammeter reading to the rated current of the motor then note down ammeter. voltmeter and wattmeter readings TO FIND THE STATOR RÉSISTANCE The connection are made as shown in the circuit diagram Apply different voltage to stator winding up to the full load current note down the ammeter and the voltmeter readings FORMULAE NO LOAD TEST No load line voltage No load line current No load power BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Blocked rotor line voltage Blocked rotor line current Blocked rotor power = = = Vsc in Volts Isc in Amps Wsc in Watts = = = V0 in Volts I0 in Amps W0 in Watts .

No load voltage per phase V0 = = = = = = = 0 V L0 in V I L0 / 3 in A W L0 / 3 in W V Lsc in V I Lsc / 3 in A W Lsc / 3 in W W o / V 0 I0 Cos -1(Wo / V0 I0) No load current per phase I0 No load power per phase W0 Blocked rotor voltage per phase Vsc Blocked rotor current per phase Isc Blocked rotor power per phase Wsc Cos Find Sin 0 = 0 Magnetizing branch resistance R0 Magnetizing branch reactance X0 Total resistance Rsc Total impedance Zsc Total reactance Xsc X1 Where X1 X21 R1 R21 Stator reactance in = X21 R21 = = = = = = = V 0 / (I0 Cos V 0 / (I0 Sin W sc / Isc2 in V sc / Isc in Z sc2. = R 21 (1 .s) / s in = (R 1+ R 21 / s) + j(X1 + X 21 /s) in = (V 0 r / Z) in A in A No load current per phase = I0 .Rsc2 in X sc / 2 in R sc R1 in 0) 0) in in Rotor reactance referred to stator in Stator resistance in Rotor resistance referred to stator in RL Z I11 1 For any slip S .

% Slip (assume) Speed (N) in RPM Torque (T) in N-m Power Factor % Efficiency ( ) MODEL GRAPH (EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT) . No.TABULATION FOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT METHOD Line Voltage (VL) in Volts Phase current (IPh) in Amps Line current (IL) in Amps Input power (Pt ) in Watts Output power (Po) in Watts S.

I1 Line current IL Power factor Speed Input power Output power = = = = = = = I0 I Cos + I11 in A 1 3 I in A NS (1 .s) in rpm 3 x V ph x Iph x Cos 3 x (I 1)2 x RL in W in W .

. Where ns synchronous speed in rps Repeat the above calculation for various slips.

MODEL GRAPH (CIRCLE DIAGRAM) .

3. 4. 2.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is purpose of Equivalent circuit? What is meant by crawling of induction motor? How will you calculate Cu loss of 3-phase induction motor? How will you calculate core loss of 3-phase induction motor? List out the starting methods for 3 phase induction motor. 5. RESULT: .

2. Repeat the above procedure until the voltmeter reads the minimum voltage. . 3. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. The readings of Voltmeter. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 3. A graph connecting Vph2 Vs No Load Loss is drawn. PROCEDURE The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. Voltmeter 0-30 V 0-5 A 2. By adjusting the autotransformer. By adjusting the autotransformer. the rated voltage is applied. apply slightly less than the previous voltage and the meter readings are noted. Ammeter 0-10 A Watt meter 600 V/5 A MC LPF 1 2 Type MI MC MI Quantity 1 1 1 PRECAUTIONS: 1.Exp. Ammeter and Watt meters (W1W2) are noted. From the curve mechanical loss and iron loss at rated voltage are calculated. No: Date: SEPARATION OF NO-LOAD LOSSES OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To separate the no load losses of a three-phase induction motor to its components a) Iron loss b) Mechanical loss APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No Apparatus Range 0-600 V 1.

No Line voltage (VL) in Volts Line current (IL) in Amps Phase current (Iph) in Amps Vph 2 Watt meter reading in Watts W1x MF W2x MF No load input Power in Watts ( W1 + W2) Copper loss in Watts No load loss in Watts Mechanical loss (Wm) in Watts Iron loss (Wi ) in Watts .TABULATION SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES S.

FORMULA No load losses = No load input No load Cu loss .

.

5. 3.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 4. 2. What are losses in 3-Phase induction motor? How will you separate losses of induction motor? What is meant by Hysteresis loss? What is meant by Eddy Current loss? How to minimize the eddy current and hysteresis losses? RESULT: .

Wattmeter PRECAUTIONS: 1. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. This procedure is repeated till 125% of rated current is obtained. The NO LOAD readings of Voltmeter. By adjusting the autotransformer the rated voltage is applied. Ammeter and Watt meters (W1.No. . 3. Ammeter 0 10 A 0 10 A 600 V / 10 A 150 V / 10 A Type MI MI MC MI MC UPF UPF Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3. No: Date: LOSS SUMMATION METHOD ON THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To predetermine the performance characteristics of a given 3 phase induction motor by loss summation method. 2. Voltmeter 0 150 V 0 30 V 2. The brake drum spring balance readings ar e ignored.Exp. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. APPRATUS REQUIRED S. Apparatus Name Range 0 600 V 1. PROCEDURE NO LOAD & LOAD TEST Note: Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Now the motor is gradually loaded and the corresponding readings are noted. W2) are noted. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications.

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. rated current) and the corresponding readings of Voltmeter and Watt meters (W3.e. . W4) are noted. The autotransformer is adjusted such that the ammeter reads the same value of current as in the load test (i. The rotor is blocked.

No Line voltage (VL) in Volts Line Current (IL) in Amps Speed (N) in rpm Wattmeter readings in watts MF x W1 MF x W2 MF x W3 MF x W4 Input power (W) (W1+ W2) in Watts Cu loss (W) (W3+ W4) in Watts Output power in Watts Torque (T) in N-m Power factor % Slip % Efficiency .TABULATION LOSS SUMMATION METHOD S.

FORMULAE Constant losses (Wo) = No load input No load Cu loss No load input 3 I02 * Ra Input power = W1 + W 2 Cu loss = W3 + W 4 Output power = Input power Cu loss Constant loss = (W1 + W 2) (W3 + W4) W 0 Torque (T) = (Output / 2TN) * 60 N m Slip (%) = (Ns N) / Ns * 100 Power Factor = Input / (3 VL *IL) Efficiency (%) = (Output / Input) * 100 .

Cage induction motor? RESULT . 2.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 4. 3. 5. Why the three phase induction motor is called as rotating transformer? How will you separate losses of induction motor? What is the relationship between load current and loss? Why the induction motors are generally called as asynchronous motor? Name the applications of 3 phase squ.

20A - Type MI MI UPF Variable Digital Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 PRECAUTIONS: 1. 1. Now apply the load in step by step up to the 125% of rated current. 3. 2. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. APPARATUS REQUIRED S. By adjusting autotransformer. 4. Under no load condition note down all the meters reading. No: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM Date: To conduct the load test on single phase capacitor start induction motor and to draw the performance characteristics curve. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. The supply is given and the DPST switch is closed. note down all the readings of the meters. 5. 2. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection.No. bring the voltmeter reading to rated voltage of the motor. . PROCEDURE The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.Exp. Apparatus Name Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Single Phase Auto Transformer Tachometer Range 0-300V 0-20A 300V/20A 230V/(0-270)V. 3.

No. % Slip Power Factor % Efficiency .TABULATION Supply voltage (Vs) in Volts Line current (IL) in Amps Input power (W1xMF) (Watts) Speed (N) in rpm Spring balance reading in kg S1 S2 S 1~ S 2 Torque (T) in N-m Output power (Po) in Watts S.

S2 .Synchronous speed of the machine. N .FORMULAE 1.Effective radius of the brake drum in metre. Torque = 9. 4. % Slip = (N s N) / Ns * 100 Where Ns . % Efficiency = (Output power / Input power) * 100 .Rotor sped of the machine. 2. Output power = 2 NT / 60 in watts 3. Power Factor = Input power / V LIL 5.Spring balance reading in Kg Reff .81 (S 1 ~ S2) * Reff in N-m Where S1.

4.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. RESULT . State any four use of single-phase induction motor. What is the function of capacitor in a single-phase induction motor? 3.run motor over capacitor start motor. State the advantages of capacitor start. What are the various methods available for making a single-phase motor self-starting? 2.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.10A) (300V. The windings of a 1- displaced in space by 120º. In the winding(provided) are rotor of a single phase winding is provided. No: Date: DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SINGLE -PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To draw the performance characteristics of a single phase induction motor by conducting the no-load and blocked rotor test. The rotor starts rotating due to the induction effect produced due to the relative velocity between the rotor winding and the rotating flux. Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. PRECAUTIONS: NO LOAD TEST: y y y Initially DPST Switch is kept open. .No 1 2 3 Name of Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Range (0-300)V (0-150)V (0-10)A (0-2)A (330V. rotor and other associated parts. The machine must be started at full load(blocked rotor). The machines must be started on no load. Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: y y y Initially the DPST Switch is kept open.A single phase current is fed to the windings so that a resultant rotating magnetic flux is generated.5A) Type MI Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 UPF LPF THEORY: A 1induction motor consists of stator.Exp.

3. Autotransformer is varied to have a rated voltage applied. 2.PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 4. Meter readings are the noted. Reff = 1.5*R dc FORMULAENO LOAD TESTy cos = Wo/VoIo y Iw = Io cos y Im = Io sin y Ro = Vo/Iw y Xo = Vo/Im BLOCKED ROTOR TESTZsc = Vsc/Isc Rsc = Wsc/Isc2 Xsc = (Zsc2 Rsc2) . Precautions are observed and the motor is started at no load. Autotransformer is varied to have rated current flowing in motor. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. Precautions are observed and motor is started on full load or blocked rotor position. 3.

No.TABULATION NO LOAD TEST No Load Voltage (Vo) in volts No Load Current (Io) in amps No Load Power (Wo) in watts Actual = Observed x MF S. .No. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Short Circuit Voltage (Vsc) in volts Short Circuit Current (Isc) in amps Short Circuit Power (Wsc ) in watts Actual = Observed x MF S.

Name the types of single phase induction motor? 3. What is the purpose of centrifugal switch? 4. What are losses in Single Phase induction motor? 2. RESULT- .VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. State any four use of single-phase induction motor.

4. 3. 2.Exp. APPARATUS REQUIRED S. The motor is switched off using the TPST switch after bringing autotransformer is their initial position. No: Date: SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR BY V/F METHOD AIM To control the speed of a given Three-Phase Induction motor by V/f method and to draw the characteristics curves. . The three-phase autotransformer is varied gradually and the corresponding voltage and speed are noted up to 120% of the rated speed. NO 1 2 3 Name of the Apparatus Voltmeter Three-Phase Autotransformer Tachometer Type MI Variable Digital Range 0-600V 415V / (0-600)V Quantity 1 1 1 PROCEDURE VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Using the three-phase autotransformer motor is started to run.

TABULATION FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD S.m Vin in volts .NO APPLIED VOLTAGE in Volts SPEED IN RPM (N) MODEL GRAPH: Speed (N) in r.p.

Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Then the field rheostat position of the motor is varied. i. Field rheostat of the alternator is gradually varied and set the rated voltage. For different frequency speed of the induction motor reading is noted. 6. 8. 7. . 4.. 5. DPST Switch is closed. The motor is started by means of starter. The motor is set to run at rated speed of the alternator by varying the field rheostat of the motor. 2.VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD: 1. 3. the frequency of the induced emf also changed.e. Field rheostat of motor is kept at its minimum position at the time of starting. This induced voltage given to the induction motor.

m Frequency in Hz .TABULATION FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD Frequency in Hz f=PN/120 SPEED IN RPM (N) S.NO MODEL GRAPH: Speed (N) in r.p.

What are the speed control methods of induction motor? 2. 4.What are the speed control methods for Slip-ring Induction motor.Define Synchronous speed. RESULT: .Viva Questions: 1.Write the speed equation for induction motor? 3.

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