You are on page 1of 49

Integrated Building Environmental Design Beijing Parkview Green

10 May 2008

Integrated Building Environmental Design Beijing Parkview Green 10 May 2008
Developer : Beijing Chyau Fwu Properties Co., Ltd. Architect : Integrated Design Associates Engineering Consultant :
Developer : Beijing Chyau Fwu Properties Co., Ltd.
Architect : Integrated Design Associates
Engineering Consultant : Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd.
Building Information Site Forbidden City Location: No. building: Building usage: Development Floor area: Beijing, China 4
Building Information
Site
Forbidden
City
Location:
No. building:
Building usage:
Development
Floor area:
Beijing, China
4 buildings enclosed by a Microclimate Envelope
Class-A office, retail, hotel, restaurant and carpark
200,000 m²
Site
Building height:
87m
No. of storey:
3-storey basement carpark
4-storey retail floor
7~10-storey office floor
6-story hotel
Latitude = 39.93N
Longitude = 116.28E
Elevation = 55m

Design Objectives

New paradigm of sustainable building in China Sustainable & environmentally-friendly design to the neighbourhood, the covered common spaces and the occupied areas in buildings Low natural resources consumption and energy efficient buildings Minimal social and environmental im pact to surrounding building occupants Cost effective and low O&M cost green technologies Maximize use of hybrid ventilation Low environmental impact Good indoor environmental quality Safe, healthy and liveable space

Resources Use

Resources Use

IEQ IEQ Neighbourhood Neighbourhood Site Amenities Site Amenities Building Building Site Site Neighbourhood Neighbourhood Amenities Amenities
IEQ
IEQ
Neighbourhood
Neighbourhood
Site Amenities
Site Amenities
Building
Building
Site
Site
Neighbourhood
Neighbourhood
Amenities
Amenities
Amenities
Amenities
Impacts
Impacts
Impacts
Impacts
BUILDING
BUILDING
OPEN SPACE
OPEN SPACE
Loadings
Loadings

Beijing Climatic Data – Outdoor Temperature & Humidity

Annual Average Outdoor Temp. 11.7 o C Average Outdoor Temp. of the Hottest Month (July) 25.9 o C Average Outdoor Temp. of the Coldest Month (Jan) -4.8 o C When outside critical illuminance is 5,000 lx, available time of daylight is about 3,900 hours Maximum altitude in summer is 73.7° RH 40%-80%

Beijing Climatic Data – Outdoor Temperature & Humidity • Annual Average Outdoor Temp. 11.7 C •

Weather Condition in Beijing

40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 Jan Feb M ar Apr M ay Jun Jul Aug Sep
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
Jan
Feb
M ar
Apr
M ay
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
-10.00
-20.00
Dry-bulb Temperature

Month

M ean M in M ax
M ean
M in
M ax

Weather Condition in Beijing

90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Jan Feb M ar Apr M
90.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
Jan
Feb
M ar
Apr
M ay
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Relative Humidity (%)

Month

Beijing Climatic Data - Wind

Summer prevailing wind:

SW

 

Beijing Wind Rose

Winter prevailing wind:

N, NNW

Located on the fringe of the loess belt

Sandy and dusty weather originated in Inner Mongolia, Gansu and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region will affect the region in spring season.

 

Outdoor Air Speed (m/s)

 

Annual

Winter

Summer

Average

2.5

2.8

1.9

Wind Speed

Frequency of

-

NNW (13%)

SW (10%)

Occurrence

N (13%)

N

15 NNW NNE NW NE 10 WNW ENE 5 W 0 E WSW ES E Winter
15
NNW
NNE
NW
NE
10
WNW
ENE
5
W
0
E
WSW
ES E
Winter
Summer
S W
S E
Spring
Autumn
SSW
SSE

S

Architectural Deign

Architectural Deign

Massing

Massing
Massing
Massing
Massing
Architectural Design Atrium space amongst buildings Block A Block D Block B Block C 4 buildings
Architectural Design
Atrium space
amongst buildings
Block A
Block D
Block B
Block C
4 buildings enclosed by
Microclimate Envelope
Hotel
Offices
Retail
18 13 11 9 8 9 7 6 7 6 5 4 3
18
13
11
9
8
9
7
6
7
6
5
4
3
Planning Parameters 26 0 Roof angle Environmental consideration informs Building Shape Height Limit 26% External Green
Planning Parameters
26 0 Roof angle
Environmental consideration informs
Building Shape
Height Limit
26% External Green Area
40% Internal Green Area
76
Building Separation
120,000m 2
1
26
1.7
25,000m 2
55,000m 2

0700

0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis

0900

0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis

1200

0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis

1400

0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis

1700

0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis

Daylight Analysis

0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
0700 0900 1200 1400 1700 Daylight Analysis
North Mech Vent Intake Natural Vent Intake Beijing Wind Rose N 15 NNW NNE NW NE
North
Mech Vent
Intake
Natural
Vent Intake
Beijing Wind Rose
N
15
NNW
NNE
NW
NE
10
WNW
ENE
5
Natural
W
0
E
Vent Intake
WSW
ES E
Winter
Summer
S W
S E
Spring
Autumn
SSW
SSE
S
Mech Vent
Intake
Sunken Level 2 - Layout
exhaust exhaust intake intake intake
exhaust
exhaust
intake
intake
intake
exhaust exhaust intake intake intake L18 (high block top floor) L13 (hotel portion) L9 (low block
exhaust exhaust intake intake intake L18 (high block top floor) L13 (hotel portion) L9 (low block
exhaust exhaust intake intake intake L18 (high block top floor) L13 (hotel portion) L9 (low block
exhaust exhaust intake intake intake L18 (high block top floor) L13 (hotel portion) L9 (low block

L18 (high block top floor)

L13 (hotel

portion)

L9 (low block top floor)

L3 (office portion) L1 (Street level)

Sunken Level 2 (retail portion)

exhaust exhaust intake intake intake L18 (high block top floor) L13 (hotel portion) L9 (low block

Fabric Construction of Microclimate Envelope

Fabric Construction of Microclimate Envelope

ETFE Roof – Construction & Configuration

All cushions are constructed from 2 or more layers of ETFE foil. Each foil layer is 100~250 microns thick. ETFE foils are highly elastic materials. Elongation at break point is approx. 400%. ETFE has a long-term memory, i.e. long-term elasticity. The cushion rise / dip for 15%~20% of span is allowed. Nominal inflation pressure 200Pa. (same as National Swimming Centre) Cushion foil and structure able to handle bo th wind up-lift and wind pressure. Cushion internal pressure to be controlled by air pump.

ETFE Roof – Construction & Configuration • • • • • • • • All cushions
ETFE Roof – Construction & Configuration • • • • • • • • All cushions

exhaust

ETFE Roof – Construction & Configuration • • • • • • • • All cushions
Overview of Green Features

Overview of Green Features

Green Features • Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office • Free cooling for air-side systems
Green Features • Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office • Free cooling for air-side systems

Green Features

Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office

Free cooling for air-side systems

Skygraden

Thermal break on facade interior (double skin

facade) Daylighting

Rainwater recycling

AC condensate resued for cooling tower

Evaporative cooling

Heat Pipe

Earth cooling in basement (fresh air pre-cool)

Variable speed pump and ventilation fans

Evaporative type water cooled air-conditioning

 

Internal Condition of Various Areas by changing Different Roof Glazing Materials [Autum n Season]

 

30.0

29.0

29.0

Temperature (deg.C)

28.0

 

Roof of Low Block 1

27.0

 

Roof of High Block 1

Atirum at Level 1

 

Atrium at Street Level

26.0

 

25.0

Skygarden at High Block 1

 

24.0

 

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

 

Shading Coefficient

 

Technical Studies

Hybrid ventilation

Ventilated facade

Ground source heat pump

Photovoltaic system

Heat pipe application

Radiant cooling / heating

Heat recovery chillers

Building thermal and pressure distribution

Building solar and daylight access

Building energy simulation

Energy efficient air distribution system

Ecological enclosure thermal and

ventilation study

Air-side and water-side free cooling

Outdoor and indoor cooling tower

schemes Chiller plant heat rejection study

And…… ..

Green Features • Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office • Free cooling for air-side systems
Green Features • Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office • Free cooling for air-side systems
Green Features • Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office • Free cooling for air-side systems
Green Features • Hybrid ventilation and Night cooling in office • Free cooling for air-side systems
Hybrid Ventilation Design in Atrium Area

Hybrid Ventilation Design in Atrium Area

Microclimatic Envelope Design

Function of Microclimatic Envelope

Spring & Autumn Seasons

 

Introduce natural ventilation – enhance thermal comfort in Atrium and

Sky-gardens Introduce natural ventilation – reduce energy consumption for Office air- conditioning systems

Reduce energy consumption of air-conditioning system for other areas, I.e. Hotel and Retail by reduction of solar heat gain

Summer Season

 

Reduce energy consumption of air-conditioning system for all areas, I.e. Office, Hotel and Retail by reduction of solar heat gain

Introduce natural ventilation – Increase the air movement inside the atrium and thermal comfort

Winter Season

Isolation from freezing environment – Increase Atrium air temperature

and thermal comfort Reduce energy consumption of heating system by reduction of fabric heat loss

Microclimatic Envelope Design Function of Microclimatic Envelope • Spring & Autumn Seasons • Introduce natural ventilation
Microclimatic Envelope Design Function of Microclimatic Envelope • Spring & Autumn Seasons • Introduce natural ventilation
Microclimatic Envelope Design Function of Microclimatic Envelope • Spring & Autumn Seasons • Introduce natural ventilation
Microclimatic Envelope Design Function of Microclimatic Envelope • Spring & Autumn Seasons • Introduce natural ventilation

Microclimatic Envelope Design

Spring & Autumn Seasons

Reduction of Solar Radiation A/C energy consumption: -63% Office Floors – Natural Ventilation Operating Retail Floors
Reduction of Solar Radiation
A/C energy consumption: -63%
Office Floors – Natural Ventilation Operating
Retail Floors – Air-conditioning Operating
Atrium – Hybrid Ventilation Operating
Exhaust
Vent
Envelope Exhaust Vent Opened
Vent out stratified hot air
Opened
Envelope Inlet Vent Opened
Increase fresh air inlet and
assist exhaust air vent
Exhaust
Vent Opened
Natural Ventilation Atrium
Thermal Comfort Temperature
29°C- 31°C
(0.5m/s-1.0m/s)
Ground Floor
Inlet Vent
Opened
Microclimatic Envelope Design Spring & Autumn Seasons Reduction of Solar Radiation A/C energy consumption: -63% Office

Natural Ventilation – windy condition

Natural Ventilation – windy condition
Natural Ventilation – windy condition

Natural Ventilation – windless condition

Natural Ventilation – windless condition
Natural Ventilation – windless condition

Microclimatic Envelope Design

Summer Season

Reduction of Solar Radiation A/C energy consumption: -13% Summer outdoor temp: 35°C Envelope Exhaust Vent Opened
Reduction of Solar Radiation
A/C energy consumption: -13%
Summer outdoor
temp: 35°C
Envelope Exhaust Vent Opened
Vent out stratified hot air
Office Floors – Air-conditioning Operating
Retail Floors – Air-conditioning Operating
Atrium – Hybrid Ventilation Operating
Exhaust Vent
Envelope Inlet Partially Vent
Opened Reduce infiltrated air
and assist exhaust air vent
Opened
With Additional System
Atrium Thermal Comfort
Temperature 29°C- 31°C
Max. Temp at high
block top level:
40.5°C
(0.5m/s-1.0m/s)
Exhaust Vent
Opened
Max. Temp at low
block top level:
37.7°C
Atrium ground
level
temp.:36.7°C
Ground Floor Inlet
Vent Opened

Microclimatic Envelope Design

Winter Season

Additional Fabric Insulation Heating energy consumption: 80% Winter outdoor temp: -10°C Envelope Exhaust Vent Closed retain
Additional Fabric Insulation
Heating energy consumption: 80%
Winter outdoor
temp: -10°C
Envelope Exhaust Vent Closed
retain internal hot air
Envelope Inlet Vent Closed
Restrict freezing air infiltration and
retain internal air temperature
Office Floors – Air-conditioning Operating
Retail Floors – Air-conditioning Operating
Atrium – Hybrid Ventilation Operating
Exhaust Vent
Closed
With Additional System Atrium
Thermal Comfort Temperature
3°C - 10°C (< 0.5m/s)
Max. Temp at high
block top level:
7°C
Exhaust Vent
Closed
Max. Temp at low
block top level:
7°C
Atrium ground
level temp.: 0°C
Ground Floor Inlet
Vent Opened

Energy Saving for HVAC System

Function of microclimate envelope – reduce system energy consumption

 

System cooling / heating

System cooling / heating

Total AC

load (without microclimate

load (with microclimate

energy

envelope)

envelope)

saving

Spring &

Office = 10300 MWh

Office = 1700 MWh

63%

Autumn

Hotel = 530 MWh Retail = 4100 MWh

Hotel = 470 MWh Retail = 3300 MWh

(cooling)

Summer

Office = 9100 MWh

Office = 8000 MWh

13%

Hotel = 540 MWh

Hotel = 470 MWh

(cooling/

Retail = 3300 MWh

Retail = 2700 MWh

heating)

Winter

Office = 4000 MWh

Office = 800 MWh

80%

Hotel = 340 MWh Retail = 1400 MWh

Hotel = 70 MWh Retail = 280 MWh

(heating)

Atrium: Supplementary air conditioning (FCU)
Atrium:
Supplementary air
conditioning (FCU)

Atrium Comfort Improvement

AC System Layout Plan at SL2 Atrium

Atrium:

Supplementary air conditioning (AHU)

Atrium: Supplementary air conditioning (FCU) Atrium Comfort Improvement AC System Layout Plan at SL2 Atrium Atrium:
Atrium: Supplementary air conditioning (FCU) Atrium Comfort Improvement AC System Layout Plan at SL2 Atrium Atrium:
Atrium: Supplementary air conditioning (FCU) Atrium Comfort Improvement AC System Layout Plan at SL2 Atrium Atrium:

Atrium Comfort Improvement

Summer – SL2 Atrium Environment

Optional thermal environment improvement system

Exhaust air reuse

Utilize retail exhaust Exhaust air flowrate 32 m 3 /s SA temp 25.0°C

Atrium air supply system

Utilize office exhaust / atrium cooling unit SA flowrate 70 m 3 /s SA temp 25.0°C

Radiant cooling

Less effective than supply air system, require chilled water supply, pipeworks cannot be laid under EVA

Pool evaporative cooling

Less effective than supply air system, require large amount of make-up water, condensation at retail shop glass surface adjacent to the pool

Innovative HVAC Design

Innovative HVAC Design

Load Estimation

Dynamic thermal analysis 3D model separated in different zones Heat transfer between building and the surroundings Consider solar heat gain, fabric gain, convective heat gain, internal load

Perimeter Zone

Load Estimation • Dynamic thermal analysis • 3D model separated in different zones • Heat transfer
Load Estimation • Dynamic thermal analysis • 3D model separated in different zones • Heat transfer

Interior Zone

Load Estimation • Dynamic thermal analysis • 3D model separated in different zones • Heat transfer

Hybrid Ventilation System in Office

Chilled Ceiling & Underfloor Air Supply System in Office Control point for office AC system
Chilled Ceiling &
Underfloor Air
Supply System
in Office
Control point for
office AC system
Hybrid Ventilation System in Office Chilled Ceiling & Underfloor Air Supply System in Office Control point

Hybrid Ventilation Modes

Hybrid ventilation system will be adopted on office floors. Hybrid ventilation system consists of 3 individual operating modes:

Air Conditioning Mode

Natural Ventilation Mode

Free Cooling Mode

Provide pleasant internal temperature level

Protect against summer overheating, reflection effects and draughts

Eliminating “cold wall” effects and ingress of cold breeze in winter

Reduce energy use for heating and cooling

Encourage use of semi-outdoor space

Hybrid Ventilation Modes Hybrid ventilation system will be adopted on office floors. Hybrid ventilation system consists

Key Issues in Hybrid Ventilation

Operational strategy for the microc limate envelope and all buildings in

different seasons Air circulation and temperature distribution within the microclimate

envelope Air circulation for hybrid ventilated space – office and circulation area

Materials selection for the included roof of microclimate envelope

Materials selection for different elevation of microclimate envelope and

buildings Vent (intake & exhaust) openings design on microclimate envelope

Air intake locations (orientation & level) and adjacent usages

Control interface with HVAC systems

Performance monitoring

Office Floors 办公室

Underfloor AC system

Typical office (High block & Low block L3-7) Underfloor fan box c/w hot water supply Perimeter
Typical office (High block & Low block L3-7)
Underfloor fan box c/w hot
water supply
Perimeter
zone
Underfloor fan box
size 600x600
Internal
zone

Office Floors

Chilled ceiling system

Perimeter zone Internal zone
Perimeter
zone
Internal
zone
Chilled ceiling system Perimeter zone Internal zone Typical office (12x12m2)

Typical office (12x12m2)

WINDOW IN OPEN POSITION PARTITION WALL AREA WITHOUT FRESH AIR FLOW PATH FLOW PATH EXHAUST /
WINDOW IN OPEN POSITION
PARTITION WALL
AREA WITHOUT
FRESH AIR FLOW PATH
FLOW PATH
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR
VOID FOR AIR EXHAUST
VOID FOR AIR INTAKE
DAMPER IN CLOSE POSITION
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR
DAMPER IN OPEN POSITION
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR
WINDOW IN CLOSE POSITION
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
Office Ventilation Design
Natural Ventilation Mode
AIRFLOW DIAGRAM (TYPICAL OFFICE FLOOR) - NATURAL VENTILATION MODE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
LEGEND
WINDOW IN OPEN POSITION PARTITION WALL AREA WITHOUT FRESH AIR FLOW PATH FLOW PATH EXHAUST /
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR AIR CONDITIONED AIR CONDITIONED NATURALLY VENTILATED NATURALLY VENTILATED NATURALLY VENTILATED NATURALLY VENTILATED
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR
AIR CONDITIONED
AIR CONDITIONED
NATURALLY VENTILATED
NATURALLY VENTILATED
NATURALLY VENTILATED
NATURALLY VENTILATED
OFFICE SPACE
AHU
AIR CONDITIONED OFFICE SPACE
AIR CONDITIONED OFFICE SPACE
AIR CONDITIONED OFFICE SPACE
WINDOW IN OPEN POSITION
WINDOW IN CLOSE POSITION
OFFICE SPACE
DAMPER
IN OPEN POSITION
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR
DAMPER
IN CLOSE POSITION
VOID FOR AIR INTAKE
VOID FOR AIR EXHAUST
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR
FLOW PATH
FRESH AIR FLOW PATH
AREA WITHOUT
PARTITION WALL
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
OFFICE SPACE
AHU
NATURALLY VENTILATED
NATURALLY VENTILATED
NATURALLY VENTILATED
OFFICE SPACE
LEGEND
OFFICE SPACE
OFFICE SPACE
AIR CONDITIONED OFFICE SPACE
AIR CONDITIONED OFFICE SPACE
AIR CONDITIONED
AIR CONDITIONED OFFICE SPACE
AIR CONDITIONED
AHU
NATURALLY VENTILATED OFFICE SPACE
AIRFLOW DIAGRAM (TYPICAL OFFICE FLOOR) - PARTIAL A/C & NV MODE
AHU
AHU
AHU
Air Conditioning Mode
Office Ventilation Design
OFFICE SPACE
OFFICE SPACE
OFFICE SPACE
OFFICE SPACE
OFFICE SPACE
EXHAUST / RETURN AIR AIR CONDITIONED AIR CONDITIONED NATURALLY VENTILATED NATURALLY VENTILATED NATURALLY VENTILATED NATURALLY VENTILATED
Low Block Natural Ventilation Exhaust 低座自然通风排风分布
Low Block Natural Ventilation Exhaust 低座自然通风排风分布

Office Ventilation Design

Free Cooling Mode

Low Block Free Cooling Intake & Exhaust 低座外气空调送排风分布
Low Block Free Cooling Intake & Exhaust 低座外气空调送排风分布

Hotel – HVAC Provision

Office, retail, hotel toilet exhaust, office copy room exhaust, smoke extraction Staircase and lobby pressurization Ceiling
Office, retail, hotel toilet exhaust, office copy
room exhaust, smoke extraction
Staircase and lobby
pressurization
Ceiling FCU can be used
in Guest Room
FCU

Hotel Lobby – Underfloor AC System

L18 Hotel Lobby Return Air 回风 AHU AHU
L18 Hotel Lobby
Return Air
回风
AHU
AHU
Hotel Lobby – Underfloor AC System L18 Hotel Lobby Return Air 回风 AHU AHU Supply Air
Hotel Lobby – Underfloor AC System L18 Hotel Lobby Return Air 回风 AHU AHU Supply Air

Supply Air grille

Hotel Lobby – Underfloor AC System L18 Hotel Lobby Return Air 回风 AHU AHU Supply Air
Other Building Services Design Considerations

Other Building Services Design Considerations

Fire Engineering – Evacuation Modelling

Fire Engineering – Evacuation Modelling
Fire Engineering – Evacuation Modelling
Construction Progress

Construction Progress

Site Construction Progress
Site Construction Progress
Construction of Microclimate Envelope
Construction of Microclimate Envelope
Interior Fitting-out Mock Up
Interior Fitting-out Mock Up
Interior Fitting-out Mock Up
Interior Fitting-out Mock Up