Other Names: Manako
Fruits and Nuts
General Crop Information
Insects and Other Pests
Plant Disease Pathogens
MENU Description Varieties Uses Propagation Soil Type & Location Cultural Practices Fertilization Harvesting Postharvest Diseases Insects Production References Navigation Bar
GENERAL CROP INFORMATION
This summary was prepared from publications by Chia, C. L. et. al. and Wanitprapha, K., et. al.. FAMILY: Anacardiaceae SCIENTIFIC NAME: Mangifera indica L. ORIGIN: South and Southeast Asia DESCRIPTION Back To: Menu Bar Mango trees are deep-rooted, symmetrical evergreens that attain heights of 90 feet and widths of 80 feet. Mango trees have simple alternate lanceolate leaves that are 12 to 16 inches in length and yellow-green, purple, or copper in color when young. Mature leaves are leathery, glossy, and deep green in color. New leaves arise in terminal growth flushes that occur several times a year. Mature terminal branches bear pyramidal flower panicles that have several hundred white flowers that are about a 1/4 inch wide when open. Most of the flowers function as males by providing pollen, but some are bisexual and set fruit. Pollination is by flies, wasps, and bees. The fruit weighs about 1/4 pound to 3 pounds. Fruit may be round, ovate, or obovate depending on the variety. The immature fruit has green skin that gradually turns yellow, orange, purple, red, or combinations of these colors as the fruit matures. Mature fruit has a characteristic fragrance and a smooth, thin, tough skin. The flesh of ripe mangos is pale yellow to orange. The flesh is juicy, sweet, and sometimes fibrous. Some undesirable seedlings or varieties are described as possessing a turpentine-like off-taste. The fruit has one seed that is flattened and sticks to the flesh. The seed contains one or more
‘Keitt’. ‘Gouveia’. but offseason flowering is common. ‘Exel’ trees should be planted in sunny. may mature as late as October. rounded beak. VARIETIES Back To: Menu Bar ‘Ah Ping’. flooring.8 to 3. Eastern and Asian cultures use unripe mangos for pickles. ‘Pope’. and fiberless. The flesh is firm. In India. They have less pronounced alternate-year bearing qualities than the more common ‘Haden’ and ‘Pirie’ varieties. furniture and other applications. Flowering occurs from December to April. 0. and 0. like the varieties recommended for Hawaii. ‘Momi K’.6 ounces. 17% carbohydrate.5% ash. ‘Exel’ is a high quality mango cultivar developed by the Department of Horticulture. Raw mango consists of about 81. Immature fruits are green with a purple blush. including ‘Haden’ and ‘Pirie’. The timber is used for boats. More than 90% of the fruit is edible flesh. jellies. It was selected from an openpollinated population of ‘Irwin’ seedlings. nectars and preserves. All these varieties. chutney and relishes.5 oz) serving of raw mango has 65 calories and about half the vitamin C found in oranges. ‘Exel’ bears fruit regularly.6 inches in width.6 inches in length by 2. and made into powder for amchoor.embryos depending on the variety or type.3% fat. because the fruit has a thin. sets well and frequently flowers during the off season. In India. Mango contains more vitamin A than most fruits. 0. Fruits usually mature in July and August but in some years.5% protein. flour is made from mango seeds. ‘Fairchild’. resulting in variable harvest times. USES Back To: Menu Bar Mango can be eaten raw as a dessert fruit or processed to various products. dried. PROPAGATION Back To: Menu Bar Monoembryonic mango varieties.
. ‘Fairchild’ is considered somewhat resistant to anthracnose and is favored for humid areas. dry areas to prevent anthracnose damage to immature fruit and flowers. 4 to 5. A 100 g (3. with a short. flat seed. University of Hawaii. juicy. and ‘Rapoza’ are recommended mango varieties for Hawaii. The average fruit weight ranges from 14. Mature fruits are yellow with a red over color on about half of the surface of the fruit. Young ‘Exel’ trees begin to bear three to four years after transplanting into the orchard. Ripe fruits can be sliced and canned or processed to juice. are monoembryonic and do not come true from seed. jams.1 to 17. The fruit has 18% total soluble solids. have single embryos of hybrid origin and do not produce true from seed. The penduncle is set at the top of the fruit.7% water. They are propagated by grafting onto seedling rootstocks. ‘Harders’. unripe mangos are sliced. a traditional Indian preparation used for cooking. All the listed varieties are productive and have superior quality fruit. Seeds are also eaten during periods of food shortages. ‘Exel’ fruits are ovate. orange-yellow. sweet.
while seedling trees usually take at least five years to come into bearing. Moderately sloping sites are also recommended to prevent waterlogging. like the so-called common or Hawaiian mango varieties. but supplemental irrigation is desirable for highest yields in those areas. Grafted trees usually produce fruit in 3 to 5 years in dry areas. high-rainfall areas. These plants are predominantly true to type. SOIL TYPES and LOCATION Back To: Menu Bar Mangos can be grown on a wide range of soil types. Wind can damage flowers and reduce yields.500 feet in Hawaii. Mangos are large trees and should be planted 35 to 40 feet apart. Deep rich soils give the best production and fruit quality. but other fertilizers should not be applied until after the plants recover from transplanting shock. Pruning is preferably done after fruiting. Mangos are not propagated from cuttings or by air layering because the resulting trees are weak rooted. Well drained soils are recommended. The few fruits set in a tree's first years of fruiting should be removed to speed up tree development. and may be grown from seed without the necessity of grafting. Pruning of well-formed older trees is usually confined to removal of dead branches. For increased early production. produce two or more plants of nucellar (maternal) origin from each seed. Mango trees should be protected from strong winds. Dry weather during the flowering period is best for fruit production. before a growth flush occurs. Avoid transplanting plants that are flushing. before they become potbound.Polyembryonic mango varieties. however. which leads to overcrowding. CULTURAL PRACTICES Back To: Menu Bar Transplant container-grown plants promptly.5 is preferred. Treble superphosphate (0-45-0) fertilizer should be mixed with the soil in the planting hole. from light sandy loams to red clay soils. Mango trees can remain in production for 40 years or more. Anthracnose disease often destroys both flowers and developing fruits in humid. leaving three to four main branches on the trunk at different heights. but mangos are most productive below 1.5 to 7. Developing trees should be trained to eliminate low branches less than 2 feet from the ground. dry leeward areas that receive less than 60 inches of rainfall annually. to permit good root development. an extra tree may be planted in the center of a 40-foot square to be removed later. Mango is best adapted to hot. Deep soils without impermeable layers permits the development of deep taproots that aids in drought tolerance and wind resistance. Mangos will grow from sea level to an elevation of about 1. Inarching is sometimes done to propagate mango varieties. this extra tree is seldom removed. Soil pH of 5. Unfortunately.200 feet. Grafted trees grow more slowly than seedling trees and are often smaller. Pruning can also be done to restrict tree size for small yards or when more than 35
. and older trees may be topworked. but windbreaks that shade or compete with them should be avoided.
3 pound of N (e. which should have rapid release. They are ripened at room temperature and then refrigerated. if possible. and K) annually for each inch of trunk diameter measured 4 to 5 feet above ground level. Fruit matures three to five months after flowering. dry weather is favorable to fruit development. If rainfall is limited.5 to 3 pounds of 10-20-20) during years two and three. Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are needed by bearing trees for good yields. Fertilizers should be spread in a zone directly beneath the leaf drip line and. except for supplemental N applications. irrigation water should be applied about once every two weeks during the first year. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (flowers.g.15 to 0. bearing mango trees should receive about 1 pound of a complete fertilizer (containing N. Mangos will ripen and may be picked when the flesh inside has turned yellow. or yellow color. fruits)
. preferably applied before growth flushes are anticipated. every three weeks during the second year. Fertilizer may be a 1:1:1 or 1:2:2 N-P-K ratio formulation. when vegetative growth flushes rather than flowering occur. During tree establishment. Young trees should receive 0. phosphorus (P) is important for root development. 1..1 to 0. P. FERTILIZATION Back To: Menu Bar See Cultural Practices HARVEST and POSTHARVEST Back To: Menu Bar Mango trees may remain in production for 40 years or more. 1 to 2 pounds of 10-20-20 fertilizer) per year during the first year and 0. Some delay in flowering can be expected from new growth produced in response to pruning. supplementary irrigation between flowering and harvest is advisable for good yields. at which time they soften and fall. Half of the fertilizer should be applied just before flowering and the rest applied after the crop is harvested. regardless of exterior color. The harvest season is usually between June and September in Hawaii. and once a month thereafter. Fruits are usually picked after they develop some red.2 pound of N (e.trees per acre are planted. Mature mangos keep fairly well under refrigeration for two to three weeks at 50 to 55°F DISEASES Back To: Menu Bar Anthracnose. Although hot.g. The fruit bruises easily and must be handled carefully to avoid damage. Supplemental N should be applied just before flowering rather than during fall and winter. Slow-release fertilizer formulations are preferred. such as 1616-16 or 10-20-20 N-P-K. In general.. application should be followed by irrigation. The total annual amount of fertilizer should be divided into three or four applications. depending on variety. Mangos should be picked before they are fully ripe. Mature trees are more productive if irrigation water is withheld for at least two months before flowering. orange. Young mango trees should not lack water.
The farm value of the 19. China. Mangos are consumed primarily in the producing countries. Dasineura mangiferae Southern green stink bug. insurance and freight) value of fresh mangos imported to the US was $65. However. accounting for 86. Mexico supplied about 42% of the mangos. associated with potassium deficiency. Peru and Venezuela are major suppliers during winter while Mexico. Countries such as Brazil. Haiti. the CIF (cost. Brazil and the Philippines. of which 2500 ac were harvested. In one decade. young fruit) Tip burn (leaves. where mangos are often called the "king of fruits".8 million in 1990. Sixty-one percent of the fresh mango imports entered the US between June and August in 1990.3% of the volume imported. Oidium mungiferae (flowers. India and the Philippines are major suppliers during the spring and summer seasons. Mangos are also produced in Hawaii and Southern California. India produced 63% of the total production. In 1990. The US also imported various processed mango products at a CIF value (including guava and mangosteen) of $11. such as the Middle East and Japan. Mangos are available year-round in various import markets. Demand has also steadily increased in other areas. Brazil and the Philippines together supplied more than 52% of the mango and guava
. Florida is the main producer of mangos in the United States. In 1990. Ceratitis capitata Oriental fruit fly.1 billion lb in 1989. including Ceroplastes rubens.4 million lb in 1981 to 139. Nezara viridula Mango shoot caterpillar. leaves.8 million lb in 1990. followed by Haiti (13. mango imports in European and North American markets have increased ten-fold since 1975. Indonesia. 2800 ac of mangos were planted in Florida. prepared or preserved.Stem-end rot (fruits) Sooty mold (leaves and fruits) Powdery mildew. Xylosandrus cornpactus Mites PRODUCTION Back To: Menu Bar India is the world's largest producer of mangoes. Penicellaria jocosatrix Black twig borer. Cryptorhynchus mangiferae Scales. Selenothrips rubrocinctus Mango blossom midge. world mango production was 33. It has been estimated that there are over 1000 commercial varieties in India.2%). According to FAO estimates. Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli Red-banded thrips.2 million.2 million lb produced was $4. Pakistan. Other major producers were Mexico. Mexico was the largest supplier. water stress) INSECTS Back To: Menu Bar Mediterranean fruit fly.7 million. US imports of fresh mangos increased from 42. Bactrocera dorsalis Mango weevil.
In 1990. The bearing acres are on Maui (6 acres).99 million tonnes. December 1992. The supply of mangos available is even larger when backyard production is considered.23 million hectares in the country producing 10. 1988. Canada (27%) and the United Kingdom ( 20%) were the major destinations. 1991.O.900 pounds of mangos that sold for 73 cents per pound. Honolulu.) is the most important fruit of India. Japan and various other countries due to quarantine restrictions related to fruit flies and mango seed weevil. The total value of sales for mango in 1991 was $46. In Gardens of Hawaii. For commercial production. Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press. Prepared by: Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service. In 1989. The other 21% were from Kauai and Maui. Neal. Fresh mangos from Hawaii are not permitted in the US mainland. There were 810 trees that produced 63. Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service. Wanitprapha. Kulavit.600. American consumers seem to prefer mangos with strong red color. there were 40 farms that produced mango for commercial sale. Color can be increased by treating mangos with ethylene in banana ripening rooms. Most of the supply arrived in Honolulu from July to October.L. there were 2. C.8 million lb of mangos. R. 79% of which came from Oahu. On these farms. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Mango (Mangifera indica L. University of Hawaii. The Netherlands (49% of the quantity exported).O. Honolulu is the major market for mangos in Hawaii. Kevin M. 105 pages. Hamilton and D. the US exported 15. CTAHR.9 per cent of total production of fruits
. University of Hawaii. Marie C. 96823-2159. Mango Economic Fact Sheet #16.000 lb. REFERENCES Back To: Menu Bar Chia. Nakamoto and C. cooked. Evans.1 per cent of total area (5.. Kauai (6 acres) and Oahu (3 acres). P. Mangos are popular as a backyard tree in Hawaii.2 million.L. Commodity Fact Sheet MAN-3(A). It accounts for 22. Mango.57 million ha) and 22. Yokoyama. it was estimated that there were 15 bearing acres of mango trees in 1989 and an additional 15 nonbearing acres. Honolulu arrivals of fresh mangos amounted to 42.750 trees on 65 acres of land.A.
Home About Mango
Its considered the King in all the fruits in India. CTAHR. guavas and mangosteens at an FAS (free alongside ship) value of $12. Hawaii. Box 22159. 1965. Chia.pastes and purees. Stuart T. In 1991. It is grown over an area of 1. Statistic of Hawaiian Agriculture 1991.
Rajapuri. Banganpalli. Vanraj.(47. Rumani. Qatar and Sultanate of Oman. Important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India include Alphonso. About Mango Export We are focusing on building a community of Mango Farmers.39.
. respectively. However. please contact us.. Himayuddin.27 million hectares under mango.Cherukurasam. etc.P.07 million tonnes of mango. Langra. Suvarnarekha. upto 1 container) Contact: skadwe@eim. Delivery: Between April 07 to June 07 (As low as 300 boxes per consignment. Initial preference is Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries which include United Arab Emirates. about 24 mangos per box) Box specification: Export and seaworthy. Bihar and Karnataka produce 2. Kesar. India ranks first among world's mango producing countries accounting for 52. 2007 Mango Season Started in India . Traders.92 million tonnes. 1. Variety: Hapoos or Keshar Weight per mango: 200 gms or 250 gms Weight per box: 5 kg (i. Dealers. Services Providers. Bangalora. Freight Forwarders.63 per cent of the total world's mango production of 19 million tonnes.com if you would like to be associated with this initiative. only about 30 varieties are grown on commercial scale in different states. Andhra Pradesh has the highest productivity of 12 tonnes per hectare. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pairi. U. Sellers and Buyers. Dashehari. There are more than thousand mango varieties in India. Please do not hesitate to contact us by email: contact@mangoexport. While Andhra Pradesh produces 3. Neelum. Processors.79 and 0.94 million tonnes) in the country. Mulgoa. Bombay Green. Though Uttar Pradesh has the largest area of 0. Kingdom of Bahrain.Requirement for export to Middle East and Europe If you can supply mangos of following specification.ae Contact Us We are in a process of developing this site and building the community.e. Kuwait. Our emphasis is to provide support for exporting mangos from India to any part of the world.