Gate valve

A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Typical gate valves should never be used for regulating flow, unless they are specifically designed for that purpose. On opening the gate valve, the flow path is enlarged in a highly nonlinear manner with respect to percent of opening. This means that flow rate does not change evenly with stem travel. Also, a partially open gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow. Most of the flow change occurs near shutoff with a relatively high fluid velocity causing disk and seat wear and eventual leakage if used to regulate flow. Typical gate valves are designed to be fully opened or closed.[1] When fully open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path, resulting in very low friction loss.[2] Gate valves are characterised as having either a rising or a nonrising stem. Rising stems provide a visual indication of valve position because the stem is attached to the gate such that the gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve is operated. Nonrising stem valves may have a pointer threaded onto the upper end of the stem to indicate valve position, since the gate travels up or down the stem on the threads without raising or lowering the stem. Nonrising stems are used underground or where vertical space is limited. Bonnets provide leakproof closure for the valve body. Gate valves may have a screw-in, union, or bolted bonnet. Screw-in bonnet is the simplest, offering a durable, pressure-tight seal. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection and cleaning. It also gives the body added strength. Bolted bonnet is used for larger valves and higher pressure applications. Another type of bonnet construction in a gate valve is pressure seal bonnet. This construction is adopted for valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of 15 MPa (2250 psi). The unique feature about the pressure seal bonnet is that the body - bonnet joints seals improves as the internal pressure in the valve increases, compared to other constructions where the increase in internal pressure tends to create leaks in the body-bonnet joint. Gate valves may have flanged ends which are drilled according to pipeline compatible flange dimensional standards. Gate valves are typically constructed from cast iron, ductile iron, cast carbon steel, gun metal, stainless steel, alloy steels, and forged steels.

and possibly even connect all three ports together. In cases like that. which has two positions. Plug valves are simple and often economical. Plug valves usually do not have bonnets but often have the end of the plug with the handle exposed or mostly exposed to the outside. The simplest and most common general type of plug valve is a 2-port valve. so that fluid can flow through the plug when the valve is open. When the plug is conically-tapered. It is also possible for a plug valve to have more than two ports. but with a mechanism which retains the plug in the body. the stem/handle is typically attached to the larger diameter end of the plug. Slightly conically-tapered metal (often brass) plug valves are often used as simple shut-off valves in household natural gas lines. there is usually not much of a stem. An additional possibility in plug valves is the have one port on one side of the plug valve and two ports on the other side. Ports are openings in the valve body through which fluid can enter or leave. The flow-directing possibilities in multi-port plug valves are similar to the possibilities in corresponding multi-port ball valves or corresponding multi-port valves with a rotor. therefore. and shut (closed) to stop flow. but not in glass stopcocks. with two diagonal and parallel fluid pathways inside the plug. In this case the plug can be rotated 180° to connect the port on the one side to either of the two ports on the other side. often a simple. Handwheel operated plug valve. The plugs in plug valves have one or more hollow passageways going sideways through the plug. Plug valves are valves with cylindrical or conically-tapered "plugs" which can be rotated inside the valve body to control flow through the valve. The plug in this kind of valve has one passageway going through it. the plug is rotated a fourth of a full turn to change from open to shut positions. The other end of the plug is often exposed to the outside of the valve too. This makes this kind of plug valve a quarter-turn valve. . open to allow flow. A 3-way plug valve could also be designed to shift flow between ports 1 and 2. approximately L-shaped handle attached to the end of the plug. The stem and handle often come in one piece. There is often a mechanism limiting motion of the handle to a quarter turn. In a 3-way plug valve.Plug valve Super duplex plug valve. or 1 and 3. flow from one port could be directed to either the second or third port. 2 and 3. The ports are typically at opposite ends of the body.

When glass is used for both the stopcock body and the plug. Otherwise. the valve bodies are made of glass. Also if the plug valve is "locked" from being in the open or closed position for an extended amount of time lubricant can be added through the greaser with the valve in service. Stopcock grease is always used in high vacuum applications to make the stopcock air-tight. the handle and plug are fused together in one piece out of glass. Special glass stopcocks are made for vacuum applications. . the contacting surfaces between them are special ground glass surfaces (see Laboratory glassware) often with stopcock grease in between. When fused with the glassware. When the plug is made of glass. The plugs can be made of a similar plastic or glass. they can be made of an inert plastic such as Teflon.Stopcocks used in laboratory glassware are typically forms of conically-tapered plug valves. such as in use with vacuum manifolds.

the valve will close. This is done to protect the pump or gas compressor and any associated equipment from excessive pressure. or fire. they may open as the pressure in exhaust pipe system increases. gas or liquid-gas mixture) is usually routed through a piping system known as a flare header or relief header to a central.[1] In some cases. The blowdown is usually stated as a percentage of set pressure and refers to how much the pressure needs to drop before the valve reseats. In high-pressure gas systems. This may cause undesired operation. The blowdown can vary from roughly 2-20%. a so-called bypass valve acts as a relief valve by being used to return all or part of the fluid discharged by a pump or gas compressor back to either a storage reservoir or the inlet of the pump or gas compressor. elevated gas flare where it is usually burned and the resulting combustion gases are released to the atmosphere. If the valve is opened the pressure has to decrease enormously before the valve closes and also the outlet pressure of the valve can easily keep the valve open. the opening of a relief valve will give a pressure build up in the piping system downstream of the relief valve. the pressure inside the vessel will drop. The relief valve is designed or set to open at a predetermined set pressure to protect pressure vessels and other equipment from being subjected to pressures that exceed their design limits. The bypass valve and bypass path can . This often means that the relief valve will not re-seat once the set pressure is reached. This means that the pressure is only working on an area that is much smaller than the openings area of the valve. The pressure is relieved by allowing the pressurised fluid to flow from an auxiliary passage out of the system. Once it reaches the valve's reseating pressure. instrument or equipment failure. Another consideration is that if other relief valves are connected to the outlet pipe system. For these systems often so called "differential" relief valves are used. When the set pressure is exceeded. In systems where the outlet is connected to piping. it is recommended that the outlet of the relief valve is in the open air. As the fluid is diverted. and some valves have adjustable blowdowns.Relief valve A relief valve The relief valve (RV) is a type of valve used to control or limit the pressure in a system or vessel which can build up by a process upset. The diverted fluid (liquid. the relief valve becomes the "path of least resistance" as the valve is forced open and a portion of the fluid is diverted through the auxiliary route.

they pop open all the way. it goes into full lift in milliseconds. Modulating: Opens in proportion to the overpressure formed. The pressure is small. the term relief valve is associated with the terms pressure relief valve (PRV). Many fire engines have such relief valves to prevent the overpressurization of fire hoses. In the petroleum refining. Snap Acting: The opposite of modulating. PRV.. POPRV): device that relieves by remote command from a pilot valve that is connected to the upstream system pressure. SV and RV Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) or Pressure Safety Valve (PSV).e. But set pressure will usually only be accurate for one type of fluid at a time (the type it was set with). petrochemical and chemical manufacturing. At lower pressures some use a diaphragm in place of a spring. natural gas processing and power generation industries. Low pressure safety valve (LPSV): automatic system that relieves by static pressure on a gas.be internal (an integral part of the pump or compressor) or external (installed as a component in the fluid path). The pressure is small. vacuum relief valves are used to open at a predetermined low pressure limit and to admit air or an inert gas into the equipment so as control the amount of vacuum. The pressure is small and near the atmospheric pressure. Vacuum pressure safety valve (VPSV): automatic system that relieves by static pressure on a gas. Safety relief valve (SRV): A PRV that can be used for gas or liquid service. which opens proportionally as the increasing pressure overcomes the spring pressure. negative or positive and near the atmospheric pressure. Relief valve (RV): A valve used on a liquid service. equipment must be protected against being subjected to an internal vacuum (i. negative and near the atmospheric pressure. PORV. pressure safety valve (PSV) and safety valve. Set Pressure: When increasing system pressure reaches this value the PRV opens. low pressure) that is lower than the equipment can withstand. Most SV are full lift or snap acting. The difference being that PSVs have a manual lever to activate the valve in case of emergency. In practice. The oldest PRV designs use a weight to seal the valve. Most PRV are spring operated. Low and vacuum pressure safety valve (LVPSV): automatic system that relieves by static pressure on a gas. . Accuracy of set pressure often follows guidelines set by the ASME. people often do not stick to the technical distinctions between the most common abbreviations: SRV. Usually accomplished with a skirt on the disc so that the fluid passing the seat suddenly affects a larger area and creates more lifting force. Safety valve (SV): Used in gas service. In such cases. In other cases. Pilot-operated relief valve (POSRV. refers to a valve that "pops" open.

the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve.Ball valve . They are easy to repair and operate. Ball valves are used extensively in industrial applications because they are very versatile. through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve. flow will occur. The body of ball valves may be made of metal. They do not offer the fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are sometimes used for this purpose. or port. and flow is blocked. supporting pressures up to 1000 bars and temperatures up to 200°C. They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications (and are often preferred to globe valves and gate valves for this purpose). the part of the valve which controls the flow through it. 1) Body 2) Seat 3) Disc (ball) 4) Handle (Lever) 5) Stem A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc. . Ball valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even after years of disuse. The sphere has a hole. The ball is often chrome plated to make it more durable. are part of the family of quarter turn valves.5 cm to 30 cm. plastic or metal with a ceramic center. Sizes typically range from 0. When the valve is closed. along with the butterfly valve and plug valve. The handle or lever will be inline with the port position letting you "see" the valve's position. The ball valve. Cut-away view of a ball-valve mechanism Cutaway view of a simple manual ball valve.

which might damage a standard valve. there are different styles related to the bore of the ball mechanism itself: • A full port or more commonly known full bore ball valve has an over-sized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. • • • . The difference is based on how the pieces of the valve—especially the casing that contains the ball itself—are manufactured and assembled. for example in pipelines which require pigging. Duplex ball valve In addition. Flow is unrestricted but the valve is larger and more expensive so this is only used where free flow is required. flow through the valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in flow area being smaller than pipe. The valve operation is the same in each case. three piece body. top entry. suitable for larger and higher pressure valves (say. As the flow discharge remains constant and is equal to area of flow (A) times velocity (V). A1V1 = A2V2 the velocity increases with reduced area of flow. In reduced port or more commonly known reduced bore ball valves. This allows the orifice to be opened and closed in a more controlled manner with a closer to linear flow characteristic. split body. [citation needed] Types of ball valve There are five general body styles of ball valves: single body. This type of design requires a generally more robust construction due to higher velocities of the fluids. and welded. When the valve is in the closed position and opening is commenced the small end of the 'v' is opened first allowing stable flow control during this stage. and is not covered in this article. The genericized trademark ball-o-fix is occasionally used after the original UK market leader.A ball-check valve is a type of check valve with a ball without a hole for a disc. A trunnion ball valve has additional mechanical anchoring of the ball at the top and the bottom. above 10 cm and 40 bars). A V port ball valve has either a 'v' shaped ball or a 'v' shaped seat.

For special applications. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control. To avoid the fluid getting into this cavity. but it cannot connect the side ports together. or all three. Three-way and four-way ball valves Schematic 3 way ball valve: L-shaped ball right. The 3 piece design allows for the center part of the valve containing the ball. the inlet way often being orthogonal to the plane of the outlets. Two piece ball valves are generally slightly reduced (or standard) bore. This facilitates efficient cleaning of deposited sediments. Many industries encounter problem with residues in the ball valve. The 4-way ball valve has two L-shaped ports in the ball that do not interconnect. are also commercially available. polishing out of small scratches on the ball. but the 45 degree position which might disconnect all three leaves no margin for error. A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valve opening accordingly. The different combinations of flow are shown in the figure. It is easy to see that a T valve can connect any pair of ports. . This type of ball valve is known as Cavity Filler Ball Valve. the operation is performed by rotating a single lever four-way valve. Some ball valves are equipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor operated. residues may also be health hazard. or more. or disconnect all three.or T-shaped hole through the middle.• Cavity filler Ball Valve. T-shaped left Three-way ball valves have an L. The design concept of a three piece valve is for it to be repairable. such as driving air-powered motors from forward to reverse. One piece ball valves are almost always reduced bore. Residues arise because in the half open position of the ball valve a gap is created between the ball bore and the body in which fluid can be trapped. stem & seats to be easily removed from the pipeline. they can be either throw-away or repairable. together. the cavity has to be plugged. Manually operated ball valves can be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of water hammer. Ball valves in sizes up to 2 inch generally come in single piece. The L valve can connect the center port to either side port. Multi-port ball valves with 4 ways. which can be done by extending the seats in such a manner that it is always in contact with the ball. replacement of seats and gland packings. all this without removing the pipes from the valve body. sometimes referred to as an "×" port. two or three piece designs. and when where the fluid changes from time to time contamination of one fluid with another may occur. are relatively inexpensive and generally are throw-away. Where the fluid is meant for human consumption.

accordingly. Check valves are often part of common household items. since the ventricles act as pumps. Although they are available in a wide range of sizes and costs. clack valve. The bodies (external shells) of most check valves are made of plastic or metal. simple. non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device. one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or any external control. Types of check valves A ball check valve in the open position to allow forward flow and closed position to block reverse flow . meaning they have two openings in the body. Check valves are two-port valves. check valves generally are very small. A check valve. Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a specific cracking pressure. most do not have any valve handle or stem.Check valve Tilting disc inconel check valve Check valve symbol on P&IDs. and/or inexpensive. Heart valves are essentially inlet and outlet check valves for the heart ventricles. There are various types of check valves used in a wide variety of applications. An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate. a valve. which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. The arrow shows the flow direction.

In some ball check valves. reverse flow is required to move the ball toward the seat and create a seal. A hinged gate only remains open in the inflowing direction. or in some specialized cases out of artificial ruby. the movable part to block the flow. such check valves can eventually wear out or the seat can develop a crack. requiring replacement. spray devices. Although swing check valves can come in various sizes. The seat opening cross-section may be perpendicular to the centerline between the two ports or at an angle. some rubber bulbs for pumping air. The flapper valve in a flush-toilet mechanism is an example of this type of valve. The clapper valve often also has a spring that keeps the gate shut when there is no forward pressure. They are commonly used in liquid or gel minipump dispenser spigots. such as a poppet energized by a spring. they can be made of other materials. Tank pressure holding it closed is overcome by manual lift of the flapper. simple. for the check valve to open allowing flow. It may be caused by intense rainfall. consequently. Pressure on the upstream side must be greater than the pressure on the downstream side by a certain amount. There are similar check valves where the disc is not a ball. A diaphragm check valve uses a flexing rubber diaphragm positioned to create a normallyclosed valve. such valves are made to be replaceable. Ball check valves should not be confused with ball valves. which is a different type of valve in which a ball acts as a controllable rotor to stop or direct flow. For those designs without a spring. After prolonged use.Backwater valve (for sanitary drainage system) protects lower located rooms against flooding caused by return flow of sewage waters. and refillable dispensing syringes. swings on a hinge or trunnion. manual air pumps and some other pumps. A ball check valve is a check valve in which the closing member. used in applications such firefighting and fire life safety systems. Ball check valves are often very small. etc. The interior surface of the main seats of ball check valves are more or less conically-tapered to guide the ball into the seat and form a positive seal when stopping reverse flow. either onto the seat to block reverse flow or off the seat to allow forward flow. Backwater valve prevents rats and other rodents entering the sanitary and rainwater drainage systems and. large check valves are often swing check valves. for both hardness and chemical resistance. is a spherical ball. Once positive pressure stops. sometimes placed in a small plastic body tightly-fitted inside a metal fitting which can withstand high pressure and which is screwed into the pump head. Although the balls are most often made of metal. the building interiors. It protects also against unpleasant smells in case of longer breaks in system use. the ball is spring-loaded to help keep it shut. Therefore. High pressure HPLC pumps and similar applications commonly use small inlet and outlet ball check valves with both balls and seats made of artificial ruby. the movable part to block the flow.[1] A swing check valve or tilting disc check valve is check valve in which the disc. and cheap.. Such risk occurs most often in sanitary drainage systems connected to combined sewerage systems and in rainwater drainage systems. the diaphragm automatically flexes back to its original closed position. . Another variation of this mechanism is the clapper valve. but some other shape. It then remains open until the tank drains and the flapper falls due to gravity. thaw or flood. known as the pressure differential.

A duckbill valve is a check valve in which flow proceeds through a soft tube that protrudes into the downstream side. so the valve can later reseat properly. and in many other industrial processes. For example. . For example. if a fuel and an oxidizer are to be mixed. gravity or higher downstream pressure will cause the disc to lower onto its seat. a double check valve is often used as a backflow prevention device to keep potentially contaminated water from siphoning back into municipal water supply lines. A check valve is installed on each of the individual gas streams to prevent mixing of the gases in the original source. and piston check valves. In addition to closing in response to backflow or insufficient forward pressure (normal check-valve behavior). wafer check valves. Piston-driven and diaphragm pumps such as metering pumps and pumps for chromatography commonly use inlet and outlet ball check valves. shutting the valve to stop reverse flow. Multiple check valves can be connected in series. There are also double ball check valves in which there are two ball/seat combinations sequentially in the same body to ensure positive leaktight shutoff when blocking reverse flow. and ball-and-cone check valves. thereby preventing any flow regardless of forward pressure. Back-pressure collapses this tube. A guide keeps motion of the disc on a vertical line. These valves often look like small cylinders attached to the pump head on the inlet and outlet lines. then check valves will normally be used on both the fuel and oxidizer sources to ensure that the original gas cylinders remain pure and therefore nonflammable. The feed pumps or injectors which supply water to steam boilers are fitted with check valves to prevent back-flow. can be lifted up off its seat by higher pressure of inlet or upstream fluid to allow flow to the outlet or downstream side.A stop-check valve is a check valve with override control to stop flow regardless of flow direction or pressure. A lift-check valve is a check valve in which the disc. Applications Pumps The check valves on this steam locomotive are located under the small dome between the chimney and the main dome Check valves are often used with some types of pumps. it can also be deliberately shut by an external mechanism. Many similar pump-like mechanisms for moving volumes of fluids around use check valves such as ball check valves. Industrial processes Check valves are used in many fluid systems such as those in chemical and power plants. When the pressure is no longer higher. Check valves are also often used when multiple gases are mixed into one gas stream. sometimes called a lift. cutting off flow.

The "butterfly" is a metal disc mounted on a rod. has the lowest pressure rating. the disc is turned so that it completely blocks off the passageway.Butterfly valve Large butterfly valve used on a hydroelectric power station water inlet pipe in Japan. The resilient butterfly valve. the disc is always present within the flow. passing through the disc is a rod connected to an actuator on the outside of the valve. The valve best suited for high-pressure systems is the tricentric butterfly valve. The closing mechanism takes the form of a disk. When the valve is fully open. meaning less support is required. Duplex valve in wafer butterfly configuration. A butterfly valve is from a family of valves called quarter-turn valves. Unlike a ball valve. The valve may also be opened incrementally to throttle flow. which uses the flexibility of rubber. Rotating the actuator turns the disc either parallel or perpendicular to the flow. . which increases the valve's sealing ability and decreases its tendency to wear. There are different kinds of butterfly valves.[clarification needed] and is therefore able to withstand a greater amount of pressure. Operation is similar to that of a ball valve. therefore a pressure drop is always induced in the flow. which makes use of a metal seat. A butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow. which allows for quick shut off. regardless of valve position. used in slightly higher-pressure systems. the disc is rotated a quarter turn so that it allows an almost unrestricted passage of the fluid. When the valve is closed. The high performance butterfly valve. The disc is positioned in the center of the pipe. each adapted for different pressures and different usage. Butterfly valves are generally favored because they are lower in cost to other valve designs as well as being lighter in weight. features a slight offset in the way the disc is positioned.

Chemical Factories. . i. The valve is installed between two flanges using a separate set of bolts for each flange.e. in dead end service. A lug-style butterfly valve used in dead end service generally has a reduced pressure rating. A butterfly valve is also a type of flow control device. 2. 'Double Eccentric Butterfly Valves' .This type of valves are also referred as 'High Performance Butterfly Valves' or 'Double Offset Butterfly Valves'. Widely use for dirty/ heavy oil to prevent extrusion. The valve is similar in operation to a ball valve.Structure Butterfly valves are valves with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member which is pivotally supported by its stem. Different type of materials is used for seat and disc. The only time where the seal comes into contact with the seat is at the point of complete closure. precision machined. including eccentric and high-performance valves. These are normally a type of valve that uses a flat plate to control the flow of water.This type of valves has a resilient rubber seat with a metal disc. 3. Wafer-style butterfly valves The wafer style butterfly valve is designed to maintain a seal against bi-directional pressure differential to prevent backflow in systems designed for unidirectional flow. The same valve mounted with one flange. 'Concentric Butterfly Valves' . and a flat valve face on the upstream and downstream sides of the valve. o-ring. Rotating the handle turns the plate either parallel or perpendicular to the flow of water. It accomplishes this with a tightly fitting seal. gasket. Types 1. This allows them to be installed into a system using two sets of bolts and no nuts..This type of valves are also commonly called 'Triple Offset Butterfly Valves'. For example a lug-style butterfly valve mounted between two flanges has a 150 psi pressure rating. It is a very well known and well used design. butterfly valves are used on firefighting apparatus and typically are used on larger lines. Lug-style butterfly valve Lug-style valves have threaded inserts at both sides of the valve body. such as front and rear suction ports and tank to pump lines. has a 75 psi rating. This setup permits either side of the piping system to be disconnected without disturbing the other side. The seats are either laminated or solid metal seat design. 'Triple Eccentric Butterfly Valves' . shutting off the flow. A butterfly valve can appear in various styles. Triple Eccentric(Offset) Design Triple eccentric(offset) Design prevents gulling and scratches between the metal seat and the metal disc due to its unique design. used to make a fluid start or stop flowing through a section of pipe. As well as this. Triple offset valves are generally used in applications which require bi-directional tight shut-off in Oil & Gas. LNG/NPG terminal and tanks. Shipbuilding.

HART. cage-guided valve bodies o Port-guided single-port valve bodies . 0-10V for HVAC systems. and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compare a "setpoint" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.0bar). more common now are 4-20mA signals for industry.2-1. pressure. Positioners are used to control the opening or closing of the actuator based on Electric. Their popularity derives from rugged construction and the many options available that make them suitable for a variety of process applications. & Profibus being the more common protocols. Types of control valve bodies The most common and versatile types of control valves are sliding-stem globe and angle valves. the free encyclopedia Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow. temperature. traditionally based on 3-15psi (0. including severe service. hydraulic or pneumatic systems.[1] The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical. & the introduction of "Smart" systems.[2] Control valve bodies may be categorized as below:[3] Globe valve Globe control valve with pneumatic actuator and smart positioner • • • Angle valves o Cage-style valve bodies o DiskStack style valve bodies Angle seat piston valves Globe valves o Single-port valve bodies o Balanced-plug cage-style valve bodies o High capacity. These control signals.Control valves From Wikipedia. Fieldbus Foundation. or Pneumatic Signals.

• • • • Double-ported valve bodies Three-way valve bodies Diaphragm Valves Rotary valves o Butterfly valve bodies o V-notch ball control valve bodies o Eccentric-disk control valve bodies o Eccentric-plug control valve bodies sliding cylinder valves o Directional control valve o spool valve o piston valve air operated valves o air operated valve o relay valve o air operated pinch valve o o .

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