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Dr. Nariyuki Hayashi M.D., Ph.D.

, Neurosurgeon, Professor at the Advanced Research Institute for the Sciences and Humanities, Nihon University Professor of Nihon University Graduate School Advanced Research Institute for the Sciences since 2006, following extensive professional experience including appointment as the director of the Emergency Center of Nihon University Itabashi Hospital in 1993 and professor at Nihon University¶s School of Medicine and the University of Miami¶s Department of Neurosurgery. Dr. Hayashi has saved a large number of nearly brain -dead patients¶ lives so far with his original ³brain hypothermia treatment,´ including Mr. Ivan Osim, former manager of the Japan National Football Team, who suffered a stroke. Dr. Hayashi has gained a worldwide reputation as having the ³hands of God.´ At the Beijing Olympics, he guided the Japan National Swimming Team using brain scientific strategies and contributed to Kousuke Kitajima¶s two gold medals. He is also the author of a variety of books such as ³Shoubu Nou no Kitaekata (How to Train the Brain for Victory),´ ³Business Shoubu Nou (The Brain for Business Success),´ and ³Nou ni Warui N anatsu no Shuukan (Seven Bad Habits for the Brain)´ published by Kodansha, KK Bestsellers and Togensha, respectively.


Learning from their experiences. 2 . Once your goals are clearly set and you start concentrating on them. rather than simply questioning whether you can achieve your goals or not. interpersonal relationships. your brain will not be able to fully demonstrate its ability. which causes you to seek an excuse for failure. and your brain cannot go into action. You have to focus on the process of achievement itself. they can achieve a larger goal. ³I am going to get a gold medal. In line with this. For example. However. The difference between them is brain function. and rolls up if sufficient efforts are made. and leadership skills. the next time they win. first you have to make it clear how to do this and set up realistic goals. athletes should compete not simply to win or lose. I was always telling the Olympic athletes to focus not on merely winning or losing. Human talent is just like a ball on a slope. Moreover. even if you declare to yourself. your brain reveals its amazing power. such as ³Maybe I will fail. it rolls down if nothing is done. In short. while others always succeed in achieving their goals. Understanding the mechanisms of the brain will help you learn how to manage your job. nor even think they have won. Those who compete from such a point of view will not be satisfied with their victory. brain mechanisms are deeply associated with the achievement of one¶s goals.´ This activates one of the basic human instincts of self-preservation. We are pleased to feature an interview with Dr. Nariyuki Hayashi in four parts in which he offers useful business advice from a brain -science viewpoint. there is a possibility of negative ideas entering your mind simultaneously. In sports. Here. the point is the method of achievement. but should focus on the method for winning. unless they have done it in a convincing way. Rules for achieving goals In both the sports and business arenas. One basis for human abilities is rules for goal achievement. which shoul d be a method that leaves an impression on everyone. The effect that these rules can have was demonstrated by the Japan National Swimming Team¶s gold medal -winning performances at the Beijing Olympics. to achieve your targets.Whether you succeed or fail at a given crucial moment depends on your brain. but on the method of winning.´ it is still unclear how this gold medal can be achieved. and distracted. the fact remains that some people cannot reach their goals even when they make efforts.

shaping up gradually towards Beijing. If you take too much time. the Japan National Swimming Team had originally planned to train temporally at a slow pace to recover as is their usual practice. During a training camp in the USA after the Japanese athletes for the Beijing Olympics had been selected. in the area of business. you may take months to return to that condition. your instinct for self-preservation dominates. Another important point is. Once a goal is clearly established. even despite the good condition of the brain after a rest.´ which might disturb their concentration.´ ³I don¶t want to. when you try to achieve a goal. 3 . leading you to a wait -and-see attitude to find an easier and safer way of approaching things. you have to concentrate all your energies towards it without pursuing your own interests. Based on this idea. Humans are so clever that we always seek self-benefit. Your brain demonstrates its enormous power only when you concentrate on your goal without seeking s elf-benefit. such as ³It¶s too difficult´ and ³I¶m afra id I¶ll fail´ can surface and affect your concentration on the goal. but as long as you seek self -benefit. However.´ and ³It¶s impossible.Sprint towards your goal full of energy Both in business and sport. Similarly. it is difficult for it to recondition itself after a rest.´ Those who say this do not suffer even if they fail due to a lack of realistic goals. for example. you have to make a dash for it as you aim for a breakthrough. negative ideas. it is useless to say ³I will do my best. This hinders you from making full use of your brain. ³I can¶t. Once you have established a goal. you have to make a dash for it instead of practicing a step-by-step or little-by-little approach. if you take a week -long holiday while at your peak condition. I advised the athletes to concentra te on their goal without interruption until it was reached and refrain from negative expressions during training sessions.

the following four items are bad habits for the brain: 1) The inability to act without instruction from another 2) Doing things by half -measures 3) Being unable to confess mistakes or express weakness frankly 4) Approaching a task little -by-little with a wait-and-see attitude A little-by-little approach might be better than doing nothing. brain for failure There are two brain types. There are four useful habits for achievement: 1) Acting based on your own ideas 2) Concentrating on realistic goals rather than objectives 3) Giving more importance to the process than the result 4) Accomplishing goals within a set period In contrast. ³brains for achievement´ and ³brains for failure. because they are not accompanied by such a feeling. you can gain a pleasant feeling of achievement. However. if your boss only gives you advice on a task.´ The difference between these types is how the self -rewarding nervous system functions. 4 . The things you have done as instructed by your boss cannot be a reward for your brain. but the following four points are key to achievement: 1) Establish goals and accomplish t hem on your own 2) Stay focused until achievement 3) Focus on the process of achievement 4) Sprint towards the goal based on the conditions within the set period Next time. but your ability to develop ideas is reduced if you are bound to obey other people¶s directions. you have to adopt the habit of reviewing things in your mind. ³The manual says to do it like this. To prevent this. allowing you to act and carry it out according to your own ideas. but I would do it in a different way. and from then on will always ask yourself to seek out ideas in pursuit of that feeling. It might be efficient to work according to the manual. for example.´ The self-rewarding nervous system¶s ability to achieve goals can be nurtured through daily habits. I will explain about the relationship between brain functions and the creation of a ³brain for victory´ to succeed in breaking through your wall and achieving your goal. gained after accomplishing one¶s goal. A reward for the brain is a feeling of achievement.Brain for achievement.

for example. ³Mr. 3) feelings. nor become more intelligent simply by thinking hard. respectively. Today.´ or ³Ms. After that. your memory can be reinforced. such as facial and physical characteristics. repetition is essential for the enhancement of brain functions. When you try to memorize a person¶s name. you have to build up good habits and quit bad ones. How to enhance brain functions To become brighter. and 5) the hippocampus cooperating with the cerebral cortex.The number of neurons in a child¶s brain is almost equal to that of an adult¶s. No matter how intelligent a person is. and 5) memories. provides useful advice for the ³Brain for business success´ based on the latest brain -science findings. a professor at Nihon University Graduate School. B with a lean face and body. understanding can be increased if something holds your interest or you make efforts to listen intently while other people are talking. Therefore. In this respect. information including passive emotions is regarded as unnecessary in the prefrontal cortex and disappears after about three to four days. Good habits enhance these brain functions. it is effective to also memorize the name with his/her attributes. 4) thoughts. Feelings of anger not persisting for more than four days and interests not lasting too long can be expl ained similarly by this logic. there are two types of emotions: the active and the passive. The point to note here is that there is a difference in the way that active and passive emotions are processed. 4) the dynamic central core. and the only way to become brighter is to incorporate the following brain mechanisms into your habits. 2) understanding. 2) the prefrontal cortex. As the nervous system activity only lasts for three days. and the memory and learning functions of the nervous system are fully developed by around the age of seven years old. the brain continues to grow in either a good or bad way. Nariyuki Hayashi.´ The central cortex pathway and A10 nervous system transmit these emotions as information to the prefrontal cortex for processing. In these pathways the brain functions to create: 1) emotions. Dr. he/she cannot learn something uninteresting easily. A who always has a red face. depending on your daily habits. Further. each of which is represented by ³likes´ and ³dislikes. 5 . The human brain has a mechanism for transmitting visual information coming in through the eyes from the visual processing pathway to: 1) the cerebral cortex and A10 nerve cells.´ By adding complementary information. 3) the self -rewarding nerve cells. brain training and games are useless.

6 . Amygdala: Taking interest in many things ² New information and experience stimulate the brain functions. Hippocampal gyrus: Thinking repeatedly ² The brain mechanism helps you come up with new ideas. ³whirlpool´: A10 nervous system --> prefrontal cortex --> self-rewarding nervous system --> hippocampus --> limbic system --> A10 nervous system. Active emotions induce the self rewarding nervous system to create feelings such as ³I want to do it. active feelings are indispensible and the passive wait -and-see attitude is nothing but harmful. Therefore. The mechanism of thinking is explicitly characterized by the endless rep etitive transmission circuit. we come up with new ideas more easily if we think repeatedly. Caudate nucleus: Listening intently to others ² Active emotions enhance brain functions. which is responsible for the function of thinking. information containing active emotions is mediated by the self-rewarding nervous system after being recognized in the prefrontal cortex. and processed in the dynamic central core system including the hippocampus. Hypothalamus: Cultivating frankness in your character ² Frankness facilitates your concentration without distraction.´ which leads to thought.1) Caudate nucleus (feelings) 2) Nucleus accumbens (likes) 3) Amygdala (sense of danger) 4) Hypothalamus (concentration and will) 5) Hippocampal gyrus (short-term memory) 6) Prefrontal cortex (decision-making and recognition) On the other hand. for the brain function of thinking. Good habits for each brain area: Nucleus accumbens: Being favorably disposed towards your boss/subordinate ² Your power is greater when you work for someone you like. Through this mechanism.

Check your bad habits now using the following checklist: Bad habits you should quit immediately: .. and 3) making comments on what you have learned. If you think of something in the midst of doing other things.Bad habits you should quit immediately Our number of neurons peaks at the age of four and reduces to exclude inappropriate cells to the amount contained by adults by the age of seven.Not respecting others .Not devoting all your energies without seeking self -benefit How to overcome the brain function of forgetfulness We often fail to achieve outcomes. and even the brightest people have many areas that hinder brain function. Suppose that you are playing golf and are ready to hit a ball on the green. forget what we were going to do.Judging things to be impossible or difficult . something on the green distracts your attention and you turn your eyes unconsciously. they cannot fully demonstrate their actual abilities. surprisingly.Always saying ³I¶ll do it later´ . bad habits allow these cells which were not excluded during childhood to persist and harm brain functions. anything you learn can be forgotten one after another unless your understanding of each is secure. These occurrences can be explained by the brain mechanism that instantly responds to new information. or cannot remember what to take out after opening the refrigerator door. However. some inappropriate cells seem to remain in the adult brain.Checking things in a rough manner . In other words.Not paying attention to others . applying this judgment to our habits from the viewpoint of developing a brain for thinking. if athletes care what the score is or think back to their past mistakes in the middle of play. However. their concentration is interrupted and. It is an easy distance to the cup that anyone can manage. As the brain responds to new inf ormation and forgets previous things. 2) confirming repeatedly. you can overcome such brain functions through some habits including: 1) fully understanding what you are learn ing. But suddenly.Approaching tasks little -by-little according to instructions . In sports too. 7 .you have missed the chance.. as a result.Not checking up on things you have learnt . It is important for the brain to be able to judge which cells are unnecessary for synapse growth and which are defective until around the age of ten. the brain focuses on your new thought and forgets the previous one.Avoiding activities due to a lack of interest .Expressing unwillingness and tiredness frequently .

the brain recognizes the similarities and differences of new information.. Negative phases of brain function: The principle of uniformity & consistency What do we base recognition and decision -making on? Information coming into the brain is transmitted to the neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Regardless of the personality of your boss.´ based on his extensive research findings of the relationship between the human brain and mind. similar to a barcode. This is ³the principle of uniformity and consistency´ on which the human brain bases its judgments. depending on the content of the information. However. They definitely like their mothers by nature. On the other hand. It is not necessary to memorize word-for-word what someone says. In the same way.? Sadly. just like a sports commentator. In this part of the interview. you begin to hate your boss more and more. Then. you hate them simply because he/she rejected your idea.´ Each electrical impulse has a specific code pattern. It can lead you to repeating the same mistakes. Nariyuki Hayashi. they will be printed on your memory. it is called a ³synfire chain. children do not care whether their mothers are beautiful. it is harmful for you to remember past mistakes.The memory capacity of the human brain is so enormous that even things you cannot remember are securely stored in your brain. you must remember your successful experiences and talk about them to yourself. if your boss strongly rejects your idea. Instead. patterns of preference can also be explained by this principle. Then. explains the habits of leaders and how to create a ³brain for victory. Based on these patterns. professor of Nihon University Graduate School. Your memory can be reconstructed in the brain by remembering and explaining verbally what you have learned. your feeling of unpleasantness is transmitted to your brain and. Just listen with concentration and this will facilitate your memory recall which is reconstructed in the brain. For example. because they grow inside their mother¶s womb hearing her heartbeat and listening to her voice until they are born. how about fathers.. As the process of communication between neurons begins with an electrical impulse propagating synchronously just like fire. they often need to make efforts to be 8 . Dr. although it is often said that men like beautiful women and women like handsome men. based on the principle of uniformity and consistency.

During unusual circumstances. skills. if most of the people close to him are ³yes men. unlike the cell -derived instincts of living. physical strength. consequently making you tense. such as exams or competitions like the Olympics. you have to build a strong mind that is sure of winning. it is not easy to be in disaccord with instincts. thanks to the three -day-long activity of electrical impulses. 4) The ability to seek coexistence out of respect for different positions and opinions. the most fundamental base. A strong 9 . who is making an important decision. A corporate leader. When you need to present a new idea or check your task. and seeking companionship. If the principle of uniformity and consistency is applied negatively to business. this act conflicts with the instinct of coexistence. consequently affecting your performance. self-preservation and desire. When opinion is divided at a meeting. we tend to join the majority. and humanity. however convincing they are. your brain tends to turn off in the absence of uniformity and consistency. The brain stoically conforms to this principle and applies it even to the environment. all of which originate in the mind. Coexistence. For the brain. Typical instincts include coexistence. you can have a different perspective after just four days. 2) Self-sacrifice for your followers. it is better to wait three days before doing so. such as tissue and tissue matrices. knowing. However. The ³Brain for Victory´ even overcomes human instincts Human ability is comprised of knowledge. To overcome the pressure of competition. A unique point of this principle is that it has a tendency towards the majority. The mind varies depending on feelings and thoughts. 3) Broad-mindness to reconsider your own views after four days. Requirements to become a leader: 1) A wealth of knowledge. but new ideas hardly ever form. and is formed from a higher cellular organizational level. but performs poorly if you have to share them with your colleagues. for example. Working efficiency is also influenced by brain action. can end up misjudging whether it is really appropriate.´ It is very important for corporate leaders to reconsider their own views after four days. is a basic instinct of living together and getting along with one an other. as well as the principles of uniformity and consistency. When you have to compete with someone in sports or business and try to defeat him/her. similar ideas form easily. however.liked by their children. Your brain is powerful as long as you are working at your usual desk and PC. and respect the positions and opinions of others whenever they arise as they seek a path of coexistence.

2) respecting different viewpoints and opinions.mind is built not by having a lot of guts. for business success. To be the leader of a group. When I was guiding the Japan National Swimming Team at the Beijing Olympics. you need to get along well with every person you deal with. It is easy for you to listen with interest to a person you like. you have to aim for business that is pleasing to your brain. humans have an instinct to seek coexistence. information-transmitters in the brain are activated and create a circuit of conceptualization. and based on this thinking. Additionally. and respecting the person. you cannot communicate effectively with your subordinate without mutual respect. however capable you are. If you are following the three items above. and 4) seeking coexistence. you have to overcome your instincts by: 1) not being too self-defensive. Lastly. the circuit continuously functions evoking your sympathy for him/her. How to create a brain for victory and overcome instincts 1) Regard your rivals as an important tool for enhancing your capacity. 2) taking interest in something new. but by harnessing instincts. Dr. rather than whether you win or lose. 3) Focus on the method of winning. 3) sacrificing yourself to benefit others. I showed them a realistic method for creating a brain for victory and overcoming instincts. subordinates. etc. business that satisfies both you and your clients is bound to be successful. To make good use of this mechanism. some people are able to fully express their minds. The difference between them stems from the brain functions of: 1) liking others (superiors. As previously mentioned. and 4) respecting others. while others are not. In other words. ³Synfire´ activates corporate power Whether in business or personal areas. 2) Take a liking to your coach/colleagues/team/competition. a ³synfire´ is 10 . 3) listening with interest to others. In this case. When relations with someone are good. Hayashi presents some points for corporate and business success. it is important to train the instincts on which your mind is based and which enhance your humanity. 4) Devote yourself without seeking benefits. At the same time.). which can also be applied to corporate strategies.

although he held his bat vertically as usual. and places his hand on his right shoulder whenever he is up to bat. Full concentration is indispensible 11 . your performance level instantly drops.Scolding . brain blood flow decreases and brings poor results. once said. Also at the workplace. ³You can¶t score a goal if you kick the ball at the goal. both of which contribute to him performing at his best. Negative factors for ³synfire´ . but it also facilitates both horizontal and vertical spatial recognition.Illogicality . a Brazilian football coach who has coached the Japanese National Football Team. Such a batting posture provides him with accurate horizontal and vertical spatial recognition. and positive effects are created. We often hear that good posture is essential for good health. assume that the goal is the far side of the goal line. ³I have won!´ or ³It¶s almost finished!´ in the midst of your final spurt. it is important to keep your mind off the goal during competition. his eyes were not aligned horizontally. Zico. negative factors for the synfire should be excluded.triggered. To achieve corporate success as a team or organization. Mr. Ichiro Suzuki. and the passage of time. in the case of running sports. stares at the ground. a baseball player in Major League Baseball in America. such as positions and figures. In addition to spatial recognition. plays an important role in competition.A feeling of dislike . the self -rewarding nervous system contribute s to victory. you can perform better at work. By maintaining good posture when you are at a desk. As a result. and you can achieve better results by keeping your energy level until the end.Needlessly long speech Rules for victory Spatial recognition. I suspect that his spatial recognition was not working properly. if you work while worrying about something else. the bloodstream to the brain decreases. Consequently.´ According to this. either consciously or unconsciously. If you think. The self-rewarding nervous system is activated by a feeling of achievement. spoiling your chance for victory. and the habit of putting his hand on his right shoulder is in accordance with the principle of uniformity and consistency. an ability to recognize spatial elements. When he was in a slump during the World Baseball Classic 2009. holds his bat vertically. but as soon as you begin to think about the goal. You have to kick it at the inner bar of the goal.

³I feel so great!´ at a poolside interview. Incorporate good habits for the brain into your activities and enjoy the feeling of achievement.for the feeling of achievement.´ At the same time. Mr. I really only achieve my goal when I look up at the scoreboard after touching. a Japanese Olympic gold medalist swimmer. ³Touching the touchpad isn¶t the goal. Kosuke Kitajima. In conclusion. 12 . Suc h a strong feeling not only reflected his joy in winning. he tried swimming the last 10 m in a way that would move the spectators with a display of his full power and winning strategy. Immediately after reaching his goal he displayed a powerful victory pose and expressed himself by shouting out. but also the dynamic central core function which was activated by his perfect concentration in training and mastering the rules of victory. addressed this issue convincing himself. training the brain is the key to both victo ry and success.