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BASIC OPERATIONS OF MATRICES ADDITION: A=[2 3 4:5 6 7:1 2 3] A= 2 3 4 5 6 2 3

>> A = [1 2 3;2 3 4;5 6 7] A= 1 2 5 2 3 6 3 4 7

>> B = [2 3 4; 5 6 8;3 6 1] B= 2 3 4 5 6 8 3 6 1 >>X=A+B Subtraction: X= 3 5 7 7 9 12 8 12 8 >> X=A-B X= -1 -1 -1 -3 -3 -4 2 0 6 Multiplication: >> X=A*B X= 21 33 23 31 48 36 61 93 75 Determinant of a matrix:

>> X=det(A) X= 0

Generation of various signals

Matlab code for the generation of Unit Step Sequence


n = input('enter the n value'); t = 0:1:n-1; y1= ones(1,n); subplot(2,2,2); stem(t,y1); ylabel('amp'); xlabel('(b)n'); Output: Enter the n value 10

Matlab code for the generation of Unit impulse Sequence

clc; %clear the data t = -2:1:2; y=[zeros(1,2),ones(1,1),zeros(1,2)]; %Create an array of all zeros and ones subplot(2,2,1); stem(t,y); %function displays two-dimensional discrete sequence data. ylabel('amp'); %label the Yaxes xlabel('(a)n'); %label the Xaxes

1a) Matlab code to generate sinusoidal(continous , discrete) clc; clear all; close all; t=0:0.01:1; x=sin(2*pi*2*t); subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,x); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title(' continuoes time cose wave '); grid; n=0:0.05:1; x=sin(2*pi*2*n); subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,x,'r'); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title('discrete time cose wave'); grid;

Matlab code to generate cosine(continous , discrete) clc; clear all; close all; t=0:0.01:1; x=cos(2*pi*2*t); subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,x); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title(' continuoes time cose wave '); grid; n=0:0.05:1; x=cos(2*pi*2*n); subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,x,'r'); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title('discrete time cose wave'); grid;

Matlab code to generate sawtooth signal(continous, discrete) clc; clear all; close all; t=-1:0.001:1; x=sawtooth(2*pi*2*t); subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,x); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title(' continuoes time sawtooth wave '); grid; n=-1:0.05:1; x=sawtooth(2*pi*2*n); subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,x); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title('discrete time sawtooth wave'); grid;

Matlab code to generate triangular waveform fs = 10000; %Set the sampling frequency fs as 10000. t = 0 : 1/fs : 1.5; %Generate a vector of 15001 samples for t with a value between 0 & 1.5 %with an increment of 0.0001 x = sawtooth (2 * pi * 50 * t , 0.5);%Generate a Triangular wave of frequency 50 Hz, by calling the %MATLAB built-in function sawtooth with 0.5 as the duty cycle parameter. plot(t,x); axis ( [ 0 0.1 -1 1 ] ); %Plot the graph. Adjust the X and Y coordinates to view a few cycles of the triangular wave. xlabel ('Time Index t (sec.)'); ylabel ('Amplitude');%Label the X and Y axes title ('Triangular Wave Signal Sequence'); %Add an appropriate title to the graph

clc; clear all; close all; t=0:0.001:1; x=square(2*pi*2*t); subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,x); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title(' continuoes time square wave '); axis([0 1 -2 2]); grid; n=0:0.1:1; x=square(2*pi*2*n); subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,x); xlabel('--> time'); ylabel('--> magnitude'); title('discrete time square wave'); grid;

APERIODIC SIGNALS clc; clear all; close all; t=-5:0.01:5; %Unit impulse x1=1; x2=0; x=x1.*(t==0)+x2.*(t~=0); subplot(3,3,1); plot(t,x,'r'); xlabel('->t'); ylabel('->x(t)'); axis([-5 5 -1 2]); title('Unit impulse signal'); grid; %unit step x=x1.*(t>=0)+x2.*(t<0); subplot(3,3,2);

plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); axis([-5 5 -1 2]); title('unit step signal'); grid; %ramp signal x1=t; x2=0; x=x1.*(t>=0)+x2.*(t<=0); subplot(3,3,3); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); title('ramp signal'); grid; %triangular signal a=2; x1=1-abs(t)/a; x2=0; x=x1.*(abs(t)<=a)+x2.*(abs(t)>a); subplot(3,3,4); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); title('triangular signal'); grid; %parabolic signal A=0.4; x1=(A*(t.^2))/2; x2=0; x=x1.*(t>=0)+x2.*(t<0); subplot(3,3,5); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); title('parbolic signal'); grid; %signum signal x1=1; x2=0; x3=-1; x=x1.*(t>0)+x2.*(t==0)+x3.*(t<0);

subplot(3,3,6); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); axis([-5 5 -2 2]); grid; title('signum signal'); %gaussian pulse x=exp(-t.^2); subplot(3,3,7); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); grid; title('gaussian pulse'); % decreasing exponential signal x=exp(-0.2*t); subplot(3,3,8); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); title('decreasing exponential signal'); grid; % increasing exponential signal x=exp(0.2*t); subplot(3,3,9); plot(t,x); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x(t)'); title('increasing exponential signal'); grid;

3.Operations on signals
3a) MATLAB CODE FOR SIGNAL ADDITION clc; clear all ; t = 0 : 0.01 : 30; % Clear Command Window %Clears all the previously defined variables %Generate a vector of 3001 samples for t with a value %between 0 & 30 with an increment of 0.01 %Generate the sinusoidal signal of frequency 1/3 Hz % Generate the sinusoidal signal of frequency 1/5 Hz % Perform sample by sample vector addition on x1 and x2 %Divide the graph space into three parts. %Plot signal 1 in the first part with grid.

x1 = sin( 2 * pi * 1/3 * t ); x2 = sin( 2 * pi * 1/5 * t ); y = x1 + x2; subplot( 3,1,1 ); plot( t , x1 ); grid; xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' x1(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Signal 1 : Sine Wave of Frequency 1/3 Hz ' ); %Add a title to the graph subplot( 3,1,2 ); plot( t , x2 );

grid; %Plot the graph of signal 2 in the second part with grid. xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' x2(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Signal 2 : Sine Wave of Frequency 1/5 Hz ' ); %Add a title to the graph subplot( 3,1,3 ); plot( t , y ); grid; % Plot the graph of resultant signal after summation, in the third part with grid. xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' y(t) = x1(t) + x2(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Resultant Signal : Signal 1 + Signal 2 ' ); %Add A title to the graph

3b MATLAB CODE FOR SIGNAL MULTIPLICATION clc; clear all; % Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables t = 0 : 0.01 : 30; % Generate a vector of 3001 samples for t with a %value between 0 & 30 with an increment of 0.01 x1 = sin( 2 * pi * 1/3 * t ); %Generate the sinusoidal signal of frequency 1/3 Hz x2 = sin( 2 * pi * 1/5 * t ); %Generate the sinusoidal signal of frequency 1/5 Hz y = x1 .* x2; %Perform sample by sample multiplication on x1 and x2. subplot( 3,1,1 ); plot( t , x1 ); %Divide the graph space into three parts. grid; % Plot signal 1 in the first part, with grid. xlabel( ' Time t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' x1(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Signal 1 : Sine Wave of Frequency 1/3 Hz ' ); %Add an appropriate title to the graph subplot( 3,1,2 ); plot( t , x2 ); grid; %Plot the graph of signal 2 in the second part.Include the grid. xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' x2(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes

title( ' Signal 2 : Sine Wave of Frequency 1/5 Hz ' ); %Add an appropriate title to the graph subplot( 3,1,3 ); plot( t , y ); grid; %Plot the graph of resultant signal after summation, in the third part. xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' y(t) = x1(t) .* x2(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Resultant Signal : Dot Product of Signal 1 and Signal 2 ' );

3c) MATLAB CODE FOR SIGNAL SCALING


clc; % Clear Command Window clear all; % Clear all the previously defined variables N = input ( ' Type the desired length of the signal '); %Input a number for N, the length of the signal t = 0 : 0.01 : N-1; %Generate a vector t of N samples x = sin( 2 * pi * 1/5 * t ); % Generate a sine wave for example A = input ( ' Please input a SCALE FACTOR(>1 or a +ve fraction) for A '); %Input a No. greater than unity or a positive fraction, using which the given signal is to be scaled y = A * sin( 2 * pi * 1/5 * t ); %Scale the signal by the scale factor A subplot( 2,1,1 ); plot( t , x ); % Divide the graph space into two parts, Plot x in first part. axis ( [ 0 N-1 -A A ] ); grid; %Aadjust the axes appropriately and use grid. xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' x(t) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Signal 1 : Sine Wave of Frequency 1/5 Hz ' ); %Add a title to the graph

subplot( 2,1,2 ); plot( t , y ); part. axis ( [ 0 N-1 -A A ] ); grid; use grid. xlabel( ' Time Index t (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' y(t) ' ); title( ' Signal 2 : Scaled Version of Signal 1

% Plot the scaled signal y in second %adjust the axes appropriately and %Label the X and Y axes ' );%Add a title to the graph

output:
Type the desired length of the signal 10 Please input a SCALE FACTOR(>1 or a +ve fraction) for A 2

3d) MATLAB CODE FOR SIGNAL SHIFTING clear all; clc ; %Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables x = input( ' Type the samples of a signal ' ); %Generate any arbitrary signal vector x by %typing the samples n1 = input( ' Type the time origin at which the first signal sample is ' ); %Considering the X-axis range from n1 to n2 for the signal x, enter the value of n1, where thefirst signal sample begins. N = length(x); %Find the length of the signal sequence n2 = n1 + N -1; %Find the time index of the last sample of the signal x n = n1 : n2; %Set the range for X-axis from n1 to n2 disp( ' The program will now ask for the amount of shift ' ); %Display on screen the statement in parenthesis disp( ' Enter a POSITIVE number for delay & NEGATIVE number for Advancement ' ); %Display on screen the statement in parenthesis disp( ' Press any key to continue ' ); pause; %Display on screen the statement in parenthesis %and wait until the above two statements are read. d = input( ' Enter the desired amount of shift of the signal ' ); %Input the value of time shift nn = n + d; xs = x; %Shift the time index by the amount of shift and leave the original %signal as it is by just assigning it to a different variable.

subplot(2,1,1); stem( n , x ); %Plot the original signal as stems in the First part of the graphic. xlabel( ' Time Index n (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' x(n) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Original Signal ' ); %Add a title to the graph Subplot(2,1,2); stem( nn , x ); %Plot the shifted signal in the second part of the graphic. xlabel( ' Time Index n (sec.) ' ); ylabel( ' xs(n) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Time Shifted Signal ' ); %Add a title to the graph output: Type the samples of a signal 7 Type the time origin at which the first signal sample is 0 The program will now ask for the amount of shift Enter a POSITIVE number for delay & NEGATIVE number for Advancement Press any key to continue Enter the desired amount of shift of the signal 4

3e) MATLAB CODE FOR SIGNAL FOLDING clc; % Clear Command Window clear all ; %Clear all the previously defined variables t = 0 : 0.1 : 5; %Generate a vector n using a step size of 0.1 x = 0.5 * t; %Generate a ramp as an example signal lx = length(x); %Find the length of the signal sequence nx = 0 : lx-1; %Set a range for positive X-axis xf = fliplr( x ); %Perform the folding operation of signal x by using the built-in function fliplr nf = -fliplr( nx ); %Fold the vector nx to get a mirror image vector nf. %This will set the range of negative X-axis for the folded signal subplot(2,1,1); % Divide the graph space into two parts

stem( nx , x ); % Plot the original signal in the first part as stems xlabel( ' nx ' ); ylabel( ' x(nx) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Original Signal' ); %Add a title to the graph subplot(2,1,2); stem( nf , xf ); %Plot the folded signal in the second part. xlabel( ' nf ' ); ylabel( ' xf(nf) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes title( ' Folded Signal ' ); %Add a title to the graph

The 3f) MATLAB CODE FOR COMPUTATION OF ENERGY n = 0:1:20; %Create a vector n of 101 samples x = (1/2) .^ n; %Create the signal x(n) = (1/2)n u(n) stem(n,x); axis([0 25 0 1]); %Plot the signal as stems and adjust the axes appropriately. disp( ' The calculated Energy E of the signal is '); %Display the message in brackets on screen

E = sum(abs(x).^2)

%Calculate the energy of the signal disp( ' The Theoretical Energy of the signal is ' ); %Display the message in brackets on screen E_Theory = 4/3 ; %Calculate the theoretical value of the energy of the signal Output: The calculated Energy E of the signal is E= 1.3333

3g) MATLAB CODE FOR COMPUTATION OF POWER N = input( 'Type a value for N ');% Type a value for N, which is the one sided length of the signal. t = -N : .0001 : N; %Create a vector t that will act as a time index x = cos (2 * pi * 50 * t ) .^ 2; %Generate the signal x = cos 2 (2 f t) disp( ' The calculated Power P of the signal is ' ) %Display the message on the screen

P = sum(abs(x).^2)/length(x)

%Calculate the power of the signal x and

display its value on screen. plot(t,x); axis ([0 0.1 0 1]); %Plot the signal by adjusting the axes appropriately. disp( ' The Theoretical Power of the signal is ' ) %Display the message in brackets on screen P_Theory = 3/8 %Show the theoretical value of the power of the signal on screen. Output:

Type a value for N 20 The calculated Power P of the signal is P= 0.3750 The Theoretical Power of the signal is P_Theory =

0.3750

4. Finding the even and odd parts of a signal or sequence and real and imaginary parts of a signal
4a) MATLAB CODE TO FIND WHETHER A SIGNAL IS EVEN OR ODD AND FIND ITS EVEN AND ODD PARTS: clc;clear all;close all; tmin=-4;tmax=4; dt=0.1; t=tmin:dt:tmax; %x1=exp(2*t); %x2=exp(-2*t); x1=sin(2*pi*0.2*t); x2=sin(-(2*pi*0.2*t));

%x1=cos2*pi*0.2*t); %x2=cos(-(2*pi*0.2*t));
if(x2==x1) disp(' The signal is even signal '); else if (x2==(-x1)) disp(' The signal odd signal '); else disp('The signal is neither even nor odd signal'); end end xe=(x1+x2)/2; xo=(x1-x2)/2; ymin=min([min(x1),min(x2),min(xe),min(xo)]);

ymax=max([max(x1),max(x2),max(xe),max(xo)]); subplot(2,2,1); plot(t,x1); axis([tmin tmax ymin ymax]); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x1(t)'); title('signal x(t)'); grid; subplot(2,2,2); plot(t,x2); axis([tmin tmax ymin ymax]); xlabel('t'); ylabel('x2(t)'); title('signal x(-t)'); grid; subplot(2,2,3); plot(t,xe); axis([tmin tmax ymin ymax]); xlabel('t'); ylabel('xe(t)'); title('even part of x(t)'); grid; subplot(2,2,4); plot(t,xo); axis([tmin tmax ymin ymax]); xlabel('t'); ylabel('xo(t)'); title('odd part of x(t)'); grid;

4b) MATLAB CODE TO FIND THE REAL AND IMAGINARY PARTS OF A SIGNAL clc; clear all;

x = [0, 2+j*4, -3+j*2, 5-j*1, -2-j*4, -j*3, 0] %Create the complex signal %vector x n = -3 : 3; %Set a range for X-axis using vector n xc = conj( x ); %Compute the complex conjugate of x xc_folded = fliplr(xc); %Fold the signal xc using the built-in %function 'fliplr' xc_even = 0.5 * [x + xc_folded]; %Compute the even part of xc xc_odd = 0.5 * [x - xc_folded]; %Compute the odd part of xc figure; %Open a new figure window (Figure 1) subplot(2,1,1) ; stem(n , real(x) ) %Plot the real part of complex signal x in the 1st half of Figure1. title('Real part of Complex Signal x(n)') xlabel ( ' n ' ); ylabel ('Magnitude of Real [x(n)]'); subplot(2,1,2); stem( n , imag(x) ) % Plot the imaginary part of complex %signal x in the 2nd half of Figure 1. title('Imaginary part of Complex Signal x(n)')%Add A title to the graph xlabel ( ' n ' ); ylabel ('Magnitude of Imag[ x(n)]'); figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig 2) subplot(2,1,1) ; stem(n , real(xc_even)); %Plot the real part of even signal %xc_even in the 1st half of Fig 2. title('Real part of even signal xc(n)'); xlabel ( ' n ' ); ylabel ('Magnitude of Real (xc-even)'); subplot(2,1,2) ; stem( n , imag(xc_even) ) %Plot the imaginary part of even %signal xc_even in the 2nd half of %Figure 2. title('Imaginary part of even signal xc(n)') xlabel ( ' n ' ); ylabel ('Magnitude of Imag (xc-even)'); figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig3) subplot(2,1,1) ; stem( n , real(xc_odd)) %Plot the real part of odd signal %xc_odd in the 1st half of Fig 3. title('Real part of odd signal xc(n)') xlabel ( ' n ' ); ylabel ('Magnitude of Real (xc-odd)'); subplot(2,1,2);stem(n,imag(xc_odd)) %Plot the imaginary part of odd signal % xc_odd in the 2nd half of Fig 3. title('Imaginary part of odd signal xc(n)') xlabel ( ' n ' ); ylabel ('Magnitude of Imag (xc-odd)');

5.Convolution between signals


MATLAB Code Explanation x = input (' type the samples of input signal x(n) '); %Enter the values of Input Signal x(n) nx1 = input( ' type the time origin of the first sample of x(n) ' );%Enter the time origin of the first sample of x(n) NX = length(x); % Find the length of the signal x(n) nx2 = nx1 + NX -1; %Find the upper limit of X-axis range nx = nx1 : nx2; %Set X-axis range for the graph of x(n) figure; stem(nx,x) % Open a new figure window (Figure 1) and plot a stem graph of x(n) title (' Input Signal x(n) '); %Add an appropriate title to the graph xlabel ('Time Index n'); ylabel ( ' x(n) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes h = input (' type the samples of Impulse response signal h(n) '); %Enter the values of Impulse response Signal h(n) nh1 = input( ' type the time origin of the first sample of h(n) ' ); %Enter the time origin of the first sample of h(n) NH = length(h); %Find the length of the signal h(n)

nh2 = nh1 + NH -1; %Find the upper limit of X-axis range nh = nh1 : nh2; %Set X-axis range for the graph of h(n) figure; stem(nh,h) %Open a new figure window (Figure 2) and plot a stem graph of h(n) title (' Impulse Response Signal h(n) ');%Add an appropriate title to the graph xlabel ('Time Index n'); ylabel ( ' h(n) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes y = conv ( x , h ); %Compute the LTI system output y(n) using the built-in MATLAB function 'conv' NY = NX + NH -1; %Find the length of the signal y(n) ny1 = nx1 + nh1; %Find the time origin at which the first signal sample of y(n) is available ny = ny1 : NY-abs(ny1)-1; %Set X-axis range for the graph of y(n) figure; stem(ny,y) % Open a new figure window (Figure 3) and plot a stem graph of y(n) title (' Output Signal y(n) = x(n)*h(n)'); %Add an appropriate title to the graph xlabel ('Time Index n'); ylabel ( ' y(n) ' ); %Label the X and Y axes disp ('Time Index of x(n) = '); disp(nx); %Display on screen the message in parentheses and the time index of x(n) disp ('Input Signal Sequence x(n) = '); disp(x); disp ('Time Index of h(n) = '); disp(nh); disp ('Impulse Response Sequence h(n) = '); disp(h); disp ('Time Index of y(n) = '); disp(ny); disp ('output Signal Sequence y(n)= '); disp(y); Output:

7 a)MATLAB code for verification of linearity property of a discrete time system x1=input(type the samples of x1);%enter the values of first input signal x1. x2=input(type the samples of x2); % enter the values of second input signal x2 if(length(x1)~= length(x2) )% check if the lengths of two vectors x1 and x2 are same disp(ERROR :Lengths of x1&x2 are different); %If the sizes are different display the error message return; %get out of the program, as you cannot proceed further, and go to the command prompt end; h=input(type the samples of h); % enter the samples of impulse response h of the LTI system N=length(x1)+length(h)-1; %find the length of the o/p sequence disp(length of the output signal will be ); disp(N); a1=input(the scale factor a1 is); %Enter the scale factor a1 of the path of x1 a2=input(the scale factor a2 is); %Enter the scale factor a2 of the path of x2 x=a1*x1+a2*x2; y01=conv(x,h); y1=conv(x1,h); h. % find the intermediate o/p x of system 1 as a1x1 + a2 x 2 %find the final o/p of system 1 as the convolution of x and h. %find the 1st intermediate o/p y1 of system 1 as the convolution of x1 and

y1s=a1*y1; %scale y1 with the scaling factor a1 y2=conv(x2,h); %find the 1st intermediate o/p y1 of system 2 as the convolution of x1 and h. y2s=a2*y2; %scale y2 with the scaling factor a2

y02=y1s+y2s; % find the final o/p of system 2 by adding the two intermediate outputs. disp(input signal x1 is); disp(x1); disp(input signal x2 is); disp(x2); disp(Output sequence y01 is); disp(y01); disp(Output sequence y02 is); disp(y02); if(y01==y02) disp(y01=y02.Hence the LTI system is LINEAR); end; output:

type the samples of x1[2 5 3 7 -1] type the samples of x2[-4 6 -2 3 1] type the samples of h[1 -3 4 -2 7 2 -1 3] length of the output signal will be 12 the scale factor a1 is3 the scale factor a2 is2 input signal x1 is 2 5 3 7 -1 input signal x2 is -4 6 -2 3 1 33 168 123 -14 82

Output sequence y01 is -2 33 -84 124 -130 286 -3 Output sequence y02 is

-2 -3

33 -84 124 -130 286

33 168 123 -14

82

y01=y02.Hence the LTI system is LINEAR


>> 7 b)MATLAB code for verification of time invariance property of a discrete time system x=input(type the samples of x(n)); %enter the values of the input signal x(n) h=input(type the samples of h(n)); %enter the values of the impulse response h(n) of system H y=conv(x,h); %find the output signal y(n) as the convolution of x(n)and h(n) disp(enter a POSITIVE number for delay); d=input(desired delay of the signal is); %enter the desired shift by which the signal x(n) needs to be delayed xd=[zeros(1,d),x]; %generate the delayed input signal xd(n) by padding x(n) with d zeros nxd=0:length(xd)-1; %set the x-axis range for input signals graph yd=conv(xd,h); %convolve the delayed input signal xd(n) with impulse response h(n) to produce a new output signalyd(n) nyd=0:length(yd)-1; %set the x-axis range for output signals graph disp(original input signal x(n) is); disp(x); disp(delayed input signal xd(n) is); disp(xd); disp(original output signal y(n) is); disp(y); disp(delayed output signal y(n) is); disp(yd); xp=[x,zeros(1,d)]; %append d zeros to vector x so as to plot x with xd on the same graph figure; subplot(2,1,1); stem(nxd,xp); grid; xlabel(time index n); ylabel(x(n)); title(original input signal x(n)); subplot(2,1,2); stem(nxd,xd); grid; xlabel(time index n); ylabel(xd(n)); title(delayed input signal xd(n)); yp=[y,zeros(1,d)]; %append d zeros to vector y so as to plot y with yd on the same graph figure subplot(2,1,1); stem(nyd,yp);

grid; xlabel(time index n); ylabel(y(n)); title(original output signal y(n)); subplot(2,1,2); stem(nyd,yd); grid; xlabel(time index n); ylabel(yd(n)); title(delayed output signal yd(n));

type the samples of x(n)[0 1 1 1 2 2 2] type the samples of h(n)[1 3 5 2 1] enter a POSITIVE number for delay desired delay of the signal is4 original input signal x(n) is 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 delayed input signal xd(n) is 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 original output signal y(n) is 0 1 4 9 12 16 21 delayed output signal y(n) is Columns 1 through 14 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 9 12 16 21 21 16 6 1 21 2 16 2 6 2 2

Column 15 2

8. Computation of unit sample , unit step responses of the given LTI system and verifying its physical realizability and stability properties

8a)MATLAB code for Unit Impulse Response of LTI System num = input ('type the numerator vector ');%Enter the fficients of the Numerator polynomial'); den = input ('type the denominator vector '); %Enter the coefficients of the Denominator polynomial N = input ('type the desired length of the output sequence N '); %Enter the number of output samples that you wish to see in a graph n = 0 : N-1;% Set a range for X-axis imp = [ 1 zeros(1, N-1) ]; %Generate the Unit Impulse signal of N samples h = filter ( num, den, imp );% Obtain the output of the system, using the builtof h(n) disp('the impulse response of lti system is'); disp(h); stem(n,h); xlabel ('time index n'); ylabel ('h(n)'); title ('Impulse Response of LTI system');

output
All zero system :

All pole system:

Pole zero system :

8b)MATLAB code for Unit Step Response of LTI System num = input ('type the numerator vector ');%Enter the coefficients of the Numerator polynomial den = input ('type the denominator vector ');%Enter the coefficients of the Denominator polynomial N = input ('type the desired length of the output sequence N ');%Enter the number of output samples that you wish to see in a graph n = 0 : 1 : N-1; %Set a range for X-axis u = ones (1, N); %Generate the Unit Step signal of N samples s = filter ( num, den, u );% Obtain the output s(n) of the system,using the built-in MATLAB function 'filter' disp('The step response of LTI system is'); disp(s); %Display the message in parentheses and the values of s(n) stem(n,s) %Plot a stem graph of s(n) xlabel ('time index n'); ylabel ('s(n)'); title ('Step Response of LTI system');

Pole-zero system:

8c)MATLAB code for Frequency Response of LTI System num = input ('type the numerator vector '); %Enter the coefficients of the Numerator polynomial den = input ('type the denominator vector '); %Enter the coefficients of the Denominator polynomial N = input ('number of frequency points '); %Enter the number of frequency points at which the frequency response need to be calculated w = 0 : pi / N : pi; %Set a range for X-axis from 0 to ? H = freqz(num, den, w); %Calculate the frequency response H(ejw) of the transfer function H(z) for w ranging from 0 to ? figure; %Open a new figure window (Figure 1) for plotting the real and imaginary parts of H subplot(2 , 1 , 1 ); plot( w/pi , real(H) ); %Divide figure window into two portions and plot the real part of H in the 1st portion xlabel( ' omega \pi' ); ylabel(' Amplitude ' ) title ( 'Real part' ); subplot( 2 , 1 , 2 ); plot( w/pi , imag(H) );%Plot the imaginary part of H in the 2nd portion of figure window xlabel( ' \omega / \pi' ); ylabel(' Amplitude ' ) title ( 'Imaginary part' ); figure;% Open a new figure window (Figure 2) for plotting the magnitude and phase of H subplot( 2 , 1 , 1 ); plot( w/pi , abs(H) );% plot the magnitude part of H in the 1st portion xlabel(' omega \pi'); ylabel(' Magnitude') title ('Magnitude Spectrum'); subplot( 2 , 1 , 2 ); plot( w/pi , angle(H) ); %Plot the phase part of H in the 2nd portion of figure window xlabel(' omega \pi'); ylabel(' Phase(radians) '); title ('Phase ');

output :

8d)MATLAB code for finding the Stability of LTI System num=input(type the numerator);

den = input (' type the denominator vector '); [z,p,k] = tf2zp(num,den); %Obtain the location of zeros, poles and the gain constant using the built-in function 'tf2zp' disp ('Gain constant is '); disp(k); %Display the message in parentheses and the value of gain constant k disp (' Zeros are at '); disp(z); %Display the message in parentheses and the location of zeros disp ('radius of Zeros ') ; radzero =abs(z)%Display the message in parentheses and the radius of zeros disp ('Poles are at '); disp(p); %Display the message in parentheses and the location of poles disp ('radius of Poles ') ; radpole = abs(p) %Display the message in parentheses and the radius of poles if max(radpole) >= 1 %If at least one pole is outside the unit circle, do the following disp (' ALL the POLES do not lie within the Unit Circle '); %Display the message in parentheses disp (' Oooooops..The given LTI system is NOT a stable system '); %Display the message in parentheses else %If all the poles lie within the unit circle, do the following disp (' ALL the POLES lie WITHIN the Unit Circle '); disp (' The given LTI system is a REALIZABLE and STABLE system '); end; %End of IF statement zplane(num,den) %Plot the pole zero map of the given system in Z-plane, using the built-in function 'zplane' title ( ' Pole-Zero Map of the LTI system ' ); Output:

9.Gibbs phenomenon
Matlab code for observing gibbs phenomenon

clc; clear all; variables

%Clear C ommand Window and all the previously defined

N = input( 'type the total number of harmonics' ); %Input the number of sine wave %harmonics that you wish to add to generate the synthesized signal t = 0 : 0.001 : 1; %Generate a vector of 1001 samples for t with values between 0 & 1 and with %an increment of 0.001 y = square( 2 * pi * t ); %Generate the square wave signal of period T=1, using the built-in %function 'square' plot( t , y , 'r' , 'linewidth' , 2 ) %Plot the original square wave signal y(t) with a red line and %thickness of 2 units, for comparison with the synthesized square wave signal axis( [ 0 1 -1.5 1.5 ] ) Adjust the scale of X and Y axes to have a clear view of signals hold; %Hold the original square wave plot so as to superimpose the synthesized square %wave on to it for comparison sq = zeros( size(t) ); %Generate a vector of 1001 zeros to initialize the sq vector for n = 1 : 2 : N %Generate odd values for n beginning with 1 and with an %increment of 2, in each for loop sq = sq + (4 / (pi * n) * sin( 2 * pi * n * t)); %Generate the synthesized square %wave based on equation (10.9) end; %End of 'For' loop plot( t , sq ) %Plot the graph of synthesized square wave signal . grid; %Include grid lines in the graph xlabel( 't' ); ylabel( 'sq(t)' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Synthesized Square Wave Using Fourier Series'); %Add an appropriate title to the graph output: type the total number of harmonics5 Current plot held

type the total number of harmonics50

Current plot held

10. Finding the fourier transform of a given signal and plotting magnitude and phase spectrum
Matlab code for computing the DFT clc; clear all; %Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables f = 100; %Fix the frequency of the Cosine wave at 100 Hz. Fs = 1000; % Fix the Sampling frequency at 1 KHz, following the Nyquist criterion. Ts = 1/Fs; % Find the sampling interval N = 1024; % Let the length of the DFT sequence N be 1024. n = [0 : N-1]* Ts; %Set the scale of X-axis for plotting the example signal. x = 0.8 * cos( 2 * pi * f * n); % Generate the Cosine wave of frequency 100 Hz figure; % Open a new figure window (Fig. 1) to plot the Cosine signal x(n). plot( n , x ); grid; % Plot x(n) and include grid. axis( [ 0 0.05 -1 1 ] ); % Adjust the scale of X and Y axes to have a clear view of the signal title(' Cosine Signal of Frequency f'); % Add an appropriate title to the graph xlabel('time n (sec.)'); ylabel('x(n)'); ````````% Label the X and Y axes Xk = fft( x , N ); % Compute the N-point DFT using the built-in function 'fft' k = 0 : N-1; % Set a range for the frequency index variable k figure; % Open a new figure window 2 to plot the magnitude and phase spectra of x(n) Xmag = abs(Xk); %Compute the magnitude of X(k) subplot(2,1,1); % Divide the Fig. 2 graphic space into two portions plot(k,Xmag); , plot the magnitude of X(k) in the 1st portion. title(' Magnitude of Fourier Transform'); %Add an appropriate title to the graph xlabel('frequency index k'); ylabel('Magnitude'); %Label the X and Y axes subplot(2,1,2); plot(k,angle(Xk)); %Plot the phase angle of X(k) in the 2nd portion of Fig.2. grid; title(' Phase of Fourier Transform'); %Add an appropriate title to the graph xlabel('frequency index k'); ylabel('Phase');

12. Locating zeros and poles, and plotting the pole-zero maps in S-plane and Z-plane 12a) MATLAB Code for drawing the pole zero map in S-domain
clc; clear all; num = input ( 'type the numerator polynomial vector ' ); %Enter the coefficients of numerator polynomial N(s) in square brackets den = input( ' type the denominator polynomial vector ' ); %Enter the coefficients of denominator polynomial D(s) in square brackets H = tf( num , den ) %Find the transfer function H(s) [ p , z ] = pzmap( H ); %Find the locations of poles and zeros. p and z will be column vectors. disp (' zeros are at '); disp( z ) %Display the message in parentheses and the location of zeros disp ('poles are at '); disp( p ) %Display the message in parentheses and the location of poles figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig.1) for plotting the pole zero map pzmap( H ) %Plot the pole zero map [ r, p, k ] = residue( num , den );% Find the PFE coefficients (residues) r, %pole locations p and the gain constant k of H(s) disp ('PFE coefficients '); disp( r ); %Display the message in parentheses and %the residues r disp ('Gain constant is '); disp( k );% Display the message in parentheses and %the gain constant k if max(real(p)) >= 1 %If the real part of any of the poles is greater than or equal to 1, do the%following disp (' All poles DO NOT LIE in the Left Half of S-Plane '); %Display the message in parentheses disp (' Oooooops..The given LTI system is NOT a stable system '); Else %If the real part of any of the poles is less than 1, do the following disp (' ALL the POLES lie in the Left Half of S-Plane '); disp (' The given LTI system is a STABLE system '); end; %End of the IF statement figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig.2) for plotting the impulse response h(t) t = 0 : 0.1 : 5; %Set a time range for X-axis h = impulse( H , t ); %Find the impulse response h(t), using the built-in function 'impulse' plot( t , h ) %Plot the impulse response h(t) versus time t xlabel('t'); ylabel('h(t)'); %Label the X and Y axes title ( ' Impulse Response of the LTI system ' ); output: simple distinct poles: type the numerator polynomial vector [1 -2 1] type the denominator polynomial vector [1 6 11 6] Transfer function: s^2 - 2 s + 1

---------------------s^3 + 6 s^2 + 11 s + 6 zeros are at 1 1 poles are at -3.0000 -2.0000 -1.0000 PFE coefficients 8.0000 -9.0000 2.0000 Gain constant is ALL the POLES lie in the Left Half of S-Plane The given LTI system is a STABLE system

Complex conjugate poles: type the numerator polynomial vector [0 1 2 1] type the denominator polynomial vector [1 2 4 8]

Transfer function: s^2 + 2 s + 1 --------------------s^3 + 2 s^2 + 4 s + 8 zeros are at -1 -1 poles are at -2.0000 0.0000 + 2.0000i 0.0000 - 2.0000i PFE coefficients 0.1250 0.4375 - 0.0625i 0.4375 + 0.0625i Gain constant is All poles DO NOT LIE in the Left Half of S-Plane Oooooops..The given LTI system is NOT a stable system Multiple Order Poles:

type the numerator polynomial vector [1] type the denominator polynomial vector [1 2 0 0] Transfer function: 1 ----------s^3 + 2 s^2 zeros are at poles are at 0 0 -2 PFE coefficients 0.2500 -0.2500 0.5000 Gain constant is All poles DO NOT LIE in the Left Half of S-Plane Oooooops..The given LTI system is NOT a stable system

12b) MATLAB Code for drawing the pole zero map in Z-domain clc; clear all; %Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables num = input (' type the numerator vector '); %Enter the coefficients of numerator %polynomial N(z) in square brackets den = input (' type the denominator vector '); %Enter the coefficients of denominator polynomial D(z) in square brackets H = filt(num , den) %Find the transfer function H(z) using the %built-in function 'filt' z = zero(H); %Find the locations of zeros. z will be a column vector. disp (' zeros are at '); disp(z) %Display the message in parentheses and the %location of zeros disp ('radius of Zeros ') ; radzero = abs(z) %Display the message in parentheses and the radius of zeros [r,p,k] = residuez(num,den); %Find the PFE coefficients (residues) r, pole %locations p and the gain constant k of H(z) disp ('poles are at '); disp(p) %Display the message in parentheses and the %location of poles disp ('radius of poles ') ; radpole = abs(p) %Display the message in parentheses and the radius of poles disp ('PFE coefficients '); disp(r); %Display the message in parentheses and %residues r disp ('Gain constant is '); disp(k); %Display the message in parentheses and %gain constant k figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig.1) for plotting the pole zero map

zplane(num,den) %Plot the pole zero map in z-plane title ( ' Pole-Zero Map of the LTI system in Z-Plane' ); if max(radpole) >= 1 %If the magnitude of any of the poles is %greater than or equal to 1, do the following disp (' ALL the POLES do not lie within the Unit Circle '); disp (' Oooooops..The given LTI system is NOT a stable system '); else %If the magnitude of any of the poles is less than 1, do the following disp (' ALL the POLES lie WITHIN the Unit Circle '); disp (' The given LTI system is a REALIZABLE and STABLE system '); end; %End of the IF statement figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig.2) for plotting the impulse response h(n) impz(num,den) %Plot the time domain impulse response h(n) of the LTI system H(z)

output: simple and distinct poles:


type the numerator vector [1 -1 1] type the denominator vector [1 1 0.16] Transfer function: 1 - z^-1 + z^-2 -------------------1 + z^-1 + 0.16 z^-2 Sampling time: unspecified zeros are at 0.5000 + 0.8660i 0.5000 - 0.8660i radius of Zeros radzero = 1.0000 1.0000 poles are at -0.8000 -0.2000 radius of poles radpole = 0.8000 0.2000 PFE coefficients 5.0833 -10.3333

Gain constant is 6.2500 ALL the POLES lie WITHIN the Unit Circle The given LTI system is a REALIZABLE and STABLE system

Complex and conjugate poles: type the numerator vector [1 1] type the denominator vector [1 -1 0.5] Transfer function: 1 + z^-1 ------------------1 - z^-1 + 0.5 z^-2 Sampling time: unspecified zeros are at 0 -1 radius of Zeros radzero = 0 1 poles are at 0.5000 + 0.5000i 0.5000 - 0.5000i radius of poles radpole = 0.7071 0.7071 PFE coefficients 0.5000 - 1.5000i 0.5000 + 1.5000i Gain constant is ALL the POLES lie WITHIN the Unit Circle The given LTI system is a REALIZABLE and STABLE system

Multiple order poles: type the numerator vector [1] type the denominator vector [1 0.5 -1.25 0.375] Transfer function: 1 ------------------------------------1 + 0.5 z^-1 - 1.25 z^-2 + 0.375 z^-3 Sampling time: unspecified zeros are at 0 0 0 radius of Zeros radzero = 0 0 0 poles are at -1.5000 0.5000 + 0.0000i 0.5000 - 0.0000i radius of poles radpole = 1.5000 0.5000 0.5000 PFE coefficients 0.5625 0.1875 + 0.0000i 0.2500 - 0.0000i Gain constant is ALL the POLES do not lie within the Unit Circle Oooooops..The given LTI system is NOT a stable system

13.Generation of Gaussian noise(real and complex), computation its mean, mean square values, Skew, Kurtosis, PSD, Probability Distribution function
clc; clear all; % Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables

x1 = randn(1,5000); %Generate first set of 5000 samples of Gaussian distributed random numbers x2 = randn(1,5000); %Generate second set of 5000 samples of Gaussian distributed random numbers figure; plot( x1 , x2 , ' . ' ) %Plot the joint distribution of both the sets using 'dots' so as to get a scatter plot in a new figure window title('Scatter Plot of Gaussian Distributed Random Numbers'); %Add an appropriate title to thegraph x1 = rand(1,5000);% Generate first set of 5000 samples of uniformly distributed randomnumbers x2 = rand(1,5000); %Generate second set of 5000samples of uniformly distributed random numbersfigure; plot( x1 , x2 , ' . ' ) Plot the joint distribution of boththe sets using 'dots' so as to get a scatter plot in a new figure window title('Scatter Plot of Uniform Distributed Random Numbers');%Add an appropriate title to the graph x3 = rand(1,100000);% Generate one lakh samples ofuniformly distributed random numbers figure; subplot(2,1,1); hist(x3)% Plot a histogram graph of x3 in the1st portion of a new figure window title('Uniform Distribution');%Add an appropriate title to the graph y = randn(1,100000);% Generate one lakh samples of Gaussian distributed randomnumbers Text Book : Basic Simulation Lab with MATLAB subplot(2,1,2); hist(y)% Plot a histogram graph of y in the2nd portion of the figure window title('Gaussian Distribution');%Add an appropriate title to thegraph ymu = mean(y) %Find the mean value of y ymsq = sum(y .^ 2 ) / length(y)% Find the mean square value of y ysigma = std(y) %Find the standard deviation of y yvar = var(y)% Find the variance value of y yskew = skewness(y) %Find the skew value of y ykurt = kurtosis(y) %Find the kurtosis value of y output: ymu = 0.0038 ymsq = 1.0043 ysigma = 1.0022 yvar = 1.0043 yskew = -0.0178 ykurt = 3.0212

14. Matlab code for verification of Sampling Theorem


clc;clear all t=-5:0.0001:5;

F1=3; F2=23; x=cos(2*pi*F1*t)+cos(2*pi*F2*t); figure(1); plot(t,x); axis([-0.4 0.4 -2 2]); xlabel('timet(sec)'); ylabel('x(t)'); title('continous signal:x(t)=cos(2piF1t)+cos(2piF2t)'); %case 1 Fs1=1.4*F2; ts1=1/Fs1; n1=-0.4:ts1:0.4; xs1=cos(2*pi*F1*n1)+cos(2*pi*F2*n1); figure(2); stem(n1,xs1); hold on; plot(t,x,'r'); axis([-0.4 0.4 -2 2]); hold off; xlabel('time sample(n)'); ylabel('amplitude'); title('discrete time signal'); legend('Fs<2Fmax'); %case 2 Fs2=2*F2; ts2=1/Fs2; n2=-0.4:ts2:0.4; xs2=cos(2*pi*F1*n2)+cos(2*pi*F2*n2); figure(3); stem(n2,xs2); hold on; plot(t,x,'r'); axis([-0.4 0.4 -2 2]); hold off; xlabel('time sample(n)'); ylabel('amplitude'); title('discrete time signal'); legend('Fs=2Fmax'); %case 3 Fs3=7*F2; ts3=1/Fs3; n3=-0.4:ts3:0.4; xs3=cos(2*pi*F1*n3)+cos(2*pi*F2*n3); figure(4); stem(n3,xs3); hold on; plot(t,x,'r'); axis([-0.4 0.4 -2 2]); hold off;

xlabel('time sample(n)'); ylabel('amplitude'); title('discrete time signal'); legend('Fs>2Fmax');

17.Impulse response of a raised cosine filter


Matlab code for plotting Impulse Response of RCF
clc; clear all; t=linspace(-5,5,1000); beta1=0.2; beta2=0.4; beta3=0.6; Ts=1; h=(sin(pi*t/Ts))./(pi*t/Ts); h1=(cos(pi*beta1*t/Ts))./(1-(2*beta1*t/Ts).^2); h2=(cos(pi*beta2*t/Ts))./(1-(2*beta2*t/Ts).^2); h3=(cos(pi*beta3*t/Ts))./(1-(2*beta3*t/Ts).^2); ht=h.*h1; plot(t,ht); hold on; ht=h.*h2; plot(t,ht,'r'); ht=h.*h3; plot(t,ht,'g'); xlabel('timet(sec)'); ylabel('h(t)'); grid; legend('beta-->0.2','0.4','0.6'); hold off;

Matlab code for Cross Correlation of x(n) and Delayed x(n)

x= [1 2 3 -2 -1];% Create a sample signal vector x(n) D = input( ' type the delay D ' );%Enter the desired amount of delay D xd = [ zeros(1,D) x ]; %Create a delayed signal xd(n) with a delay D [ r , lag ] = xcorr( x , xd ); %Compute the cross correlation of x(n)and xd(n) using the built-in function'xcorr' stem( lag , r ) %Plot a stem graph of cross correlated output versus the lag title( ' Cross Correlation of x(n) andDelayed x(n) ' );%Add appropriate title to the graph xlabel( ' Lag Index l ' ); ylabel( ' Rxy( l ) ' );%Label the X and Y axes output: type the delay D 5

Matlab code for Time Delay Estimation using Cross Correlation


x= [1 2 3 -2 -1];% Create a sample signal vector x(n) D = input('type the round tripdelay D ');%Enter the desired amount of delay D alpha= input('type the attenuation factor ');%Enter a value (<1) for the attenuation factor xd = [zeros(1,D) x]; %Create a delayed signal xd(n) with a delayD NXD = length(xd); %Find the length of the delayed signal nxd = 0 : NXD-1; %Set a uniform range for X-axis of the plotof x(n) versus xd(n) w = rand(1,NXD) - 0.5; %Create a random noise vector of the samelength as that of xd(n)Enter a 1 for presence of object, or elseenter a 0 obj=input(' type 1 for presence of object or a 0 for absence ');

if obj == 1 %If the object is present run the next two statements to attenuate the delayed signal and add noise to it xa= alpha * xd; %Attenuate the strength of xd(n) by timesto account for loss of amplitude y = xa + w; %Corrupt the attenuated signal xa(n) byadding random noise else %If the object is not present, then thereceived signal will have noise only. Runthe next statement. y = w; %Equate the received signal to noise end; %End of IF statement.figure; Open a new figure window (Fig. 1) xp = [x zeros(1,D)]; %Append 'D' zeros to x(n) so as to plot it onthe same scale as that of y(n) subplot(2,1,1); stem(nxd,xp); %Divide Fig.1 window into two parts, plot astem graph of x(n) in the 1st part xlabel ('n '); ylabel ('x(n)'); %Label the X and Y axes title(' Transmitted Signal x(n)'); %Add appropriate title to the graph NY = length(y); %Find the length of the received signal ny = 0 : NY-1; %Set a range for X-axis of the plot of y(n) subplot(2,1,2); stem(ny,y); %Plot a stem graph of y(n) in the 2nd part ofFig. 1 window xlabel ('n '); ylabel ('y(n)'); %Label the X and Y axes title(' Received Signal y(n)');%Add appropriate title to the graph [r,lag] = xcorr(x,y); %Compute the cross correlation of x(n) and y(n) using the built-in function 'xcorr' figure; %Open a new figure window (Fig. 2) stem(lag,r); %Plot a stem graph of cross correlatedoutput versus the lag xlabel ('Lag '); ylabel ('Rxy(l)');% Label the X and Y axes title ('Time Delay Estimation Using Cross Correlation ');%Add appropriate title to the graph output: type the round tripdelay D 4 type the attenuation factor 0.5 type 1 for presence of object or a 0 for absence 1

clc; clear all; %Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables M = 256; %Set an upper limit for X-axis n = 0 : M-1; %Set the range for X-axis from 0 to 255 x = cos(16*pi*n/M) + sin(32*pi*n/M); % Generate the periodic signal x(n) snr = input('Type the desired SNR '); %Enter a value for the desired SNR

px = var(x) %Find the power of x(n) w = sqrt(12) * (rand( 1 , M )-0.5); %Generate the zero mean unity power white random noise signal an = sqrt(px * (10 ^ ((-1*snr)/10))) %Find the scale factor by which to scale w(n) so as to get the desired SNR w = w .* an; %Scale w(n) by the scaling factor 'an' pn = var(w) %Find the power of noise SNRdb = 10 * log10(px/pn) %Find the actual SNR y = x + w; %Generate noisy signal y(n) by corrupting x(n) with w(n) N = M /8; %Find the common period of x(n) L = floor( M / N ); %Find L, the number of complete cycles of x(n) in y(n) d = zeros( 1 , M );% Generate a row vector 'd' of M zeros for storing the impulse train for i = 1 : M %Begin a 'for' loop if rem(i-1,N) == 0 %If the remainder of (i-1) / N is zero i.e.at i = 0, 32, 64 etc. do the following d(i) = 1; %Generate a unit impulse at that value of i in the vector end; %End of 'IF' loop end; %End of 'FOR' loop Cyd = ifft( fft(y,M).*fft(d,M)) / M; %Find the circular cross correlation of the impulse train y(n) and d(n) using 'fft' and 'ifft' commands r = Cyd * (M/L); %Multiply the result by the scale factor M/L as per (17.15) figure(1); %Open a new figure window (Fig.1) for plotting x(n) plot(n,x,'b'); axis([1 80 -3 3]) %Plot x(n) in Fig.1 in blue color and adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of x(n) xlabel( 'n' ); ylabel( 'x(n)' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Periodic Signal x(n)') %Add an appropriate title to the graph figure(2); %%Open a new figure window (Fig.2) subplot(2,1,1); plot(n,y,'r'); % Divide Fig.2 into two parts, plot the noisy signal y(n) in red color in the 1stpart. grid; axis([1 96 -3 3]); %Include grid and adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of y(n) xlabel( 'n' ); ylabel( 'y(n)' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Noisy Signal y(n)') %%Add an appropriate title to the graph subplot(2,1,2);stem(n,d);% Plot a stem graph of Impulse train d(n) in the 2ndpart of Fig.2. grid;axis([1 96 -0.5 1.5]); %Include grid and adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of d(n) xlabel( 'n' ); ylabel( 'd(n)' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Impulse Train d(n)') %Add an appropriate title to the graph figure(3); %Open a new figure window (Fig.3) for plotting the extracted periodic signal r(n) plot(n,r,'k'); axis([1 80 -3 3])% Plot r(n) in black color and adjust the scale of axes for a clear view of few cycles of r(n) xlabel( 'n' ); ylabel( 'r(n)' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Extracted Periodic Signal r(n)') %Add an appropriate title to the graph figure(4); %Open a new figure window (Fig.4) for plotting r(n) in comparison to x(n) plot(n,x,'b'); hold on; axis([1 80 -3 3]) %Plot x(n) in blue color, hold the graph so as to superimpose the plot of r(n) on the same graph and adjust the scale of axes

plot(n,r,'r:'); hold off; axis([1 80 -3 3]) %Plot r(n) using red dotted line, release the graph and adjust the scale of axes legend('x(n)','r(n)') %Add an appropriate legend to the graph output: Type the desired SNR 5 px = 1.0039 an = 0.5634 pn = 0.3095 SNRdb = 5.1105

clc; clear all; %Clear Command Window and all the previously defined variables N = 100; %Fix the length of the signals as 100 n = 0:N-1; %Set a range for time on the X-axis dsnr = input('type desired SNR in dB'); %Enter the desired Signal to Noise Ratio in decibels (dB) x = sqrt(2) * sin((pi/5)*n); %Generate an example sine wave signal of period 10 and unity power figure(1); stem(n,x);grid% Open a new figure window(Fig.1), Plot a stem graph of x(n) and include grid axis([ 0 50 -1.5 1.5]) %Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of x(n) xlabel( ' n ' ); ylabel( 'x(n)' ); %Label the X and Y axes title('Sinusoidal Signal x(n)'); %Add an appropriate title to the graph px = var(x) %Find the power px of x(n) and display it on screen an = sqrt(px * (10^(-1 * dsnr/10)));% Find the scale factor by which to scale w(n) so as to get the desired SNR w = sqrt(12) * (rand(1, N )-0.5); %Generate 100 samples of zero mean unit y power random signal w(n) w = w * an;% Scale w(n) by the scaling factor vn pn = var(w) %Find the power of noise signal w(n) and display it on screen disp('The calculated SNR ');% Display a message on screen SNRdb = 10*log10(px / pn)% Find the SNR in dB and display on screen figure(3); stem(n,w); grid; %Open a new figure window(Fig.3), %Plot a stem graph of w(n) and include grid

axis([0 50 min(w) max(w)])% Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of w(n) xlabel('n'); ylabel('w(n)'); %Label the X and Y axes title('Random Noise Signal w(n)');% Add an appropriate title to the graph y = x + w; %Corrupt x(n) by adding noise w(n) figure(6); %Open a new figure window (Fig.6) subplot(2,1,1); stem(n,y); grid ; %Divide the Fig.6 into two parts, plot y(n) as a stem graph in the 1st part, include grid axis( [ 0 50 min(y) max(y) ] ) %Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a %clear view of few cycles of y(n) xlabel( ' n ' ); ylabel( 'y(n)= x(n) + w(n)' );%Label the X and Y axes title('Sinusoidal Signal Corrupted with Random Noise')%Add an appropriate title to the graph [ryy,lag] = xcorr(y,y,'unbiased'); %Find the normalized autocorrelation of y(n) subplot(2,1,2); stem(lag,ryy); grid; %plot Ryy(l) as a stem graph in the 2nd part, include grid axis([0 50 -1.5 1.5]) %Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of y(n) xlabel( 'Lag Index l' ); ylabel( 'R_y_y(l)' );%Label the X and Y axes title('Autocorrelation Signal R_y_y(l)') %Add an appropriate title to the graph [rxx,lag] = xcorr(x,x); %Find the autocorrelation Rxx(l) of x(n) figure(2); stem(lag,rxx); grid;% Open a new figure window(Fig.2), Plot a stem graph of Rxx(l) and include grid axis([-20 20 min(rxx) max(rxx)]) %Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of Rxx(l) xlabel('Lag Index l'); ylabel('R_x_x(l)');%Label the X and Y axes title('Autocorrelation Signal R_x_x(l)') %Add an appropriate title to the graph [rxw,lag] = xcorr(x,w); %Find the cross correlation Rxw(l) between x(n) and w(n) figure(5); stem(lag,rxw); grid;% Open a new figure window(Fig.5), Plot a stem graph of Rxw(l) and include grid axis([-20 20 min(rxw) max(rxw)]) %Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of Rxw(l) xlabel('Lag Index l'); ylabel('R_x_w(l)');%Label the X and Y axes title('Cross Correlation Between x(n) and w(n) ')%Add an appropriate title to the graph [rww,lag] = xcorr(w,w); %Find the autocorrelation Rww(l) of w(n) figure(4);stem(lag,rww); grid; %Open a new figure window(Fig.4), %Plot a stem graph of Rww(l) and include grid axis([-20 20 min(rww) max(rww)]) %Adjust the scale of X and Y axes for a clear view of few cycles of Rww(l) xlabel('Lag Index l');

ylabel('R_w_w(l)');%Label the X and Y axes title('Autocorrelation Signal R_w_w(l)') %Add an appropriate title to the graph