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Eleftheriadis Source: Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, Vol. 22, No. 2 (1991), pp. 207-227 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25156549 . Accessed: 08/04/2011 11:37

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A RECONSTRUCTION OF THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH

W. BALZER and A. ELEFTHERIADIS

humoral the hippocratic The model theory, as well as the corre underlying terms. Stress in precise, is reconstructed structuralist part of hippocratic aetiology sponding are suppressed. derivations historical and philological of the model, is laid on the presentation as are described in which diseases the different The global net structure of humoral theory features is worked metatheoretical of the basic model out, and the particular specializations are exemplified as contrasted to 'descriptive' and stated of 'therapeutical' theories, theories, SUMMARY. in general. Key words: medical theory, theoretical medicine, humoral pathology, axiomatization, struc

turalism,

model

theory.

INTRODUCTION of what may be called the theory This paper presents a logical reconstruction in parti of the four humores as laid down in the Corpus Hippocraticum, cular in the work 'Nature of Man'.1 The paper emends and simplifies the account given in (Eleftheriadis, 1991). It is intended to serve several purposes. a consistent, account of this theory is given and comprehensive First, in axiomatic form. This cannot be achieved, of course, by mere abstraction or historical from the original hippocratic texts, nor by mere philological links to be introduced, inconsistencies studies: gaps have to be filled, missing to be eliminated. Reconstruction involves construction. We tried to stick on the Corpus as close as possible, to the historical material concentrating in this paper we do not want to go into the However, Hippocraticum2. and historical of our model which would fill a 'derivations' philological the resulting model paper of its own. Rather, we concentrate on presenting as well as some derived meta-theoretic features in a way as clear and precise as possible. humoral theory exem Second, we want to make clear that Hippocratic plifies all features which have been regarded in general according to the general meta-theory to theories.3 On of 'structuralist' approach in fact, may be regarded medical theories, On the other hand this yields a further

structuralist meta-theory.

essential to empirical theories now known under the label the one hand this shows that as proper successful empirical application theories. of the

Thirdly, discussion

to the continuing this work is intended as a contribution on the methodological status of medical theories.4 The example

?

1991. 22: 207-227, Journal for General Philosophy of Science in the Netherlands. Printed 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

to one another perfect health when these elements are duly proportioned in respect of compounding. and third. their quantities have to obtain in the 'right measure'. power and bulk. or leaving it. ELEFTHERIADIS all the properties of empirical theories in general. Second. I. in the body. However. black bile. blood phlegm is cold and moist. humoral standard (eukrasia) is not the same This ideal mixture-balance in every individual. and qualitatively some sense.. being produced by it. a representation We have would conflict with the historical background. so the humores represent a rough typification or 'juices' being present different qualitatively liquids directly observable. cold.8 Therapy consists in finding out which of the humores have run out of their range of equilibrium or mixture so or increasing their quantities.7 body's humoral state: first. These four humores are intimately connected with the four elementary qualities of the human body: warm. Not every kind of body liquid is regarded as a different humor. Of course. is warm and moist. that equilibrium is restored. intensity' of 'qualitative the humores. ad they vary with the quantities of their corresponding humores. black bile is cold and moist. the notion of a chemical substance was not available at these of times (about 450 BC). 'bulk' (plethos) and in the human body whose he enjoys the most 'power' (dynamis) is decisive for health and disease. BALZER AND A.6'. Yellow bile is warm and dry. this label is reserved for only four of them: yellow bile. The person then becomes is isolated in sick. that exemplifies humoral theory has to be regarded as an empirical is. hippocratic theory to the 'normal' form in Sec. so that either one of the four humores increases proportioned more or is in lack or becomes intense than the others. it makes up the special nature of a person's body8. to be aware that the concept of a quality still was in its process of formation. moist and dry. and in diminishing qualities. of theories in the natural sciences is pointed out and exemplified. and when they are perfectly of his Thus a person's health depends on three characteristics mingled'.208 studied W.11 the different quantities and qualities of the humores numerical Concerning seem natural from a modern such representations standpoint. Moreover. the concept of a real valued function used today to represent qualitative . We say that each humor is the 'carrier' (cpopefc) of two qualitative intensities (dynamies). Now the person may be exposed to causes which destroy the optimally humoral state. blood and phlegm. THE BASIC PICTURE to 'The Nature of Man'5 four humores or cardinal fluids exist According state of 'mixture' (krasis). of his health. health can obtain only in case they are mixed.. it depends on the mixture of the humores. If this standard obtains and the special humoral condition we say that the state of the person is eukratic.9 These qualities may be present in different dregees10. an important distinction proper. IV.

concerning There is only 'more or remain very qualitative. We introduce four into two such orders. Consequently. and consequently change and how the latter may may change into disequilibrium (illness). and connected. weak orders in the form <| |ht\ |.z5. the two weak orders for the qualities range are denoted by (2) where ql temperature. of these notions complication and 'more basic'. II.^'*>.z12. So each state s(t) at time t the humores whether is a 13-tuple 1y(/)=<Cz1. mixture and equilibrium . 4. nothing gets lost by combining always keeps the four qualities of each pair into one respective weak order. were known. of view. so ht = <11 ht \ | .. over these four humores. the four degrees A person at each time has a distinct state comprising to these of its humores. PRIMITIVES AND POTENTIAL MODELS The central notion of a humor we represent by a weak order... q2 = moisture each ql has the form ql = <| ^| |. however. i. For these reasons we avoid numerical representation to a qualitative treatment of humores and qualities. 3. and one further item indicating are in mixture or not. by a structure < D.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH orderings 209 no strict ways of measuring the did not exist. there is a statical part which attempts at clarifying the concept of a state of equilibrium or health. Sec a picture of how certain factors may ond. the eight degrees of the qualities corresponding humoral degrees (two for each humor). First. and index i will always | and strict range over 1.2 in the following.. (health) be treated.<.e. one for warm-cold. and no attempts at measuring the quantities of the qualities the hippocratic formulations humores were made.. This yields an apparent From a logical point in our reconstruction...^.. h3 blood.in accordance with what could less' of some humor or of some quality and stick be observed. ^> consisting of a set D of abstract 'degrees' and a relation is transitive. The basic models comprise two parts.>.. seperate.. hA = phlegm. the dynamical part provides how equilibrium the states of a pearson over time.->.z13Z> . ^ on D which reflexive. and we denote the corresponding Index / in the following will always for i = 1. the two opposite qualities to the following list: We abbreviate the humores according (1) hx = yellow bile. Similarly.z8.. 2. we define equivalence order in terms of ^ by: (a ? b iff a ^ b and b ^ a) and (a < b iff (a < b and not b ^ a)). one for each humor. our treatment is less complicated.Z9.. h2 = = black bile. Though Hippocrates weak orders.z4. As usual. Furthermore. The four qualities we comprise and one for moist-dry.

^ = SQ StxSw and X {s. anti-reflexive the maximal element of T with respect to <. First..... their qualities.zn degrees of quality q2. SqX {s. z9. ELEFTHERIADIS of the humores are of zx.zs degrees the quality q1.zA degrees hu....-. a.. BALZER AND A. respectively. we employ a function core to assign qualitative states. to be read as 'at /.-. state of health of a person is described by a function: The 'observational' ? g:T {healthy. The function s(t) already then may be typified precisely by s:T ? SHx mentioned ?1 s}. We write a(tf)=<h.. time) and < C T x T is transitive.. and z13 is one signs V (for separated) and '?1 s' (for not separated)... The assignment of degrees of qualities to degrees of humores is captured \ \ql\ | and &w: 11 |U . {+. These two notions have a rather theoretical status.. z5.x||A4||. Further states to humoral more. each such state is an element of the 'state space': SH x Sq of SH we will call humoral states. We represent it by a linear order <T.%t(zA).210 where are W.0}.. corQ can be explicitly defined with the help of 0t and 0W: core (zl5. b..0} '+' and '-' indicate the directions and {s.. to be a finite.. s indicates '/ is seperating'.. Whereas the information that the humores are in mixture is expressed the symbol'?15'. Altogether ^ >.ill}. Finally. we use a set F of 'factors' and a function a how these factors affect the different humores. Defining of the two St = \W\\\ ^Hl<72ll4. of course.. and elements of Elements Sq qualitative states. time itself is needed.: 11 |U. respectively where express ed by 'greater' and 'smaller' in the natural reading of the orderings < D. ^w{zx).. then by T* we denote T\ {t*}.U 11 \ hx\ hA\ to these notions In addition central for the theoretical of concept over time. and are balanced with respect to their qualitative (7roo6rrjTa) equilibrium intensities.. quality q in direction b. by two functions 0. and mixture of humores in direction c.hA. c range in the sets {+. describing and the state of mixture.^w{zA)>.< >.0}. non-empty set (representing where T is supposed points of If t* is and connected. there are others concerning the description equilibrium.z4) = <0/ {zx). and 0w(w) = ql (e. c>. POSCS^ to contain and BALCSg that the humoral degree u 'has' degree v of quality 11<72lI ?t(u) a given degree of blood has a certain temperature). = ||Ail|x..U| |hA\\ h{\ ""** = v means humoral exactly those tuples of degrees which are in quantitative. we may and '0' neutrality... v means that the humoral degree u has degree v of quantity q2... factor / affects humor h in direction a.. and for each t e T* we denote by t+\ the unique t' e T such that t < /' and there are no /" e T such that t < t" < f...g. b.... the notions of quantitative of the humores by equilibrium and of qualitative qualities afford further equilibrium of the corresponding We use two sets primitives. . q. ?\s}. a.

^'> order reversing) iff. weak order Q={<l\ 42} s:T-+ SHxSQ x{s. and states of qualities balanced equilibrium.{healthy.. ^> and <D'. the class of potential models as follows. H. are helpful. Q. Moreover. Q.b eD: not (a < b and b < a). 0? %. Q. ^'<l>(&) (resp. We say that a function 3>:D ? D' mapping definitions the on each other is order sets from two structures <D.. while g the states of humores. and how they affect the humores and their qualities.-. for all week orders <D. H. qualities and factors. whether healthy or sick. POS. Function by points over time.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH define. F. ^> the following holds: ^> (3) if <b:D? D' is order preserving (resp. <.g.0} x {j. THE MODELS some auxiliary In order to state the axioms characterizing the models. for all a. BAL. Elements of POS and BAL may be called humoral states in quantitative in intensities. h4. b e D: a ^ b iff <!>(#) preserving (respectively a ^ b iff $(b) ^'&(a)). qualities temperature at what time. F. Different persons being captured by different po tential models. BAL..-. humors..:||/*J|U. III. linear order and each ht is a finite weak order H={hu.111} POS C SH BAL C SQ 0. for all a.s. and F are interpreted degrees could be distinguished.hA] and each ql is a finite.. respectively. 211 Mp (1) (2) (3) (4) a potential model of hippocratic iff there theory (x eMS) .. qualities and mixture describes over time of whether the person is healthy or yields a direct description not.U||/*4||HI<72II F is a non-empty a:TxF-(Hx set {+.. s of time.. ?i s} (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) We may g. 0? %w hl9 . St and 0^ to each humoral degree assign its corresponding (degrees of the) a describes which factors are effective and moisture. g. Clearly. and <D'. and <T.. respectively.0} x Q x {+.U||/*4||HI<71II 0W:||/*J|U. POS. Each potential model comprises the concepts necessary to describe one per son. < a such that x=<T. there is no need to mention the person in the potential models. DI in structuralist x is exist and a> format. q\ q2 and T.T. .0}) are finite because the means of that all orderings suppose the degrees in antiquity were very limited so that only few differentiating Elements of T.. order reversing) then the same holds with respect to < (as defined above).s. < > is a finite. H.

Thus increase of blood.. and the same for humoral states.w4> e Dx X . Proceeding 0. it's 'qualitative balance (i.z4> o2 (z)=<z5. It says that two balance and of quantitative equilibrium 'qualitative' states such that one is a one-sided deviation of the other cannot both be balanced.. w=<wu.. for i ^ 4..z8> e W.> v=<vlv.... in the same way for all the four humores we obtain the eight requirements stated in D2-2. list coldness also increases. The basic reason is that this would make the 'observational' of health. leads to increase of warmth and moisture. It draws Axiom D2-4. and says that a state s(t) of a healthy is such that it's 'humoral part' /? (s(t)) is a state of quantitative person (noooTriTa) equilibrium of the humores (i. For example. for instance.z4> and. explicitly definable and thus representation in a certain sense redundant. Our weaker version allows for observed illness even if all theoretical conditions for health are satisfied. </). By combining the qualities 'warm' and 'cold' to one scale 'temperature' we have to be careful about directions to of qualitative change. is concerned with the mixture-balance condition of health as described above.. and it's component part' is in qualitative mixture indicates that the humores indeed are mixed (i.. for SqX k <: 13: nk{z)=zk. respectively. sg.v4>. z12. direction expressing that if a state s(i) satisfies the mixture-balance condition.e. wt < Now the axioms for the basic models of hippocratic theory may be The central axiom formulated.. an element of BAL)... 2-4-b. are weak orders.-) or (for all /^ 4: wf ^ t vz and there is /^ 4 such that { vt). z13> e SHX {s. Finally....e. ^ tWt and there is i ^ 4 such that vz < f w. ELEFTHERIADIS we Sq define and a1(z)=<z1.212 If z=<zlv.13 Note that 'increase' includes 'no change'. z8>.3 states that if a assignes the above . on the notions of qualitative D2-3 below imposes a strong condition of humors. BALZER AND A. the person is healthy at t.. for instance. He uses the following yellow bile black bile blood phlegm warm cold warm cold dry dry wet wet to vary in degree with variation of Any humor's qualities are supposed that humor.. g. is order reversing when restricted to the degrees in ||A4||.. assignement12 as we do. If z=<zlv. Axiom the humores D2-2 regulates Hippocrates the 'directions' does not in which combine the qualities 'warm' and vary when 'cold'. element of POS). and if. We do not require the reverse This is formalized ?\s). finally. that we deal with weak orders so and conversely. X Z>4 then w is a one-sided deviation of v iff (for all i ^ 4: v...e.. If phlegm..?]s} then /}(z)=<z1. nor vary. in state describing in D2-1 below. captures the dynamical part of the model. 'dry' and 'wet' into a single scale. a and corresponding a connection the affect-function between changes of humoral or quality degrees.. increases then according So that is: temperature decreases..

+.H. tt^. h2 is black bile.*. <. a.a.qv.BAL. Z?. b.c: a(tf) (s(t+l))<i7rJ4+i(s(t)) = iff nt (s(t)) ? tt{ (s(t+\)) <ht.4) (c. consists any empirical theory (theory-element) of at least classes M M and a set of intended applications..s.+> at time t to factor / where ql is a quality of humor ht.?OS.c such that a(tf)= <ht.a. 2 and for all z. DISEASE The models introduced do not characterize disease by themselves. such such that a(tf) that a(tf) = = <ht.g. According described.BAL. +.. if z is a one-sided deviation of z' then not (z e POS and z' e POS) for all te T*. 0W/| |h4\ | are order preserving and for k=\.q2 that x =<T.hA.z' e SH.%> such iff there exist hx.b. of ok(z!) then not (z e BAL and z' e BAL) for all z..c> = iff c> <ht. qi. qi.l) (b. s(t+l). corQ (p(s(t))) e BAL and ttu (s(t)) = ?\s 0/| |hx\ + 0/| | |h3\ |.Z?. 0. i^ 4 andy ^ 2: for all r e F and a.?OS.?t.F.e. ^.. qi.c: a(tf) for all f.a. to the above definition of core qrs degree has to occur in position according number 10 (= /4+/) of a state s(t).(s(t)) ^7r-4+/ W/+1)) IV.3) (b.l) (c.zf e if ok{z) is a one-sided deviation Sq.2) xeMp for all t e T: if g(t)=healthy then fi(s(t)) e POS.a. ^.c (there are f. a.Q. together with structuralist meta-theory. The j4+/'s projection of the just picks out the right component states s(t).F.W/+1)) iff iff nj4+i 7Tj4+i </7r/(s(t+l)) (there zrtfb.$(*+1)) ePOS (there are/. 0^/11 h3\ |.s> then not /?(. D2 x is a model ofhippocratic theory (xeM) and T. i. <ht. qi. c>) a. ql moisture. for example.2) (4) (a) (b. a set of of those real systems to which one intends to non-theoretical descriptions . i. -.@t. 4-a states that a factor causing separation is not mixed at the following leads to a humoral state which instant. 0. will be greater at the degree of ql corresponding time f+1.c (there are f.1) (3. (0) (1) (2) (3.Q.c>) iff ttj (s(t)) iff tt. they just a conceptual model in which health as well as disease may be provide the development to the of disease.c>) b.. For i=2 and j=2.qJ.t) = <hi9 -.g. then to ht will increase.c such that a(f. and 4-c says that 'neutral' factors do not yield any change of the corresponding degrees.e.@w <s. namely the component the degree of quality describing and qi of hj.H.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH 213 a pair <ql.2) (b. c>) (s(t))<J7rJ4+i(s(t)) for all/.b: if a(tf)= <hi.

We to emend the general structuralist picture... S. On the one hand.. Observationally. In order to satisfy both these requirements: a standard of health. to those making up a medical theory. which we call S in the following.. M (2) x e not: s(t) e POS X BAL X { -n j} (3) (b) x is a model of a sick person (x e S) iff there existx / such that x is a model of a person sick at t The idea here is. It holds equivalence. For if we did so. we would of health... Instead of the existential for t in (b) we might also work with a universal quantification.a (1) such x=<T.. Medical intended to explain sickness and thus to guide therapy. A theoretical is sick at time t just when g(t) corresponding Sickness may is this. the general models be characteried by specializing are added separating sick those models Further assumptions describing may be stated at the obser persons from the others. . or alternatively on the theoretical level involving reference a person captured by some model to mixture and balance. / is a set of descriptions Mp and S C M is a class the potential models. of course.. condition In the light of the previous discussion we note the importance of condition If this were omitted we had no standard for justifying condition D3-a-2. to express illness. Thus the basic theory-element of hippocratic theory takes the form have <Mp.. characterization D3 (a) x is a model T..a> of a person that and teT sick at t iff there exist hx. On the other hand..> reverse of Tl does is a model not hold of a person sick at t then g(t)=il\ iff D2-1 is replaced in general.I> of intended cases14 where and M are as before. apply the theory. disease.214 W. inM. The argument the elements of which characterize for introducing S is this. and add another S..... These assumptions vational level of g. ELEFTHERIADIS theories this minimal scheme needs emendation. component. In general we would risk to 'systematize sickness' without caring to keep about how to cure it.. By virtue of D2-1 we obtain (3) Tl The by an If x=<T.M. Inmedical the models which describe the 'normal' or 'healthy' cases or are Besides neutral with respect to health and disease there is definite need for the introduction of another set of structures.q2.. = ill in that model. way. in the vocabulary given by of structures characterizing sickness. we cannot simply take as models of a medical theory only those structures loose any standard which characterize disease. that the set POS X BAL X {?\s] characterizes exactly those states in which the person is healthy..g. and to characterize there seems only one disease. BALZER AND A.. it is clear that the intended applications for a medical theories are theory are given by cases of sick persons.

we of zt that causes the it is lack or abundance further specify whether may disease. and zJ4+i <j [zj4+i /zj4+i\ zj4+i (Z*j4+i<JZj4+i) < 4. The general picture of mature empirical studies15 is that of a theory net. /> described above) (like <M consisting of one basic theory-element of that basic element.. If s(t)=<zu. < I (a) For / 4. described above A specialization of the basic theory-element in three steps. x is a model for a disease caused by (b) lack of (abundance of) qi with respect to ht if there is some t e T and z^zt such that s(t) t POS X BAL X {?\s}. M. or 'caused by'. of <M So a specialization M.e. s(t) e POS X BAL x {-. to narrow down the set I of intended it is necessary Third. with a special kind of disease.s}. each specialization for many being connected interesting specializations. S... and which just in one component zt.zn> to denote the result of replacing tk in s(t) by zk*. for the new assumptions made in step two will not hold in all is obtained the potential the models. the humor or quality and k < 13 let us write s(t) [zk/zk*] cated by index i. x is a mode for a disease caused by lack of (abundance iff there is some t e T and some z^zi such that s(f) of) ht e/POS x BAL x {?is}. theories which emerged from structuralist . new terms are added to those used to define are added to those defining second. i x {?\s} we may say that a person in state s(t) yields not in POS X BAL a model indi for a disease due to. 13. x is a model for a disease caused by humor ht iff (c) For / x is a model for a disease caused by lack or abundance of ht For / < 4 and j < 2. are left unchanged. S. state s(t) from a virtual state s*(t) of a person's of deviations possibilities a state s(t) which deviates from a state of health of health. This is why we used the and many specializations term 'theory-element' above. M. In the same way. First. D4 Letx=<T.16 we may introduce special ways of disease corresponding to Abstractly. THE THEORY-NET 215 If this were all about disease then the hippocratic theory would not have it interesting. and influence.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH V.. S*. I> is an entity <Mp. x is a model for a disease caused by (d) for a disease caused qi with respect to ht iff x is a model lack or abundance of q. Considering < is a state of sickness (i..with respect to ht by .a>eM. new requirements models.. I* > where S* C S and 7* C I. applications applications and models The classes of potential models of the basic theory-element. The crucial point which makes gained much in which it exemplifies the situation typical for mature theories in the natural described up to now forms the basis is that the theory-element sciences.. s(t) [Zj/z*]* POS x BAL x {?\s} and zi<izi*(zi*<izi) For / < 4 and j < 2.

. 11th.. if in this way the veins and mixed with blood. 17th and 20th day. cold into the blood which is warm.. This is concerned with prognosis. For fevers. we arrive at a rather specific theoretical (and observational) way description of the disease.18 Specific events on these days indicate whether In the case of 'pains of the lungs and the patient will get better or worse.216 W. This can be proved. respectively.. Critical days in a process of (of in some sense are crucial for the further course disease are those which of the disease. specialization is a bit involved so that we can sketch it only very already specialization 'secretion' briefly. but in course of time. Similarly. for instance. If the flow death phlegm which.17 for it masters the blood by its coldness and . cover the cases In this way we obtain which ultimately specializations in the Corpus Hippocraticum. be less. 'sputum should be quickly and easily brought up. T2 All special models defined in D4 are models of sick persons. blood here gets too cold by the coldness of which flows in. 9th. we obtain various knots in the theory-net depicted in Figure 1 on the next page. and St+. we may proceed for many other diseases found in the Corpus each of which and we obtain a whole net of specializations. the veins admit the air and intelligence returns. throughout it be mastered. BALZER AND A. basically.the phlegm flows is immediate. the critical days are: the 7th. We even S further may go further and introduce a specialization pi by introducing In this with their help. it. By intersections we obtain further specializations diseases taking characterizing in which several humores or qualities are out of equilibrium simultaneously. It is easy to define a specialization of S in Sp at some t. to Hippocrates this disease is caused by some affection epilepsy. stating the symptoms of epilepsy. for diseases or lack of caused by abundance ht. According of phlegm and blood in which reported be copious and thick. ribs'. 'maturation'. The proofs of the theorems are given in the appendix. Each clause in D4 defines several specializations Sr in the formal sense of subsets of S. ELEFTHERIADIS caused by separation iff there is (e) x is a model for a disease t eJsuch that oX3(s(t))=s In D4. and 'improvement the state of health)'. and with the sputum. If the flow congeals cut off respiration. In the first case. It refers to four new concepts: 'critical days'. We do not require that x in D4 be a model of a sick person. As a concrete consider example. concepts and. Writing for diseases caused by humor hif and given by Sj St: for diseases caused by quality cflof humor hf. the person's phlegm and blood are too cold. Sf etc. . 14th. for the yellow should appear thoroughly compounded second kind of A . As the actual states deviate from these 'standards of health' they represent states of illness. when it having warm is dispersed the copious. for instance. a subclass of S. the states are possible states of health which are different j(Otz/^/*] from the actual states given by s(t). at the first it is master. Hippocraticum.

bile I VV \\ \\ \ \ \ \ ardent \ \ \ \fever Ny. and in particular the two main cases of 'improvement' them to the net of diseases and 'deterioration'. 1 sacred disease if longer after the beginning of the pain yellow sputum should be coughed or not thoroughly or causing much coughing. N. ^v \ >s^ \ NA deterioration pneumonia S. Otherwise. things will get worse. \ N. up.20 Maturation and secretion mainly of a humor h.19 'Especially should the empyema compounded. the patient may be expected to die in the fourteenth day unless some good symptoms happen to him'. it is a rather bad sign'. . of how diseases may originate. when seventh day. yellow S2: black S \ ^*\. Adding we obtain some picture like that in Figure 1. If is caused by abundance refer to the case where disease or is secreted on a critical day.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH M(HP) 217 _^ ^^^ diseases of the 4 prognosis humores// ^"^^ y^ Sf. VI.+: jaundice \ \ >v\ \ phrenitis \ \ \ inflammation continued | blood/phlegm fever tumor / \ quartan / \ fever / \ erisypelas Fig. some way of blurring In order to deal with prognosis is adequately. We may introduce space of the set of possible to this end. and thus finally obtain various specializations PROGj capturing various different ways of secretion. THE MECHANISM OF DISEASE to providing In addition contain a precise picture a basis for a theory-net the models introduced and be cured. \ I improvement S4: \ phlegm^ \ S3: blood bile . an improvement of the patient's h maturates state will follow. the disease has reached the begin from sputum of this character. or reddish-yellow. a probability states needed.

a.c> and a(tf)=<hk. for all a. before Tis applied. level. g(t+\)=\\\. i. i. If #(/)=healthy in x then x is a model of a person and Ft is a sick at f+1.a'..218 W.a'9qr. By requiring a set covers all the factors effective at some instant t we are that such sure that no counterbalancing factors are present (D5-c). By a cause of a disease (D5-a below) by their acting 'in the we understand a set of factors all of which are supplementary. Theorem to various of particular combinations factors this account Specializing leading to particular diseases. If other theories are used in order to determine a T^non-theoretical term. of two factors step we define the notion of supplementarity same direction'. D5 Letx=<T. In a first eF.c> Ft= {feF/ and (a^O or b^O or c^O)} (c) Ft is a cause of disease in x iff (1) Ft is the set of factors effective at tin x (2) Ft is not empty 6 are supplementary (3) for all// Ft:f and/ We now can prove that in models of the hippocratic theory causes of In this sense. the person such that the effect of / is not counterbalanced by any other to change while factor at t.b'9cJ> (1) if i=k then a-a' and c=c' then (2) if J=r then b=b' (b) Ft.q.qi.a. T3 Let x=<T9. BALZER AND A.b. to the present example will can be formalized21 but application distinction term has to be determined 'outside' be in informal terms..a.b.b\c': /and/ if a(tf)=<ht. the result is some deviation from equilibrium and balance. lead to disease.. is defined by there are h..c. the theory may be said to in fact. some factor / affects sickness occurs whenever. Otherwise.b.k < 4 and j. Roughly. at least the more comprehensive ones.. and disease comes up. disease.9a> cause of disease In particular. ELEFTHERIADIS at some time /. allow for a classification terms.a>eMp.. Our idea of theoreticity therefore is closely linked with the way theories by .q.b. we obtain another theory-net of specializations covering the field of anamnesis. eM and t e T*. the set of factors effective at t in x. for determining that term. VII.e.r < 2. THEORETICAL TERMS Most theories. A T^non-theoretical of T. then this term may be said to be presupposed T.c such that a(tj) = <h. Our idea of a of their terms into theoretical and non-theoretical T should offer at least some ways terms in theory T is that theoretical This the term is T^non-theoretical. So / causes some humores or their qualities the others stay as they are. t e T. (a) Let// are supplementary iff. 3 states this on an abstract explain the origin of disease.

BAL.e. g also is non-theoretical. a qualitative In order to see whether state The same holds for BAL. whether is balanced (i. and these degrees have to be determined a also is non-theoretical. means of D2-1 accept the assumption if no other facts point of equilibrium to the contrary. we use observation involving other. ?\s} some i.either by qualitative be determined or by some primitive means like direct human devices of sensation. ?\s] . The remaining In order to see that they are theoretical which are theoretical. BAL and {s.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH are 219 interrelated with each other in a hierarchical way. theory. We will consider terms here. In order to determine the degree of a quality present in a given degree of a humor we may resort to direct qualitative sensation. of course that checking whether a state is in POS or not amounts to nothing else than the step just described. Even in case of the set {s. But this detour leads to the same kind of situation for the 'other' persons: at some point there are no others. and POS of determining theory independent method to be ^theoretical. ?\s} we must ask whether they can be determined without recourse toHippocratic are used to define states of health. to Hippocratic it seems that the functions 0r and 0^ are theory. A typical means of determination is comparison among different persons. measurement. terms are those used to characterize health: POS.e. 'theories'. This does not mean. in POS) we have to see whether the theoretical assumptions put forward in D2 are satisfied. Rather. In order to find out which humor affect-function is affected by some factor (and in what direction) we do not use Hippocratic and perhaps reasoning theory. This also holds for function s. From what we said about our interpretation The values of g are observed without recourse of g. scientific or everyday. In order to find out whether state s(t) is in that set we have to use this definition. of course. {s. elements of POS x BAL x { ?\s }. non-theoretical. The relation of precedence Hippo cratic theory does not contribute to establish any means to determine which instants are later than others. They also have to before the present theory is applied . The beforehand. among other things. More locally: in order to find out whether a humoral state is in quantitative equilibrium (i. Finally. in time (<) clearly is non-theoretical. One step in checking whether a humoral state is in equilibrium and by always will be to see whether g(/)=healthy. This step clearly involves reference to the theory. qualities.e. and thus to refer to the theory. and we are thrown back to the theoretical model. for these are the only criteria we have for POS. The same is true for the relations of compa risons (^)between degrees of humores and qualities. in BAL) we have to check. of one person's humores is inferred from their being similar Equilibrium to those in other persons which all were healthy. So no POS seems to exist. Now POS. and 'mixture'). The states in which the person is at various times are given by different degrees (of humores. the person is healthy in terms of g and to use D2-1 to infer that balance we come into is acceptable in this case. those terms referring to the basic sets of the relational only objects usually turning out as non-theoretical.

and a more narrow one. His head was bathed. Usually. exacerbation.220 W. night. Fifth the crisis the left nostril. and urine of a better colour. and called 'paradigmatic' iff the theory can be successfully applied to them. suffered no relapse. resembling round particles blood. An uncomfortable out of his mind. sweat. We use M cuts off all theoretical in the more liberal sense. After night. irrational excreta.22 restricted version in addition substructure to denote terms from those structures. are supposed to the structuralist scheme intended applications According to have the structure of partial potential models. he appeared well. to the liberal version. cannot simply refer to the observed facts. to have lost the fever. ELEFTHERIADIS a state is mixed or not we For in order to see whether that situation. scanty of unmixed mid-day slight expistaxis night. Even in the presence of dramatic observational evidence with respect to mixture we have to check whether the person is ill in terms of g. dry tongue. Violent a partial A more draught copious stools thin. is just any potential model According of a potential model. Fourth the right nostril. as before. epistaxis The restored. a more liberal. Third day. intended systems iff they yield models. the class of all partial potential models Here Meton are was two seized examples. as on the third stools is indicated by the occurrence of humores: bilious Disequilibrium black urine. In the development 'autodetermination'. On the application of sleep. Urine scattered. of heaviness with fever and painful well moved. extremities everywhere night. All symtoms black urine. An uncomfortable had a rather black cloud floating from blood Third day. A restful night. Early and until mid-day but towards evening acute fever with sweating. Heaviness twice from slight epistaxis rather day. completely Philiscus comfortable semen. General exacerbation. Fifth day. urine in it. at least in 'initial' cases where there are no standards of comparison with other cases. Fourth day. Those systems are difficult to characterize precisely. with suspended of a suppository the patient passed. bilious. and then reason by means of D2 1. BALZER AND A. and by some (indicating yellow bile). He took to his bed with acute fever on the first day and sweating. urine thin and rather black. INTENDED APPLICATIONS 'anchor' the theory Any empirical theory is applied to real systems which in experience. General stools the loins. reason wandering. varied. a more exacerbated. . qualitites being out of their usual range: fever. After in the head. but after the crisis bled several times from the nose. they did not settle. The set of all descriptions of intended systems is called the set / of intended applications of the theory (to which we referred already). VIII. All the concrete cases described in the Corpus and all cases of sick persons may be regarded as paradigmatic. Second a fairly day. About in it. rather red. of unmixed sleeplessness. night uncomfortable. crisis. thirst. lived by the wall. black urine. of water had his bowels day. the bowels later a small clyster moved Second day. Hippocraticum sufficiently similar to these yield intended applications.23 patient day. A distressing snatches talk. black'. sleep. which did not settle. they are given by 'paradigms'plus of the theory over time. with flatulence. spread out. Partial potential models can be introduced in two ways. epistaxis. unmixed blood. sweat. first some real systems are pointed out ostensively that is.

The constraint then may be as in D6-a below. In hippocratic theory there are at least two constraints. in the wide or more narrow sense. and would cold sweat. . they contain data about time. Proceeding like this for all other cases we obtain the set of all paradigm intended applications. This points to a second constraint which is still more fundamental than the first. Descriptions Essentially. g9 s9 and a. y: T*.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH not get warm again. In our vocabulary this may be made precise by reference to the affect function a. black cold. let the components of x and y respectively. II.25 The first may be expressed by the slogan 'similar cause. Such capture relations among different models relations usually express features of stability of nature without which the theory simply would not work. speechless. to denote terms. D6 LctXQMp. similar effect'. Roughly. it says that the sets of degrees of humores and of qualities are (approximately) In a very strict formulation the same for all persons. for the set of labels but this set is already identical in all potential {s9 ?\s} indicating separation. sometimes also about So we obtain a partial potential model. like these may be formatted in the vocabulary of Sec. extremities livid. About mid-day 221 urine. whether the state of mixture. CONSTRAINTS Constraints of a theory. the italicized expressions indicate the humores and qualities which Again. y represent two persons which at two instants t (in x) and /' (in y) are in the same state then a factor / will affect both persons in the same way. all // and all/: if sx (t)=sy (/') then ax(t. IX. are out of balance and equilibrium. on the sixth day the patient died24 (italics ours). snatches of sleep towards dawn.f)=ay (t'. iff for all x9y e (a) X satisfies the constraint for a (X e Ca) X. If two potential models x. In order to express this in precise us write. this means that all these sets are identical in any two potential (D6-b below) A similar constraint may be contemplated models. models qua syntax. the same factor (if we could identify it) will affect two persons in slightly Of course.f) iff (b) X satisfies the constraint for degrees (X e CJ) /^ 4 and j ^ 2: for all x9y eX9 all (90*11=11(^11 ||Af|| =||^|| and 11 sets X satisfy in the real world these constraints only Due to the individual differences of body and surrounding. V. We also note that this constraint in is used to characterize Hippocrates epidemics as diseases caused at the same time or period by the same or similar factors in many persons. sx9 ^ etc. Note formulated that if the two states sx(t) and sy(t) in x and y are the same then some of the humoral and quality degrees in x and y also must be identical. approximately. for potential models x.

one might say that different persons' being different even quantitatively. In the context of retical we already use (and in this sense: presuppose) to determine an empirical test of the theory it therefore is recommendable values of non-theoretical functions. and our knowledge had to be assembled case (with poor results of course). some particular diseases in one model constraint is at work. BAL. BALZER AND A. determined picture.relevant with respect to a . Further constraints are used in connection with the various specializations some special which capture different diseases. we could anew in each not compare them. the humoral and quality degrees cannot be the same for them. and if all persons in Q got disease XYZ in the past when exposed to factor j. In many such specializations. However. In order to check whether the axioms only are true in a given system it then is sufficient to check whether the values are compatible with the theoretical that is. from the standpoint of hippocratic theory the humores and their qualities provide a complete description of a person's state. x. in fact. If symptoms (state) xyz are the same for person p and all persons from a set Q. This set is entirely unproblematic. of completeness with which In case degree of the constraint for degrees. Without this constraint The theory would have developed. A factor/causing in other models. new one. However. ELEFTHERIADIS different ways. and impossible for non-theo it. of all persons are contained and satisfies Ca in a trivial way. If we want to see whether and relations the sets. (whether assumed or 'true') no medical same is true for but on a more basic level. This shows that the approxi to make mation the constraints to the 'true' is 'proportional' necessary states s(i) describe a person. This is just a verbal reformulation of D6-a. some concrete cases. yield models true.?is} which whether there exist theoretical augmentations POS. If the degrees of humores Cd. actually and {s. They allow to reason from one case (or from appplication a set of similar cases) to another. X. We simply choose one set of degrees for each humor and each quality such that the degrees maximal in that set. will cause the same disease (approximately) a major It has to be emphasized that constraints role in the play of the theory. this constraint may also be read as an analytic statement about the notions of humor and quality.and D6-a would hold strictly indeed. But if we use the theory in order to do so which is very likely in the case of theoretical terms. then strict identity of states would not leave room for any other relevant differences of the two persons . If this were so. . and qualities were not roughly the same for different persons. for instance. EMPIRICAL CLAIMS terms has some rele The distinction between theoretical and non-theoretical vance in the context of applying in order to test whether it is the theory.222 W. functions of sick persons we have to determine introduced in Section II. then we will infer that/? also will get this disease when exposed to factor/.

the empirical claim associated with the theory-element models. by D2-3... sets) of intended have to satisfy (4) above.e... If A:=13 then zl3*zl3*= ?is. C C and I C needs Mp9 Mpp.zl3> such that s(t) [zk/zk*] e POS x BAL x {s}. but in addition systems. If 5 < k < 8 then <z5.?w and a there exists sets POS. All intended applications the extensions used in order to make (4) true have to satisfy the two constraints.25 Of course.. ?\s} that (4) refers to S rather T.M9S9C9I> where M and S are as before. for some suitable sets POS. s. In other words: for given (empirically {s.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH can be added 223 to the observed data such that the axioms are satisfied. s} all axioms functions <. M.. < z12. BAL and are satisfied. so zl3=s.26 APPENDIX ^POS x BAL x {?i*}.z12> ...F) form a model of a sick person. Note to our than to M.. that all intended applications yield such partial potential By assuming i..g. I> is that there exists some X C M such that theory-element <M M9 (5) (1) XQS (2) each y el has some extension inX (3) XeC In words: there exists a set X of extensions of the intended applications are models such that all these extensions and the set of them satisfies the constraints.. The claim (4) then may be replaced by a claim for whole combinations (i.<dt. We thus arrive at the following definition. S.H> Q. Let us write C=Ca D Cd. understanding the constraint the claim (4) may be considerably Adding strengthened. and so.. D7 The empirical claim of the hippocratic S9 C.. for all y e I there exists some x e S such that x is an extension (4) of y In one concrete case this means that the data which are known about a person in non-theoretical which can be expressed (and terms) fit into a model of the theory in which. and x is a model of a sick person. Mpp Po(Mp) not to be mentioned in (5) because it is explicitly defined.. BAL and determined) such that all these entities together (and together with the sets {s.e. and add C to the theory-element introduced before which yields an extended theory-element T=<Mp. IQMpp. If S were replaced by M then (4) would not contribute that the persons considered are sick.. like this: T> may be formulated <Mp.. a realistic version of such a claim has to be blurred. k < 13 and zk* Proof of T2: Let s(t)=<z.z8 > [zk/zk*].z8> is a one-sided deviation of < z5..

e>. Now let k e {6.y(f+l)) j POS. From M-5-b.d..c> and By M-5a. and hx.3 yield z5<2 z/5..z8>..1 with '9' instead of '5'...l:(2)z/</z'/.qfb.... and D5-a we obtain there are a. we obtain let k e {6..j=\.2: /=2. Proof of T3: Let x be given. thies yields #(H-l)=ill.z.z4> of for 9 < k < is a one-sided deviation is not in and from D2-3 we obtain that <zlv. a(tf)=<hl.12>. Case j3(. .c>. ? <zfx..4: from which. a=b=c=0 c=s..8} and suppose that zk <1 fk.. and Ft be a cause of From D5-b-l (1) Case T.q1.. From this and M-2.c. and therefore (4) zk<1 So the assumption yields a contradiction.1. by (5) and M-4 implies that <z5. FromM-5-b.2. BALZER AND A. From (2) and M-2: (3) z5 <l z/5. ^(/+l)=<z/1. Suppose zfk <l zk. Since k has the form 1 i+l.ef. Subcase 2. So/and/ Ft.1.d.a.4 we obtain z/5<1 z5. From D5-b-3 / e Ft.b. Let s(t)=<zx..4 are proved a=-.. then <zlv.. (6) z. there are d.z4> [zk/zk*] POS# disease.. By M-5-b.8 > is a one sided deviation z*k.3 Now and so.. (7) z/5 <l z5. III and (3) 5-b.z.2: i=l.7.... similarly.e>.1... Subcase 2..1: so by M-l. in contradiction zfk ^ z!k.x <x zx.z12>=cor(<z1.. that for some d.1: i= l. by M it follows that b=-.+.3.zX2> and f e T. we obtain (5) < z'5.8}.. g(0=healthy. Subcase 2.1: a=l. So (1) reads a(tfl)=<hx. we obtain from M-5-b. e and D4...e and/ such that a(tf)=<hx. From (3).z/8> a one sided deviation of <z5.224 not W. The proof goes of<^1'. So s(t) e/POS X BAL X {?\s}.2. c^O. as in Subcase 2. which together with (3) in Section is false..7.-. As before.. So b=+.... Ft such that a{tf)-<hi.ij and/e not i.. (4) and D2-e that it follows From the of <z5. together with (1) andy=l. and '^'instead The Subcases Subcase 2.. by D4 and D5. 2: a^O.e.z8>. The same result we obtain 12. {6.. a=+... and therefore <z'5. by D5..j=2.8}.-. But then (1) and M-5-b. If k < 4.+..7.z4>) it follows from M BAL.zfX2> 1 that #(/+l) = ill. ELEFTHERIADIS in BAL. from which. This. general assumptions e BAL.z4> <zlv.ql. Subcase 2.ql.. g(t+\)=ill.j=\. to (7). Since this is just cor(/$(s(t+1)))..

11. 3 (repr. 348-84. Subcase 3.j=l. 8) '. the humoral model of humoral medicine is described theory for hippocratic 1964). theory 1972) and 1986). (Schoner. 10) Today one would like instead say 'quantities' of a quality'. Let k e {6. p. transl. 1959. and (Schoner. 6. and similarly for /=2. (repr. by Withington). the ideas stated in 'The Nature comprises and part is based on 'Airs. b=-9 so by (1) and M-5-b. or containing works part of. are supplementary. by Jones). is the only one in the Corpus discussing the humoral 5) This work way. The reader interested 1928) and (Schumacher. to (Eleftheriadis. p.3. XII. 1991). Vol. 7) (Hippocrates.3: (8) z5 <l z*5. the text providing the picture. p.. (Littre. 20. (Sadegh-Zadeh. 1964). VII. There 1962) and (Hippocrates. 13) (Hippocrates. As before. 3. 6. Chap. on 'Prognostic'. sources is referred 3) See (Balzer.4 are treated Case 3: b^O.to to speak about of the humores the word VA^Ao-?' express the 'how much' 'quantity' .4 z'5<l z5. from 'Epidemics V and 'Epidemics IIP. transl. common the Corpus reveals one underlying 'core' we solve in this issue here which for our purposes a consistent In particular.1: i= l. and /=2. 1923). but this is likely therefore systematically to lead to confusing speak of 'degrees' expressions of the four qualities. The importance 'dynamical' are drawn 1928). p. 1962). 1923). Places'. in more detailed links to the historical 1963). I and IIP. of I will be said in Section VIII. 4. Ch. and ages differ greatly' (Hippocrates. VII. (repr. Since From M-5-b. Vol. 20. and the word 'Svvaijus' (^0167779). 38. 'the quantity of We 'degrees'. by Jones). Waters. 1962). 12) (Littre. 1959. p. 6. 1980). 368. n) (Littre.Places'. We by concentrating 'humoral' part 'Ancient is available in different (Littre. about historical Morse 1970). p. of Man' and the examples survey of the in (Schoner. See also (Schoner. Ch. Chap. (Fleck.3. 1980). 1923). 'Epidemics sources is found in (Sarton. 1923). to this discussion. 4.# NOTES ) The Corpus is no unanimity or picture. in a systematic IV. 225 in the same Subcases i=l. 1987) for a survey.4 are treated in the same way.Waters. (Sarton. editions: whether among historians to take side do not want on of our those basic the parts of model Medicine'. 440. The cases y=2. 46. 4) Compare et al. compare 1970). that the hippocratics load it too much with physical . 1975) for major contributions (Wieland.1: b=+. 113. (Kliemt.7. Vol. 'The Sacred Disease'. pp. of them. and 'Ancient Medicine'. 1964). transl.1. word instead of the hippocratic 'dynamis' for a direct translation 9) We use the term 'quality' would used It is characteristic connotations.for both constitutions Ch. 'Airs. 1962). for some d. 'Nature of Man' to Polybos. IV. 1964). VII. a(tf)=<hl9d9ql9-9e>. (Westmeyer. (Temkin. Vol. Vol. in contradiction // to (8). intensive' for 'quality' -. 1962).. A (intended applications) is found in the Corpus dealing with. 20. 6) (Littre. Vol. 1959.ef.8} and suppose z!k <{ zk.to denote the 'how strong. Ch. j-2. By M-5-b. Subcase 3. in (Temkin. . (ascribed 2) In particular son in law of Hippocrates).4 this yields. p. Vol. p.l. VII. Ch.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH The way. we conclude that g(t+\)=i\\. M) More on the structure of members p..

U. pp. 1962). Pharmazeuten. 2. Suhrkamp. New York. J. transl. informal sketch of a theory net we implicitly use this more liberal version. Potter.l-10. . K.. by Jones). Springer. by W. by Jones. Sudhoffs Archiv. by W. York. 1962). by P. by Jones). 1 transl. 1987). 17) See (Littre. 127-45. those from M In the following. An Architectonic A. transl. Frankfurt. it takes the 16) This definition general. and (Balzer. 1988. Nouv. 7 for a general account REFERENCES Balzer. 1959. of Theoreticity'.). Vol. 1923). p. Withington. 31. 168. (Littre. der Medizin: Theorie logischer hippokratischen etc. Handbuch tingen. Withington und Entwicklung Works. 1988. Chap. Epidemics I. 'On a New Definition C. 23) (Hippocrates. 1959. Vol. XX. and Potter. W. 3 transl.: 1985. 2. 22) See (Balzer. Sarton. Chap.: Balzer. 1985a). 5 transl. 1959. Berlin. a new class of potential models M * such that members may easily be liberalized by introducing of M * contain as substructures. transl. 1957. Vol. 15) Compare is perfectly i. 1959.Wissenschaftstheoretische der wissenschaftstheoretischen Band 2. M. by W.: 1963.: etc. (repr. 1923). Ch. repr. 2. Stuttgart-New d'Hippocrate. Amsterdam. 1959. Jones). 146 and (Hippocrates. case VII. Hakkert. E. In order to achieve that S* be a subset of S same form in the context of other 1985) for the general. S. A History of Science. 2. 2 transl. Grundzuge G. Beiheft 4. Jones.: 1962. . 24) (Hippocrates. IV. H. Chap. p. (ed. 1957. Vol.Die Struktur Aufbau und dynamische Entwicklung Verlag. in der antiken Humoralpathologie'. (repr.Das Viererschema Schoner. T. by Jones). by 1987). H. p. Fischer. 4 transl. Oeuvres 1939-1861. 1957. Probleme der Medizin*. 1962). by E. H. 161-3. p. or (Hippocrates. de Gruyter. Littre. E. theories. G. Theorie undMessung. W. (repr. 148 and (Hippocrates. 1987). Vol.: Peter Lang der Humoral-Pathologie'. 25) Compare of approximation. Schumacher. Vol. 26) See (Balzer. VII. Ch. 1985a. Vol. der Dialectica 39. und completes A. 2. Norton Library. 18) Prognostic. Epidemics I.: Paris der Wissenschaftstheorie. 199-201. W. 187. . 6. by Jones). J. for Science. Frankfurt/Main. 1923). 1. With 1923.: Sadegh-Zadeh. Jones. Potter. transl. repr. (Balzer. I. (repr. Reidel. Chap. Sneed... Vol. XIV. 21) See (Balzer. an English first printing first printing 1986. in U. Vandenhoek Begriffe.226 W. Vol. and Berlin. 1962). Eine Einfuhrung avec fur Mediziner le texte grec. (Balzer et al. Speck & Ruprecht. L. for the more restricted 1.. T. Kliemt. Ch.: 1964. 1991. case 1923). 2. Trad. Got 1970. 29. p. 1-6. et al. . Hippocrates: Hippocrates: London. 20) (Littre. Balzer. XV. Ch. X.: Moulines. Vol. Jones. 19) (Littre. et al. 1923). S.: 1980. (repr. 1980. Vol. repr.: by P. 374. Vols. 1959. D. 2 for details. BALZER AND A. 1987). Vol.: Eleftheriadis. 6 transl. Dordrecht. Antike Medizin. H. Vol. et al.e. einer wissenschaftlichen Translation Tatsache. S. 1987. p. transl. Chap. Steiner. ELEFTHERIADIS to bind all it is formally necessary new terms introduced in step one in the definition of S* by existential This version quantifiers. definition. pp. Vol. p. Entstehung Fleck. Heinemann. Vol. 2. Wiesbaden. repr.

: 1972.THE HIPPOCRATIC HUMORAL THEORY OF HEALTH O. 9-43. Diagnostik.Der systematische Zusammenhang Grundlagen zur Medizin.: 1975. Wieland. 1928. hammer. Westmeyer. Uberlegungen normativen de Gruyter. . 31 Ludwigstrasse Logik und Wissenschaftstheorie 8000Miinchen 22 . im Corpus einer Hippocraticum'. York. Universitat Seminar Miinchen der Diagnostik. 1. Diagnose.: Temkin. Logik Berlin-Koln-Mainz. Berlin-New fiir Philosophic. 227 Kyklos Kohl H. W.

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