You are on page 1of 46

www.wunan.com.

tw
(02)2705-5066

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3D-IC

3D-IC3D

DynaloyMarket Director Diane Scheele


Enthone


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Moores Law
18 CMOS
Scaling

TSV
3D-IC
3D-IC
CPU Memory
Flash Controller TSV

3D-IC
Through Silicon Via TSV
EtchLaserVia
CuPoly SiliconWVia
StackingBonding
3D-IC
TSV
TSV 3D
2009 TSV
TSV
TSV
3D-IC

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3D-IC

11 1
23 Flip Chip
456 3D-IC
3D-IC
TSV
TSV
TSV 78 TSV
TSV Via FillingWafer
Bonding
91011

TSV LED

2011

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

1.

2.

3.

10

4.

24

5.

42

Flip Chip Package Technology

45

1.

46

2.

Flip Chip Technology

46

3.

62

4.

75

5.

76

UBM

79

1.

80

2.

UBM

80

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3D-IC

3.

UBM

81

4.

UBM

83

5.

87

6.

87

89

1.

90

2.

92

3.

95

4.

102

5.

102

3D-IC

105

1.

106

2.

106

3.

TSV 3D

116

4.

123

5.

124

TSV

127

1.

128

2.

Via Formation

128

3.

Via Filling

132

iv

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

4.

Wafer Bonding

138

5.

Wafer Thinning

146

6.

3D TSV

147

7.

157

8.

157

3D-IC

161

1.

162

2.

163

3.

Fundamental Properties of Cu

Bonding

164

4.

Cu Bond Development

169

5.

172

6.

173

TSV TSV Copper


Electroplating Process and Tool

175

1.

Introduction

176

2.

TSV TSV Copper Electroplating Equipment


178

3.

TSV TSV Copper Electroplating Process 179

4.

TSV Factors Affecting


Copper Plating

185


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3D-IC

5.

188

6.

TSV

190

7.

196

8.

196

201

1.

202

2.

202

3.

206

4.

213

5.

226

6.

226

7.

227

231

1.

232

2.

Non-Cyanide Bath

234

3.

239

4.

240

Electroless Plating Palladium

241

1.

Hydrazine-Based Baths

242

2.

Hypophosphite Based Baths

243

vi

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.

243

4.

245

5.

246

6.

246

vii
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

1.

IC
Microprocessor ICASICCache
MemoryMain Memory
IC Chip
Input/Output; I/O
Signal CommunicationTransport
Integrated Circuit; IC

IC

1.1

Transistors
DiodesCapacitorsResistors


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

1.

Interconnections IC
IC IC

[1]

1.1
(1)(2)(3)(4)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)
1.2
Functionality
ReliabilityIntegration


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066


Over Moldel

Au Wire

Chip

CHIP

Via
Solder Ball L a m i n a t e Cu Traces
substrate

CHIP

PCB
Chip A Interconnection
Chip B

Humidity

ESD

IC Chip

Heat
Transfer

1.2

2.
IC CeramicPlastic

Die SawDie Mount/Die Bond


Wire BondingMoldingTrim/Form
MarkElectroplatingInspection

2.1Die Saw
Die

UV
UV Tape
1.3 DI
X Y 20,000 RPM 25m


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

2.

DI

IC
UV

UV

[7]

1.3

2.2Die Dond
Lead Frame
Epoxy 1.4
Magazine
Eutectic


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

1.4

2.2.1Eutectic

[3]

Eutectic
Melting Point
EutecticGoldSilicon
1063 1415 380

Eutectic(1)
(2)
(3)Eutectic(4)
Eutectic

2.2.2

[4]

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

2.

-3%-20%-12%
Hard Solder-5%-2.5%-5%
Soft Solder
Fatigue
Creep IC

Ti/Ni/Ag Ti Adhesion Layer


Ni Diffusion Barrier Layer
2.2.3

[4]

Inorganic GlassOrganic AdhesivesStamping


Screen PrintingSyringe Transfer
15-18 vol%Epoxy
Polyimide IC


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

2.3Wire Bonding
1850 m
Lead Frame IC
1.5

1.5 IC

2.4Molding

1.6

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

2.
Setting Frame
Insertion of Tablet
Top Mold Top Mold
Compound Tablet
Lead Frame

Bottom Mold
Transfer Molding & Cure
plunger

Separation

1.6

2.5Trim/Form

IC tubetray
1.7

1.7


www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

2.6Mark

1.8

1.8

2.7Inspection

3.

[2]

Hybrid Circuits
Chip-on-Board, COB IC

10

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.

Chip

COB

PCB or Card

1.9

[2]

Thin Film Wiring


1.9
IC
Level IC

ModuleChip-Level Packages
Print Circuit Card
Mother Board

IC

11
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.1Zero Level Package


Chip LevelWafer Level
Zero Level Package

(1)Wire
Bonding(2)Tape Automated BondingTAB(3)
Flip-Chip Bumping 1.10

Wire Bonding

Flip Chip

Tape Automatic Bonding

[2]

1.10

3.1.1Wire Bonding

[3]

Lead Frame

IC
Thermo-Compression BondingUltrasonic
12

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.

BondingThermo-sonic Bonding
IC Pad

Pure Al
1% Si 1%
Second Phase of
Silicon 1%
Mg
Bonding
PadAlAu
AgNiCuLead Frame
PtPd
[8]

1.1 AlAuCu
[8]

1.1AlAuCu

(W/mK)

()

(-m)

Al

237

660

2.710

Au
Cu

319
403

-8
-8

1065 2.310

-8

1085 1.710

(-m/)
-11

4.310

-11

410

-11

6.810

(GPa)
35
77
13


(1/K)
(%)
4.610

-5

50

1.410

-5

1.610

-5

51

1.11

Arc 300-400

Ball Bond
13
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

150-250

Be, 5-10ppm

1.12 Wedge
20 60kHz

Wedge Bond

Au 1050
AuAgAl

I/O Flip-Chip
TAB

Capillary
Gold Wire
D

Hiv, Low c,
Spark
25-3D

Chip
Pad

Wire Tail End


[7]

1.11

14

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.

HEAT

Pad

Pad

Pad

Lead

SECOND BOND

Lead

Lead
[7]

1.12

3.1.2Tape Automated Bonding; TAB

[3]

TAB GE 1968

IC

TAB
1.13 TAB
TAB
TFT LCD IC
CPU

15
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

[3]

1.13TAB

3.1.3Flip-Chip Bumping

[2,3]

IBM 1960

IBM C4 Controlled Collapse Chip Connection

Direct Chip ConnectionDCAIBM C4


Evaporation
1.14 IBM C4
IBM
Collapse
Fine
Pitch I/O 1.15

Wire Bonding
1.16
16

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.

(1)

(1) IC

(3) PSGPI

(4)

(7) CrCuAu

(6)

(5)

Array
probe head

(8)

(9)

(10)

1.14IBM C4

(11)

[2]

Source: Altera

1.15

[2]

17
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Solder Bump
IC Chip
Substrate

IC Chip
PCB

Flip Chip in Package(FCIP)

Flip Chip on Board(FCOB)

1.16

[2]

3.2First Level Package

1.17
Single Chip ModuleSCMMulti-Chip
ModuleMCM
SubstrateOrganic Substrate
Ceramic Substrate
Chip-On-Board COB

3.2.1

[2,3]

1970

18

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3.

C4

BGA

1.17

[2]

97%

Metal Lead FrameAlloy


4545%Ni/58%FeStamping
Chemical EtchingMetal Sheets

Higher Routing Density

1.18(1)-(3) IC
Lead Frame
TABFlip Chip

0.4mmGrinding
0.25-0.3mm
19
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

1.
3.

2.

1.18

3.2.2

[3]

[2,4]

Lid Cap
Multilayer Interconnection Substrate

Co-fired
Multilayer Ceramic Substrates
IC

Copper Paste
Stack of Thin Film

Pulse Transmission between Chips


20

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

BGABall Grid Array26


C4 Controlled Collapse Chip Connection16

3D Package Integration99
Time to Market76

C-BGACeramic Ball Grid Array26

Mainframe24

COFChip on Film62, 74

Smaller Bump67

COGChip on Glass62, 71

Micro-Cell207

DIPDual In-Line Package24

Workstation24

Direct Chip AttachmentDCA27


IC Stacked IC and
Package94

Interconnection94

P-BGAPlastic Ball Grid Array26

Dielectric Layer48

System-on-PackageSOP102

Internal Dielectric Layer

T-BGATape Ball Grid Array26


TCPTape Carrier Package62
UV UV Tape4

137
Inter-circuit wiring
46
Inter-diffusion166

Second Phase of Silicon


13

Chemical Etching19
Chemical Mechanical
Planarization21

Double Zincation55

Reverse Pulse179

Silicon DioxideSiO 2

Reaction Rate70

53, 85, 130


Diodes2

Pin Hole51
Voids141
Hydrate140

3-D Structure93
247
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Main Memory2
Active Device129, 140
Mother Board11
Bump32, 75
Bumping Production
Line76
Solder Screen Printing
55
Under Bump metallurgy; UBM49

94, 99
Bio Element41, 108
Biomedical91
Biomedical Function94
Methyl Thiourea234
Formaldehyde234

Photoresist130, 232
PP Stripping81
Smoothness222

Missing Bump76

Optical41

Solder Electroplating60

Brightness218

Solder Evaporation56
Bump Deformation76
Functionality3
Power Conversion & Storage Devices41, 108
Partial Cathodic Reaction
236
Depolarization Effect
236
Solderable layer52, 53,
80, 85
Wettable Layer50
Reliability3, 46
Failure169
Leveler189
Wire Bonding16,

Eutectic5, 6
Eutectic Bonding74, 181
Eutectic Solder37
Covalent Bond141
Co-fired Multilayer
Ceramic Substrates20
Co-red Molybdenum97
Re-crystallization144
Mark4, 10
Pull Back Areas38
Print Circuit Board; PCB
22
Printed Circuit Board,
PCB69
Phenolic22
Legal96

248

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Alloy19
Multiple Functions41,
108

DRIE131
Cooling System132, 225
Chill Plate139

Multi-reow53

Flux Cleaning59

Multi-Chip Module;

Flux Coating61

MCM18, 39
Polysilicon117, 135

Uniform Bond Layer


143, 165

Multilayer wiring46

Homogenization57

Multilayer Interconnec-

Fully Reow55

tion Substrate20

Localize Heating222

Organic Substrate18

Form Factor112

Organic Additives179

Flash Memory35

Organic Carrier97

Flash/

Hypophosphite234, 238

EEPROM29

Contamination170

Spin Dry171

Radical Irradiation163

Cache Memory

Self-Alignment55
Native Oxide209
Spontaneous Decomposition218
Autocatalytic Plating214

2
Oxidation Barrier Layer
51, 52
Corrosion Resistance219
Ascorbic Acid234, 236
Suppressor189
Deposition39, 48

Low Contact Resistance


242
Low Temperature CoFired Ceramics97
Cryogenic

Electroless Nickel
Plating & Immersion Gold21
System In Package24,
40
System Substrate94
Know Good Die97

249
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Gold Sulfite Complex


234

IMC48, 52, 57
Metal Fusion Bonding
139

Metal Sheets19

Flex / Tap technol-

Barrier Layer48, 53, 86,

ogy33

116

Undercut131

Adhesion48, 60, 80

Underll49

Adhesion Layer7, 51, 52,

Carrier119
Substrate47
Direct Chip Connection;
DCA16
Silicon6, 75, 134
Silicon Wafer97
Silicon Epi-Layer154
Through Silicon Via94, 99,
109
Surface Tension188
Surface Cleanliness
170

53, 80, 85
Anisotropic Etching
132
Amorphous53
Non-Cyanide Bath
234

Conformal Deposition
185
Encapsulate49
Molding4, 8

Gold6

Fluid41, 108

Gold Bump48, 55, 151

Glass Ceramics21

Au-Sn Eutectic74

Inorganic Glass7

Metal Lead Frame19

Interface Morphology

Hard Metal Bump56


Metal Eutectic Bonding139
Metal Stud181
Intermetallic Compound;

143
phase53
Grinding19, 119
Plating Through Hole, PTH
23

250

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

overhang134

Brittle Fracture48

Good Corrosion Resis-

Pulse179

tance242
Backside
Contact176
Caustic Acid222

Signal & Data


Processors41
Signal Communication2
Anneal140, 166
Reow49, 52, 57, 59

Spherical Shape61

Redistribution Technology

Syringe Transfer7

31, 34
Redistribution Layer
116

Area Array Packaging


47
Array Style28

Native Oxide163, 171

Polymer Bump55

Initial Bond Interface

Polymer51

143

Organic Adhesives7

Radio Frequency; RF90

High Reliability210

RF devices29

Higher Routing Density

Fan-In30
Fan-Out30
Agitation218
Oxide51
Oxide Bonding140
Oxygen Plasma146
Ammonium Hydride222
Immersion etching85
ICASIC2
Area Array31, 47
Pure Al13
Defect Area143, 165

19
High Throwing Power
68
Finer Redistribution Wire63
High Density Processing Modules67
High Bonding DownForce144
High Speed Optical
Device67
Potassium permanganate

251
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

85
High-Tin Solder Bump53

Bond Interface143, 165


Bondability238
Bond Parameters171

Bonding Chamber163

Aspect Ratio117

Bonding Pad13, 31, 47

Dry Film60

Bonder140

Dry Film Stripping

Contact Angle188

59, 65

Contact Resistance60

Sidewall129, 132

Spin Speed82

Sidewall Passivation130

Hydrogen Furnace57

Trim/Form4, 9

Sodium Hydroxide85

Business96

Borohydride234

Stacked Packages108

Hydroxyl Groups140

Stacking Method120

LCD drivers29

Stack of Thin Film20

Liquid PR Film59

Substrate18, 242

Hybrid Circuits10

CSPSubstrate CSP

Aspect Ratio117

28
Base Band41

Solder Wettable Layer


51

Seal Design170

Wire Bonding61

Collapse16

Solder68

Preferred Orientation167

Solder Jetting49

Control

Ball Limiting Metal-

Collapse Chip Connection48

lurgy49

Collapse56

Ball Bond13

Tape Automated Bond-

Product Yield76

ingTAB12, 15
Probe Test57
Bonding48

Anisotropic Conductive
Film69
Heterogeneous Chips41

252

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Heterogeneous Integration
114

46
Ceramic4, 39, 97

Thiourea234, 235

Ceramic Substrate18

Sulfuric Acid85

Leadless Ceramic

Thiosulfate Complex

Chip Carrier25

234
Copper sulfate85

Third Level Package

Final Metal Pad48

23
Fourth Level Package
24
Zero Level Package
12
Fine Pitch16

Single Chip Module


SCM18
Single Wafer Spray
Etcher83
Single Wafer Spin
Etching85

Fine Grain Structure68

Die Saw4

Fine Pitch67

Chip Scale Package27

Fine Pitch High

Die to Die139

Aspect ratio Bumps67


Desorption179
Passive Component94

Die to Wafer139
Chip-on-Board, COB
10

Prepeg23

Chip Level12

Soft Gold232

Die Stacking108, 109

Soft Solder7

Pulse Transmission

Copper Through Hole


Plating22
Pathway123
Connector94
Interconnection109
Interconnection Technology

between Chips20
Chip-Level Packages
11
Grain boundary diffusion
53
Back Grinding37

253
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Backside Marking38
Grain Growth166

Electroless Plating Method


55

Grain Structure143, 165

Immersion Gold55

Wafer to Wafer139

Electroless Palladium242

Wafer Level12

E-Ni/Au226

Wafer-Level Chip

Wireless41

Scale Packaging47
Wafer Level Burn-In
38
Wafer Level Package
28, 75
Wafer Scale Integration
93
Wafer Bonding138, 139,
157
Wafer Thinning146

Wireless & Optical Communication Technologies


41
Stud Bump61
Nitric acid83
Hard Mask130
Hard Gold232
Hard Solder7
Dilute Surfactant
188

Seed Layer116

Strategic90

Intelligence Property

Bond Pad66

96
Pick and Place Solder Transfer49
Nitride51
Nitride Layer132

Insulation Layer116
Crack137
Ultrasonic Bonding12
Super Via Technology
148

Argon Ion56

Passivation Process48

Void Free135, 183

Passivation Layer51, 56,

Bumpless122

85, 86

Lead-Free Solder56

Step Coverage134

Lead-Free Alloy37

Non-Cyanide Bath232

Electroless Plating21

Pitch37

254

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Transmit91
Transport2
Accelerator189
Plastic4
Plastic Leaded Chip
Carrier25
Plastic Quad
Flat Package25
Encapsulated technology32
Collapse63
Micro-Bump67, 71
Micron139
Miniaturization trend
46
Microprobe238
Microprocessor2, 22, 53
Microsensor100
Photolithography202
Miniaturization and Integration94
Sensor Device41
Sensors90
Inductively Coupled
Plasma130
New Digital/Analog
106
Wedge Bond14

Wedge14
Polarization189
Ammonium Iodide/
Iodine65
Replacement Cycles68
Pitch46
Skip Plating218
De-bonding119
tray9
Over Consuming54
Excessive Cleaning145
Ammonium Persulfate
83, 85
Permanganate-based83
Capsule Filter225
Laser Drill116, 129
Handheld Electrical Products23
Electrochemical Technology21
Electrochemical Cen
207
Potential Drop192
Probe Pad37
Resistors2
Current Crowding
37
Current Shielding Plate
179

255
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Capacitors2

Fuse Links37

Charge Density192

Melting Point6

Charge Transport192

Monitor91

Charge Transfer192

Screen Printing49

Transistors2

Screen Printing7

Power Suppliers94

Polymer137

Print Circuit Card11, 22

Cross-Linking

Plasma Activation140

145

Descum60

Polyimide7

Electroplating4, 21, 23, 49,

Evaporation48, 49, 56

202
Copper Electroplating135,
202

Evaporation16
Evaporation Method54
Etching21, 131

E-Ni/Au226

Etchant87

Target54

End Point Detection;

Pre-Cure146

EPD86

Pre-Bond140

Etching Mask81

Burn-in38, 57

Etchant68
Bare Chip69

Silver242

Patterning48

Copper52

Pattern effect83

Copper Bump63

Pad Extension32

Copper Pillar67, 151

Pad Geometry67

Copper Pillar Bump62,

Convection191

66

Alignment120, 138

Copper Pad151

Packaging Efciency39

Copper Paste20

Package Stacking109

Cu-Sn Eutectic139

Barrel Plating242

Cu-Sn Eutectic

256

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Bonding142
Copper Dual Damascene
Process180
Phased Cr-Cu57

ing13
Thermoplastic72
Thermoplastic Polymers145
Thermo-Mechanical

Creep7
Swing Arm82

Stress137
Thermo-Compression
Bonding12

Spray etching85

Mass Transport191

Level11

Migration path53

Magazine5

Aluminum/Polyimide

Image Sensor32

67

Digitize91

Aluminum Bond Pad51

The Number of Touch-

Copper Clad Sheets22

downs38
Module11

Wire Bonding8, 12, 34,


36, 46

Wetting Layer50, 52, 80

Solder56

Wetting Agent68

Solder Bonding70

Thermosetting72

Via Sidewall131

Thermosetting Poly-

Top of the Feature183

mers145
Thermal Oxidation132, 134
Thermal Fatigue37
Thermal Fatigue Effect
48
Thermal Fatigue Lifetime
67
Thermal Structure94
Thermo-sonic Bond-

Via Fill183
Isotropic Conductive Adhesive61
Conductive Polymer
Bump55
Conductor Wires21
Wire Interconnect Technology67
Interconnection Dis-

257
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

tance106

Inspection4, 10

Lead Frame5, 8, 12, 13, 19

UBM Wet Etching61

Redistribution Line

Wet process226

181
Interconnections3

Epoxy5, 7
Epoxy Glass22
Hydrazine234, 237, 239

Operation Temperature
222

Thin Small Outline


Packag25
Thinned Wafer179

Operation Frequency106

Thin Film Wiring11

Integration3

Reducer242

Concentration Gradient

Reducing Agent238

179

Operation Temperature222

Laminate23

Solder Particle76

Integrated Circuit; IC2

Solder Paste58

IC Chip2

Recess170

Input/Output; I/O2

Particles141

Selectively Etch-back

Die Dond5

151
Complex Agent238
Coin Shape61

Die Mount/Die Bond4

Stencil Printing70

Stamping7

Solder Bump47, 48, 55

Diffusion191, 218

PbSn Solder67

Diffusion Reaction53
Diffusion Barrier Layer7,

21, 50, 51, 53, 68, 80

Stamping19

Tear Off61

Back-up Stage73

Dilute Citric Acid145

Strain67

Sputtering60, 138, 202

258

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Sputtering Method54
Flip Chip14, 81, 94, 99
Flip-Chip Bumping
12, 16
Flip Chip Technology
45, 46, 114
Tungsten97
Ni Concentration224
Ion Beam Bombardment
163
Ion Bombardment130
Hydrogen peroxide83, 86
-Hydrogen Peroxide &
Sulfuric acid base84

Stabilizer218, 234
Analog Devices38
Ferricyanide65
Drive IC73
Agitation178
logic29
Logic Blocks114
Hydrochloric acid83
Drill23

259
www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

3D-IC. .
, 2011.09

ISBN 978-957-11-6402-1 ()
1.2.
448.69

100016676

5DE1

3D-IC
Advanced Microelectronic 3D-IC Packaging






106 3 3 9 4
(02)2705-5066(02)2706-6100
http://www.wunan.com.tw
wunanwunan.com.tw
0 1 0 6 8 9 5 3

/6
(04)2223-0891(04)2223-3549
/290
(07)2358-702 (07)2350-236

2 0 1 1 0 9
5 6 0

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066