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AP2 Test #1 Review Sheet Chapters 19, 20 & 21: Venipuncture-BP is low in vein; superficial veins easy to locate;

venous walls thinner than arteriole walls. Plasma protein synthesis- Synthesis of plasma from proteins Male vs female hematocrits (HCT)-males higher than females due to androgens that stimulate production of RBC Pernicious anemia (Vit B12 deficiency); dietary sources B12 Blood types: antigens, agglutinogens, agglutinins, antibodies, universal donor & recipient WBC types and relative numbers. Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils What type of WBCs are present during allergic reactions, parasitic infestations, inflammation, et cetera? Eosinophils Phases of hemostasis: platelet, vascular, coagulation, etc Layers of the pericardium (parietal, visceral, etc) AV valves, prevention of blood backflow, chordae tendinae, papillary muscles Left ventricle vs right ventricle EKG: P-wave (atrial depolarization), QRS complex (Ventricles depolarize), what do the parts mean? What factors could increase or decrease aspects of the EKG? CO = HR x SV ( cardiac output=hrt rate/min * stroke volume (mm/beat)) CO, HR, SV, EDV, ESV; End diastolic volume (EDV); end systolic volume (ESV); stroke volume (SV); heart rate (HR); cardiac output (co) ANS headquarters for cardiovascular control; Hypothalamus Heart rate, NE (speeds heart rate), Beta-1 receptors increase cardiac output by raising hrt rate. How does rapid HR affect diastole length & filling time? rapid hrt rate increases volume of blood which stretches the ventricular wall, causing cardiac muscle to contract more forcefully. Fenestrated capillaries: location and importance. Located in choroid plexus, endocrine organs, kidneys, intestinal tracts; they permit rapid exchange of water and larger solutes between plasma and interstitial fluids. Varicose veins , aneurysm (bulge in arterial wall caused by weak spot in elastic fibers) , atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries), arteriosclerosis, HBP (HTN) (abnormally high blood pressure) BP differences in aorta vs inferior vena cava. Dehydration, CO, fainting, blood volume Local vasoconstrictors (epinephrine (E), norepiepherine (NE) ) BP increases during exercise; why? Pulmonary veins carry xygenated blood from lungs to left atria. Celiac trunk, kidneys, suprarenal glands Hepatic portal system functions 1.Superior mesenteric vein - drains small intestine, ascending & transverse colon & greater curvature of stomach (right gastroepiploic vein) 2.Inferior mesenteric vein - drains descending & sigmoid colon, merges with pancreatic vein & splenic vein, then merges with superior mesenteric vein 3.Right & left gastric veins - drains lesser curvature of stomach 4.Cystic vein - drains gall bladder Hepatic portal vein - above 4 veins merge to form HPV which enters liver, carries deoxygenated blood and digested food into liver sinusoids for processing RBC shape (small and highly specialized disc; tin in middle and thicker at the edge. Lack nuclei, mitochondria and ribosomes.), function (1.High surface to volume ratio for quick absorption and release of oxygen; 2. Discs form stacks called rouleaux which smooth blood flow thru the narrow blood vessels; 3. Discs bend and flex entering small capillaries .) , lifespan ( 120 days) Plasma , whole blood, water (90%) : volumes, compositions (albumin (60%); Globulin (35%); Fibrinogen (4%). Jaundice, bilirubin, RBCs, hemolysis, alcoholism Sickle cell anemia (what is it? What causes it?) Dietary sources B12, Vit K Blood types, Rh factors Blood flow routes via systemic and pulmonary circuits Right ventricle and left ventricle: where do they pump blood?

What is the correct order for blood flow entering the heart from systemic circulation? Pulmonary arteries & veins: where do they carry blood? SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers, AV bundle, Bundle branches Sequence of conduction through structural components of heart during excitation Heart sounds: S1, S2, lub, dub, try my apple pie Mitral valve, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, semilunar valves Tachycardia (abnormally fast heart rate)vs bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate) Systole (contraction) vs diastole (relaxation) Components of cardiovascular flow circuit: venules, arterioles, capillaries, elastic arteries, medium veins, large veins, muscular arteries Continuous and fenestrated capillaries, sinusoids Cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) components Branches off the aortic arch Cardiovascular changes associated with aging Stroke, TIA, MI, embolism (abnormal circulatory condition which a clot dislodges and travels thru blood stream), thrombus ( Blood clot), hypertension, hypotension (low BP.)N Atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, obesity, cholesterol, smoking